PRECEPTS ON CAREFULNESS (SAMITI) AND SELF-CONTROL (GUPTI) 关于谨慎与自律
(A) ASTA-PRAVACANA-MATA Eight Mother Precepts 八大规则
Iriyabhasesana‘dane, uccare samii iya.
Managutti vayagutti, kayagutti ya atthama. (384)
Vigilance in walk, speech, begging alms, receiving and keeping down of things and excreting are five Samitis (acts of carefulnes): control of mind, control of speech and control of body (i.e. actions) are three guptis. All are eight in number. (384)
Edao attha pavayanamadao nanadamsanacarittam.
Rakkhamti sada munino, mada puttam va payadao. (385)
These eight are called pravacanamata (mother precepts). Just as a diligent mother protects her son, so they protect right knowledge, right faith and right conduct of the monk. (385)
Eyao pamca samiio, caranassa ya pavattane.
Gutti niyattane vutta, asubhatthesu savvaso. (386)
The five types of vigilances are meant for the practice of religious life and the three controls (guptis) for the prevention of every thing sinful. (386)
Jaha guttassiriyai, na homti dosa taheva samiyassa.
Guttitthiya ppamayam, rumbhai samu sacetthassa. (387)
Just as one who practises the gupti is not touched by defects pertaining to Samiti so also one who practises the samiti; does not have the defects of gupti. Certainly a gupti puts an act of negligence on the part of one who is undertaking an activity, to an end. (387)
Maradu va jiyadu va jivo, ayadacarassa nicchida himsa.
Payadassa natthi bandho, himsamettena samidisu. (388)
The person who is careless in his activities is certainly guilty of violence irrespective of whether a living being remains alive or dies; on the other hand, th4e person who is careful in observing tghe samitis experiences no karmic bondage simply because some killing has not taken place in connection with his activities. (388)
Ahacca himsa samitassa ja tu, sa davvato hoti na bhavato u.
Bhavena himsa tu asamjatassa, je va vi satte na sada vadheti.
Sampatti tasseva jada bhavijja, sa davvahimsa khalu bhavato ya.
Ajjhatthasuddhassa jada na hojja, vadhena jogo duhato va‘himsa. (389 & 390)
A monk who is observing the Samitis i.e. vigilant about his activities may commit himsa (injury) through oversight; in such a case, there is only external violence (Dravya-Himsa) and not the internal. On the other hand a negligent person is guilty of the internal violence (Bhava-Himsa) even though no external violence is caused by him by killing being. When an injury is caused through negligence of a person, whether he is ascetic or not there will be both types of violence external (physical) as well as internal (mental). A monk firm in his observance of the samitis will not cause nay violence because of the purity of his soul; there will be neither external violence nor internal violence. (389 & 390)
Uccaliyammi pae, Iriyasamiyassa niggamanatthae.
Abadhejja kulimgi, marijja tam jogamasajja.
Na hi tagghadanimitto, bandho suhumo vi desio samae.
Muccha pariggaho tti ya, ajjhappa pamanado bhanido.(391 & 392)
If a tiny living creature is accidentally crushed under the foot of a monk who is careful in respect of his movement, the scriptures state that he will not attract even the slightest of karmac bondage (i.e. he is not responsible for that violence). Just as possessiveness consists in a sese of attachment so the violence consists in the intention of killing. (391 & 392)
Pauminipattam va jaha, udayena na lippadi sinehagunajutta.
Taha samidihim na lippai, sadhu kaesu iriyamto. (393)
Just as a lotus-leaf possessing the property of smoothness in not touched by water; similarly a monk practising samitis is not touched by karmic bondage in the course of moving around in the midst of living beings. (393)
Jayana u dhammajanani, jayana dhammassa palani ceva.
Tavvuddhikari jayana, egamtasuhavaha jayana. (394)
Carefulness (Yatana) is the mother of religion; it is also the protector of religion; it helps the growth of religion and it begets perfect happiness. (394)
Jayam care jayam citthe, jayamase jayam sae.
Jayam bhumjamto bhasamto, pavam kammam na bandhai. (395)
A monk who moves cautiously, stands cautiously, sits cautiously, sleeps cautiously, eats cautiously and speaks cautiously would not be bounded by the evil karmas. (395)
(B) SAMITI Acts of Carefulness 谨慎的行为
Phasuyamaggena diva, jugamtarappehina sakajjena.
Jamtuna pariharamteniriyasamidi have gamanam. (396)
Iryasamiti consists in walking along a trodden path during day-time when required to move out for any work, looking ahead to a distance of four cubits and avoiding the killing of tiny living creatures.
Imdiyatthe vivajjitta, sajjhayam ceva pamcaha.
Tammutti tappurakkare, uvautte iriyam rie. (397)
Not paying attention to the objects of sensuous enjoyment and not taking up the study of five types, one should walk cautiously absorbing oneself in the task of walking and giving all out prominence to the task of walking. (397)
Note:-The five-fold methods of study are: Reading of sacred texts (vacana), questioning the teacher (prcchana), revision by re-reading (paravartana), pondering over what has already been studied and learnt (anupreksa) and reading illustrative strories (dharmakatha).
Tahevuccavaya pana, bhattatthae samagaya.
Tam ujjuam na gacchijja, jayameva parakkame. (398)
Similarly, one ought not to walk on straight within the midst of such livintg beings of all sorts as have gathered together (on the wayside) with a view to feeding themselves: this is how one ought to move cautiously. (398)
Na lavejja puttho savajjam, na nirattham na mammayam.
Appanattha parattha va, ubhayassantarena va. (399)
Even when enquired, a monk ought not to utter a sinful word, a senseless word, a heart-rending word either for the sake of oneself, or for the sake of another one, or for the sake of both. (399)
Taheva pharusa bhasa, gurubhuvaghani.
Sacca-vi sa na vattavva, jao pavassa agamo. (400)
The monk should not use harsh words or speak what is harmful to other living beings; even if it is true, because it is sinful. (400)
Taheva kanam kane tti, pamdagam pamdage tti va.
Vahiyam va vi rogi tti, tenam core tti no vae. (401)
Similarly, he should not call an one-eyed person as one-eyed, and eunuch as eunuch, a diseased person as diseased or a thief a thief. (401)
vajjitta saparahiyam, bhasasamidi have kahanam. (402)
Carefulness in speech (bhasasamiti) consists in avoiding slanderous, ridiculous and speeches blaming others, self-praise or incredible stories. Such speeches conduce neither to the good of oneself nor that of others. (402)
Dittham miyam asamdiddham, padipunnam viyamjiyam.
Ayampiramanuvviggam, bhasam nisira attavam. (403)
A wise monk would speak what he has seen; his speech should be frief, free from ambiguity, clearly expressed, free from prattle and incapable of causing anxiety. (403)
Dullaha u muhadai, muhajivi vi dullaha.
Muhadai muhajivi, dovi gacchamti soggaim. (404)
It is difficult to find faultless alms-givers; it is more difficult to find one who lives on faultless begging; one who gives faultless alms and the one who lives one faultless begging, both will attain happy state in the next birth. (404)
Uggama-uppadana-esanehim, pimdam ca uvadhi sajjam va.
Sodhamtassa ya munino, parisujjhai esana samidi. (405)
The monk, who begs for a meal, an implement or a bedding in a manner not vitiated by the defects pertaining to their sources, preparation and receiving, practises in a true sense the carefulness (samiti) in respect of begging for alms. (405)
Na balausauattham, na sarirassuvacayattha tejattham.
nanatthasamjamattham, jhanttham ceva bhumjejja. (406)
A monk should not take food for the sake of (physical) strength, taste, bodily improvement or lustre; but only for acquisition of knowledge, self-restraint and meditation. (406)
Jaha dumassa pupphesu, bhamaro aviyai rasam.
Na ya puppham kilamei, so ya pinei appayam.
Emee samana mutta, je loe samti sahuno.
Vihamgama va pupphesu, danabhattesaneraya. (407 & 408)
Just as a bee sips the sap of a tree flowers without injuring the flowers and pleases itself, similarly in this world the monks who properly observe the monstic code of conduct and are free from all possessions are engaged in begging for meal and other things heeded (from householders without being burden on them) as the bees procure nourishment from flowers. (407 & 408)
Ahakamma-parinao, phasuyabhoi vi bamdhao hoi.
Suddham gavesamano, ahakamme vi so suddho. (409)
A monk who entertains in his mind the idea of having a violently prepared meal; binds down karmas even if he is actually having a non-violently prepared meal. On the other hand, a monk who always looks for a pure (non-violently prepared) meal is pure (blameless) even if perchance he gets a violently prepared meal. (409)
Cakkhusa padilehitta, pamajjejja jayam jai.
Aie nikkhivejja va, duhaovi samie saya. (410)
If a monk attentively undertakes the required visual inspection and cleaning while receiving or placing down things, he always practises the concerned two-fold samiti (i.e.,
samiti in respect of receiving and placing things). (410)
Egamte accitte dure, gudhe visalamavirohe.
Uccaradiccao, padithavaniya have samidi. (411)
A monk should answer his calls of nature at a place which is solitary, free from insects and grass, concealed, spacious, free from objection, this is observance of Utsarga Samiti. (411)
(I) GUPTI Self-Control 自律
Samrambhasamaramhe, arambhe ya taheva ya.
Manam pavattamanam tu, niyattejja jayam jai. (412)
An attentive monk should prevent his mind from indulging in evil thoughts (samrambha), collection of impliments which cause harm to others (samarambha) and evil actions (arambha). (412)
Samrambhasamarambhe, arambhe ya taheva ya.
Vayam pavattamanam tu, niyattejja jayam jai. (413)
An attentive monk should control his speech as soon as it is inclined towards the thought of evil expression efforts for evil expression and evil expression. (413)
Samrambhasamarambhe, arambhammi taheva ya.
Kayam pavattamanam tu, niyattejja jayam jai. (414)
An attentive monk should bring under control his body as soon as it is inclined towards a mental plan for causing misery, collection of impliments to others to cause misery to others and action causing misery to others. (414)
Khettassa vai nayarassa, khaiya ahava hoi payaro.
Taha pavassa niroho, tao guttio sahussa. (415)
As a fence protects a field, a ditch or a rempart protects a city, so the guptis (i.e., control of mind, speech and body) protect a monk from sins. (415)
Eya pavayanamaya, je sammam ayare muni.
Se khippam savvasamsara, vippamuccai pandie. (416)
A monk who practises these eight mother-precepts by his righteous conduct is a wise person who will be liberated quickly from all bondages of mundane existence. (416)