ACHARYA UMA SWAMI
The Jain community is not acquainted with the life story, as with the Tattvarthasutra of Uma Swami, who attained great fame even with a very small volume of written work.
He was the chief disciple of Kundkund Acharya and blessed this land in the last days of the first Vikram century and the first part of the second century.
Acharya Uma Swami is one of those glorious acharyas, who enjoy complete reliability and respect in the line of acharyas. In Jain tradition Tattvarthasutra enjoys the same dignity as Gita amongst the followers of Vedic religion, Bible amongst the Christians and Koran amongst the Mohammadans. Another name given to this holy work is Mokshashastra.
A number of commentaries in Sanskrit and Hindi languages on the great work have been written both in Shwetamber as well as Digamber traditions. In Digamber tradition, Sarvarthasiddhi of Pujyapad Acharya Devnandi, Tattvartha Rajwartik of Aklankdeo, and Tattvarth Shlokwartik of Vidyanandi are the most famous commentaries in the Sanskrit language. Acharya Samant Bhadra wrote Gandh-hasti Mahabhasya on this great work, but it is not available. A commentary by Shrut Sagar Suri in Sanskrit is also available.
Another famous commentary is Arthaprakashika of the old Hindi scholar Pandit Sadasukhji. Among the modern scholars commentaries of Pandit Phoolchandji Siddhantacharya, Pandit Kailashchandji Siddhantacharya, Pandit Pannalalji Sahityacharya and many others are available. A big commentary of 810 pages written by Shri Ramji Bhai Doshi, Songarha is also available.
This lesson in based on the 2nd chapter of the Tattvarthasutra.
The Five Bhavas
Speaker : This is the sacred text Tattvarthasutra or Mokshashastra. We are reading the second chapter. The matter in hand is the uncommon attributes (inherent qualities) of the soul. Those who are desirous of the welfare of the soul should recognise its inherent qualities, because one cannot understand the non-soul elements without understanding the soul itself. The well being of those, who do not understand both the soul and the non-soul elements, is not possible. Acharya Uma Swami names the five inherent qualities as Aupshamik, Kshayik, Mishra (Kshayopshamik), Audyik and Parnamik. These are uncommon and intrinsic qualities of the soul, and are not found anywhere else except in the soul.
Acharya Amritchandra has analysed these qualities in the fifty-sixth verse of the Panchastikaya as follows :-
The rise of karmas with their power to award consequences of previous behaviour is the ‘Udai’; then remaining suppressed is their ‘Upsham‘; rise and suppression combined is ‘Kshayopsham‘ and their absolute absence is ‘Kshaya‘. The quality that induces the stability of the substance is ‘Parinam‘. That associated with ‘Uday‘ is ‘Audyika’, with ‘Upshamc’ is ‘Aupshamik’, with ‘Kshaya’ is ‘Kshayik’ and with ‘Parinam‘ is ‘Parinamik’.
Those that are associated with the four conditions of karmas are four Uday, Upsham, Kshayopsham and Kshaya. Where no karma is the instrumental cause except the nature of the substance only is the Parnamik Bhava.
Disciple : I have not understood these fully. Please explain in more details.
Speaker : I shall explain these separately. Try to understand and you will surely do so.
1. Aupshamik Bhava
By virtue of being spiritually minded one gains some purity and by suppression of the impurities of the qualities of faith and conduct, the Aupshamik Bhava appears. At the same time the suppression of Darshanmohiniya and Charitramohiniya is the upsham of the karmas and that associated with such a state of the karmas is called the Aupshamik Bhava.
2. Kshayik Bhava
The complete non-existence of impurities in the manifestation of any one attribute by leanings towards the soul and the consequent emergence of the completely pure state is Kshayik Bhava. The complete annihilation of the cover of the karmas at the same moment is the kshaya of the karmas.
3. Kshayopshamik Bhava
The spiritually minded soul by its own efforts develops partial purity of the qualities of faith and conduct. That partial purity from the point of view of the qualities of faith and conduct is called Kshayopshamik Bhava. The consequent rise and non-existence of the power of the karmas to award the consequences is the kshayopsham of the karmas.
Considering the same from the side of the karmas, Darshanmohiniya and Charitramohiniya karmas have their rise as well as non-existence at one and the same time. That state is called the kshayopsham of the karmas. Consequent conditions of the qualities of faith and conduct are called their Kshayopshama Bhava.
Sentience, perception and strength qualities of the soul partially show their effects, while partially remain dormant in the kshayopshamik Bhava. These are found in all incompletely sentient beings.
4. Audyik Bhava
The perverse behaviour of the soul with the rise of these karmas is the Audyik Bhava.
5. Parinamik Bhava
Without origination and disappearance, natural and ever constant state of our being is the Parinamik Bhava.
These bhavas have two, nine, eighteen, twenty and three kinds each.
The two kinds of the Aupshamik bhava are Aupshamik right faith and Aupshamik charitra.
The nine kinds of Kshayik bhava are Omni sentience, Omni perception, Omni charity, Omni gain, Omni bhog, Omni upbhog and Omni vitality.
The eighteen kinds of the Mishra (Kshayopshamik) bhava are the four Gyans– Sensory knowledge (Mati gyan), Scriptural knowledge (Shruti gyan), Clairvoyance (Avadhi gyan), Telepathy (Manah Paryay gyan); the three Agyans i.e. Perverse sensory knowledge (Kumati), Perverse scriptural knowledge (Kushurut), Perverse clairvoyance (Kuawadhi); three Perceptions i.e. Ocular perception (Chakshu darshan), Non-ocular perception (Achakshu darshan), Clairvoyant perception (Awadhi darshan); five Labdhies i.e. Kshayopshamik Dan, Labh, Bhog, Upbhog and Virya; Kshayopshamik right faith, kshayopshamik conduct and mixed conduct.
The twenty-one kinds of the Audyik bhava are : the four phases of life i.e. hellish, animal, human and divine; four passions i.e., anger, pride, deception and greed; the three vedas i.e. faminine, masculine and impotent; six leshyas i.e. Krishna (black), Neel (blue), Kapot (brown), Peet (yellow), Padma (pink) and Shukla (white); perverted faith, partial absence of consciousness, non-abstinence and asiddhattva (i.e. not having the state of Siddhas).
The three kinds of the Parinamik bhava are Jeevattva (life attribute), Bhavyatva (endowment of capacity for salvation) and Abhavyatva (endowment of incapacity for salvation).
Thus, these uncommon qualities are fifty-three in number.
Disciple : What is the benefit of the knowledge of these bhavas and what do they prove.?
Speaker : 1. Parnamik bhava indicates that the soul is eternal, one, pure and sentient by nature.;
2. Audyik bhava states that though the soul is eternal, pure and sentient by nature, perversion lies in its manifestations. It has connections with the inanimate karmas from times having no beginnings. As long as this soul undermines its sentient nature and leans towards the karmas, perversion rises and continues. This perversion is not caused by the karmas.
3. Kshayopsharnik bhava reveals that though indulging in perversion since times having no beginning, the soul does not lose its nature and become inanimate. The partial expression of its sentience, perception and vitality remains and when the soul makes true efforts after real understanding, delusions partially disappear.
4. When the soul understands its real nature and leans towards the Parnamik bhava, disappearance of Audyik bhava starts, disappearance of the Audyik bhava of the attribute of faith being the first. This is the work of the Aupshamik bhava.
5. The full and ever increasing adherence towards the Parnamik bhava leads to the annihilation of perversion of all kinds. This is asserted by the Kshayik bhava.
Disciple : Are all these five bhavas always found in all the creatures ?
Speaker : Only Parnamik bhava is found always in all the living beings. Audyik bhava is found in all the worldly beings, but not in the Siddhas; Kshayopshamik bhava, likewise, does not lie in the liberated souls (the Siddhas), and in worldly beings also is not found in the persons in the thirteenth and the fourteenth stage of spiritual development (Gunasthans).
Disciple : Is Kshayik bhava found in the liberated souls only ?
Speaker : Yes, Kshayik bhava is always present in the liberated souls, and not in the worldly beings. There is no question of this bhava being present in the Abhavyas (that is being having no capacity of salvation) and those having perverted faith. Out of all persons having right faith and conduct, Kshayik bhava is found in persons having Kshayik right faith and Kshavik conduct and in the Arhantas.
Aupshamik bhava is found in persons having Aupshamik right faith and conduct.
Thus, we see :-
1. The least of all are persons in Aupshamik bhava, because beings with Aupshamik right faith and conduct only are included in these.
2. Persons in Kshayik bhava are greater in number than persons of Aupshamik bhava, because they include persons with Kshayik right faith and conduct and the Arhantas and the Siddhas.
3. Persons in Kshayopshamik bhava are more in number than those in Kshayik bhava, because beings in first to twelfth Gunasthans are included in these.
4. Persons having Audyik bhava are more in number than those in Kshayopshamik bhava, because beings from the first to the fourteenth Gunasthans are included in these.
5. The greatest number is that of the beings in the Parnamik bhava, because they cover creatures from the Nigod to the Siddhas. This order has been maintained in the Tattvarthasutra. We can conclude and say-
- There is no living being without Parnamik bhava.
- There is no worldly being without Audyik bhava
- There is no incompletely sentient being without Kshayopshamik bhava
- There are no beings with Kshayik faith, conduct and the Arhantas and the Sidhhas without
- There are no beginners in the path of religion without Aupshamik bhava.
Disciple : Please let us know the duration of these bhavas.
- Aupshamic Bhava : With a beginning and an end, because its duration is only
- Kshayik Bhava : With a starting point but with no end and from the point of view of staying in this world, it is somewhat more than thirty three Sagars.
- Audyik Bhava : Having no starting point but having the end – in relation to Bhavya
Jivas (that is having the capacity for salvation). Having no start and no end – in connection with the Abhaya Jivas (that is having no capacity for salvation and those having the capacity but not practical achievement).
- Kshayopshamik Bhava : Having no starting point but having an end – sentience perception and vitality aspect.
- Having start and end both – somewhat more than sixty-six sagars from the open manifestation of religion aspect.
- Parinamik Bhava – Eternal-no starting point, no end.
Disciple : I have understood this. Now please let me know what bhavas are worth having and what not, because without knowing the merits and demands of these how can we retain or leave them ?
Speaker : Well asked, without knowing what is to be adopted, which is to be discarded and what is to be known only, our information cannot be complete.
1. Audyik is undesirable, Aupshamik and Kshayopshamik of the pursuer and Kshayik bhava from the point of view of obtaining it are desirable and Parnamik bhav is the most desirable from the point of view of taking refuge in it.
2. Audyik bhava is perversion, it is undesirable for the man in the pursuit of the soul and. is not for adherence. Auposhamik bhava, and the Kshayopshamik bhava of the pursuer are with starting point and the end; they are manifestations of one moment only. Kshayik bhava is with its beginning but having no end. However, it is also a manifestation of one moment only and as such not suitable for reliance or refuge.
Parnamik bhava, that is eternal, is the only bhava for taking refuge.
In a nutshell those who want to tread the path of religion and want to be happy should not look towards the first four bhavas and should take refuge in the eternal existent and sentient by nature Parnamik bhava only, because by taking refuge in it, religion takes roots, continues, prospers and achieves completion.
Where do we have that Interest for doing “Swadhyay” of the spiritual books which we have for reading the passion-stimulating literature which only contains descriptions of the objects of the five senses. Very few persons are there who would have done Swadhyay” of the spiritual, doctrinal or philosophical books right from the beginning to the end. The ordinary persons do not do “Swadhyay” regularly and concentratedly. Even such learned persons are few who do “Swadhyay” of some important work concentratedly and thoroughly. If we cannot study any book completely from the beginning to the end, how would it be possible to reach to its depth or touch its essence ? When we don’t have even the interest to read it completely, how would, then, the complete nature of the subject, discussed therein, get absorbed in our knowledge and faith ?We may have never left incomplete the reading of novels etc., which only strengthen the objects of the senses and passional activities; we halt only after finishing it and are even prepared to miss our meal for completing it. Have we, any time, forgotten taking food being engrossed in the study of spiritual literature ? If not, then, take it for granted that our interest is not that much deep in the metaphysics as it is in the objects of the senses and passions.
Dharma-ke-Dashalakshana, Page 118
: Dr. H. C. Bharill