PRECEPTS ON VIEW-POINT 关于看问题的角度
Jam nanina viyappam, suyabheyam vatthuamsasamgahanam.
Tam iha nayam pauttam, nani puna tena nanena. (690)
The thought activity which grasps only one aspect of an object with the aid of scriptures, is called Naya. He who possesses such knowledge is wise. (690)
Jamha na naena vina, hoi narassa siyavayapadivatti.
Tamha so bohavvo, eyamtam hamtukamena. (691)
Since without a (knowledge of) naya a man cannot have a knowledge of syadvada (the doctrine of conditional statement). A knowledge of naya can be had by one who is desirous of destroying all the extremes. (691)
Dhammavihino sokkham, tanhacheyam jalena jaha rahido.
Taha iha vamchai mudho, nayarahio davvanicchiti. (692)
Just as an irreligious person desired to attain bliss without practising religion or a thirsty person desires to quench his thirst without using water, similarly the fool desires to determine the nature of a substance without taking recourse to naya. (692)
Davvatthio ya pajjavanao, ya sesa viyappa sim. (693)
The entire body of the teachings of Tirthankara taken in its entirely and taken in its particular details is to be explained with the help of two basic standpoints (nayas)-viz that substantial point of view (dravyarthikanaya) and that modificational point of view (paryayarthikanaya). The rest of them are the offshoots of these two. (693)
Davvatthiyavattavvam, avatthu niyamena pajjavanayassa.
Taha pajjavavatthu, avatthumeva davvatthiyanayassa. (694)
What is said from the substantial view-point appears, as a rule, unreal from the modal view-point. Similarly what is said from the modal view-point appears unreal from the substantial view-point.
Uppajjamti viyamti ya, bhava niyamena pajjavanayassa.
Davvatthiyassa savvam, saya anuppannamavinattham. (695)
From the modal view-point, things necessarily originate and perish. But from the substantial viewpoint, there is neither origination nor destruction. (695)
Davvatthiena savvam, davvam tam pajjayatthiena puno.
Havadi ya annamanannam, takkale tammayattado. (696)
From substantial point of view, everything is of the form of substance (always remaining the same), but from modal view-point every thing differs from time to time. From each particular stand-point, a thing appears to its corresponding form. (696)
Pajjaya gaunam kicca, davvam pi ya jo hu ginhai loe.
So davvatthiya bhanio, vivario pajjayatthinao. (697)
The stand-point which gives secondary status to the modes and only grasps the substance, is called substantial view-point, while the opposite to it is called modal view-point. (697)
Negama-samgaha-vavahara-ujjusue ceva hoi bodhavva.
Sadde ya samabhirudhe, evambhue ya mulanaya. (698)
Naigam, samgraha, vyavahara, rjusutra, sabda, samabhirudha and evambhuta-these are the seven basic stand-points. (698)
Naigam, samgraha, vyavahara, rjusutra, sabda, samabhirudha 以及 evambhuta-是七种看问题的基本角度。
Padhamatiya davvatthi, pajjayagahi ya iyara je bhaniya.
Te cadu atthapahana, saddapahana hu tinni ya. (699)
The first three fall under the category of substantial view-point, while the remaining four come under the modal view-point. Among these seven, the first four give eminence to meaning, while the remaining three to the word. (699)
Negaim manaim, samannobhayavisesananaham.
Jam tehim minai to, negamo nao negamano tti. (700)
Naigam Naya deals with both the aspects of a thing, that is, generic as well as specific aspects, as the case might be, in order to know this, it knows the thing in its various forms. (700)
Nivvitta davvakiriya, vattanakale du jam samacaranam.
Tam bhuyanigamanayam, jaha ajjadinam nivvuo viro. (701)
Naigam Naya is of three kinds, according to the three tenses. The past, the present and the future.
根据时态，Naigam Naya 分为三类，过去、现在以及将来。
Paraddha ja kiriya, payanavihanadi kahai jo siddham.
Loe ya pucchamane, tam bhannai vattamananayam. (702)
To describe the work as —has been done” when asked, the moment it has been started, is known as the Vartamana Naigam Naya, for, example the food is said to have been cooked when the coooking has just been started. (702)
Vartamana Naigam Naya用来描述完成时，例如，当烹饪开始时，我们就说食物已经在做了。
Nippannamiva payampadi, bhavipadattham naro anipannam.
Appatthe jaha pattham, bhannai so bhavi naigamo tti nao. (703)
To say that an act, which is to be performed in future has been completed, though incomplete is an example of Bhavisya Naigam Naya e.e. when a person is about to start, we say —he has gone”. (703)
Bhavisya Naigam Naya用来描述将来完成时，例如一个人正要出发时，我们就说他出发了。
Avaropparamavirohe, savvam atthi tti suddhasamgahane.
Hoi tameva asuddham, igajaivisesagahanena. (704)
There are two kinds of samgrahanaya-suddhasam-grahanaya and asuddhasamgrahanaya. In suddhasamgraha-naya, we accept only one common characteristic of things existence, ignoring all the mutual conflicting characteristics, while in Asuddhasamgrahanaya, we accept the generic class characteristic of things. (704)
Jam samgahena gahiyam, bheyai attham asuddhari suddham.
So vavaharo duviho, asuddhasuddhatthabheyakaro. (705)
That which distinguishes between the pure synthetic approach and impure synthetic approach about the thing is called Vyavaharanaya. This Vyavaharanaya is further of two gypes complete distinguishing and incomplete distinguishing. (705)
Jo eyasamayavatti, gihnai davve dhuvattapajjayam.
So riusutto suhumo, savvam pi saddam jaha khaniyam. (706)
The naya which grasps the evanescent modes of an enternal substance, is called Rjusutra naya, for example “to say that‘ all the sound is momentary‘. (706)
Manuyaiyapajjao, manuso tti sagatthidisu vattamto.
Jo bhanai tavakalam, so thulo hoi riusutto. (707)
On the other hand that naya which attritubes a mode like man-ness etc. to a being, throughout the course of that period during which this being continues to exhibit that mode is the sub-type of Rjusutranaya, called Sthularjusutranaya. (707)
Savanam sapai sa tenam, va sappae vatthu jam tao saddo.
Tassatthapariggahao, nao vi saddo tti heu vva. (708)
Sapana, i.e. —calling”, is a word, or that which calls is word, or through which an object is reffered to is also a word. It is called —Sabdanaya” because it graspes the meaning of the word. (708)
Jo vattanam na mannai, eyatthe bhinnalimgaainam.
So saddanao bhanio, neo pussaiana jaha. (709)
The naya that differentiates the meaning of the words according to their use, as gender etc., in a sentence is called sabda naya, for example, the word “pusya‘ denotes a particular Naksatra, while the word “Pusya‘ denotes a particular “Tarika‘. (709)
这种方法通过词汇的使用（如词性）来区分它们的使用。例如，”pusya‘代表Naksatra，而”Pusya‘ 代表 “Tarika‘。
Ahava siddhe sadde, kirai jam kim pi atthavavaharanam.
Tam khalu sadde visayam, “devo‘ saddena jaha devo. (710)
The naya which grasps the meaning of the word according to its etymology, is also clled “Sabdanaya‘, for example, the word “deva‘ generally means God. (710)
Saddarudho attho, attharudho taheva puna saddo.
Bhanai iha samabhirudho, jaha imda puramdaro sakko. (711)
Every word is followed by a specific meaning and vice-versa. The different synonymous words have their respective connotations even if the same object is referred to by them. For example, the word, Indra, Purandar and Sakra connote the same object, yet they have their respective meaning to. This is known as Samabhirudhanaya. (711)
每个字都有一个确定的意思，反过来也是一样。不同的同义词具有各自的内涵，尽管他们用来形容同一事物。例如，Indra, Purandar 以及 Sakra具有同样的意思，但是他们也还具有各自的含义。
Evam jaha saddattho, samto bhuo tadannaha‘bhuo.
Tenevambhuyanao, saddatthaparo visesena. (712)
A word only applies to an object in case it behaves in the manner suggested by the (etymological) meaning of the word, denoting it and not in case it does not behave in that —Evambhutanaya”. Hence this particular naya cling to the particular meaning of the word. (712)
Jam jam karei kammam, dehi manavayanakayacetthado.
Tam tam khu namajutto, evambhuo have sa nao. (713)
Whatever an act a person is now performing, through the instrumentality of his mind, speech or body, a name corresponding to that act is to be applied to this person, this is what is maintained by the naya called Evambhutanaya (e.g. A person is called teacher only while he is teaching). (713)