TEN UNIVERSAL VIRTUES 十大美德
The Festival of Self-Uplift by the Holy Observation of Ten Universal
The Jain community like other communities throughout the world celebrates many social and religious functions annually.
The superb Jain festival popularly known as ‘Paryushan Parva’ organized every year in the auspicious month ‘Bhadrapad’ of the Hindu calendar extends from the fifth day to fourteenth day of the bright fortnight.
The festival ordains the Jains to observe the ten universal supreme virtues in daily practical life.
Besides assuring a blissful existence in this world and the other world for every living
being, it aims at the attainment of salvation – the supreme ideal for mundane soul.
The non-Jains also express high reverence for this Jain festival.
All members of Jain community- high and low, young and old, and males and females, participate with full vigor and zeal in the various religious rituals and cultural programs.
They listen with rapt attention to the holy sermons of the saints and learned Jain scholars arranged during the ten-day festival.
In these celebrations lie dormant the seeds of the well being, peace and
happiness of the common man.
On the eve of this festival all activities, which add to social discord or bitterness are declared taboo from the temple pulpits.
These celebrations harbinger social harmony and amity and preach the lofty Jain motto ‘Live and Let live’.
The ‘Paryushan Parva’ celebrated annually for self-purification and uplift is meant to
adhere to the ten universal virtues in practical life; and leads us on the right path, far from
the mad strife for material prosperity, which ultimately leads us to our true destination i.e.,
Two popular titles of this festival, viz. (i) Paryushan Parva and (ii) Dash Lakshan Parva are in vogue; but the mode of performance and aim of the festival is same.
这一盛典的两个称号，即Paryushan Parva 和 Dash Lakshan Parva正广为流传，活动的模式和盛典的目的同样也广为传播。
According to Sanskrit grammar the underlying idea of the festival and its interpretation is
“Parismantadushayante dhante karmani yasimannasau paryushnm”
I.e., The celebration through which the karmic matter attached to the soul is totally burnt or vanquished (both internally and externally) is known Paryushan i.e., selfpurification.
Various meaningful and sublime titles have been assigned to this festival in different
Jain scripture; e.g.,
Parva Raj – The festival which carries a special and greater significance; its celebrations
spread over a longer duration and it is more soul-stirring than any other Jain festival.
Maha Parva – It is an ancient and chief of all Jain festival.
Dash Lakshan Parva – The festival for the observance of ten universal virtues; viz.,
forgiveness, contentment, and celibacy, which aim at the uplift of the soul and are vividly
preached and practiced during the festival.
Paryushan Parva – The festival through which an attempt is made to put an end to all
vices, passions and lustful desires in thought, speech and deeds.
Paryu-Prasa – The festival in which one meditates upon the inherent virtues of the soul in
thought, speech and action; or one attains peace of soul i.e., celestial peace.
Paryupshamn or Pajjusvana – The festival in which an attempt is made to obtain peace
discarding all passions and lustful desires through various means; and observe harmony in the soul through the study of scriptures.
Pajjushana – This word of Prakrit language carries the same meaning as explained in
Prakrit 这个词与Paryushan Parva有着同样的意思。
Samvatsari Parva – The festival which is celebrated annually to subdue all passions and
lustful desires. This title is popular to the Swaitamber sect of Jainism.
Paryushan Parva gives expression to the perfectly purified trait of the soul, through
which one gets rid of worldly discords and allurements and one gets fully absorbed in the
eternal truth on experiencing and realizing the true nature of soul.
Paryushan Parva 表达了灵魂完全纯洁的特点，通过它，可以避免世俗的不和谐和诱惑，可以在体验和认识灵魂的真实本质时被永恒的真理完全同化。
In other words we can say that the natural realization of the trio ‘the True, the Good and the Beautiful’ is fully possible only through Paryushan. In fact the other name of the Jainism, which is universal religion, is Paryushan.
This festival puts an end to all evils in man; gives him realization of the eternal bliss, and spiritualism becomes alive by the celebration of this festival.
Since times immemorial the living beings have fallen prey to the bewitching worldly
They are involved day and night in such a poisonous environment of lustful desires and sensuous pleasures that despite being cautioned time and again, they fail to rid themselves from the bondage of the net work of worldly illusions.
Jain Acaryas have, through their sermons and ideal moral code of conduct, inspired the mundane souls to keep aloof from the blemishes of the world, which breed nothing but sorrow and misery for the mankind.
But the insatiable ambition of man for sensuous pleasures, material comforts and luxurious life has always allured him since antiquity. Consequently man has
bitterly failed to make distinction between self and non-self, and to understand the real
nature of soul.
This festival has its own age-old history, but nothing definite can be said about its origin and since when it is being celebrated.
In fact, the celebration of this festival is beyond the scope of known history.
The truth is that spiritual matters like self-purification and renunciation cannot be measured by Time scale.
When the auspicious month of Bhadrapad comes every year, the whole Jain community celebrates this festival unitedly without any difference of high and low, rich and poor.
The Digambaras and the Swaitamberas, both sects of Jain community celebrate the self-uplifting festival with great enthusiasm.
Digambaras 和 Swaitamberas这两个耆那教教派以极大的热情庆祝这个自我提升的盛典。
The fifth day of the bright fortnight of the holy month of ‘Bhadrapad’ is auspicious for both.
The Digambaras celebrate this festival annually for ten days, from the fifth day to the fourteenth day of the bright half of the month.
Whereas the Swaitamberas celebrate it only for eight days, and the fifth day is the main day of their celebrations held under the title ‘Samvatsari Parva’.
References about the celebrations of ‘Paryushan Parva’ or Dash Lakhan Parva are
available here and there in ancient literary books as well; which show that it has been a
popular festival since ages.
关于Paryushan Parva或 Dash Lakhan Parva 庆典仪式的参考内容在古书中随处可见，这表明在很久以前，这一盛典就广为流行。
The householders celebrate it jointly suspending all their business, agricultural and commercial activities for the time being.
A fine description of the closing ceremony of this festival is available in the ‘Bhattarak’ era extending from 1350 AD to 1450 AD.
In that age the house-holders got manuscript copies of the prominent holy books prepared by the scholars, and offered these to the ‘Bhattaraks’ and their disciples with due devotion at the end of ceremonies.
Even today ‘Dash Lakshan Parva’ is the most suitable occasion for giving donations and charities; and on the last day of the festival the house-holders observe full day fast and make every attempt to donate to religious and social institutions in cash or kind some thing within their capacity.
甚至今天Dash Lakshan Parva还是捐助和布施的最佳场合。在盛典的最后一天，百姓们一整天都奉行斋戒，努力尝试用现金资助宗教和社会组织或以其能力所及而布施。
Very often the Jain scholars viz. poets and writers get their literary works initiated during the festival days and thus pay their homage to this grand festival.
‘Jin Datt Charit’ is an epic poem of Hindi language. The author of this literary work,
the great poet Raj Singh finished this book on the holy day of 5th day, of the bright moon
of ‘Bhadrapad’ in Samvat 1354.
《Jin Datt Charit》是北印度语的一部史诗。这部文学作品的作者，伟大诗人Raj Singh 于1354年Bhadrapad晴朗之月，宗教日的第五天，在Samvat 完成了这本书。
The learned poet Raj Singh chose this day for the initiation ceremony of his great book simply to immortalize the glory and significance of this day.
The following verse of the poem throws ample light on the special significance
of ‘Dash Lakshan Parva’ in the 14th century.
下面的这个诗句是Dash Lakshan Parva在14世纪所写下的，它表明了这个典礼的重要性。
‘Samvat terven chauvane bhadav shudi panchami guru dine’
Similar to the modern age, the Dash Lakshan Parva was celebrated with great zeal and joy thousands of years ago as well; austerities viz. self-meditation, doing penance, fasting and study of holy scriptures were performed during that period.
与当今时代相同，数千年以前人们也以极大的热情和喜悦之情举办仪式Dash Lakshan Parva；在那期间进行苦修，即反思，苦行，斋戒及学习宗教经文。
The householders purged their soul by keeping fast on the last day of the ceremonies and celebrated the closing ceremony with great pomp and show. When the ten day celebration are over, this festival leaves behind deep impress on the mind and heart of every Jain – young and old.
All Jains – Digambers and Swaitambers, will celebrate this sacred festival forever throughout India and abroad.
所有耆那教教徒，无论Digambers 还是Swaitambers 都将永远在印度国内外举办这一神圣的盛典。
The former appear to have the best pretensions to antiquity and cultural heritage and to have been most widely diffused; the later have only as yet been traced as far back as 5th century AD.
The former are almost certainly the same as Nirgrantha, who are referred to in numerous passages of Buddhist Pal Pitakas and must therefore be as old as 6th century B.C. rather earlier.
前者无疑几乎与涉及众多Buddhist Pal Pitakas的文章的 Nirgrantha一样，要追溯到公元前6世纪甚至更早。
The Swaitamberas’ idea of exclusiveness appears to be one of recent growth. In fact, Jainism is a prehistoric religion propounded by the first Tirthankara Lord Aadi Nath. Upon all these grounds we think that the celebration of Paryushan Parva is a holy tradition coming down from the ancient past to the present times.
Swaitamberas独有的想法最近有了提高。事实上，耆那教是个很古老的宗教，由第一代Tirthankara圣主Aadi Nath提出。基于所有这些理由，我们认为Paryushan Parva的宗教仪式是有古代传到现在的一项宗教传统。
To sum up, Paryushan Parva is a grand Jain festival of self-introspection, self-enlightenment and self-achievement, which ultimately leads to the one and only one final goal, i.e., liberation or salvation.
总的来说，Paryushan Parva 是一项自我反省，自我启示，自我成就的一大耆那教盛典，它
Do not minimize the value of ideals. They appeal to the imagination, stir the heart,
stimulate the noblest springs of action, but ideal and practical must be blended into one
harmonious whole. There must be no divorce between the real and ideal.