Jain Siddhant Praveshika (Q and A)
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Various Definitions related to the concept of the karma
- What is fruition of karma (Uday)?
When the dormancy duration of karma bondage is over, then karma give fruit. This is called fruition of karma.
- What is premature fruition (Udirna)?
The karma are bonded to the soul for certain duration. Thereafter, the fruition occurs. But in udirna, the fruition occurs prematurely.
- What is suppression of karma (Upsham)?
Due to the instrumental causes (Nimitta karan) of substance, space area, time, and one’s emotions,(Dravya, kshetra, kal, bhav and bhaav) the karma are now suppressed from giving fruition. This is called suppression of karma.
- How many types of suppression of karma are there?
There are two types:
- Antahkaran type of suppression karma (Antahkarahrupupsham)
- Suppression of karma in the present state (Sad avastha rup upsham)
- What is antah karan type of suppression of karma?
These are the karma particles, which are supposed to give fruition to the soul. When there is movement of these particles, the fruition of karma occurs earlier or later than the prescribed time of fruition and antah karan type of suppression of karma occurs.
- What is the suppression of karma in the present state?
At the present time, certain karma are in a dormant state with the soul. They will give fruition in the future. These types of karma in the present dormancy state are called the suppression of karma in the present state.
- What is the annihilation of karma (Kshay)?
The disassociation of the karma from the soul is known as the annihilation of karma.
- What is the annihilation/suppression of karma (Kshayopsham)?
Annihilation/suppression of karma may be defined through its three parts: annihilation, fruition, and suppression of karma.
- Annihilation – at present time, certain karma come into fruition. These karma have the capacity to totally destroy modes of affirmative attributes of the soul. (Sarva ghati karma) These karma are annihilated without giving fruition (Udayabhavi kshay).
- Fruition – at present timew, certain karma come into fruition. These karma have the capacity to partially destroy modes of affirmative attributes of the soul. (Desh ghati karma)
- Suppression – at present time, certain karma are in a dormancy state with the soul. They will give fruition in the future. They are called suppression of karma in the present state (Sad avastha rup upsham).
- What is nishek?
Within one unit of time, the amount of karma particles coming in to fruition is called nishek.
- What is spardhak?
The collection of ‘aggragate of molecules’ (vargana) is called spardhak.
- What is ‘aggragate of molecules’ (vargana)?
The Collection of varga is called vargana.
- What is ‘collection of similar things’ (varga)?
The karma atoms exist which may have the lowest intensity of certain attributes. The collection of such atoms is called varga. In addition certain karma atoms have the same ‘indivisible units of degrees of increase’ (avibhag pratichchheda) and are called varga.
- What is ‘indivisible units of degrees of increase’ (avibhag pratichchheda)?
Since karma is comprised of infinite material particle atoms, with intuitive wisdom (Pragna), one establishes the atoms with an absolute minimal intensity of certain qualities. The final resulting smallest intensity of particle is called ‘indivisible units of degrees of increase’ (avibhag pratichchheda).
- In this context, the word intensity (Shakti) is used. What is the meaning of this word?
Here the intensity means the intensity of the fruition capacity of karma.
- What’s the meaning of annihilation without fruition (Udayabhavi kshay)?
After bondage to the soul, karma remain in dormancy until they give fruition to the soul. But sometimes the karma disassociate from the soul without giving fruition. This is called annihilation without fruition.
- What is the pulling upward of karma (Utkarshan)?
The increase in the intensity and duration of karma is called the pulling upward of karma.
- What is the pushing downward of karma (Apkarshan)?
The decrease in the intensity and duration of karma is called the pushing downward of karma.
- What is the modification of karma (Sankraman)?
Modification of karma in the same sub-group from one type to another is called modification of karma, for example, modification of pain feeling karma to pleasure feeling karma.