Errors Concerning the seven fundamentals
Shri Jogidasji Khandelwal of the Godika sect was the father of Pandit Todarmalji and Rambha Bai his mother. He was married and had two sons, Harishchandra and Gumaniram. Gumaniram was a great revolutionary genius. Though Panditji spent most of his life in Jaipur, he had to go to Sindhana for sometime to earn his livelihood. He worked with a money-lender of Delhi, there.
Traditionally his age was only twenty-seven years, but looking to his literary achievements and knowledge and on the basis of the latest proofs and references, it is settled now that he lived up to the age of forty-seven. It is practically certain that he died about the Vikram Samvat 1823-24 and as such, he must have been born in V. S. 1776-77.
He received ordinary education in the Spiritual Tera Panthi Style of Jaipur, but his deep scholarship was mainly due to hard work and genius, which he distributed very liberally. He was a great intellectual having sharpness of understanding and a studious nature. He knew Prakrit, Sanskrit, Hindi and Kannada. In Samvat 1821, Pandit Raimaiji wrote in his letter of invitation for the Indradhwaj Ritual, “It is very difficult to find a man of his intellect these days. All the doubts about religious matters are removed after meeting him”.
About his studies he himself writes in the Mokshamarg Prakashak, “I have acquaintance of Samaysar, Panchastikaya, Pravachansar, Niyamsar, Gomattasar, Labdhisar, Triloksar, Tattvarthasutra, with the commentaries, Kshapanasar,Purushartha-siddhiupaya, Asthapahur, Atmanushasan and many other scriptures describing the conduct of monks and householders, and Purans having stories of great personalities. In his life he wrote, in all, twelve books, big and small, which contain about a lac verses and about five thousand pages.
Some of these are commentaries of popular sacred books while others are independent works of his own. These are found both in prose and poetry. Chronologically they are the following:-
1. Rahasyapurna Chitthi- (V. S. 1811)
2. Gomattasar Jivakand-Hindi commentary
3. Gomattasar Karmakand-Hindi commentary ( Samayak)
4. Arthasandarshiti Adhikar ( Gyan Chandrika)
5. Labdhisar-Hindi commentary ( V. S. 1918)
6. Kshapanasar-Hindi commentary
7. Gomattasar Puja
8. Triloksar-Hindi commentary
9. Samosharan Rachna Varnan
10. Mokshamarg Prakashak (Incomplete)
11. Atmanushasan-Hindi commentary
12. Purusharthasiddhiupaya-Hindi commentary (incomplete)
The last was completed by Pt. Daulat Ram Kasliwal in V.S. 1827. His prose style is pure, fully developed and comprehensible. The most beautiful form of his style can be seen in his original work-Mokshamarg Prakashak. His language, originally Brij, has the stiffness of Khari Boli and also local colour. It is strong and fine enough to express forcefully his ideas and feelings.
The present lesson has been taken from the seventh chapter of Mokshamarg Prakashak. To know more about him one should read “Pandit Todarmai-Vyaktitva and Kartitva” and for knowing details of errors concerning the seven fundamentals, one should study the seventh chapter of Mokshamarg Prakashak.
Errors Concerning The Seven Fundamentals
As long as people or beings do not have the internal understanding of the seven fundamentals including the soul, they cannot achieve the goat of right faith. Even after studying Jain scriptures, a person having wrong faith does not have the real understanding of the elements.
Errors regarding Soul and Non-soul Elements
1. Engaged in the pursuit of the self, the being understands the division of the moving and non-moving creatures and other milestones of the spiritual growth, as also the different manifestations of the matter substances, but does not exactly have the ability of discrimination between the self and the non-self and the path leading to full detachment as described in the spiritual scriptures.
2. Even when he knows them, his knowledge is based on the religious texts but does not have full faith in knowing one’s own self and not to mix that with others and to keep one’s self unmixed with others.
3. Like other people having perverted faith, this one also treats religious teaching, fast and other activities depending upon the body as one’s own.
4. He discusses the element of soul as described in the religious books, but does not realise that that soul is himself and the body and other outside objects are totally different. He experiences that body and soul are different entities, as if he is-talking of some third persons.
5. He treats the joint activities of the soul and the body as one and does not follow that matter is just an indifferent cause of the activity of the soul and the soul in its turn is again an indifferent cause of the activity of the matter. He does not realise the inherent difference between the two activities.
Errors regarding Influx Element
1. He regards violence and other sinful influxes as undesirable, but treats non-violence and other merit influxes as desirable. Both of them, however, are undesirable being instrumental to bondage of the soul.
2. The desirable state is that without any bondage, where one only knows and sees and remains perfectly detached. As long as this state is not achieved, one may indulge in merits, but he should have faith that this also leads to bondage. If such a state is treated as path to liberation, that faith is totally wrong.
3. He does not recognise the internal nature of wrong faith and other influxes, and considers that their outward form is real influx, e.g.
(a) He treats adopted wrong faith only as false belief, but does not understand the, eternal inherited wrong faith as such.
(b) He regards outer violence and indulgence in mind and senses as non-abstinence, but does not realise that recklessness is the root. cause of violence, and desire is at the root of indulgence in subjects of senses and mind.
(c) He considers passions to be outward anger etc.; but does not realise that attachments and aversions, that remain in intention, are the real enemies.
(d) He regards outward movement of body, speech and mind as such, but has no idea of the intrinsic power of such activities.
4. Attachments and aversions that cause wrong faith are, in fact, real influxes. Since he does not recognise them as such he commits errors as regards influxes.
Errors regarding Bondage Element
1 . He treats sinful manifestations as bad and leading to demerit bondage, but thinks that feelings of merit bondage are desirable. Distinction of merits and demerits lie only in the non-destructive karmas, destructive karmas are all demerits and even when one indulges in merits, destructive karmas are attracted and stay with the soul. As such, how can merit, being instrumental to bondage, be desirable for the soul on its upward march ?
Errors regarding Stoppage Element
1. He treats merit influxes i.e. non-violence etc., as stoppage, but does not realise that once and the same activity cannot lead to merit bondage and stoppage.
2. He does not exactly understand that abstinences of various kinds are instrumental to merit bondage alone, e.g. :
(a) Not wishing ill of others, observing silence and abstaining from movements are treated as control of body and mind. He does not pay attention to diversions of auspicious attachments. The real control of body and mind lies in perfect detachment that leads to loss of activity automatically.
(b) Likewise, he treats his wishful attempts to avoid injury as Samiti abstinence, but does not know that violence in intention is sinful and if desire to avoid injury and protect creatures are regarded as stoppage, what would lead to merit bondage? Monks, having some attachment, move about and perform other actions, but since they are not deeply moved by those actions, they are not accused of recklessness as such. They also serve their purpose of movements etc. without causing pain to other creatures, and as such they remain non-violent automatically.
(c) He may not indulge in anger and other passions for fear of bondage and with the temptations of heavenly life and complete liberation, but the inner desires for passions persist and he still regards himself as observing rules of conduct like forbearance. The tendency to regard substances as desirable or otherwise is stopped with the real understanding of the elements. Then anger etc. do not rise in the soul and therein lies real religion.
(d) Due to meditation on the transitoriness of worldly affairs he regards body and other possessions as evil, but his indifference towards these is actuated by aversion. Real indifference is not to indulge in attachments and aversions, after realising the real nature of the substances.
(e) Not to try to satisfy hunger etc. when they rise, is treated as Parishahjay abstinence by him, without taking into consideration the mental agony caused by these. Real abstinence is not to be happy or unhappy in the face of agreeable or unagreeable situations and remain a detached observer only.
(f) He regards renunciation of violence etc. as real conduct and observances of the great rules of conduct as desirable. Tattvarthasutra describes observance of great rules of conduct and partial observance thereof, both as influxes. How can influxes be desirable? Being instrumental to bondage the great conventional rules of conduct cannot be regarded as conduct. Real conduct is the state of being unattached without a dint of passion. Monks observe those great rules as soft passions, but do not regard them, as conducive to the state of liberation.
Errors regarding Gradual Dissociation Element
1 . He does not realise that Tapa abstinence lies in complete detachment. Absorbed in outward activities, he considers himself to be engaged in Tapa abstinence and thinks that this would lead to gradual dissociation of bondage.
2. He does not know that the state of detachment is real dissociation. The merit activities lead to bondage only. Intrinsic religion is detachment, which is instrumental to dissociation.
Errors regarding Complete Liberation Element
1. He treats the bliss of heavenly life and complete liberation alike, when heavenly bliss is dependent upon senses, while the bliss of the completely liberated soul is psychic only.
2. He thinks that the same stage of mind can lead to the heavenly state as that of the completely liberated soul, disregarding the truth that merit leads to heavenly life and complete detachment to the state of complete liberation.
In this manner perverted belief regarding the seven fundamentals persists even after reading Jain scriptures.
by Dr. H. C. Bharill
|Look at thyself. One’s own soul is the only object worth knowing, worth seeing. Now, what this soul cannot be explained. It cannot be expressed in words. This object, the soul, which is worth knowing, the only object worthy of knowledge, it can only be felt. Thissoul which is worth feeling about is all knowledge and bliss. So you take away you vision from all external objects, from their nature as also from disturbances in the soul, and fix this vision straight on thy soul. Do it ! Do it ! Do it !
Tirthankara Mahavira and His Sarvodaya Tirtha;Page 51
Dr. H. C. Bharill