# Concept of karma – Process of relinquishment of karma

Jain Siddhant Praveshika (Q and A)
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Process of relinquishment of karma.

1. What is the bondage at a time(Samay prabadhdha)?
The amount of karma particles and quasi-karma particles (Nokarma) getting bonded to the soul in one unit of time (Samay) is called bondage at a time.
1. What is the process of relinquishment of karma (Gunhani)? (Refer to the table at the end of Q#288)
In a process in which progressively less substance is perceived is called gunhani. For example, suppose in one samay there was bondage of 6300 atoms occurring at one time, and that the duration of this bondage is approximately 48 samays. Suppose there were 6 gunhani, then the first gunhani will have 3200 atoms, second 1600, third 800, fourth 400, fifth 200, and sixth will have 100 atoms. As lowering is in progression, there are less and less atoms present. This is called the process of relinquishment of karma.
1. What is the expansion of process of relinquishment of karma(Gunhani ayam)?< The number of samays of one gunhani is called gunhani ayam. In example above, where there were six gunhani in 48 samays; therefore, 48 divided by 6 would equal 8. Therefore, each gunhani has 8 samays. This is called gunhani ayam (Number of samays in each gunhani). /li>
1. How are the numbers of gunhani(Nana gunhani) defined?
The collection of gunhani is called nana gunhani, e.g. in the above example, each gunhani is of 8 samays and there are a total of 6. The 6 total are known as the numbers of gunhani.
1. What is the total sum of mutual reduplication of numbers(Anyonya bhyasta rashi)?
Take the total number of gunhanis, n, 2n = total sum of mutual reduplication of numbers. In the example from #278, the total number of gunhani is 6. So 26=64. This is the total sum of mutual reduplication of numbers.
1. How does one arrive at the value of the last gunhani?
Take the total karma particles. Divide it by the total sum of mutual reduplicated numbers minus 1. In the above example, the total number of particles is 6300. The sum of the mutually reduplicated numbers is 64, so 64 minus 1 = 63, and 6300/63 = 100. 100 is the value of the last gunhani.
1. How to arrive at the value of any other gunhani?
If one keeps multiplying the value of the last gunhani by 2, for each successive previous gunhani number, then one can arrive at any value for any gunhani. For example, 100 x 2 =200 x 2 =400 x 2 = 800, etc.
1. How to arrive at the value of karma particles in each samay in each gunhani?
First one multiplies nishekahar by chay (see 285-286 for definition). This gives a value for each gunhani’s first samay. From this value, if you subtract one chay, then the second samay’s value is determined. And, constantly subtracting chay from the second value, gives one the value of the third samay, etc. In the above example, nishekahar 16 is multiplied by chay, which is 32, = 512, which is the value of the first samay’s karma particles. 512 – 32 = 480 for the second samay.   480 – 32 = 448 for the value of the third samay. For the second gunhani, nishekahar is 16. 16 x 16 (chay) = 256, which is the value of the second gunhani, in the first samay. 256 – 16 = 240, which is the value of the second samay, etc.
1. What is nishekahar?
Multiply the number of samay’s in each gunhani by 2. This gives the value of nishekahar. For example, 8 x 2 = 16, the value of nishekahar.
1. What is the common difference (Chay)?
In the arithmatic progression, the constant number used for addition or subtraction is called arithmatic progression number, or the common difference.
1. How does one determine the common difference (Chay)?
First add total samays in one gunhani plus one into the nishekahar. Now take one half of it, and then multiply that number by number of samays in each gunhani. This number is used as a denominator. Put the total number of karma particles in each gunhanis as the numerator. The resultant number is called the value of constant number in arithmetic progression/common difference (chay). For example, in the above example, nishekahar is 16. The total samays in each gunhani is 8. 8 + 1 = 9. 16 + 9 = 25, Half of 25 = 12.5, 12.5 x 8 (total samays in one gunhani) = 100. 3200 (Total number of particles in one gunhani) / 100 = 32. Therefore this 32 is the common difference (Chay).

### Gunhani

Ayam          GUNHANI NUMBERS (Process of relinquishment of karma         numbers)

• Samay
• 1
• 2
• 3
• 4
• 5
• 6
• 1
• 512
• 256
• 128
• 64
• 32
• 16
• 2
• 480
• 240
• 120
• 60
• 30
• 15
• 3
• 448
• 224
• 112
• 56
• 28
• 14
• 4
• 416
• 208
• 104
• 52
• 26
• 13
• 5
• 384
• 192
• 96
• 48
• 24
• 12
• 6
• 342
• 176
• 88
• 44
• 22
• 11
• 7
• 320
• 160
• 80
• 40
• 20
• 10
• 8
• 288
• 144
• 72
• 36
• 18
• 9
• All material particles
• 3200
• 1600
• 800
• 400
• 200
• 100
• Common difference
• 32
• 16
• 8
• 4
• 2
• 1

Gunhani ayam – relinquishment of karma expansion table
Chay – Common difference
Nishekahar – multiply number of samay in each gunhani by 2

1. How is the intensity of karma bondage distributed?
The above-mentioned table is to be taken into reference for this question. That table is made from the perspective of a substance. In that table, each gunhani had samays, for example, 8 in this table. The amount of karma particles of each gunhani is called varga. In the first samay in the first gunhani, there are 512 vargas. This total group of vargas is called vargana. In each vargana the avibhag pratichcheda (see #271 for definition) are the same. Avibhag pratichcheda have minimal potentiality. In the second vargana onwards, these avibhag pratichcheda are increasing in potentiality in progressive numbers. The groups of these vargana are called spardhak. Now in some vargana’s varga, the avibhag pratichcheda are increasing in numbers progressively. When the avibhag pratichcheda becomes double of the first vargana’s varga, then the second spardhak starts. When the avibhag pratichcheda of varga becomes three times the first vargana, then the third spardhak starts, and when it’s four times, the fourth spardhak starts, etc. Thus in each gunhani, there could be several spardhaks. See table below:

• 1st Spardhak
• 2nd Spardhak
• 3rd Spardhak
• 4th Spardhak
• 5th Spardhak
• 6th Spardhak
• 1st Vargana
• 8
• 16
• 24
• 32
• 40
• 48
• 2nd Vargana
• 9
• 17
• 25
• 33
• 41
• 49
• 3rd Vargana
• 10
• 18
• 26
• 34
• 42
• 50
• 4th Vargana
• 11
• 19
• 27
• 35
• 43
• 51