Concept of Karma – Causes of inflow of karma
Jain Siddhant Praveshika (Q and A)
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Causes of inflow of karma.
- Considering from the causal point of view for ‘causes of bondage’ (Prakruti bandh), how many causes of inflow of karma are there?
There are five causes:
- Wrong belief(Mithyatva)
- Vibratory activity or psychophysical activity(Yog)
Note: Study the diagram and table for the inflow of karma.
* Soul’s reaction to the fruition of the mild subtle passions and quassi passions karma.
- What is called the wrong belief?
The soul’s intense altered transformation, which occurs at the same time as the fruition of the wrong belief karma, is called the soul’s wrong belief. As a result of this wrong belief, the soul now perceives one as a real god in a false god; reality (Tatva) in non-reality (Atatva); and, true religion in untrue religion.
- How many different types of wrong belief are there?
There are five types:
- One-sided wrong belief (Ekantik Mithyatva)
- Perverted wrong belief (Viparit Mithyatva)
- Skeptical wrong belief (Sanshayik Mithyatva)
- Agnostic wrong belief (Agnanik Mithyatva)
- Equalitarian wrong belief (Vainayik Mithyatva)
Note: Delineation of these five types is depicted in the diagram, which follow.
- What is one-sided wrong belief?
Although the substance may have multiple attributes, one continues to believe it to be of only one attribute. For example, one believes that the soul is always eternal or the soul is always transient in nature while ignoring its other multiple attribures.
- What is perverted wrong belief?
In this case one has an altered state of the soul, and as a result, his desires are based on an altered perception. This is called the perverted wrong belief. For example, one falsely believes that the soul is the body. He may believe that one who has possessions as possessionless. He may also believe in the omniscient lord in a different way.
- What is the skeptical wrong belief?
In this case one becomes skeptical. He now has doubts about the soul’s actions, e.g., whether the soul is the doer of his own actions or the doer of someone or something else’s actions.
- What is the agnostic wrong belief?
When there is an absense in discretion for suitability or nonsuitability of a thing, then it is called agnostic wrong belief. For example, one believes it to be a religious act by killing and offering an animal to the deity, or, one considers a sinful activity as a meritorious act.
- What is the equalitarian wrong belief?
When one believes that all different opinions, and all the different gods, are acceptable, then it is called the equalitarian wrong belief.
- What is vowlessness (Avirati)?
When one is involved in violent sinful activities, and also remains involved with worldly sensual objects, it is called vowlessness.
- How many different types of vowlessness (Avirati) are there?
There are three types:
- Soul’s attitude (Atma na bhav) due to the fruition of infinite bonded passions karma (Anantanubandhi Kashayoday janit).
- Soul’s attitude due to the fruition of partial vows preventing passions karma (Apratyakhyanavaran kashayoday janit).
- Soul’s attitude due to the fruition of complete vow preventing passions karma (Pratyakhyanavaran Kashayoday janit).
Note: Study the table visualizing the three types of Vowlessness, which follow.
- What is meant by carelessness (Pramad)?
At the time of intense fruition of subtle passions (Sanjvalan kashay) and quassi passions (Nokashay), a person becomes somewhat indifferent towards his proper conduct and less attentive to his own pure self – a state of carelessness.
- How many different types of carelessness are there?
There are fifteen types as follow:
- Four useless gossips (Vikatha) – about women, food, country, and politics.
- Four passions (Kashay) – Intense fruition of subtle passions of anger, pride, deceit and greed.
- Five objects of the five senses-touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing.
- Sleep (Nindra)
- Affection (Sneh)
Note: A delineation of these fifteen types is depicted in the diagram, which follow.
- What is called passions (Kashay)?
The soul’s reaction to the mild fruition of subtle passions and quassi passions is called passions. This definition of passions is in relation to the five reasons for the inflow of karma (refer to question 308).
- What is called the psychophysical activity – vibratory activity of the soul (Yog)?
This is the ability of the soul to accept karma and quassi karma particles in relation to the mind molecular particles (Mano vargana), body molecular particles (Kaya vargana), and speech molecular particles (Vachan vargana) which collectively, comprise the psychophysical activities- vibratory activity of the soul (Yog).
- How many subtypes of the psychophysical activities are there?
There are fifteen types:
- Four psychophysical activities of the mind.
- True psychophysical activities of the mind (Satya mano yog).
- False psychophysical activities of the mind (Asatya mano yog).
- Mix psychophysical activities of the mind (Ubhay mano yog).
- Non-true, non-false psychophysical activities of the mind (Anubhay mano yog).
- Seven psychophysical activities of the body.
- Gross physical (Audarik).
- Gross physical mixed with karmic (Audarik mishra).
- Fluid (Vaikriya).
- Fluid mixed with karmic (Vaikriya mishra).
- Assimilated (Aharak).
- Assmiliated mixed with physical (Aharakmishra).
- Karmic molecule (Karman).
- Four psychophysical activities of the speech.
- True psychophysical activities of the speech (Satya vachan yog).
- False psychophysical activities of the speech (Asatya vachan yog).
- Mixed psychophysical activities of the speech (Ubhay vachan yog).
- Non-true, non-false psychophysical activities of the speech (Anubhay vachan yog).
Note: Study the diagram of these fifteen types as follow.
Chapter # 2.9 Bondage of karma with different causes of inflow.
- What kind of karma bondage occurs, keeping in mind the principle cause as wrong belief (Mithyatva) within a living being?
With wrong belief as the principle cause, the following sixteen types of karma bondage occur:
- Wrong belief karma (Mithyatva).
- Deformed body producing karma (Hundak sansthan).
- Hermaphroditic disposition (Napunshak ved).
- Infernal realm acquiring karma (Narak gati).
- Migratory form for infernal realm karma (Narak gatyanupurvi).
- Infernal life-determining karma (Narakayu).
- Sixth bodily configuration- loosely jointed bones karma (Asampraptarsupatika sanhanan).
- Four types of genus of beings- i.e., One sensed, two sensed, three sensed, and four sensed lives (Ekendriya, beendriya, triindriya, and chaurendrya jati).
- Immobile lives karma (Sthavar).
- Hot body karma (Atap).
- Subtle body (Sukshma).
- Undeveloped body (Aparyapta).
- Common bodies (Sadharan sharir).
- What type of karma bondage occurs due to the vowlessness, which occurs as a result of fruition of intense type of passions causing infinite bondage (Anantanubandhi kashayoday janit avirati)?
This type of vowlessness helps acquire twenty five types of karma as follow:
1-4 Four types of intense passions like anger, ego, deceit, and greed.
- Somnambulistic sleep (Styangrudhdhi).
- Deep sleep producing karma (Nindra nindra).
- Exceedingly intense sleep producing karma (Prachala prachala).
- Displeasing personality (Durbhag).
- Harsh voice (Dushwar).
- Non-impressive (Anadeya).
- Awkward movements (Aprashastha vihayogati).
- Female disposition (Stri ved).
- Lower status (Nich gotra).
- Subhuman realm (Tiryanchgati).
- Migratory form towards subhuman realm (Tiryanchanupurvi).
- Subhuman life determining karma (Tiryanchayu).
- Cold body (Udyot)
18-21. Four types of figures of bodies (Sansthan).
- Symmetrical upper and asymmetrical lower body (Nyagrodh sansthan).
- Symmertical lower and asymmetcial upper body (Svatisansthan).
- Hunchback body (Kubjak sansthan).
- Dwarf body (Vaman sansthan).
22-25. Four types of bone and joints formation (Sanhanan).
- Adamantine bones and joints (Vraj narach).
- Unbreakable bones and joints (Narach).
- Semi-unbreakable bones and joints (Ardh narach).
- Riveted bones and joints (Kilika).
- How many types of karma bondage occur due to the vowlessness occurring as a result of fruition of partial vows preventing passions (Apratyakhyanavaran kashayoday janit avirati)?
In this situation ten types of karma bondage occur:
- Four types of partial vows preventing passions karma, like anger, ego, deceit and greed.
- Human realm (Manushya gati).
- Migratory form towards human realm (Manushya anupurvi).
- Human life determining karma (Manushya ayu).
- Physical body (Audarik sharir).
- Physical limbs and their related parts (Audarik angopang).
- Adamantine nerves, bones, and joints (Vraj rushabh narach sanhanan).
- How many types of karma bondage occur due to the vowlessness occurring as a result of fruition of complete vow preventing passions (Pratyakhyanavaran kashayoday janit avirati)?
There are four types of complete vows preventing passions karma: anger, ego, deceit and greed.
- How many types of karma bondage occur due to carelessness (Pramad)?
Due to carelessness six types of bondage of karma occur:
- Unsteady body making karma (Asthir nam karma).
- Inauspicious body making karma (Ashubha nam karma).
- Pain producing feeling karma (Asata vedniya karma).
- Notoriety body making karma (Apyash kirti nam karma).
- Displeasure quassi-passions (Arati nokarma).
- Sorrow quassi-passions (Shok nokarma).
- How many types of karma bondage occur with the fruition of passions (Kashay)?
There are 58 different types of karma bondage that occur:
- Celestial life determining karma (Dev ayu).
- Light sleep (Nindra).
- Sound sleep (Prachala)
- Formation of organs (Nirman).
- Graceful movements (Prashasta vihayogati).
- Five sensed genus of being (Panchendriya jati).
- Fiery body (Tejas sharir)
- Karmic body (Karman sharir).
- Assimilated body (Aharak sharir).
- Assimilated limbs and their related parts (Aharak angopang).
- Perfect symmetry all around (Samchaturask sansthan).
- Fluid body (Vaikriya sharir).
- Fluid body limbs and their related parts (Vaikriya angopang).
- Celestial realm (Dev gati).
- Migratory form towards celestial realm (Dev gati anupurvi).
- Skin color (Roop).
- Taste (Ras).
- Smell (Gandh).
- Touch (Sparsh).
- Not too heavy, not too light (Agurulaghu).
- Destructive (Upghat).
- Bellicosity (Paraghat).
- Respiration (Uchchhvas).
- Mobile body (Trash).
- Gross body (Badar).
- Developable body (Paryapta).
- Individual body (Pratyek).
- Stable body (Sthir).
- Auspicious body (Subha).
- Amiable personality (Subhag).
- Sweet voice (Sushwar)
- Beautiful body (Adeya).
- Laughter (Hasya).
- Pleasure quassi-passions (Rati).
- Disgust quassi-passions (Jugupsa).
- Fear quassi-passions (Bhay).
- Male disposition (Purush ved).
- Four perfect conductpreventing passions to include anger, ego, deceit and greed (Sanjvalan kashay karma).
- Empirical knowledge obstructive karma (Mati gnanavarniya karma).
- Scripture knowledge obstructive karma (Shrut gnanavarniya karma).
- Clairvoyance knowledge obstructive karma (Avadhi gnanavarniya karma).
- Telepathy knowledge obstructive karma (Manahparyah gnanavarniya karma).
- Omniscient knowledge obstructive karma (Keval gnanavarniya karma).
- Vision perception obstructive karma (Chakshu darshanavarniya karma).
- Non-vision perception obstructive karma (Achakshu darshanavarniya karma).
- Clairvoyance perception obstructive karma (Avadhi darshanavarniya karma).
- Omniscient perception obstructive karma (Keval darshanavarniya karma).
- Charity obstructing karma (Dan antaraya).
- Enjoyment obstructing karma (Bhog antaraya).
- Re-enjoyment obstructing karma (Upbhog antaraya).
- Will power obstructing karma (Virya antaraya).
- Gain obstructing karma (Labh antaraya).
- Fame (Yash kirti)
- High status determining karma (Uchcha gotra).
- How many types of karma bondage occur due to psychophysical activities(Yog)?
Here there is bondage of only one type, that of pleasure producing feeling karma (Sata vedniya karma).
- The total types of karma are 148, and in the bondage mentioned above (question 323-329), we considered only 120. So what happened to the remaining 28 types of karma?
They emerge in touch, taste, smell, and skin color; plus we shall also consider twenty subtypes as follows:
- Skin color-5
If we consider touch, taste, smell and skin color as individual composites, then there are four. Since each would include its subtypes, we are subtracting 16.
Five bodies (Sharir) also include five bondages of the parts of body (Bandhan Karma), and five integrations of the body karma (Sanghat Karma). Therefore ten more need to be substracted.
The enlightened soul makes three divisions of his prior false believe karma. At this time, the right/wrong belief karma (Mishra mohniya) and clouded right belief karma (Samkit Mohniya) and wrong belief karma (Mithyatva) are born. Thus, there are two less covered in the counting.
In this way we account for, 16+10+2=28 karma types.
- How many different types of material inflow are there (Davya Ashrav)?
There are two types: Long term inflow (Samparayik Ashrav) and Short term inflow (Iryapath Ashrav).
- What is meant by long-term inflow (Samparayik Ashrav)?
When soul’s passions become an instrumental cause, the karma particles become bonded to the soul. These karma stay with the soul for a somewhat longer period of time. It is called long term inflow.
- What is the instantaneous inflow (Iryapath Ashrav)?
When soul’s vibratory activity (Yog) becomes the instrumental cause, the bondage, the fruition, and the shedding of karma occur within one smallest unit of time (Samay). It is called short term inflow.
- Who is the doer of both of the above-mentioned inflows?
Long term inflow of karma is caused with soul’s passions and Short term inflow caused without passions, but the soul is the doer of both types.
- What is the reason for good deed (Punya) and bad deed (Pap) inflow?
The cause for good deed inflow is the auspicious vibrations of the soul’s space unit (Shubh yog). The cause for bad deed inflow is the inauspicious vibrations of the soul’s space unit (Ashubh yog).
- What is called the auspicious and inauspicious vibratory activities of the soul’s space unit?
The vibratory activities of the soul’s space units created by the auspicious internal thought process of the soul (Shubh bhav) is called the auspicious vibratory activity of the soul’s space units (Shubh yog), and one created by the inauspicious internal thought process of the soul (Ashubh bhav) is called the inauspicious vibratory activities of the soul’s space units (Ashubh yog).
- Is it possible that during the auspicious vibratory activity of the soul’s space units that there could be an inflow of bad deed karma?
- If the above is true, then does the auspicious yog become the cause for bad deed inflow? Is this true?
The auspicious vibratory activity of the soul’s space units (Shubh yog) is not the cause for the bad deed inflow. The reason is as follow.
When the auspicious yog occurs in the soul, then at the same time, karma bondage occur. These karma have both types of bondage, the good deeds and bad deeds karma, but in this situation, the duration of intensity of the good deed karma is way too strong compared to that of the bad deed karma. The reverse is true for the inauspicious yog of the soul.
In Tatvarthsutra, chapter six, sutra ten, it mentions the cause for knowledge obscuring and perception obscuring karma inflow. They are slander (Pradosh), concealment (Nihvav), envy (Matsarya), obstructivness (Antaraya), disregard (Ashadan), and condemnation (Upghat) of the scripture.
The impression given here is as follow: According to the internal thought process of the soul, the duration and intensity of the bondage occur much more for a given particular type of karma.
The mundane soul has karma bondage of all seven types all the time. Life determining karma bondage occurs only once in the lifetime.
When there is inauspicious thought process of the soul (Ashubh bhav), then
- The duration (Sthiti) of all seven karma bondage increases,
- The intensity (Anubhag-ras) of the bad deed karma increases,
- The intensity of the good deed karma decreases.
When there is auspicious thought process in the soul (Shubh bhav), then
- The duration of all seven karma bondage decreases,
- The intensity of the bad deed karma decreases,
- The intensity of the good deed karma increases.
Various types of bad deed karma, including the knowledge obscuring karma, inflow and bondage occur up to the tenth spiritual stage of development (Tenth gunathanak). The auspicious thought process of the soul also occurs up to the tenth stage of spiritual development.
Therefore, with auspicious thought process of the soul, there is also some inflow and bondage of bad deed karma that occurs.