Chapter XI


The Social Divisions in Jainism are concerned with society. It seems that in the Early Medieval Period, Jaina saints converted a large number of people to Jainism, and formed their social groups and named them in different ways. From their names such as Humbaâa and Dhaskaûa, it seems that they originated from tribal people. Some are territorial in nature. Some Kulas, titles and surnames were converted into castes. Some castes originated from the professions. The Jaina system  of social organization was in the beginning based on the distinction of function. Later on, birth was considered as a criterion of these castes because of the influence of Brahmanical religion and of Muslim rule. Most of the Jaina castes in North – India originated in Rajasthan. Later on, they gradually migrated to the different regions. These Jaina castes were divided into Ávetambara and Digambara castes on the basis of religious sects. Among the Ávetämbara castes, Osvälas, Poravälas and Árïmälïs are famous, while in the Digambaras, Bagheravälas and Khaîâelavälas are well known. As people migrated and settled in different regions outside Rajasthan, it shows their adventurous spirit. Some castes of the same name as Ägravälas, Árïmälïs, Poravälas and Khaîâelavälas are found both among the Jainas and the non-Jainas. In South India, castes among the Jainas were determined by the professions. These castes were gradually divided into several gotras. The marriages of the individuals of the caste were determined after considering the gotras.

Jaina Castes and Gotras of Rajasthan : Most of the castes and their gotras found among the Jainas in the North have their origin, in Rajasthan. The time and the manner of their origin is shrouded in considerable mystery. There are many legendary accounts of their origin which tell us that they are of great antiquity. But, as a matter of fact, no names of these castes and their gotras before the seventh century are traceable. From the historical point of view, these castes and their gotras seem to have come into existence between the eighth and the thirteenth century A.D., the time of golden age for Jainism in Rajasthan. There were born great influential saints like Hemachandra and Jinachandra who converted the Rajputs Brähmaîas and Vaiáyas to Jainism. Even the Jaina statesmen like Vimala and Vastupäla tried to spread Jainism by rendering meritorious services. The merchants also spent countless wealth for its propagation by constructing beautiful temples and placing images in them. In this way, Jainism was accepted by a large number of masses who formed different Castes.

(1) Osavälas : Osavälas are found in all the important cities of Rajasthan. They occupy a prominent position both in administrative and commercial spheres. Their origin is from the place named Osia in Marwar. This town was visited by Uppaladeva, the Scion of the ruling family of Árïmäla who being pressed by his enemy sought refuge at the hands of a ruler of the Pratïhära dynasty which was then supreme in Marwar. At this time, the Jaina saint Ratnaprabhasüri came to this place and found the only son of Uppaladeva bitten by a snake. The king requested Ratnaprabha to cure him which he did. The king with his subjects embraced Jainism and Ratnaprabhasüri formed the Osaväla  Caste of these people. There are three views about the time of the incident.

  1. According to theNäbhinandanoddhära-prabandhaand the Upakeáagachchha-charitra, Ratnaprabhasüri, the seventh paûûadhara in the line of Pärávanätha, established the Osavaãáa in Vïra Nirväîa Saãvat 70 (457 B.C.). 2. In the opinion of the Bhäûas, the caste of the Osavälas with their eighteen Gotras was established by the teachings of Ratnaprabhasüri at Upakeáanagara in Marwar in 222 V.E. (165 A.D.) 3. But both these views do not seem to be correct, because there is no mention and trace of this caste before the 8th century A.D. It seems to have come into existence afterwards. The king Uppaladeva and his subjects were converted to Jainism by Ratnaprabhasüri who formed their caste of Osavälas.

Gotras of the Osavälas : After the conversion, Osavälas continued to multiply and they formed eighteen Gotras according to the traditions. But the process of the multiplication continued further particularly because they ceased to be a fighting race; and there was no mass casualty due to any battle. It is believed that there are 1444 Gotras of the Osavälas. But these are not the main Gotras. They just represent simply the branches and sub-branches. Yati Árïpäla refers to the manuscript which mentions 609 Gotras.1 The poet Rüpachanda of the eighteenth century A.D. in his Osvälaräsa mentions about 440 Gotras.2 Some are territorial, some are individualistic, and others are occupational.

(a) Territorial Gotras : Some Gotras were named after the places of their origin. Jinadattasüri gave väsakshepa to the two princes namely Árïdhara and Räjadhara of Rävala Sägara at Bhaîasäla in Jaisalmer. The Princes and after them their descendants and still further those who were closely or remotely related to them, all came to be called Bhaîasälïs. And thus was established the Bhaîaáälï Gotra.3 In 1542 A.D., Säha Vïdaka of this Gotra celebrated the consecration of Chandraprabha through Jinabhadra Süri at Jaisalmer.4 So the Gotra must have strated not later than 1500 A.D. The Kächholi Gotra was formed after the village named Kächchhola in Sirohi State probably at the beginning of the 13th century A.D. In 1286 A.D., Ajayasiãha of this Gotra installed the image of Pärávanätha at Kachchholï for acquiring merit for his parents.5 Koranûa Gotra originated from the place named Koranûa in Marwar. In 1450 A.D. Säha Vïsala of this Gotra for acquiring merit for himself celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Sumatinätha through Kakkasüri of this Gachchha.6 Some Osavälas of Pügala settled at another place, and they began to be called by the name Pügala. Meâataväla Gotra came into existence after the city of Mertä in the former Jodhpur State. The inscriptions of the 16th century of this Gotra are available at Mertä and Udaipur.7 The Osavälas who came from Kanauj, were grouped under Kanaujiä Gotra. In 1502 A.D., Säkheâha of this Gotra for the merit of his father consecrated the Áïtalanätha bimba through Devagupta Süri.8 Käõkrïa Gotra originated from Bhïmasï who lived in the village Känkarävata.9 He was the Sämanta of Mahäräîä of Udaipur and was converted to Jainism by Jinavallabhasüri of the Kharatara Gachchha. There is a mention of this Gotra in the inscription of 1442 A.D. found at Alwar.10 It is clear that these Gotras started mostly between the 13th and the 15th centuries A.D.

(b) Occupational Gotras : Some Gotras originated from the occupations of certain Jainas. Räûhâa Räva Chüîâä gave his treasury to Ûhäkarasï. It is therefore the descendants of Ûhäkarasï that began to be called Koûhärï. From the inscription of 1456 A.D., it is clear that Megha of this Gotra celebrated Väsapüjya bimba through Vinayaprabhasüri of Nägendra Gachchha.11 Those people, who did the work of cashiers, were called Khajäñchï. The Bhaîâärïs claim  Âaâräo as their great ancestor.12 In 992 A.D., he adopted Jainism from Yaáobhadrasüri of the Saîâeraka Gachchha. Officially, Âaâräo was designed as Bhaîâärï or the person in charge of the store-house; and consequently, his descendants became known as Bhaîâäris. The earliest inscription of this clan at Näâläi of 1132 A.D. refers to Bhaîâäri Nägaáiva as a witness to a certain grant.13 Another inscription of 1184 A.D. refers to one Bhaîâäri Yaáovïra as the lord of Palla (a village six miles to the west of Jodhpur).14 A Jalor inscription of 1185 A.D. records the rebuilding of the Jaina temple by Bhaîâäri Yaáovira, son of Päsu, in accordance with the orders of Mahäräjä Sämanta Siãha.15 The descendants of the person, who deals in ghee, were called Ghïyä. In 1569 A.D., Narabaâa of this Gotra set up the image of Sambhavanätha through Hïravijaya of Tapä Gachchha.16 It is heard that the ancestor of the people of Vaidys Gotra cured the disease of an eye of the queen of Mahäräîä of Udaipur. Therefore, he was given the title of Vaidya, and his descendants became famous by Veda Gotra.17 In 1455 A.D., Bhäâäka of this Gotra installed the image of Vimalanätha through Kukaâächärya of Upakeáa Gachchha.18 The Mahäjani Gotra was probably formed from the profession of Mahäjana. The inscription of 1457 A.D. records that Nälhä of this Gotra consecrated an image of Áäntinätha through Kakkasürï.19 There are also Chanâäliyä and Bambi Gotras found among the Osavälas. Their business was with these sorts of people; and, therefore, they began to call themselves by these names. In 1745 A.D., Ratnapäla of Chanâäliyä Gotra set up  the image of Suvidhinätha for the merit of his father through Puîyanidhänasüri of Maladhäri Gachchha.10

(c) Gotras after Personal Names : The names of the Gotras were also given after certain famous persons. The Ädityanäga Gotra originated from the well known person Ädityanäga who was very famous for liberal charities and solicitude for social welfare.21 Numerous inscriptions of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries on the pedestals of the images of this Gotra are also found in various places such as Jodhpur, Nagaur, Bälotarä etc.22 After addressing Paãvära Räjapüta Läla  Siãha in 1110 A.D., Jinavallabha Süri established the Läläîï Gotra.23 Läla Siãha had seven sons. The eldest son was very strong (Baîûha) and from him originated Baîûhiyä Gotra. In 1444 A.D., Säha Jayavaâa of Lälänï Gotra set up the image of Dharmanätha through Jayakeáari Süri of Añchala Gachchha.24 In 1479 A.D., Säha Hämä of Bäîûhiya Gotra made the celebration of Jinavarendra Paûûikä through Jinachandra Süri.25. It is said that the descendants of Gadäsäha were called Gadahiyä.26 In 1411 A.D., Säha Änä of this Gotra for the merit of his wife Bhïmanï celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Áäntinätha through. Devaguptasüri of Upakeáa Gachchha.27 Lüîiyä Gotra was named after Lüîa Siãha who accepted Jainism from Jinadatta Süri. In 1456 A.D., the image of Pärávanätha was consecrated by Geáaka of this Gotra through Jinabhadrasüri of Kharatara Gachchha.28 In 1148 A.D., Hemachandrasüri of Pürîatala  Gachchha by addressing Paãvära Rajapüta Jagadeva converted him to Jainism.29 Süra and Säõvala were the two sons of Jagadeva. The descendants of Süra were called Suräîä and of Säõvalä were known  as Säõkhalä.30 In 1444 A.D., Sonapäla of Suräîä Gotra installed the image of Sumatinätha through Vijaya Chanda Süri of Dharmaghosha Gachchha.31 The consecration ceremony of the image of Sumatinätha  was performed by Läkhäka of Säõkhalä Gotra through Vijaya Chanda Süri of Dharmaghosha Gachchha in 1438 A.D. 32 Dügaâ and Sügaâa, the two brothers accepted Jainism from Jinachandrasüri.33 The descendants of Dügaâa were called Dügaâa and of Sügaâa by the name Sügaâa. In 1460 A.D., Nägaräja of this Gotra celebrated the consecration of the image of Áreyäãsanätha through Somasundara of Rudrapalli Gachchha.34 The Botharä Gotra was named after Bohitha, the son of the king named Sägara of Delaväâä.35 In 1477 A.D., the installation ceremony of the image of Áreyänáanätha was performed by Thähä of Botharä Gotra through Jina Chanda Süri of Kharatara Gachchha.36 From the person Düdherä, this Gotra became famous as Dudheriyä Gotra.37 On the preaching of Jinaküáala Süri,  Düõgara Siãha, the Chauhäna Räjpüt accepted Jainism. From this name, his descendants were called Âägä.38

(d) Kulas Converted into Gotras : Some Kulas also in course of time were converted into Gotras. The ancient Kaáyapa Kula in course of time was converted into Kaáyapa Gotra. From the inscription of 1458 A.D., it is clear that Chuâä of this Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Neminätha through Ïávarasüri of Saîâeraka Gachchha.39 In the 13th century A.D., Áravaîa, the son of Karîa Siãha, accepted Jainism from Yaáobhadra Süri.40 His descendants also followed Jainism and became known by Sisodiyä Gotra.

(e) Gotras Formed After Actions : Some Gotras have been also formed after certain actions. The Baraâiyä Gotra is said to have originated in about the 11th century A.D. from Näga Vyantara who gave Varadiyä (gave promise) to Näräyaîa.41 Baraâiyä is the Apabhraãáa of Varadiyä. In 1527 A.D., the image of Áäntinätha was consecrated by Säha Ûoâara of this Gotra.42 Päsu was an expert in examining jewels. His descendants were, therefore, known by Pärakha or Parïkshä.43 In 1461 A.D. Surapati of this Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Suvidhinätha through Jina Chandra of Kharatara Gachcha.44 In 1120 A.D., Jinadatta Süri after addressing Jobana and Sachchu established Bähuphaîä Gotra.45 His descendants did not move from the battlefield and therefore they were called Nähaûä. It may also be suggested that Bähuphaîä Gotra was named after the well-known person named Bappanäga.46 It is known  from the inscriptions of 1329 A.D. that Mokhaûa of this Gotra for the merit of his parents set up the image of Sumatinätha through Kakka Süri41. In 1439 A.D., Mäjaîa of Nähaûä Gotra constructed devakulikä of Vimalanätha temple at Karahaâa through Mañjanasägara Süri.48 The Sultan of Mändalgarh being impressed by the virtues of Jhäñjhana Siãha, allowed him to keep the Kaûära (knife) in the royal court. His descendants, therefore, became famous by Kaûäriyä Gotra.49 By the influence of the discourses of Bhuvana Sundara, Saõghavï Tukade, Päsade, Punasï and Mülä of Kaûäriyä Gotra constructed a devakulikä in Jiräpallï temple in 1426 A.D.50 The people, who went on pilgrimage, were given the title of Saõghavï. A person named Käkü was given the title of Nagara Seûha. His descendants therefore began to be called Seûhiyä.51 In 1095 A.D., Jinavallabhasüri came to Mandor which was ruled by the king named Nänuâe Paâihära. His son was Kukaâadeva who was suffering from leprosy. The king requested him to cure him. He asked the king to bring ghee of some cow and got it rubbed over the body of the prince. After the treatment of three days, he became all right. The king with his family accepted Jainism and Sürijï established his Kukaiâächopaâä Gotra.52 The minister of the Paâihära king named Gaîadhara also accepted Jainism and Süriji established Gaîadhara Chopaâä Gotra. There is the mention of the Kukaâä Chopaâä Gotra in the inscription of 1479 A.D.53 The inscription of 1436 A.D. records that Päsaâa of Gaîadhara Chopaâä Gotra set up an image of Supärávanätha through Jinabhadrasüri.54 Kharata Siãha Räûhoâa at the preaching of Jinadattasüri accepted Jainism. His elder son, Ambadeva faced the thieves (chora se bhiâiyä) and caught them. The name in course of time became Choraâiyä.55

It is known from the inscriptions of the images that some Gotras were specially connected with some Gachchhas. The people of these Gotras celebrated the consecration ceremony of the images through the Acaryas of their respective Gachchhas. The people of Ädityanäga Gotra  performed the consecration ceremony of the various images but all through the Ächäryas of Upakeáa Gacchha. Similarly, the persons belonging to Gadahiyä Gotra, Bäphaîä Gotra and Räîakä Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony through the Ächäryas of Upakeáa Gachchha. The people of Gaîadhara Chopaâä Gotra, Âägä Gotra, Dosï Gotra and Lüîiyä Gotra generally performed the installation ceremony of the images through the Acaryas of Kharatara Gachchha. The people of Ghäõghä Gotra and Chaîâäliyä Gotra set up the images mostly through the Ächäryas of Maladhäri Gachchha. Chhäjahaâa Gotra is specially related to Palliväla Gachchha because its persons installed the images generally through the Acaryas of this Gachchha. The persons of Sisodiyä  Gotra are seen installing the images through the Acaryas of Shaîâeraka Gachchha. The persons belonging to Dügaâa Gotra and Mïthaâiya Gotra are seen setting up the images respectively through the Ächäryas of Bôihad Gachchha and Añchala Gachchha. Sometimes, the persons of the Gotra installed the images through the Acaryas of two Gachchhas. This is specially seen in the case of Säõkhavälechä Gotra. They installed the images through the Acarya of Koraîûaka Gachchha and Kharatara Gachchha. It is also noticed though rarely that the persons of one particular Gotra set up images through the Acaryas of more than one Gachchha.

Árïmälïs : Árïmälïs among Jainas originated from Árïmäla now known as Bhimal in Marwar. In course of time, they multiplied and  spread specially in Jodhpur, Udaipur and Sirohi. They occupied the influential position in the society. Their origin may be traced back to the 8th century A.D. There is a stanza in the praáasti56 of Kälakächärya Kathä of 1308 A.D.  which tells that Árävaka Dïâä of Árïmäla caste after listening to the religious discourses from Áänti Süri constructed the Chaitya of Ädinätha in 647 A.D. at Navahara. The oldest genealogy of the Árïmäla Caste says that a merchant Toâä of Bhäradväja Gotra and of Árïmala Caste was addressed by a Jaina Saint in 738 A.D.57 From both these instances, it is clear that Jainism was popular and prevalent in Árïmäla in the eighth century A.D. The king named Vijayanta of Árïmäla accepted Jainism from Udaiprabha Süri. Along with him, sixty-two seûhas, followers of Brähmanism, also accepted Jainism.58 All were called Árïmälïs. From the Pañchapaûaräsa written by the poet Udayaratna concerning the history of the Acaryas of Dvivandanika, the branch of Upakeáa Gachachha, it is known that in 700 Áaka era, Ratnaprabha Süri came to this town where he established the Srïmäla caste.59 From all these instances, it is clear that Árïmälïs among the Jainas came into existence in the seventh or eighth century A.D.

In course of time, Árïmälïs were divided into two classes namely Laghu Áäkhä and Bôihad Áäkhä. The inscription of 1488 A.D. indicates that Sahasakaraîa of Laghu Áäkhä of the Srïmäla Caste for the merit of his mother celebrated the consecration of the image of Ädinätha through Siddhänta Sägara of Añchala Gachchha.60 There is als an inscription of 1944 A.D. of Bôiddha Áäkhä of Árïmäla caste.61 Besides, there are various Gotras found among the Árïmälïs as known to us from the inscriptions. These are based on occupations, place names and other grounds.

Gotras of Árïmälis : The Gotras of Árïmälïs originated in various ways. Ambikä Gotra seems to have originated from the deity Ambikä. In 1477 A.D., Áreshûhi Chändrasäva of this Gotra for the merit of ancestors performed the installation ceremony of the image of Áäntinätha through Lakshmïsägara Áüri.62 Ailahara Gotra is mentioned in the inscription of 1442 A.D.63 There are also the inscriptions of Govaliyä Gotra64 and Ghevariyä Gotra.65 The inscription of 1452 A.D. records that Jävaâa of Gändhika Gotra set up the image of Dharmanätha.66 In 1476 A.D., the consecration of the image of Áäntinätha was celebrated by Päsaâa of Gautama Gotra.67 Here, this Gotra seems to have originated from the Kula founded by some saint  named Gautama. Chaîâälechä68 Gotra and Âauâä Gotra are also found in the inscriptions.69 Dosï Gotra,70 Naluriyä Gotra, Junïväla Gotra, Jhungatiyä Gotra, Nävara Gotra,71 Bhäîâiyä72 Gotra, Mauûhiyä73 Gotra, Mänthalapurä Gotra,74 Vahagatä Gotra,75 Áreshûhï Gotra,76 Sïõghaâa Gotra,77 Phophaliya Gotra,78 Bhäîâavata Gotra,79 Müsala Gotra80 and Siddha Gotra81 are found in the inscriptions of the 15th century A.D. Dhïnä Gotra,82 Päûäîï Gotra83 and Muhavaîä Gotra84 are seen in the inscriptions belonging to the 16th century A.D.

Poravälas : It is saud that Poravälas originated simultaneously with Árïmälïs from Árïmäla in the eighth century A.D. The people of the eastern gate of Árïmäla, who accepted Jainism from the Jaina saints in the eighth century A.D., were called Poravälas.85 The origin of the Poravälas from Árïmäla does not seem to be correct. In old inscriptions and manuscripts, Prägväûa has been used for the Poraväla.86 Prägväûa was another name of Mewar (Medapäûa). It seems that the people of Prägväûa country in course of time began to be called Prägväûas or Poravälas. The Poravälas tell their origin from the village Pura in Mewar. Like Árïmälïs, Porvälas were also divided into Laghu Áäkhä and Bôihad Áäkhä. We have the inscription of Laghu Áäkhä of Poraväla caste of 1653 A.D.87 The image of Sumatinätha was set up in 1534 A.D. by Mantri Vïsaka of Bôiddha Áäkhä of Prägväûa Caste.88

The Gotras89 of the Poraväla Caste as known from the inscriptions and manuscripts are as follows90 — Jhülara, Muîûhaliyä, Lïmbä, Maîâaliyä, Kunagirä, Paûela, Narvaûa, Loläniya, Posaä, Kothärï, Bhaîâärï, Ambäi, Koâakï and Näga. In 1546 A.D., the brothers Tejapäla, Räjapäla, Ratanasï and Rämadäsa of Koûêäri Gotra of Prägväûa Caste constructed the temple of Mahävïra, at the village named Pinâaväâä in Sirohi State.91 Áänti of Bhaîâäri Gotra installed the image of Munisuvratanätha in 1447 A.D.92 In 1571 A.D.,  Vyaavahäri Khïmä of Ambä Gotra set up the image of Dharmanätha.93 In 1586 A.D., Müla of Koâakï Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Ädinätha through Vijayasena Süri of Tapä Gachchha.94

Pallïväla Caste : Pallïvälas both among the Digambaras and Ávetämbaras, seem to have been named after Pälï in Marwar the name of which in olden times was Pallikä. It is said that the people of this place were converted to Jainism in about the eigth century A.D. by Ratnaprabhasüri who converted the people of Osiä and Árïmäla. Pallïvälas are known to have celebrated the consecration ceremony of images from time to time. In 1253 A.D., Dedä of this caste installed an image of Mallinätha through Yaáobhadra of Chandra Gachchha.95 People of this caste also led Saãghas to holy places from time to time from Pälï.96

Khaîâelaväla Caste : There is no doubt that the Caste of Khaîâelavälas originated from the place named Khaîâelä. But there is some difficulty in assigning the time to this incident. According to the legendary account, Jinasenächärya in the line of  the saint Aparäjita, converted the Chauhän king of Khaîâelä with his subjects to Jainism in V.S.I.97 Eighty-two Rajbuts and two goldsmiths were ruling over eighty-four villages of the kingdom of Khaîâelä. The eightyfour Gotras were formed either after the name of the villages or the heads of villages. The Gotras of the two goldsmiths became Ämnäya Baja and Mohanäya Baja. The time assigned to this incident is not correct.  There are no solid grounds for the existence of this caste before the eighth century A.D. The earliest mention of this caste is found in the inscription of 1197 A.D.98

The origin of the eightyfour Gotras, from the eightyfour villages at one particular time, does not seem to be correct. The number eightyfour seems to be only conventional. There are eightyfour castes, eightyfour postures (äsanas) etc. Originally, these Gotras may be less in number, but gradually they increased. Some Gotras not even in existence at the beginning were added in order to make them eightyfour in number. These Gotras seem to be based on the place names, occupations and surnames etc.

Regional Gotras : The Gotras also seem to be regional in nature. Ajmerä Gotra was probably named after Ajmer. Sunakhatï, the wife of Säha Surajana of Ajmer of this Gotra, got the Pradyumnacharitra written and gave to the nun Vinayaárï in 1538 A.D. There is also the mention of this Gotra in the inscription of 1594 A.D. Päûodï Gotra seems to have originated from the village Päûodä in Áekhävat. It is found in the Praáasti of 1764 A.D.100 Dosï Gotra seems to have originated from the place named Dausä in Jaipur State. Bohitha of this Gotra of Ajmer set up the image of Chaubïsï in 1601 A.D. The Gotra Käsalïväla seems to have come into existence from the village Käsalï near Sïkara in Jaipur State. It is mentioned in the Praáasti of the copy of the manuscripts written in 1524 A.D.101 Päûanï Gotra started from the village named Päûana, near Khaîâelä. Pätamäde, the wife of Paharäja of this Gotra of Nagaur, presented a copy of the Ädipuräîa to Dharmachanda in 1520 A.D.102 There is also a mention of this Gotra in the inscription of 1594 A.D.103 Toõgyä Gotra may have originated from Tonk. It is mentioned in the praáati of 1522 A.D.3 Kälä Gotra seems to have been named from Kälädevä near Chomu in Jaipur State. Roho of this Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of an image of 1516 A.D.105 It is also found in the praáasti of 1607 A.D.106

Occupational Gotras : The Gotras were also formed after the occupations. Veda Gotras started from the person who followed the profession of medicines. His descendants in course of time began to be called by this name. In 1584 A.D., Mokä with his wife and sons of this Gotra installed the Samyagdaráana Yantra.107 From the legendary account, it is clear that the ancestor of Baja Gotra was a goldsmith at the time of his conversion to Jainism. In 1646 A.D., Häthïnätha of this Gotra performed the pratiÿûhä of Daáalakshîa Yantra.108 The name of this Gotra is also found in the praáasti of 1688 A.D. The Sonï Gotra also indicates the profession of the people. The earliest mention of it is known from the inscription of 1584 A.D. in which Säha Telä of this Gotra installed Karakuîâapärávanätha Yantra.109 It is also mentioned in the praáasti of 1688 A.D.110 Boharä Gotra seems to have originated from the persons who lend money. Ratanä of this Gotra with his sons celebrated the consecration ceremony of the yantra in 1484 A.D.111

Titles and Surnames : Titles and surnames also seem to have developed into the Gotras. Áaha Gotra seems to have originated from the term Säha used for respect and veneration for the person. Sähatu of this Gotra with his wife and sons installed the Arham Yantra in 1539 A.D.112 The name of this Gotra is also found in the praáasti of 1518 A.D.113 The title of Chaudharï was given by the Government to those who did the work of revenue collection. In course of time, it was developed into the Gotra. Säha Mahäräjä of this Gotra got the copy of the Pärávanäthacharitra written and gave it to Dharmachandra in 1554 A.D.114 Chhäbaâä Gotra seems to have come into existence from Säha plus Baâä (Säha plus great). First, it was Säbaâä but in course of time, it became Chhäbaâä. Säha Notä of Säbaâä Gotra got the copy of the Nägakumäracharitra written and presented it to Lalitakïrti.115 There is also a mention  of this Gotra in the inscription of 1591 A.D.116 Bhainsä Gotra was probably formed from the terms Bhaï plus Säha. It is found in the praáasti of 1694 A.D.117 When the people of this Gotra became large in number, they were known as Baâajätyä (Big caste). At present, Bhainsä Gotra and Baâajätyä Gotra are considered to be identical Gotra. Seûhï Gotra probably originated from Áreshûhi which meant rich merchant. This term is frequently found in ancient Buddhist and Jaina literature. This Gotra is mentioned in the praáasti of 1575 A.D.118

Besides, there are other Gotras which are known from the inscriptions and praáastis. The earliest mention of Godhä Gotra is found in the inscription of 1413 A.D. It records that Vïlhaîa of this Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of the images.119 The other Gotras are Ûholyä Gotra120, Pahäâyä Gotra,121 Bilälä Gotra,122 Gaîgaväla Gotra,123 Godikä Gotra,124 Päîdyä Gotra,125 Räõvakä Gotra,126 and Sogänï Gotra.127 There is also a mention of Kurakurä128 Gotra in the inscription of 1584 A.D. which records that Kälu with his sons and grandsons of this Gotra performed the installation ceremony of Ôinkära Yantra. This Gotra is not found in the list of eightyfour Gotras of Khaîâelaväla caste. It is known both from the praáastis and inscriptions that the people of this caste were generally associated with the Ächäryas of Müla Saãgha and rarely with the Ächäryas of the other Saãghas. It indicates that the centre of the activities of Müla Saãgha remained in Rajasthan.

Bagheraväla Caste : Bagheraväla caste originated in about eighth century A.D. from Bagherä, a place of great antiquity. Old Jaina temples and images were discovered and its name is also found in the Bijaulia Rock Inscription dated 1170 A.D.129 This place was aslo the seat of the Bhaûûärakas in the twelfth century A.D.130 There is a belief that Rämasena and Nemasena, the Digambara Jaina saints, converted the king of this town with his subjects to Jainism.131 If not all, majority of the citizens of the town must have embraced Jainism from their hands. Pt. Äáädhara, who went to Dhäränagarï from Mändalagaâha  for  fear of the invasion of Muhammad Ghori in the 12th century, was of Bagheraväla caste.132 Püna Siãha, who repaired the famous Kïrtistambha at Chitor in the 15th century A.D. during the reign of Kumbhakaraîa, was of this caste.133 The Gotras of this caste as known both from the inscriptions and praáastis are as follows – (1) Räyabhaîâäri134, (2) Áänkhaväla,135 (3) Áänäpati136 (4) Ûholä,137 (5) Koûvä,138 (6) Prabhä139 and (7) Siraväâyä.140

Agraväla Caste : The Agravälas are found in large numbers in Rajasthan. They occupy a respectable position in the society. They are highly educated and much advanced. They are found both among the Jainas and the Hindus. They are also an important middle class of business men. They enthusiastically supported Jainism in the past. They performed the installation ceremony of numerous images and got copies of the manuscripts written. According to the traditions, Agraväla caste originated from the place named Agrohä in the Punjab and was founded by Agrasena. Once he performed a sacrifice but stopped it when he saw the animals in a miserable condition. Probably, he was influenced by the doctrine of ahiãsä. It is not clear whether he accepted Jainism or not; but from the paûûävalis,141 it is known that  Lohityächärya converted the Agravälas with their king Diväkara to Jainism. Later on, Agravälas began to follow Jainism. Accoring to Nägendranätha Vasu, this Agrasena is the same Ugrasena mentioned in the Allahabada inscription of Samudra Gupta.142 Lohityächärya was the master of Devarddhi Gaîi who arranged the Vächanä in 453 A.D. at Valabhi. The time of Lohityächärya may be thirty years before Devarddhi. He thus converted the Agravälas along with their king to Jainism in 423 A.D. But this view does not seem to be tenable. First of all, this Ugrasena was the ruler of Northern India while Ugrasena Devaräshûraka mentioned in the Allahabad inscription was ruling in the south. Lastly, we have no definite evidence for the existence of this caste before the 8th century A.D. Its Gotras as known both from the inscriptions and the praáastis are as follows — Goyala,143 Garga144 Siõghala145 and Baõsala146 etc. The Agravälas seem to have been mostly associated with the Käshûhä Saãgha and rarely with Müla Saãgha.

Chiûûoâä and Nägadä Castes : Chittoâä and Nägadä castes among the Digambaras originated from the old places Chitor and Nägadä respectively in Mewar. These castes seem to have come into existence in medieval times. People of these castes were religious minded and got several copies of manuscripts written in medieval times in order to present them to Jaina monks. They constructed temples and placed images in them with great ceremony. They were generally concerned with the Bhaûûärakas of the Müla Saãgha of Vägaâa and Käshûhä Saãgha. Bhaûûäraka Jñänabhüshaîa, who lived in the fifteenth century A.D., wrote the Nägadräräsa describing the history of the Nägada caste among the Jainas.147

Humbaâa Caste : The place of the origin of Humbada caste is not traceable. Most probably, like other castes, it must have originated from some particular place. In Rajasthan, the people of this caste are found in Dungarapur, Banswara and Pratapagarh, the portion of ancient Vägaâa province. They are found both among the Digambaras  and the Ávetämbaras. In the Digambaras, they remained in close touch mostly witht the Bhaûûärakas of the Käshûhä Saãgha and rarely with the Ächäryas of Müla Saãgh of Vägada. This caste also like other castes seems to have come into existence after the 8th century A.D. The persons of this caste also performed the installation ceremony of numerous images and temples. The famous Jaina temple at Jhälräpätan is said to have been constructed by Säha Pipä of this caste.148

Hümbaâa caste in course of time was divided into Áäkhäs and Gotras. The three Áäkhäs of this caste known to us are namely Laghu Áäkhä, Bôihat Áäkhä and Varshävata Áäkhä. Varshävata Áäkhä most probably originated from Varshäáäha who was the minister of Mahä Rävala Harisiãha.149 On the orders of Mahärävala, he invited one thousand families of this caste to Känthala from Sägaväâä. He also started the work of the construction of the Digambara Jaina temple at Devalia but its installation ceremony was performed in 1717 A.D. after his death by his sons Vardhamäna and Dayäla. There are eighteen Gotras of this caste :150 (1) Kheraju, (2) Kamaleávara, (3) Käkadeávara, (4) Uttareávara, (5) Mantreávara, (6) Bhimeávara, (7) Bhadreávara, (8) Gaõgeávara. (9) Viáveávara, (10) Sänkheávara, (11) Ambeávara, (12) Chäñchaneávara, (13) Someávara, (14) Rajiyäno, (15) Laliteávara, (16) Käsaveávara, (17) Budheávara, (18) Sangheávara.

Dharkaûa Vaãáa : The people of Dharkaûa caste are found both among the Digambaras and the Ávetämbaras. The author of Dhammaparikkhä named Harisheîa of this caste lived in the 10th century A.D.151 There is a mention of this caste in the inscription of 1230 A.D. at Delaväâä.152 In the two inscriptions of Äbü also, these people have been described.153 In the beginning, this caste seems to have originated in Rajasthan but now its people are found in the south. From the expression, Siriujapuriya Ûhakkaâakula of Harisheîa, Pt. NATHU RAMA PREMI holds that it originated probably from Siroja in Tonk State.154 Mr. Agar Chanda Nähaûä observes that it originated from Dhakaâagaâha from which also originated the Dhakaâa branch of the Maheávari Caste.155 On the evidence of the two praáastis,156 he tries to locate this place near Árïmäla.

  1. Mantrïdalïya (Matiyaîa) :Maîidhärï Árï Jinachandrasüri, who was born in V.S. 1197 at Vikaramapura near Jaisalmer, became the Head of the Kharataragachchha in V.S. 1211. He was a great scholar and an influential teacher. He established the Mantridalïya (Mahatiyaîa) caste.157This caste became popular from the 14th to the 17th century A.D., but afterwards disappeared gradually. People  of this caste were not only wealthy but some of them were high officials. They led pilgrimage to holy places. They were so much adventurous that they even migrated to Uttara Pradesh and Bihar, and settled over there. Gradually, this caste was divided into many gotras.

People of this caste performed installation ceremony of images from time to time. The Mantrïdalïya caste is engraved in the three image inscriptions.158 Käîä, Chopaâä, Jäûaâa Muîdatoâa and Moûa were the populer gotras of this caste. Other gotras known are Kädraâä,  Ghevaria, Dänhaâä, Dullaha, Nänhaâä, Bhädiya, Mahatä, Rohadiyä, Väyadä, Värttidïpä, Sayátä and Mota.159

Most of the Jaina castes both among the Ávetämbaras and Digambaras, originated in Rajasthan during the medieval period. Gradually, they migrated to the neighbouring regions and settled there. Even in the neighbouring regions of Rajasthan, a few new castes were founded by Jaina saints. It seems that some Jaina saints converted the tribal people of these regions to Jainism and established their castes. The Muslim rule in Northern India during this period is directly or indirectly responsible for founding these castes. Jaina castes of South India of this period are generally professional in nature. These castes were gradually divided into several gotras.

Gujarat : The name Árïmodha caste is derived from the ancient town Modhera, South of Anahilaväâ in Gujarat. The famous Hemachandra Süri was also born in this caste. The inscriptions of the people of this caste can be traced from the twelfth century A.D.

Bhaûûäraka Rämasena of Nandilaûa gachchha founded the Narasiãhapura caste after the name of the city Narasimhapura. He also got constructed the Jaina temple of Áäntinätha in this city. Bhïma of Narasiãha caste performed the installation ceremony of images through Bhaûûäraka Somakïriti of the Käshûhä — Samgha in V.S. 1547.160 Nemisena, disciple of Bhaûûäraka Rämasena, was the devotee of Padmävatï, and founded the Bhaûûapüra caste. Both Narasiãhapura and Bhaûûapurä were the Digambara castes. Bhaûûäraka Devendrakïrti, disciple of Padmanandi, established the seat of the Mülasaãgha at Surat in the early half of the 14th century, and he established the Ratnäkara caste after converting seven hundred families to Jainism.

From the inscriptions161 of the 15th and 16th centuries found at Palitänä, Áatruñjaya and other sites, it is known that Osavälas, Árïmälïs, Prägväûas, Dharkaûas and Humbaâas performed installation ceremony of images. It seems that some people of these castes migrated from Rajasthan and settled in Gujarat. Árïvaãáa caste is mentioned in the Jaina inscriptions162 of V.S. 1551 and V.S. 1526.

Madhya Pradesh : Some of the Jaina castes are found mentioned in the inscriptions of the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. Chillaîa, who installed two Jaina images during the reign of Naravasman in V.S. 1157 at Bhojapura, belonged to the Vemaka family.163  The inscription of V.S. 1206 on Jaina statues at Gudar, contains the name of the Vabakañchuka race.164 Besides, there are some other castes of the Vaiáyas, known from inscriptions and some of them originally came from outside. The Khaîâelaväla caste has been mentioned in the inscriptions of V.S. 1191165, V.S. 1216166, V.S. 1305.167 The Poraväla Árävakas168 are known to have performed the installation ceremony of Vardhanäpura, now known as Badnawar in V.S. 1308. The Bagheraväla Árävakas169 were also associated with this installation ceremony of images. These Khaîâelaväla, Bagheraväla and Poraväla castes originated in Rajasthan in about the eighth century A.D. from Khaîâelä, Bagherä and Prägväta respectively, but in course of time, some members of these castes migrated even to Malwa. The Varkaûa caste has been mentioned in the inscriptions of V.S. 1231.170

Nïmä caste among the Ávetämbaras originated from the Nimäâ region of Malwa. It has been mentioned in three Jaina inscriptions dated V.S 1506, V.S. 1532 and V.S. 1531 respectively.171 Numerous Jaina image inscriptions of the 15th and  16th centuries mention  Prägväûa, Osaväla and Árimälï.172 It seems that these people of these castes migrated to Malwa from Rajasthan. Gurjara caste has been mentioned in inscription dated V.S. 1512, Sohitaväla in V.S. 1573, Mantrïdalïya in V.S. 1519, Árïvaãáa in V.S. 1515, Sonïin V.S. 1573 and Modha in V.S. 1656.173

Among the Digambara castes, people of Khaîâelaväla, Bagheraväla and Humbaâa castes were large in number as known from the Jaina image inscriptions of the 15th and 16th centuries.174 They also migrated from Rajasthan and settled in Malwa. From the Rämapurä inscriptions6 dated V.S. 1664 (1667 A.D.), it is known that Podärtha, Finance Minister of the Chandrävata ruler Durgabhänu, was of the Bagheraväla caste. Poraväla caste has been mentioned in the inscriptions. Nägara caste has been mentioned in the inscription dated V.S. 1220, Jaisaväla in V.S. 1319, Narasiãhapura in V.S. 1529, Nägada or Nägadraha in V.S. 1489 and Chitraküûa in V.S. 1252.176

New castes and sub-castes among the Digambaras came into existence in the Jejjäka bhukti region (Bundelakahand) of Madhya Pradesh. The Gôihapatis mentioned in the inscriptions belonged to the Vaiáhya caste. Some of the Gôihapatis followed Brahmanical religions while others were Jainas. From the Khajuraho inscriptions177 dated 1000-1001 A.D. it is known that the ancestors of Gôihapati Kokalla originally lived in Padmävatï (Pawaya, near Gwalior), but he came and settled in Khajuraho. He built the wonderful town and also the Vaidyanätha temple. Pähila, who constructed the Jaina temple of Pärávanätha and made a number of gifts and endowments, belonged to Gôihapati family.178 The successors of Pähila are known to have installed Jaina images. Pähila and some of his successors held the ministerial posts. Devapäla of this caste built the Jaina temple at Bäîapur while his grandson at Madaneáa Sägarapura. These Gôihapatis were known as Áreshthïs.

The other Jaina castes known were Goläpürva, Goläläre, Paravära, Paurapaûûa etc.179 Säha Gale and Tüdä belonged to Goläpürva caste. Päâäáäha of the Gahot caste hailed from Thübona and became very rich by business. He is known to have constructed several Jaina temples and installed images in them The gotras180 of these castes were Kochchala, Väsalla, Bhäralla, Gohilla, Käsilla, Vajhalla, Vächhala etc.

The Jaina inscriptions found in the region of Gopagiri give us some idea about the Jaina castes. From the Dabkund stone inscription181 dated 1088 A.D., it is known that the two traders Ôishi and Däheâa, on whom Vikramasiãha had conferred the rank of Áreshûhins, built the Jaina temple at Chaâoha, the ancient name of Dubhakunda. Further, this inscription informs that their grandfather Áreshûhin Jasuka is described as the head of a guild of merchants, which had come from a twon Jayasapura. Jaisaväla caste seems to have originated from Jayasapura but its identification is not known.

The Jaina castes known from the inscriptions were Paravära, Golälära, Goläpürva and Paurapata while their gotras were Kochhala, Väsala, Bhäralla, Goilla, Gohila, Käsilla, Vächhala, Veriyä, Käsiya, Väjhhala, Pedela and Ávanabïhära.182 The Narwar inscription dated 1284 A.D. (V.S. 1341 A.D.) of the time of Vajvapäla ruler Mahäräja Gopäla mentions a trader named Räma of Bansavala gotra hailing from the village Sevayika.183

Täraîasvämï observed no distinction among different sects, and there was no difference between the upper and lower castes. His followers were divided into twelve castes (1) Charaîägara, (2) Äyudhyä, (3) Asäûï,  (4) Goläläre (5) Rüiramana, (6) Karaîägara, (7) Samaiyä, (8) Näyaka, (9) Niyamï, (10) Kämadamana, (11) Rajatasodhiyä, and (12 Paramära Kÿatrï. There was no fanaticism among the followers of these castes. Mutual marriages, interdining were permitted among the followers of these castes.184

Uttara Pradesh : It seems that some of the Digambara Jaina castes such as Lambakäñchuka, Budhela, Goläsäränvaya and Golasiãgära originated in Uttara Pradesh. Lambakäñchuka is found in the image inscriptions dated VS.S. 1412, V.S. 1509, V.S. 1525, V.S.1413, V.S. 1734, V.S. 1760, 1520, V.S. 1760, V.S. 1534, V.S. 1722, and V.S. 1471 found at Mainapuri.185

Buâhela Jñati has been mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1791, 1772 and 1766. Originally Buâhela was merely a gotra of Maãbhechü or Lambakañchuka caste but it became a separate caste between V.S. 1590 and V.S. 1670 because of some social dispute. Goläsäränvaye caste is found in the image inscriptions V.S. 1525, V.S. 1686, V.S. 1474, V.S. 1511 and V.S. 1515 and Golasiãgärä-räõgä gotra in V.S. 1688.

Khaîdelaväla caste has been mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1783, V.S. 1520, V.S. 1675, V.S. 1822, and V.S. 1436 while Agraväla in V.S. 1234, V.S. 1537. V.S. 1529, V.S. 1545, 1549 and V.S. 1642. Jaisaväla caste is known from the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1628, V.S. 1601, V.S. 1531, V.S. 1537 and V.S. 1437. Krakeáa Jñäti-Barahaâä gotra has been mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1551, Dhäkau (Dharakaâa) in V.S. 15, Nagara Kotela in V.S. 1411, Pule caste – Khemija gotra in V.S. 1688, Mahima caste in V.S. 1588 and Rähata caste in 10.

It seems that Krakeáa Jäti and Kakasïna Jäti were one and the same. Kharauä gotra became separate from Golänära and became independent caste. Nagara Kotera Gotra or caste became famous after the village Nagara Kota in Punjab. At one time, it was a holy place of the Hindus and the Jainas. Mähima Vaãáa is known as Mahiyä caste. Varahiyä kula was converted into Varaiyä caste.186

The Ávetämbara castes such as Osaväla, Árïmäti and Prägväûa have been mentioned in the inscriptions of the 15th and 16th centuries. A few Jaina image inscriptions prove that Árävakas of Mahatiyäîa (Mantrïdaïya) settled at Jaunapura. These inscriptions187 prove that people of these castes migrated from Rajasthan and settled in Uttara Pradesh.

Maharashtra : The metal Jaina image inscriptions from the 14th to 16th centuries found at Bombay, Nagpur, Amaravati, Chandaväâa and Manamäâa near Nasik, Nasik, Balapura, Karanja, Chalisaganva, Bhadravati and Sirpura prove that the Árävakas of Osaväla, Prägväta, Árïmälï and Palliväla castes migrated from Rajasthan to Maharashtra and settled there.188 Árï Väyaâa caste has been mentioned in the metal image inscriptions189 of V.S. 1488 and Moâha caste in V.S. 1616.190 The Mahatïyaîa (Mantrïdalïya) caste been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1516 of the three Jaina images.191

Bihar : The Árävakas of Mantrïdalïya caste migrated to Bihar from Rajasthan and settled at different places. There is a Mahitiyäna Muhallä named after the caste Mahitiyäîa in Patna. They got constructed Jaina temples and Dharmaáäläs.192 The name of this caste is mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1504, V.S. 1519, V.S. 1524, V.S. 1606 and V.S. 1686.193

The Árävakas of this caste got Jaina temple built at Vaibhäragiri and Vipulagiri at Räjagôiha. The Árävakas of the Ávetämbara castes namely Osaväla, Prägväta and Árïmälï migrated to Bihar from Rajasthan as known from the Jaina image inscriptions of the 15th and 16th centuries. The Jaisaväla caste194 of the Digambaras has been  mentioned in the Jaina image inscription dated V.S. 1638 while that of Bagheraväla caste in the inscription195 dated V.S. 1694.

South India :  The Vïra Baîajigas of the South followed Jainism. Some agricultural sections of the South were devoted to Jainism. In the inscriptions of South India, the names of the castes are not found mentioned. In some inscriptions, their designations and professions are found mentioned. Gävuîâa or Gäãuîâa196 was the designation of village headman. It is also known that Goâä or Gauâä Kammaûakära197 was the name of the mint official. Pergaâe or Heggaâe was the name of the city official.198 Sämanta199Mahäprabhu200Daîâanäyaka201Mahävaõgavyavahari202 and Mahäpradhäna203 are the title names of the Jainas.

It is noticed that these castes were associated with the particular Saãghasgaîas and gachchhas — The Humbaâa caste was related with the Surat branch of Balätkära gaîa, the Lamechü caste with the Aûera branch, the Paravära caste with the Jerahaûa branch and the Khaîâelaväla caste with the Delhi-Jaipur branch. The Agraväla caste was connected with the Mäthura gachchha of the Käshûhä Saãgha, the Hümaâa caste with the Nandïtaûa gachchha and the Bagheraväla caste with the Läâavägaâa gachchha.


  1.       Jaina Sampradäya Áikshä, p. 656.
  2.       Jaina Bhäratï, Vol. XI, No. 11.
  3.       NJI. III, p. 28.
  4.       Ibid., No. 2328.
  5.       APJLS., No. 611.
  6.       NJI., No. 2325.
  7.       NJI., Nos. 1131 and 1295.
  8.       NJI., No. 1101.
  9.       HOO., p. 353.
  10.       NJI., No. 988.
  11.       NJI., Nos. 2084 & Jaina Sampradäya Áïkshä, p. 625.
  12.       Some distinguished Jainas, p. 36.
  13.       Ibid., p. 37.
  14.       Ibid.
  15.       Ibid.
  16.       NJI., III, No. 5372.
  17.       HOO., p. 166.
  18.       NJI., I, 2334.
  19.       Ibid., 2577.
  20.       Ibid., II, 1285.
  21.       Bhagavän Pärávanätha kï Paramparä Kä Itihäsa, p. 1109.
  22.       NJI., Pt. I & II.
  23.       Jaina Sampradäya Áikshä, p. 626.
  24.       NJI., No. 2317.
  25.       Ibid., No. 2404.
  26.       Jaina Sampradäya Áikshä, p. 628, Gaddä Áaha was the brother of famous Bhainsä Áäha.
  27.       NJI., No. 1062.
  28.       Jaina Sampradäya Áikshä Áäha pp. 635-637.
  29.       NJI., No. 2186.
  30.       Jaina Sampradäya Áikshä, p. 637.
  31.       NJI., No. 1079.
  32.       NJI., No. 1877.
  33.       Jaina Sampradäya Áikshä, p. 638.
  34.       NJI., No. 1267.
  35.       Jaina Sampradäya Áiksha, pp. 639, 640 and 641.
  36.       NJI., No. 1317.
  37.       HOO., p. 312.
  38.       Ibid., No. 542.
  39.       NJI., 1991.
  40.       HOO., p. 393.
  41.       Jaina Sampradäya Áikshä, p. 622.
  42.       NJI., No. 1192.
  43.       Jaina Sampradäya Áikshä, p. 628.
  44.       NJI., No. 2189.
  45.       Jaina Sampradäya Sikshä, p. 631.
  46.       Bhagavän Pärávanätha Kï Paramparä Kä Itihäsa, p. 1109.
  47.       NJI., No. 2253.
  48.       NJI., No. 1957.
  49.       Jaina Sampradäya Áikshä, p. 634.
  50.       APJLS., No. 113.
  51.       Jaina Sampradäya Áikshä, p. 634.
  52.       HOO., p. 427.
  53.       NJI., No. 2136.
  54.       NJI., No. 2114.
  55.       HOO., p. 509.
  56.       Jaina Pustaka Praáasti Saãgraha, No. 35.
  57.       Jaina Sähitya Saãáodhaka Evam Jainächärya Ätmäräma Áatäbdï Smäraka Grantha, Gujaräti Vibhäga, P. 204.
  58.       Srï Jaina Gotra Saõgraha, pp. 13-23.
  59.       Prägväûa Itihäsa — Introduction, p. 12.
  60.       NJI., No. 1166.
  61.       Ibid., No. 295.
  62.       EJI., No. 1163.
  63.       NJI., No. 1676
  64.       Ibid., No. 412.
  65.       Ibid., No. 413.
  66.       Ibid., No. 2329.
  67.       Ibid., No. 2464.
  68.       Ibid., No. 830.
  69.       Ibid., No. 38.
  70.       Ibid., No. 391.
  71.       Ibid., No. 1993.
  72.       Ibid., No. 1974.
  73.       Ibid., No. 1956.
  74.       Ibid., No. 1967.
  75.       Ibid., No. 1932.
  76.       Ibid., No. 2085.
  77.       Ibid., No. 1224 & 1227.
  78.       Ibid., No. 737 & 823.
  79.       Ibid., No. 577.
  80.       Ibid., No. 2333.
  81.       Ibid., No. 2292.
  82.       Ibid., No. 2429.
  83.       Ibid., No. 750.
  84.       Ibid., No. 2370.
  85.       Ári Jaina Gotra Saãgraha, pp. 13-23.
  86.       Ojhä Nibandha Ÿaãgraha, p. 25.
  87.       NJI., No. 1614.
  88.       Ibid., No. 2151.
  89.       Srï Jaina Gotra Saãgraha, p. 50 (Introduction).
  90.       Ibid.
  91.       NJI., No. 947, 948 and 150.
  92.       Ibid., 621.
  93.       Ibid., 1214.
  94.       Ibid., 1308.
  95.       Ibid., 1778.
  96.       Bhagavän Pärávanätha Kï Paramparï Kä Itihäsa, p. 544.
  97.       Manuscript in the Áästra Bhaîdära at Ajmer.
  98.      þ¢«ŠU‹Ê‹Êãÿ— ‚¢. 1250 üÊË Í‹‚¢ÉÊŠ ‚Ê ¦UÊ¡Œ«ŠU ÷Ê. ¡ªÊ„UÊ ¬ÈòÊ „U¦U¬Áà Ò‡ÊÊþ ‚ÈŒË 1 ‡ÊÈݲ§– (Inscription on the image of white marble in the temple of Siõghïjï  at Jaipur).
  99.       PS., p. 138.
  100. PS., P. 175.
  101. PS., p. 96.
  102. PS., p. 2.
  103. See above, p. 81.
  104. PS., p. 177.
  105. See above, p. 79.
  106. PS., p. 89.
  107. See above, p. 81.
  108. ‚¢Ã 1703 Ò‡ÊÊþ Ê‚Š ¬²ÁÃcÐUÃʐ ó ’«UÊ üÊË „UÊÕËŸÊÕ ¬²áʐÁÖ
  109. See above, p. 81.
  110. PS., p. 4.
  111. See above, p. 81.
  112. See above., p. 80.
  113. PS., p. 63.
  114. J.S. Áikshä, p. 128.
  115. Ibid., p. 113.
  116. See above, p. 81.
  117. PS., p. 29.
  118. PS., P. 190.
  119. Vïraväîï, Vol. VII.
  120. See above, p. 12 (F.N. 2).
  121. ‚¢Ã 1590 Ê„U ‚ÈŒË 9 üÊË Í‹‚¢œŠ ¬„UÊ«UÿÊ ªÙòÊŠ ‚Ê„Uà ¬ÈòÊ þŠÃÊ– (Ins. on Daáalakshaîa Yantra in Jaina temple of Paûodi at Jaipur).
  122. ‚¢Ã 1799 ÖÿŠcÐU ‚ÈŒË 10 ‚ِŠ üÊË Í‹‚¢œŠ ÝÈ¢§ŒÝÈ¢§ŒÊøÊÿʸãÿŠ Á’‹Ê‹Ê ªÙòÊŠ ¡¢œ„UË À‹¡Ë ¬²ÁÃÁcÐUâ– (Ins. on the metal image of Lüîakaraîajï Paîâyä, Jaipur.)
  123. PS., P. 99.
  124. Ibid., 169.
  125. Ibid., p. 170.
  126. Ibid., p. 177.
  127. Ibid., pp. 44 & 77.
  128. See above, p. 81.
  129. EI., V. XXIV, p. 84, Verses, 82-83.
  130. IA., V. XX, See Table of Pontifical Residences, p. 57.
  131. Manuscript in the Áästra Bhaîâära of Ajmer.
  132. JSAI., p. 134.
  133. ARRMA., Yr. 1926-27, No. 10.
  134. NJI., No. 438.
  135. Ibid., No. 727.
  136. Ibid.,  No. 628.
  137. PS., p. 147.
  138. PS., p. 98.
  139. Inscription on Yantra in the Jaina temple at Jaipur.
  140. See above, p. 72.
  141. Árï Bhagavän Pärávanätha Kï Paramparä Kä Itihäsa, p. 550.
  142. Ibid., p. 548.
  143. PS., p. 85.
  144. Ibid., p. 119.
  145. Ibid., p. 82.
  146. Ibid., p. 97.
  147. Áästra Bhaîâära Árï Digambara Jaina Mandira Sambhavanätha Baâä Bazära, Udaipur.
  148. Anekänta, Vol. 13, p. 124.
  149. Ibid., p. 124.
  150. Anekänta Vol. 13, p. 124.
  151. JSAI., p. 468.
  152. Anekänta, Vol. 3, p. 124.
  153. Ibid.
  154. JSAI., p. 468.
  155. Anekänta, Vol. 4, p. 610.
  156. Jaina Pustaka Praáasti Saãgraha, Nos. 52 & 93.
  157. Manidhärï Árï Jinachandra Süri, p. 74.
  158. NJI, I, Nos. 48, 236, 482.
  159. Ibid.
  160. NJI, No. 778.
  161. Ibid, I.
  162. NJI, I, No. 119, No. 292.
  163. E I, XXXV.
  164. ARADGS, 1929-30.
  165. CII, VII, pp. 118-119.
  166. Malwa Through The Ages, p. 512, No. 6.
  167. Ibid, No. 7.
  168. Ibid, No. 8.
  169. Ibid, p. 2.
  170. Malwa Through the Ages, P. 9.
  171. Malavañchala Ke Jaina Lekha, Nos. 50, 162, 254.
  172. Ibid.
  173. Ibid.
  174. Ibid., Arhat Vachana, V-4, pp. 261-63.
  175. E I, XXXVI, pp. 121-23.
  176. Arhat, V-4, pp. 262-63.
  177. E I.I. pp. 147-152.
  178. Ibid, pp. 135-136.
  179. BBDJI, III, p. 109.
  180. Ibid.
  181. E.I. II, pp. 232-240.
  182. BBDJI, III, p. 109.
  183. ARADGS,  V.S. 1904, No. 15; Gwalior Räjya ke Abhilekha, No. 149.
  184. KAMTA PRASAD Pratima Lekha Saãgraha.
  185. KAMTA PRASAD : Pratimä Lekha Saãgraha.
  186. NJI, I.
  187. MUNI KANTISAGAR : Jaina Dhatu Pratima Lekha Samgraha.
  188. Ibid., No. 79.
  189. Ibid., No. 30.
  190. Ibid., Nos. 158, 159 and 173.
  191. Maindhärï Ári Jinachandra Süri, p. 20
  192. NJI, Nos. 239, 270, 186, 215, 216, 217, No. 257, 271, 272 and 192.
  193. NJI, No. 221.
  194. Ibid, No. 228.
  195. JSLS, V, Nos. 18, 36.
  196. Ibid, No. 80.
  197. Ibid, Nos. 81 and 96.
  198. Ibid, No. 41.
  199. Ibid, No. 54.
  200. Ibid, No. 55.
  201. Ibid, No. 122.
  202. Ibid, No. 150.