Chapter XI


The Social Divisions in Jainism are concerned with society. It seems that in the Early Medieval Period, Jaina saints converted a large number of people to Jainism, and formed their social groups and named them in different ways. From their names such as Humba�a and Dhaska�a, it seems that they originated from tribal people. Some are territorial in nature. Some Kulas, titles and surnames were converted into castes. Some castes originated from the professions. The Jaina system  of social organization was in the beginning based on the distinction of function. Later on, birth was considered as a criterion of these castes because of the influence of Brahmanical religion and of Muslim rule. Most of the Jaina castes in North – India originated in Rajasthan. Later on, they gradually migrated to the different regions. These Jaina castes were divided into �vetambara and Digambara castes on the basis of religious sects. Among the �vet�mbara castes, Osv�las, Porav�las and �r�m�l�s are famous, while in the Digambaras, Bagherav�las and Kha��elav�las are well known. As people migrated and settled in different regions outside Rajasthan, it shows their adventurous spirit. Some castes of the same name as �grav�las, �r�m�l�s, Porav�las and Kha��elav�las are found both among the Jainas and the non-Jainas. In South India, castes among the Jainas were determined by the professions. These castes were gradually divided into several gotras. The marriages of the individuals of the caste were determined after considering the gotras.

Jaina Castes and Gotras of Rajasthan : Most of the castes and their gotras found among the Jainas in the North have their origin, in Rajasthan. The time and the manner of their origin is shrouded in considerable mystery. There are many legendary accounts of their origin which tell us that they are of great antiquity. But, as a matter of fact, no names of these castes and their gotras before the seventh century are traceable. From the historical point of view, these castes and their gotras seem to have come into existence between the eighth and the thirteenth century A.D., the time of golden age for Jainism in Rajasthan. There were born great influential saints like Hemachandra and Jinachandra who converted the Rajputs Br�hma�as and Vai�yas to Jainism. Even the Jaina statesmen like Vimala and Vastup�la tried to spread Jainism by rendering meritorious services. The merchants also spent countless wealth for its propagation by constructing beautiful temples and placing images in them. In this way, Jainism was accepted by a large number of masses who formed different Castes.

(1) Osav�las : Osav�las are found in all the important cities of Rajasthan. They occupy a prominent position both in administrative and commercial spheres. Their origin is from the place named Osia in Marwar. This town was visited by Uppaladeva, the Scion of the ruling family of �r�m�la who being pressed by his enemy sought refuge at the hands of a ruler of the Prat�h�ra dynasty which was then supreme in Marwar. At this time, the Jaina saint Ratnaprabhas�ri came to this place and found the only son of Uppaladeva bitten by a snake. The king requested Ratnaprabha to cure him which he did. The king with his subjects embraced Jainism and Ratnaprabhas�ri formed the Osav�la  Caste of these people. There are three views about the time of the incident.

  1. According to theN�bhinandanoddh�ra-prabandhaand the Upake�agachchha-charitra, Ratnaprabhas�ri, the seventh pa��adhara in the line of P�r�van�tha, established the Osava��a in V�ra Nirv��a Sa�vat 70 (457 B.C.). 2. In the opinion of the Bh��as, the caste of the Osav�las with their eighteen Gotras was established by the teachings of Ratnaprabhas�ri at Upake�anagara in Marwar in 222 V.E. (165 A.D.) 3. But both these views do not seem to be correct, because there is no mention and trace of this caste before the 8th century A.D. It seems to have come into existence afterwards. The king Uppaladeva and his subjects were converted to Jainism by Ratnaprabhas�ri who formed their caste of Osav�las.

Gotras of the Osav�las : After the conversion, Osav�las continued to multiply and they formed eighteen Gotras according to the traditions. But the process of the multiplication continued further particularly because they ceased to be a fighting race; and there was no mass casualty due to any battle. It is believed that there are 1444 Gotras of the Osav�las. But these are not the main Gotras. They just represent simply the branches and sub-branches. Yati �r�p�la refers to the manuscript which mentions 609 Gotras.1 The poet R�pachanda of the eighteenth century A.D. in his Osv�lar�sa mentions about 440 Gotras.2 Some are territorial, some are individualistic, and others are occupational.

(a) Territorial Gotras : Some Gotras were named after the places of their origin. Jinadattas�ri gave v�sakshepa to the two princes namely �r�dhara and R�jadhara of R�vala S�gara at Bha�as�la in Jaisalmer. The Princes and after them their descendants and still further those who were closely or remotely related to them, all came to be called Bha�as�l�s. And thus was established the Bha�a��l� Gotra.3 In 1542 A.D., S�ha V�daka of this Gotra celebrated the consecration of Chandraprabha through Jinabhadra S�ri at Jaisalmer.4 So the Gotra must have strated not later than 1500 A.D. The K�chholi Gotra was formed after the village named K�chchhola in Sirohi State probably at the beginning of the 13th century A.D. In 1286 A.D., Ajayasi�ha of this Gotra installed the image of P�r�van�tha at Kachchhol� for acquiring merit for his parents.5 Koran�a Gotra originated from the place named Koran�a in Marwar. In 1450 A.D. S�ha V�sala of this Gotra for acquiring merit for himself celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Sumatin�tha through Kakkas�ri of this Gachchha.6 Some Osav�las of P�gala settled at another place, and they began to be called by the name P�gala. Me�atav�la Gotra came into existence after the city of Mert� in the former Jodhpur State. The inscriptions of the 16th century of this Gotra are available at Mert� and Udaipur.7 The Osav�las who came from Kanauj, were grouped under Kanauji� Gotra. In 1502 A.D., S�khe�ha of this Gotra for the merit of his father consecrated the ��talan�tha bimba through Devagupta S�ri.8 K��kr�a Gotra originated from Bh�mas� who lived in the village K�nkar�vata.9 He was the S�manta of Mah�r��� of Udaipur and was converted to Jainism by Jinavallabhas�ri of the Kharatara Gachchha. There is a mention of this Gotra in the inscription of 1442 A.D. found at Alwar.10 It is clear that these Gotras started mostly between the 13th and the 15th centuries A.D.

(b) Occupational Gotras : Some Gotras originated from the occupations of certain Jainas. R��h�a R�va Ch���� gave his treasury to �h�karas�. It is therefore the descendants of �h�karas� that began to be called Ko�h�r�. From the inscription of 1456 A.D., it is clear that Megha of this Gotra celebrated V�sap�jya bimba through Vinayaprabhas�ri of N�gendra Gachchha.11 Those people, who did the work of cashiers, were called Khaj��ch�. The Bha���r�s claim  ï¿½a�r�o as their great ancestor.12 In 992 A.D., he adopted Jainism from Ya�obhadras�ri of the Sa��eraka Gachchha. Officially, �a�r�o was designed as Bha���r� or the person in charge of the store-house; and consequently, his descendants became known as Bha���ris. The earliest inscription of this clan at N��l�i of 1132 A.D. refers to Bha���ri N�ga�iva as a witness to a certain grant.13 Another inscription of 1184 A.D. refers to one Bha���ri Ya�ov�ra as the lord of Palla (a village six miles to the west of Jodhpur).14 A Jalor inscription of 1185 A.D. records the rebuilding of the Jaina temple by Bha���ri Ya�ovira, son of P�su, in accordance with the orders of Mah�r�j� S�manta Si�ha.15 The descendants of the person, who deals in ghee, were called Gh�y�. In 1569 A.D., Naraba�a of this Gotra set up the image of Sambhavan�tha through H�ravijaya of Tap� Gachchha.16 It is heard that the ancestor of the people of Vaidys Gotra cured the disease of an eye of the queen of Mah�r��� of Udaipur. Therefore, he was given the title of Vaidya, and his descendants became famous by Veda Gotra.17 In 1455 A.D., Bh���ka of this Gotra installed the image of Vimalan�tha through Kuka��ch�rya of Upake�a Gachchha.18 The Mah�jani Gotra was probably formed from the profession of Mah�jana. The inscription of 1457 A.D. records that N�lh� of this Gotra consecrated an image of ��ntin�tha through Kakkas�r�.19 There are also Chan��liy� and Bambi Gotras found among the Osav�las. Their business was with these sorts of people; and, therefore, they began to call themselves by these names. In 1745 A.D., Ratnap�la of Chan��liy� Gotra set up  the image of Suvidhin�tha for the merit of his father through Pu�yanidh�nas�ri of Maladh�ri Gachchha.10

(c) Gotras after Personal Names : The names of the Gotras were also given after certain famous persons. The �dityan�ga Gotra originated from the well known person �dityan�ga who was very famous for liberal charities and solicitude for social welfare.21 Numerous inscriptions of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries on the pedestals of the images of this Gotra are also found in various places such as Jodhpur, Nagaur, B�lotar� etc.22 After addressing Pa�v�ra R�jap�ta L�la  Si�ha in 1110 A.D., Jinavallabha S�ri established the L�l��� Gotra.23 L�la Si�ha had seven sons. The eldest son was very strong (Ba��ha) and from him originated Ba��hiy� Gotra. In 1444 A.D., S�ha Jayava�a of L�l�n� Gotra set up the image of Dharman�tha through Jayake�ari S�ri of A�chala Gachchha.24 In 1479 A.D., S�ha H�m� of B���hiya Gotra made the celebration of Jinavarendra Pa��ik� through Jinachandra S�ri.25. It is said that the descendants of Gad�s�ha were called Gadahiy�.26 In 1411 A.D., S�ha �n� of this Gotra for the merit of his wife Bh�man� celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of ��ntin�tha through. Devaguptas�ri of Upake�a Gachchha.27 L��iy� Gotra was named after L��a Si�ha who accepted Jainism from Jinadatta S�ri. In 1456 A.D., the image of P�r�van�tha was consecrated by Ge�aka of this Gotra through Jinabhadras�ri of Kharatara Gachchha.28 In 1148 A.D., Hemachandras�ri of P�r�atala  Gachchha by addressing Pa�v�ra Rajap�ta Jagadeva converted him to Jainism.29 S�ra and S��vala were the two sons of Jagadeva. The descendants of S�ra were called Sur��� and of S��val� were known  as S��khal�.30 In 1444 A.D., Sonap�la of Sur��� Gotra installed the image of Sumatin�tha through Vijaya Chanda S�ri of Dharmaghosha Gachchha.31 The consecration ceremony of the image of Sumatin�tha  was performed by L�kh�ka of S��khal� Gotra through Vijaya Chanda S�ri of Dharmaghosha Gachchha in 1438 A.D. 32 D�ga� and S�ga�a, the two brothers accepted Jainism from Jinachandras�ri.33 The descendants of D�ga�a were called D�ga�a and of S�ga�a by the name S�ga�a. In 1460 A.D., N�gar�ja of this Gotra celebrated the consecration of the image of �rey��san�tha through Somasundara of Rudrapalli Gachchha.34 The Bothar� Gotra was named after Bohitha, the son of the king named S�gara of Delav���.35 In 1477 A.D., the installation ceremony of the image of �rey�n�an�tha was performed by Th�h� of Bothar� Gotra through Jina Chanda S�ri of Kharatara Gachchha.36 From the person D�dher�, this Gotra became famous as Dudheriy� Gotra.37 On the preaching of Jinak��ala S�ri,  D��gara Si�ha, the Chauh�na R�jp�t accepted Jainism. From this name, his descendants were called ��g�.38

(d) Kulas Converted into Gotras : Some Kulas also in course of time were converted into Gotras. The ancient Ka�yapa Kula in course of time was converted into Ka�yapa Gotra. From the inscription of 1458 A.D., it is clear that Chu�� of this Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Nemin�tha through ��varas�ri of Sa��eraka Gachchha.39 In the 13th century A.D., �rava�a, the son of Kar�a Si�ha, accepted Jainism from Ya�obhadra S�ri.40 His descendants also followed Jainism and became known by Sisodiy� Gotra.

(e) Gotras Formed After Actions : Some Gotras have been also formed after certain actions. The Bara�iy� Gotra is said to have originated in about the 11th century A.D. from N�ga Vyantara who gave Varadiy� (gave promise) to N�r�ya�a.41 Bara�iy� is the Apabhra��a of Varadiy�. In 1527 A.D., the image of ��ntin�tha was consecrated by S�ha �o�ara of this Gotra.42P�su was an expert in examining jewels. His descendants were, therefore, known by P�rakha or Par�ksh�.43 In 1461 A.D. Surapati of this Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Suvidhin�tha through Jina Chandra of Kharatara Gachcha.44 In 1120 A.D., Jinadatta S�ri after addressing Jobana and Sachchu established B�hupha�� Gotra.45 His descendants did not move from the battlefield and therefore they were called N�ha��. It may also be suggested that B�hupha�� Gotra was named after the well-known person named Bappan�ga.46 It is known  from the inscriptions of 1329 A.D. that Mokha�a of this Gotra for the merit of his parents set up the image of Sumatin�tha through Kakka S�ri41. In 1439 A.D., M�ja�a of N�ha�� Gotra constructed devakulik� of Vimalan�tha temple at Karaha�a through Ma�janas�gara S�ri.48 The Sultan of M�ndalgarh being impressed by the virtues of Jh��jhana Si�ha, allowed him to keep the Ka��ra (knife) in the royal court. His descendants, therefore, became famous by Ka��riy� Gotra.49 By the influence of the discourses of Bhuvana Sundara, Sa�ghav� Tukade, P�sade, Punas� and M�l� of Ka��riy� Gotra constructed a devakulik� in Jir�pall� temple in 1426 A.D.50 The people, who went on pilgrimage, were given the title of Sa�ghav�. A person named K�k� was given the title of Nagara Se�ha. His descendants therefore began to be called Se�hiy�.51 In 1095 A.D., Jinavallabhas�ri came to Mandor which was ruled by the king named N�nu�e Pa�ih�ra. His son was Kuka�adeva who was suffering from leprosy. The king requested him to cure him. He asked the king to bring ghee of some cow and got it rubbed over the body of the prince. After the treatment of three days, he became all right. The king with his family accepted Jainism and S�rij� established his Kukai��chopa�� Gotra.52 The minister of the Pa�ih�ra king named Ga�adhara also accepted Jainism and S�riji established Ga�adhara Chopa�� Gotra. There is the mention of the Kuka�� Chopa�� Gotra in the inscription of 1479 A.D.53 The inscription of 1436 A.D. records that P�sa�a of Ga�adhara Chopa�� Gotra set up an image of Sup�r�van�tha through Jinabhadras�ri.54 Kharata Si�ha R��ho�a at the preaching of Jinadattas�ri accepted Jainism. His elder son, Ambadeva faced the thieves (chora se bhi�iy�) and caught them. The name in course of time became Chora�iy�.55

It is known from the inscriptions of the images that some Gotras were specially connected with some Gachchhas. The people of these Gotras celebrated the consecration ceremony of the images through the Acaryas of their respective Gachchhas. The people of �dityan�ga Gotra  performed the consecration ceremony of the various images but all through the �ch�ryas of Upake�a Gacchha. Similarly, the persons belonging to Gadahiy� Gotra, B�pha�� Gotra and R��ak� Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony through the �ch�ryas of Upake�a Gachchha. The people of Ga�adhara Chopa�� Gotra, ��g� Gotra, Dos� Gotra and L��iy� Gotra generally performed the installation ceremony of the images through the Acaryas of Kharatara Gachchha. The people of Gh��gh� Gotra and Cha���liy� Gotra set up the images mostly through the �ch�ryas of Maladh�ri Gachchha. Chh�jaha�a Gotra is specially related to Palliv�la Gachchha because its persons installed the images generally through the Acaryas of this Gachchha. The persons of Sisodiy�  Gotra are seen installing the images through the Acaryas of Sha��eraka Gachchha. The persons belonging to D�ga�a Gotra and M�tha�iya Gotra are seen setting up the images respectively through the �ch�ryas of B�ihad Gachchha and A�chala Gachchha. Sometimes, the persons of the Gotra installed the images through the Acaryas of two Gachchhas. This is specially seen in the case of S��khav�lech� Gotra. They installed the images through the Acarya of Kora��aka Gachchha and Kharatara Gachchha. It is also noticed though rarely that the persons of one particular Gotra set up images through the Acaryas of more than one Gachchha.

�r�m�l�s : ï¿½r�m�l�s among Jainas originated from �r�m�la now known as Bhimal in Marwar. In course of time, they multiplied and  spread specially in Jodhpur, Udaipur and Sirohi. They occupied the influential position in the society. Their origin may be traced back to the 8th century A.D. There is a stanza in the pra�asti56 of K�lak�ch�rya Kath� of 1308 A.D.  which tells that �r�vaka D��� of �r�m�la caste after listening to the religious discourses from ��nti S�ri constructed the Chaitya of �din�tha in 647 A.D. at Navahara. The oldest genealogy of the �r�m�la Caste says that a merchant To�� of Bh�radv�ja Gotra and of �r�mala Caste was addressed by a Jaina Saint in 738 A.D.57 From both these instances, it is clear that Jainism was popular and prevalent in �r�m�la in the eighth century A.D. The king named Vijayanta of �r�m�la accepted Jainism from Udaiprabha S�ri. Along with him, sixty-two se�has, followers of Br�hmanism, also accepted Jainism.58 All were called �r�m�l�s. From thePa�chapa�ar�sa written by the poet Udayaratna concerning the history of the Acaryas of Dvivandanika, the branch of Upake�a Gachachha, it is known that in 700 �aka era, Ratnaprabha S�ri came to this town where he established the Sr�m�la caste.59 From all these instances, it is clear that �r�m�l�s among the Jainas came into existence in the seventh or eighth century A.D.

In course of time, �r�m�l�s were divided into two classes namely Laghu ��kh� and B�ihad ��kh�. The inscription of 1488 A.D. indicates that Sahasakara�a of Laghu ��kh� of the Sr�m�la Caste for the merit of his mother celebrated the consecration of the image of �din�tha through Siddh�nta S�gara of A�chala Gachchha.60 There is als an inscription of 1944 A.D. of B�iddha ��kh� of �r�m�la caste.61 Besides, there are various Gotras found among the �r�m�l�s as known to us from the inscriptions. These are based on occupations, place names and other grounds.

Gotras of �r�m�lis : The Gotras of �r�m�l�s originated in various ways. Ambik� Gotra seems to have originated from the deity Ambik�. In 1477 A.D., �resh�hi Ch�ndras�va of this Gotra for the merit of ancestors performed the installation ceremony of the image of ��ntin�tha through Lakshm�s�gara ��ri.62 Ailahara Gotra is mentioned in the inscription of 1442 A.D.63 There are also the inscriptions of Govaliy� Gotra64 and Ghevariy� Gotra.65 The inscription of 1452 A.D. records that J�va�a of G�ndhika Gotra set up the image of Dharman�tha.66 In 1476 A.D., the consecration of the image of ��ntin�tha was celebrated by P�sa�a of Gautama Gotra.67 Here, this Gotra seems to have originated from the Kula founded by some saint  named Gautama. Cha���lech�68Gotra and �au�� Gotra are also found in the inscriptions.69 Dos� Gotra,70 Naluriy� Gotra, Jun�v�la Gotra, Jhungatiy� Gotra, N�vara Gotra,71 Bh���iy�72 Gotra, Mau�hiy�73 Gotra, M�nthalapur� Gotra,74 Vahagat� Gotra,75 ï¿½resh�h� Gotra,76 S��gha�a Gotra,77 Phophaliya Gotra,78 Bh���avata Gotra,79 M�sala Gotra80 and Siddha Gotra81 are found in the inscriptions of the 15th century A.D. Dh�n� Gotra,82 P����� Gotra83 and Muhava�� Gotra84 are seen in the inscriptions belonging to the 16th century A.D.

Porav�las : It is saud that Porav�las originated simultaneously with �r�m�l�s from �r�m�la in the eighth century A.D. The people of the eastern gate of �r�m�la, who accepted Jainism from the Jaina saints in the eighth century A.D., were called Porav�las.85 The origin of the Porav�las from �r�m�la does not seem to be correct. In old inscriptions and manuscripts, Pr�gv��a has been used for the Porav�la.86 Pr�gv��a was another name of Mewar (Medap��a). It seems that the people of Pr�gv��a country in course of time began to be called Pr�gv��as or Porav�las. The Porav�las tell their origin from the village Pura in Mewar. Like �r�m�l�s, Porv�las were also divided into Laghu ��kh� and B�ihad ��kh�. We have the inscription of Laghu ��kh� of Porav�la caste of 1653 A.D.87 The image of Sumatin�tha was set up in 1534 A.D. by Mantri V�saka of B�iddha ��kh� of Pr�gv��a Caste.88

The Gotras89 of the Porav�la Caste as known from the inscriptions and manuscripts are as follows90 ï¿½ Jh�lara, Mu��haliy�, L�mb�, Ma��aliy�, Kunagir�, Pa�ela, Narva�a, Lol�niya, Posa�, Koth�r�, Bha���r�, Amb�i, Ko�ak� and N�ga. In 1546 A.D., the brothers Tejap�la, R�jap�la, Ratanas� and R�mad�sa of Ko���ri Gotra of Pr�gv��a Caste constructed the temple of Mah�v�ra, at the village named Pin�av��� in Sirohi State.91 ï¿½ï¿½nti of Bha���ri Gotra installed the image of Munisuvratan�tha in 1447 A.D.92 In 1571 A.D.,  Vyaavah�ri Kh�m� of Amb� Gotra set up the image of Dharman�tha.93 In 1586 A.D., M�la of Ko�ak� Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of �din�tha through Vijayasena S�ri of Tap� Gachchha.94

Pall�v�la Caste : Pall�v�las both among the Digambaras and �vet�mbaras, seem to have been named after P�l� in Marwar the name of which in olden times was Pallik�. It is said that the people of this place were converted to Jainism in about the eigth century A.D. by Ratnaprabhas�ri who converted the people of Osi� and �r�m�la. Pall�v�las are known to have celebrated the consecration ceremony of images from time to time. In 1253 A.D., Ded� of this caste installed an image of Mallin�tha through Ya�obhadra of Chandra Gachchha.95 People of this caste also led Sa�ghas to holy places from time to time from P�l�.96

Kha��elav�la Caste : There is no doubt that the Caste of Kha��elav�las originated from the place named Kha��el�. But there is some difficulty in assigning the time to this incident. According to the legendary account, Jinasen�ch�rya in the line of  the saint Apar�jita, converted the Chauh�n king of Kha��el� with his subjects to Jainism in V.S.I.97 Eighty-two Rajbuts and two goldsmiths were ruling over eighty-four villages of the kingdom of Kha��el�. The eightyfour Gotras were formed either after the name of the villages or the heads of villages. The Gotras of the two goldsmiths became �mn�ya Baja and Mohan�ya Baja. The time assigned to this incident is not correct.  There are no solid grounds for the existence of this caste before the eighth century A.D. The earliest mention of this caste is found in the inscription of 1197 A.D.98

The origin of the eightyfour Gotras, from the eightyfour villages at one particular time, does not seem to be correct. The number eightyfour seems to be only conventional. There are eightyfour castes, eightyfour postures (�sanas) etc. Originally, these Gotras may be less in number, but gradually they increased. Some Gotras not even in existence at the beginning were added in order to make them eightyfour in number. These Gotras seem to be based on the place names, occupations and surnames etc.

Regional Gotras : The Gotras also seem to be regional in nature. Ajmer� Gotra was probably named after Ajmer. Sunakhat�, the wife of S�ha Surajana of Ajmer of this Gotra, got the Pradyumnacharitra written and gave to the nun Vinaya�r� in 1538 A.D. There is also the mention of this Gotra in the inscription of 1594 A.D. P��od� Gotra seems to have originated from the village P��od� in �ekh�vat. It is found in the Pra�asti of 1764 A.D.100 Dos� Gotra seems to have originated from the place named Daus� in Jaipur State. Bohitha of this Gotra of Ajmer set up the image of Chaub�s� in 1601 A.D. The Gotra K�sal�v�la seems to have come into existence from the village K�sal� near S�kara in Jaipur State. It is mentioned in the Pra�asti of the copy of the manuscripts written in 1524 A.D.101 P��an� Gotra started from the village named P��ana, near Kha��el�. P�tam�de, the wife of Pahar�ja of this Gotra of Nagaur, presented a copy of the ï¿½dipur��a to Dharmachanda in 1520 A.D.102 There is also a mention of this Gotra in the inscription of 1594 A.D.103 To�gy� Gotra may have originated from Tonk. It is mentioned in the pra�ati of 1522 A.D.3 K�l� Gotra seems to have been named from K�l�dev� near Chomu in Jaipur State. Roho of this Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of an image of 1516 A.D.105 It is also found in the pra�asti of 1607 A.D.106

Occupational Gotras : The Gotras were also formed after the occupations. Veda Gotras started from the person who followed the profession of medicines. His descendants in course of time began to be called by this name. In 1584 A.D., Mok� with his wife and sons of this Gotra installed the Samyagdar�ana Yantra.107 From the legendary account, it is clear that the ancestor of Baja Gotra was a goldsmith at the time of his conversion to Jainism. In 1646 A.D., H�th�n�tha of this Gotra performed the prati��h� of Da�alaksh�a Yantra.108 The name of this Gotra is also found in the pra�asti of 1688 A.D. The Son� Gotra also indicates the profession of the people. The earliest mention of it is known from the inscription of 1584 A.D. in which S�ha Tel� of this Gotra installed Karaku��ap�r�van�tha Yantra.109 It is also mentioned in the pra�asti of 1688 A.D.110 Bohar� Gotra seems to have originated from the persons who lend money. Ratan� of this Gotra with his sons celebrated the consecration ceremony of the yantra in 1484 A.D.111

Titles and Surnames : Titles and surnames also seem to have developed into the Gotras. �aha Gotra seems to have originated from the term S�ha used for respect and veneration for the person. S�hatu of this Gotra with his wife and sons installed the Arham Yantra in 1539 A.D.112 The name of this Gotra is also found in the pra�asti of 1518 A.D.113 The title of Chaudhar� was given by the Government to those who did the work of revenue collection. In course of time, it was developed into the Gotra. S�ha Mah�r�j� of this Gotra got the copy of the P�r�van�thacharitra written and gave it to Dharmachandra in 1554 A.D.114 Chh�ba�� Gotra seems to have come into existence from S�ha plus Ba�� (S�ha plus great). First, it was S�ba�� but in course of time, it became Chh�ba��. S�ha Not� of S�ba�� Gotra got the copy of the N�gakum�racharitra written and presented it to Lalitak�rti.115 There is also a mention  of this Gotra in the inscription of 1591 A.D.116 Bhains� Gotra was probably formed from the terms Bha� plus S�ha. It is found in the pra�asti of 1694 A.D.117 When the people of this Gotra became large in number, they were known as Ba�aj�ty� (Big caste). At present, Bhains� Gotra and Ba�aj�ty� Gotra are considered to be identical Gotra. Se�h� Gotra probably originated from �resh�hi which meant rich merchant. This term is frequently found in ancient Buddhist and Jaina literature. This Gotra is mentioned in the pra�asti of 1575 A.D.118

Besides, there are other Gotras which are known from the inscriptions and pra�astis. The earliest mention of Godh� Gotra is found in the inscription of 1413 A.D. It records that V�lha�a of this Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of the images.119 The other Gotras are �holy� Gotra120, Pah��y� Gotra,121 Bil�l� Gotra,122 Ga�gav�la Gotra,123 Godik� Gotra,124 P��dy� Gotra,125R��vak� Gotra,126 and Sog�n� Gotra.127 There is also a mention of Kurakur�128 Gotra in the inscription of 1584 A.D. which records that K�lu with his sons and grandsons of this Gotra performed the installation ceremony of �ink�ra Yantra. This Gotra is not found in the list of eightyfour Gotras of Kha��elav�la caste. It is known both from the pra�astis and inscriptions that the people of this caste were generally associated with the �ch�ryas of M�la Sa�gha and rarely with the �ch�ryas of the other Sa�ghas. It indicates that the centre of the activities of M�la Sa�gha remained in Rajasthan.

Bagherav�la Caste : Bagherav�la caste originated in about eighth century A.D. from Bagher�, a place of great antiquity. Old Jaina temples and images were discovered and its name is also found in the Bijaulia Rock Inscription dated 1170 A.D.129 This place was aslo the seat of the Bha���rakas in the twelfth century A.D.130 There is a belief that R�masena and Nemasena, the Digambara Jaina saints, converted the king of this town with his subjects to Jainism.131 If not all, majority of the citizens of the town must have embraced Jainism from their hands. Pt. ���dhara, who went to Dh�r�nagar� from M�ndalaga�ha  for  fear of the invasion of Muhammad Ghori in the 12th century, was of Bagherav�la caste.132 P�na Si�ha, who repaired the famous K�rtistambha at Chitor in the 15th century A.D. during the reign of Kumbhakara�a, was of this caste.133 The Gotras of this caste as known both from the inscriptions and pra�astis are as follows � (1) R�yabha���ri134, (2) ��nkhav�la,135 (3) ��n�pati136 (4) �hol�,137 (5) Ko�v�,138 (6) Prabh�139and (7) Sirav��y�.140

Agrav�la Caste : The Agrav�las are found in large numbers in Rajasthan. They occupy a respectable position in the society. They are highly educated and much advanced. They are found both among the Jainas and the Hindus. They are also an important middle class of business men. They enthusiastically supported Jainism in the past. They performed the installation ceremony of numerous images and got copies of the manuscripts written. According to the traditions, Agrav�la caste originated from the place named Agroh� in the Punjab and was founded by Agrasena. Once he performed a sacrifice but stopped it when he saw the animals in a miserable condition. Probably, he was influenced by the doctrine of ahi�s�. It is not clear whether he accepted Jainism or not; but from the pa���valis,141 it is known that  Lohity�ch�rya converted the Agrav�las with their king Div�kara to Jainism. Later on, Agrav�las began to follow Jainism. Accoring to N�gendran�tha Vasu, this Agrasena is the same Ugrasena mentioned in the Allahabada inscription of Samudra Gupta.142Lohity�ch�rya was the master of Devarddhi Ga�i who arranged the V�chan� in 453 A.D. at Valabhi. The time of Lohity�ch�rya may be thirty years before Devarddhi. He thus converted the Agrav�las along with their king to Jainism in 423 A.D. But this view does not seem to be tenable. First of all, this Ugrasena was the ruler of Northern India while Ugrasena Devar�sh�raka mentioned in the Allahabad inscription was ruling in the south. Lastly, we have no definite evidence for the existence of this caste before the 8th century A.D. Its Gotras as known both from the inscriptions and the pra�astis are as follows � Goyala,143 Garga144 Si�ghala145 and Ba�sala146etc. The Agrav�las seem to have been mostly associated with the K�sh�h� Sa�gha and rarely with M�la Sa�gha.

Chi��o�� and N�gad� Castes : Chitto�� and N�gad� castes among the Digambaras originated from the old places Chitor and N�gad� respectively in Mewar. These castes seem to have come into existence in medieval times. People of these castes were religious minded and got several copies of manuscripts written in medieval times in order to present them to Jaina monks. They constructed temples and placed images in them with great ceremony. They were generally concerned with the Bha���rakas of the M�la Sa�gha of V�ga�a and K�sh�h� Sa�gha. Bha���raka J��nabh�sha�a, who lived in the fifteenth century A.D., wrote the N�gadr�r�sa describing the history of the N�gada caste among the Jainas.147

Humba�a Caste : The place of the origin of Humbada caste is not traceable. Most probably, like other castes, it must have originated from some particular place. In Rajasthan, the people of this caste are found in Dungarapur, Banswara and Pratapagarh, the portion of ancient V�ga�a province. They are found both among the Digambaras  and the �vet�mbaras. In the Digambaras, they remained in close touch mostly witht the Bha���rakas of the K�sh�h� Sa�gha and rarely with the �ch�ryas of M�la Sa�gh of V�gada. This caste also like other castes seems to have come into existence after the 8th century A.D. The persons of this caste also performed the installation ceremony of numerous images and temples. The famous Jaina temple at Jh�lr�p�tan is said to have been constructed by S�ha Pip� of this caste.148

H�mba�a caste in course of time was divided into ��kh�s and Gotras. The three ��kh�s of this caste known to us are namely Laghu ��kh�, B�ihat ��kh� and Varsh�vata ��kh�. Varsh�vata ��kh� most probably originated from Varsh���ha who was the minister of Mah� R�vala Harisi�ha.149 On the orders of Mah�r�vala, he invited one thousand families of this caste to K�nthala from S�gav���. He also started the work of the construction of the Digambara Jaina temple at Devalia but its installation ceremony was performed in 1717 A.D. after his death by his sons Vardham�na and Day�la. There are eighteen Gotras of this caste :150 (1) Kheraju, (2) Kamale�vara, (3) K�kade�vara, (4) Uttare�vara, (5) Mantre�vara, (6) Bhime�vara, (7) Bhadre�vara, (8) Ga�ge�vara. (9) Vi�ve�vara, (10) S�nkhe�vara, (11) Ambe�vara, (12) Ch��chane�vara, (13) Some�vara, (14) Rajiy�no, (15) Lalite�vara, (16) K�save�vara, (17) Budhe�vara, (18) Sanghe�vara.

Dharka�a Va��a : The people of Dharka�a caste are found both among the Digambaras and the �vet�mbaras. The author ofDhammaparikkh� named Harishe�a of this caste lived in the 10th century A.D.151 There is a mention of this caste in the inscription of 1230 A.D. at Delav���.152 In the two inscriptions of �b� also, these people have been described.153 In the beginning, this caste seems to have originated in Rajasthan but now its people are found in the south. From the expression, Siriujapuriya �hakka�akula of Harishe�a, Pt. NATHU RAMA PREMI holds that it originated probably from Siroja in Tonk State.154 Mr. Agar Chanda N�ha�� observes that it originated from Dhaka�aga�ha from which also originated the Dhaka�a branch of the Mahe�vari Caste.155 On the evidence of the twopra�astis,156 he tries to locate this place near �r�m�la.

  1. Mantr�dal�ya (Matiya�a) :Ma�idh�r� �r� Jinachandras�ri, who was born in V.S. 1197 at Vikaramapura near Jaisalmer, became the Head of the Kharataragachchha in V.S. 1211. He was a great scholar and an influential teacher. He established the Mantridal�ya (Mahatiya�a) caste.157This caste became popular from the 14th to the 17th century A.D., but afterwards disappeared gradually. People  of this caste were not only wealthy but some of them were high officials. They led pilgrimage to holy places. They were so much adventurous that they even migrated to Uttara Pradesh and Bihar, and settled over there. Gradually, this caste was divided into manygotras.

People of this caste performed installation ceremony of images from time to time. The Mantr�dal�ya caste is engraved in the three image inscriptions.158 K���, Chopa��, J��a�a Mu�dato�a and Mo�a were the populer gotras of this caste. Other gotras known are K�dra��,  Ghevaria, D�nha��, Dullaha, N�nha��, Bh�diya, Mahat�, Rohadiy�, V�yad�, V�rttid�p�, Say�t� and Mota.159

Most of the Jaina castes both among the �vet�mbaras and Digambaras, originated in Rajasthan during the medieval period. Gradually, they migrated to the neighbouring regions and settled there. Even in the neighbouring regions of Rajasthan, a few new castes were founded by Jaina saints. It seems that some Jaina saints converted the tribal people of these regions to Jainism and established their castes. The Muslim rule in Northern India during this period is directly or indirectly responsible for founding these castes. Jaina castes of South India of this period are generally professional in nature. These castes were gradually divided into several gotras.

Gujarat : The name �r�modha caste is derived from the ancient town Modhera, South of Anahilav�� in Gujarat. The famous Hemachandra S�ri was also born in this caste. The inscriptions of the people of this caste can be traced from the twelfth century A.D.

Bha���raka R�masena of Nandila�a gachchha founded the Narasi�hapura caste after the name of the city Narasimhapura. He also got constructed the Jaina temple of ��ntin�tha in this city. Bh�ma of Narasi�ha caste performed the installation ceremony of images through Bha���raka Somak�riti of the K�sh�h� � Samgha in V.S. 1547.160 Nemisena, disciple of Bha���raka R�masena, was the devotee of Padm�vat�, and founded the Bha��ap�ra caste. Both Narasi�hapura and Bha��apur� were the Digambara castes. Bha���raka Devendrak�rti, disciple of Padmanandi, established the seat of the M�lasa�gha at Surat in the early half of the 14th century, and he established the Ratn�kara caste after converting seven hundred families to Jainism.

From the inscriptions161 of the 15th and 16th centuries found at Palit�n�, �atru�jaya and other sites, it is known that Osav�las, �r�m�l�s, Pr�gv��as, Dharka�as and Humba�as performed installation ceremony of images. It seems that some people of these castes migrated from Rajasthan and settled in Gujarat. �r�va��a caste is mentioned in the Jaina inscriptions162 of V.S. 1551 and V.S. 1526.

Madhya Pradesh : Some of the Jaina castes are found mentioned in the inscriptions of the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. Chilla�a, who installed two Jaina images during the reign of Naravasman in V.S. 1157 at Bhojapura, belonged to the Vemaka family.163  The inscription of V.S. 1206 on Jaina statues at Gudar, contains the name of the Vabaka�chuka race.164 Besides, there are some other castes of the Vai�yas, known from inscriptions and some of them originally came from outside. The Kha��elav�la caste has been mentioned in the inscriptions of V.S. 1191165, V.S. 1216166, V.S. 1305.167 The Porav�la ï¿½r�vakas168 are known to have performed the installation ceremony of Vardhan�pura, now known as Badnawar in V.S. 1308. The Bagherav�la �r�vakas169 were also associated with this installation ceremony of images. These Kha��elav�la, Bagherav�la and Porav�la castes originated in Rajasthan in about the eighth century A.D. from Kha��el�, Bagher� and Pr�gv�ta respectively, but in course of time, some members of these castes migrated even to Malwa. The Varka�a caste has been mentioned in the inscriptions of V.S. 1231.170

N�m� caste among the �vet�mbaras originated from the Nim�� region of Malwa. It has been mentioned in three Jaina inscriptions dated V.S 1506, V.S. 1532 and V.S. 1531 respectively.171 Numerous Jaina image inscriptions of the 15th and  16th centuries mention  Pr�gv��a, Osav�la and �rim�l�.172 It seems that these people of these castes migrated to Malwa from Rajasthan. Gurjara caste has been mentioned in inscription dated V.S. 1512, Sohitav�la in V.S. 1573, Mantr�dal�ya in V.S. 1519, �r�va��a in V.S. 1515, Son�in V.S. 1573 and Modha in V.S. 1656.173

Among the Digambara castes, people of Kha��elav�la, Bagherav�la and Humba�a castes were large in number as known from the Jaina image inscriptions of the 15th and 16th centuries.174 They also migrated from Rajasthan and settled in Malwa. From the R�mapur� inscriptions6 dated V.S. 1664 (1667 A.D.), it is known that Pod�rtha, Finance Minister of the Chandr�vata ruler Durgabh�nu, was of the Bagherav�la caste. Porav�la caste has been mentioned in the inscriptions. N�gara caste has been mentioned in the inscription dated V.S. 1220, Jaisav�la in V.S. 1319, Narasi�hapura in V.S. 1529, N�gada or N�gadraha in V.S. 1489 and Chitrak��a in V.S. 1252.176

New castes and sub-castes among the Digambaras came into existence in the Jejj�ka bhukti region (Bundelakahand) of Madhya Pradesh. The G�ihapatis mentioned in the inscriptions belonged to the Vai�hya caste. Some of the G�ihapatis followed Brahmanical religions while others were Jainas. From the Khajuraho inscriptions177 dated 1000-1001 A.D. it is known that the ancestors of G�ihapati Kokalla originally lived in Padm�vat� (Pawaya, near Gwalior), but he came and settled in Khajuraho. He built the wonderful town and also the Vaidyan�tha temple. P�hila, who constructed the Jaina temple of P�r�van�tha and made a number of gifts and endowments, belonged to G�ihapati family.178 The successors of P�hila are known to have installed Jaina images. P�hila and some of his successors held the ministerial posts. Devap�la of this caste built the Jaina temple at B��apur while his grandson at Madane�a S�garapura. These G�ihapatis were known as ï¿½reshth�s.

The other Jaina castes known were Gol�p�rva, Gol�l�re, Parav�ra, Paurapa��a etc.179 S�ha Gale and T�d� belonged to Gol�p�rva caste. P�����ha of the Gahot caste hailed from Th�bona and became very rich by business. He is known to have constructed several Jaina temples and installed images in them The gotras180 of these castes were Kochchala, V�salla, Bh�ralla, Gohilla, K�silla, Vajhalla, V�chhala etc.

The Jaina inscriptions found in the region of Gopagiri give us some idea about the Jaina castes. From the Dabkund stone inscription181 dated 1088 A.D., it is known that the two traders �ishi and D�he�a, on whom Vikramasi�ha had conferred the rank of ï¿½resh�hins, built the Jaina temple at Cha�oha, the ancient name of Dubhakunda. Further, this inscription informs that their grandfather ï¿½resh�hin Jasuka is described as the head of a guild of merchants, which had come from a twon Jayasapura. Jaisav�la caste seems to have originated from Jayasapura but its identification is not known.

The Jaina castes known from the inscriptions were Parav�ra, Gol�l�ra, Gol�p�rva and Paurapata while their gotras were Kochhala, V�sala, Bh�ralla, Goilla, Gohila, K�silla, V�chhala, Veriy�, K�siya, V�jhhala, Pedela and �vanab�h�ra.182The Narwar inscription dated 1284 A.D. (V.S. 1341 A.D.) of the time of Vajvap�la ruler Mah�r�ja Gop�la mentions a trader named R�ma of Bansavala gotra hailing from the village Sevayika.183

T�ra�asv�m� observed no distinction among different sects, and there was no difference between the upper and lower castes. His followers were divided into twelve castes (1) Chara��gara, (2) ï¿½yudhy�, (3) As���,  (4) Gol�l�re (5) R�iramana, (6) Kara��gara, (7) Samaiy�, (8) N�yaka, (9) Niyam�, (10) K�madamana, (11) Rajatasodhiy�, and (12 Param�ra K�atr�. There was no fanaticism among the followers of these castes. Mutual marriages, interdining were permitted among the followers of these castes.184

Uttara Pradesh : It seems that some of the Digambara Jaina castes such as Lambak��chuka, Budhela, Gol�s�r�nvaya and Golasi�g�ra originated in Uttara Pradesh. Lambak��chuka is found in the image inscriptions dated VS.S. 1412, V.S. 1509, V.S. 1525, V.S.1413, V.S. 1734, V.S. 1760, 1520, V.S. 1760, V.S. 1534, V.S. 1722, and V.S. 1471 found at Mainapuri.185

Bu�hela J�ati has been mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1791, 1772 and 1766. Originally Bu�hela was merely a gotra of Ma�bhech� or Lambaka�chuka caste but it became a separate caste between V.S. 1590 and V.S. 1670 because of some social dispute. Gol�s�r�nvaye caste is found in the image inscriptions V.S. 1525, V.S. 1686, V.S. 1474, V.S. 1511 and V.S. 1515 and Golasi�g�r�-r��g� gotra in V.S. 1688.

Kha�delav�la caste has been mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1783, V.S. 1520, V.S. 1675, V.S. 1822, and V.S. 1436 while Agrav�la in V.S. 1234, V.S. 1537. V.S. 1529, V.S. 1545, 1549 and V.S. 1642. Jaisav�la caste is known from the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1628, V.S. 1601, V.S. 1531, V.S. 1537 and V.S. 1437. Krake�a J��ti-Baraha�� gotra has been mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1551, Dh�kau (Dharaka�a) in V.S. 15, Nagara Kotela in V.S. 1411, Pule caste – Khemija gotra in V.S. 1688, Mahima caste in V.S. 1588 and R�hata caste in 10.

It seems that Krake�a J�ti and Kakas�na J�ti were one and the same. Kharau� gotra became separate from Gol�n�ra and became independent caste. Nagara Kotera Gotra or caste became famous after the village Nagara Kota in Punjab. At one time, it was a holy place of the Hindus and the Jainas. M�hima Va��a is known as Mahiy� caste. Varahiy� kula was converted into Varaiy� caste.186

The �vet�mbara castes such as Osav�la, �r�m�ti and Pr�gv��a have been mentioned in the inscriptions of the 15th and 16th centuries. A few Jaina image inscriptions prove that ï¿½r�vakas of Mahatiy��a (Mantr�da�ya) settled at Jaunapura. These inscriptions187 prove that people of these castes migrated from Rajasthan and settled in Uttara Pradesh.

Maharashtra : The metal Jaina image inscriptions from the 14th to 16th centuries found at Bombay, Nagpur, Amaravati, Chandav��a and Manam��a near Nasik, Nasik, Balapura, Karanja, Chalisaganva, Bhadravati and Sirpura prove that the ï¿½r�vakas of Osav�la, Pr�gv�ta, �r�m�l� and Palliv�la castes migrated from Rajasthan to Maharashtra and settled there.188 ï¿½r� V�ya�a caste has been mentioned in the metal image inscriptions189 of V.S. 1488 and Mo�ha caste in V.S. 1616.190 The Mahat�ya�a (Mantr�dal�ya) caste been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1516 of the three Jaina images.191

Bihar : The ï¿½r�vakas of Mantr�dal�ya caste migrated to Bihar from Rajasthan and settled at different places. There is a Mahitiy�na Muhall� named after the caste Mahitiy��a in Patna. They got constructed Jaina temples and Dharma��l�s.192 The name of this caste is mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1504, V.S. 1519, V.S. 1524, V.S. 1606 and V.S. 1686.193

The ï¿½r�vakas of this caste got Jaina temple built at Vaibh�ragiri and Vipulagiri at R�jag�iha. The ï¿½r�vakas of the �vet�mbara castes namely Osav�la, Pr�gv�ta and �r�m�l� migrated to Bihar from Rajasthan as known from the Jaina image inscriptions of the 15th and 16th centuries. The Jaisav�la caste194 of the Digambaras has been  mentioned in the Jaina image inscription dated V.S. 1638 while that of Bagherav�la caste in the inscription195 dated V.S. 1694.

South India :  The V�ra Ba�ajigas of the South followed Jainism. Some agricultural sections of the South were devoted to Jainism. In the inscriptions of South India, the names of the castes are not found mentioned. In some inscriptions, their designations and professions are found mentioned. G�vu��a or G��u��a196 was the designation of village headman. It is also known that Go�� or Gau�� Kamma�ak�ra197 was the name of the mint official. Perga�e or Hegga�e was the name of the city official.198 S�manta199Mah�prabhu200Da��an�yaka201Mah�va�gavyavahari202 and Mah�pradh�na203 are the title names of the Jainas.

It is noticed that these castes were associated with the particular Sa�ghasga�as and gachchhas ï¿½ The Humba�a caste was related with the Surat branch of Bal�tk�ra ga�a, the Lamech� caste with the A�era branch, the Parav�ra caste with the Jeraha�a branch and the Kha��elav�la caste with the Delhi-Jaipur branch. The Agrav�la caste was connected with the M�thura gachchha of the K�sh�h� Sa�gha, the H�ma�a caste with the Nand�ta�a gachchha and the Bagherav�la caste with the L��av�ga�a gachchha.


  1.       Jaina Samprad�ya �iksh�, p. 656.
  2.       Jaina Bh�rat�, Vol. XI, No. 11.
  3.       NJI. III, p. 28.
  4.       Ibid., No. 2328.
  5.       APJLS., No. 611.
  6.       NJI., No. 2325.
  7.       NJI., Nos. 1131 and 1295.
  8.       NJI., No. 1101.
  9.       HOO., p. 353.
  10.       NJI., No. 988.
  11.       NJI., Nos. 2084 & Jaina Samprad�ya ��ksh�, p. 625.
  12.       Some distinguished Jainas, p. 36.
  13.       Ibid., p. 37.
  14.       Ibid.
  15.       Ibid.
  16.       NJI., III, No. 5372.
  17.       HOO., p. 166.
  18.       NJI., I, 2334.
  19.       Ibid., 2577.
  20.       Ibid., II, 1285.
  21.       Bhagav�n P�r�van�tha k� Parampar� K� Itih�sa, p. 1109.
  22.       NJI., Pt. I & II.
  23.       Jaina Samprad�ya �iksh�, p. 626.
  24.       NJI., No. 2317.
  25.       Ibid., No. 2404.
  26.       Jaina Samprad�ya �iksh�, p. 628, Gadd� �aha was the brother of famous Bhains� ��ha.
  27.       NJI., No. 1062.
  28.       Jaina Samprad�ya �iksh� ��ha pp. 635-637.
  29.       NJI., No. 2186.
  30.       Jaina Samprad�ya �iksh�, p. 637.
  31.       NJI., No. 1079.
  32.       NJI., No. 1877.
  33.       Jaina Samprad�ya �iksh�, p. 638.
  34.       NJI., No. 1267.
  35.       Jaina Samprad�ya �iksha, pp. 639, 640 and 641.
  36.       NJI., No. 1317.
  37.       HOO., p. 312.
  38.       Ibid., No. 542.
  39.       NJI., 1991.
  40.       HOO., p. 393.
  41.       Jaina Samprad�ya �iksh�, p. 622.
  42.       NJI., No. 1192.
  43.       Jaina Samprad�ya �iksh�, p. 628.
  44.       NJI., No. 2189.
  45.       Jaina Samprad�ya Siksh�, p. 631.
  46.       Bhagav�n P�r�van�tha K� Parampar� K� Itih�sa, p. 1109.
  47.       NJI., No. 2253.
  48.       NJI., No. 1957.
  49.       Jaina Samprad�ya �iksh�, p. 634.
  50.       APJLS., No. 113.
  51.       Jaina Samprad�ya �iksh�, p. 634.
  52.       HOO., p. 427.
  53.       NJI., No. 2136.
  54.       NJI., No. 2114.
  55.       HOO., p. 509.
  56.       Jaina Pustaka Pra�asti Sa�graha, No. 35.
  57.       Jaina S�hitya Sa��odhaka Evam Jain�ch�rya �tm�r�ma �at�bd� Sm�raka Grantha, Gujar�ti Vibh�ga, P. 204.
  58.       Sr� Jaina Gotra Sa�graha, pp. 13-23.
  59.       Pr�gv��a Itih�sa ï¿½ Introduction, p. 12.
  60.       NJI., No. 1166.
  61.       Ibid., No. 295.
  62.       EJI., No. 1163.
  63.       NJI., No. 1676
  64.       Ibid., No. 412.
  65.       Ibid., No. 413.
  66.       Ibid., No. 2329.
  67.       Ibid., No. 2464.
  68.       Ibid., No. 830.
  69.       Ibid., No. 38.
  70.       Ibid., No. 391.
  71.       Ibid., No. 1993.
  72.       Ibid., No. 1974.
  73.       Ibid., No. 1956.
  74.       Ibid., No. 1967.
  75.       Ibid., No. 1932.
  76.       Ibid., No. 2085.
  77.       Ibid., No. 1224 & 1227.
  78.       Ibid., No. 737 & 823.
  79.       Ibid., No. 577.
  80.       Ibid., No. 2333.
  81.       Ibid., No. 2292.
  82.       Ibid., No. 2429.
  83.       Ibid., No. 750.
  84.       Ibid., No. 2370.
  85.       ï¿½ri Jaina Gotra Sa�graha, pp. 13-23.
  86.       Ojh� Nibandha �a�graha, p. 25.
  87.       NJI., No. 1614.
  88.       Ibid., No. 2151.
  89.       Sr� Jaina Gotra Sa�graha, p. 50 (Introduction).
  90.       Ibid.
  91.       NJI., No. 947, 948 and 150.
  92.       Ibid., 621.
  93.       Ibid., 1214.
  94.       Ibid., 1308.
  95.       Ibid., 1778.
  96.       Bhagav�n P�r�van�tha K� Parampar� K� Itih�sa, p. 544.
  97.       Manuscript in the ��stra Bha�d�ra at Ajmer.
  98.      ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U��ʋ���� ��. 1250 ��� �͋���ʊ �� �Uʡ���U ��. ���ʄU� ���� �U�U��� �҇��� �Ȍ� 1 ���ݲ�� (Inscription on the image of white marble in the temple of Si�gh�j�  at Jaipur).
  99.       PS., p. 138.
  100. PS., P. 175.
  101. PS., p. 96.
  102. PS., p. 2.
  103. See above, p. 81.
  104. PS., p. 177.
  105. See above, p. 79.
  106. PS., p. 89.
  107. See above, p. 81.
  108. ���� 1703 �҇��� �ʂ� ����c�U�ʐ � ��U� ��� �U��˟�� ���ʐ�Ö
  109. See above, p. 81.
  110. PS., p. 4.
  111. See above, p. 81.
  112. See above., p. 80.
  113. PS., p. 63.
  114. J.S. ï¿½iksh�, p. 128.
  115. Ibid., p. 113.
  116. See above, p. 81.
  117. PS., p. 29.
  118. PS., P. 190.
  119. V�rav���, Vol. VII.
  120. See above, p. 12 (F.N. 2).
  121. ���� 1590 �ʄU �Ȍ� 9 ��� �͋���� ��UÊ«U�� ���ʊ �ʄU� ���� ���ʖ (Ins. on Da�alaksha�a Yantra in Jaina temple of Pa�odi at Jaipur).
  122. ���� 1799 ���c�U �Ȍ� 10 �ِ� ��� �͋���� �Ȣ���Ȣ������ʸ��� ���ʋ� ���ʊ ����U� ����� �����c�Uâ� (Ins. on the metal image of L��akara�aj� Pa��y�, Jaipur.)
  123. PS., P. 99.
  124. Ibid., 169.
  125. Ibid., p. 170.
  126. Ibid., p. 177.
  127. Ibid., pp. 44 & 77.
  128. See above, p. 81.
  129. EI., V. XXIV, p. 84, Verses, 82-83.
  130. IA., V. XX, See Table of Pontifical Residences, p. 57.
  131. Manuscript in the ��stra Bha���ra of Ajmer.
  132. JSAI., p. 134.
  133. ARRMA., Yr. 1926-27, No. 10.
  134. NJI., No. 438.
  135. Ibid., No. 727.
  136. Ibid.,  No. 628.
  137. PS., p. 147.
  138. PS., p. 98.
  139. Inscription on Yantra in the Jaina temple at Jaipur.
  140. See above, p. 72.
  141. �r� Bhagav�n P�r�van�tha K� Parampar� K� Itih�sa, p. 550.
  142. Ibid., p. 548.
  143. PS., p. 85.
  144. Ibid., p. 119.
  145. Ibid., p. 82.
  146. Ibid., p. 97.
  147. ��stra Bha���ra �r� Digambara Jaina Mandira Sambhavan�tha Ba�� Baz�ra, Udaipur.
  148. Anek�nta, Vol. 13, p. 124.
  149. Ibid., p. 124.
  150. Anek�nta Vol. 13, p. 124.
  151. JSAI., p. 468.
  152. Anek�nta, Vol. 3, p. 124.
  153. Ibid.
  154. JSAI., p. 468.
  155. Anek�nta, Vol. 4, p. 610.
  156. Jaina Pustaka Pra�asti Sa�graha, Nos. 52 & 93.
  157. Manidh�r� �r� Jinachandra S�ri, p. 74.
  158. NJI, I, Nos. 48, 236, 482.
  159. Ibid.
  160. NJI, No. 778.
  161. Ibid, I.
  162. NJI, I, No. 119, No. 292.
  163. E I, XXXV.
  164. ARADGS, 1929-30.
  165. CII, VII, pp. 118-119.
  166. Malwa Through The Ages, p. 512, No. 6.
  167. Ibid, No. 7.
  168. Ibid, No. 8.
  169. Ibid, p. 2.
  170. Malwa Through the Ages, P. 9.
  171. Malava�chala Ke Jaina Lekha, Nos. 50, 162, 254.
  172. Ibid.
  173. Ibid.
  174. Ibid., Arhat Vachana, V-4, pp. 261-63.
  175. E I, XXXVI, pp. 121-23.
  176. Arhat, V-4, pp. 262-63.
  177. E I.I. pp. 147-152.
  178. Ibid, pp. 135-136.
  179. BBDJI, III, p. 109.
  180. Ibid.
  181. E.I. II, pp. 232-240.
  182. BBDJI, III, p. 109.
  183. ARADGS,  V.S. 1904, No. 15; Gwalior R�jya ke Abhilekha, No. 149.
  184. KAMTA PRASAD Pratima Lekha Sa�graha.
  185. KAMTA PRASAD : Pratim� Lekha Sa�graha.
  186. NJI, I.
  187. MUNI KANTISAGAR : Jaina Dhatu Pratima Lekha Samgraha.
  188. Ibid., No. 79.
  189. Ibid., No. 30.
  190. Ibid., Nos. 158, 159 and 173.
  191. Maindh�r� �ri Jinachandra S�ri, p. 20
  192. NJI, Nos. 239, 270, 186, 215, 216, 217, No. 257, 271, 272 and 192.
  193. NJI, No. 221.
  194. Ibid, No. 228.
  195. JSLS, V, Nos. 18, 36.
  196. Ibid, No. 80.
  197. Ibid, Nos. 81 and 96.
  198. Ibid, No. 41.
  199. Ibid, No. 54.
  200. Ibid, No. 55.
  201. Ibid, No. 122.
  202. Ibid, No. 150.