SOCIAL – DIVISIONS
SOCIAL – DIVISIONS
The Social Divisions in Jainism are concerned with society. It seems that in the Early Medieval Period, Jaina saints converted a large number of people to Jainism, and formed their social groups and named them in different ways. From their names such as Humbaï¿½a and Dhaskaï¿½a, it seems that they originated from tribal people. Some are territorial in nature. Some Kulas, titles and surnames were converted into castes. Some castes originated from the professions. The Jaina system of social organization was in the beginning based on the distinction of function. Later on, birth was considered as a criterion of these castes because of the influence of Brahmanical religion and of Muslim rule. Most of the Jaina castes in North – India originated in Rajasthan. Later on, they gradually migrated to the different regions. These Jaina castes were divided into ï¿½vetambara and Digambara castes on the basis of religious sects. Among the ï¿½vetï¿½mbara castes, Osvï¿½las, Poravï¿½las and ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½s are famous, while in the Digambaras, Bagheravï¿½las and Khaï¿½ï¿½elavï¿½las are well known. As people migrated and settled in different regions outside Rajasthan, it shows their adventurous spirit. Some castes of the same name as ï¿½gravï¿½las, ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½s, Poravï¿½las and Khaï¿½ï¿½elavï¿½las are found both among the Jainas and the non-Jainas. In South India, castes among the Jainas were determined by the professions. These castes were gradually divided into several gotras. The marriages of the individuals of the caste were determined after considering the gotras.
Jaina Castes and Gotras of Rajasthan : Most of the castes and their gotras found among the Jainas in the North have their origin, in Rajasthan. The time and the manner of their origin is shrouded in considerable mystery. There are many legendary accounts of their origin which tell us that they are of great antiquity. But, as a matter of fact, no names of these castes and their gotras before the seventh century are traceable. From the historical point of view, these castes and their gotras seem to have come into existence between the eighth and the thirteenth century A.D., the time of golden age for Jainism in Rajasthan. There were born great influential saints like Hemachandra and Jinachandra who converted the Rajputs Brï¿½hmaï¿½as and Vaiï¿½yas to Jainism. Even the Jaina statesmen like Vimala and Vastupï¿½la tried to spread Jainism by rendering meritorious services. The merchants also spent countless wealth for its propagation by constructing beautiful temples and placing images in them. In this way, Jainism was accepted by a large number of masses who formed different Castes.
(1) Osavï¿½las : Osavï¿½las are found in all the important cities of Rajasthan. They occupy a prominent position both in administrative and commercial spheres. Their origin is from the place named Osia in Marwar. This town was visited by Uppaladeva, the Scion of the ruling family of ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la who being pressed by his enemy sought refuge at the hands of a ruler of the Pratï¿½hï¿½ra dynasty which was then supreme in Marwar. At this time, the Jaina saint Ratnaprabhasï¿½ri came to this place and found the only son of Uppaladeva bitten by a snake. The king requested Ratnaprabha to cure him which he did. The king with his subjects embraced Jainism and Ratnaprabhasï¿½ri formed the Osavï¿½la Caste of these people. There are three views about the time of the incident.
- According to theNï¿½bhinandanoddhï¿½ra-prabandhaand the Upakeï¿½agachchha-charitra, Ratnaprabhasï¿½ri, the seventh paï¿½ï¿½adhara in the line of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha, established the Osavaï¿½ï¿½a in Vï¿½ra Nirvï¿½ï¿½a Saï¿½vat 70 (457 B.C.). 2. In the opinion of the Bhï¿½ï¿½as, the caste of the Osavï¿½las with their eighteen Gotras was established by the teachings of Ratnaprabhasï¿½ri at Upakeï¿½anagara in Marwar in 222 V.E. (165 A.D.) 3. But both these views do not seem to be correct, because there is no mention and trace of this caste before the 8th century A.D. It seems to have come into existence afterwards. The king Uppaladeva and his subjects were converted to Jainism by Ratnaprabhasï¿½ri who formed their caste of Osavï¿½las.
Gotras of the Osavï¿½las : After the conversion, Osavï¿½las continued to multiply and they formed eighteen Gotras according to the traditions. But the process of the multiplication continued further particularly because they ceased to be a fighting race; and there was no mass casualty due to any battle. It is believed that there are 1444 Gotras of the Osavï¿½las. But these are not the main Gotras. They just represent simply the branches and sub-branches. Yati ï¿½rï¿½pï¿½la refers to the manuscript which mentions 609 Gotras.1 The poet Rï¿½pachanda of the eighteenth century A.D. in his Osvï¿½larï¿½sa mentions about 440 Gotras.2 Some are territorial, some are individualistic, and others are occupational.
(a) Territorial Gotras : Some Gotras were named after the places of their origin. Jinadattasï¿½ri gave vï¿½sakshepa to the two princes namely ï¿½rï¿½dhara and Rï¿½jadhara of Rï¿½vala Sï¿½gara at Bhaï¿½asï¿½la in Jaisalmer. The Princes and after them their descendants and still further those who were closely or remotely related to them, all came to be called Bhaï¿½asï¿½lï¿½s. And thus was established the Bhaï¿½aï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ Gotra.3 In 1542 A.D., Sï¿½ha Vï¿½daka of this Gotra celebrated the consecration of Chandraprabha through Jinabhadra Sï¿½ri at Jaisalmer.4 So the Gotra must have strated not later than 1500 A.D. The Kï¿½chholi Gotra was formed after the village named Kï¿½chchhola in Sirohi State probably at the beginning of the 13th century A.D. In 1286 A.D., Ajayasiï¿½ha of this Gotra installed the image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha at Kachchholï¿½ for acquiring merit for his parents.5 Koranï¿½a Gotra originated from the place named Koranï¿½a in Marwar. In 1450 A.D. Sï¿½ha Vï¿½sala of this Gotra for acquiring merit for himself celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Sumatinï¿½tha through Kakkasï¿½ri of this Gachchha.6 Some Osavï¿½las of Pï¿½gala settled at another place, and they began to be called by the name Pï¿½gala. Meï¿½atavï¿½la Gotra came into existence after the city of Mertï¿½ in the former Jodhpur State. The inscriptions of the 16th century of this Gotra are available at Mertï¿½ and Udaipur.7 The Osavï¿½las who came from Kanauj, were grouped under Kanaujiï¿½ Gotra. In 1502 A.D., Sï¿½kheï¿½ha of this Gotra for the merit of his father consecrated the ï¿½ï¿½talanï¿½tha bimba through Devagupta Sï¿½ri.8 Kï¿½ï¿½krï¿½a Gotra originated from Bhï¿½masï¿½ who lived in the village Kï¿½nkarï¿½vata.9 He was the Sï¿½manta of Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ of Udaipur and was converted to Jainism by Jinavallabhasï¿½ri of the Kharatara Gachchha. There is a mention of this Gotra in the inscription of 1442 A.D. found at Alwar.10 It is clear that these Gotras started mostly between the 13th and the 15th centuries A.D.
(b) Occupational Gotras : Some Gotras originated from the occupations of certain Jainas. Rï¿½ï¿½hï¿½a Rï¿½va Chï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ gave his treasury to ï¿½hï¿½karasï¿½. It is therefore the descendants of ï¿½hï¿½karasï¿½ that began to be called Koï¿½hï¿½rï¿½. From the inscription of 1456 A.D., it is clear that Megha of this Gotra celebrated Vï¿½sapï¿½jya bimba through Vinayaprabhasï¿½ri of Nï¿½gendra Gachchha.11 Those people, who did the work of cashiers, were called Khajï¿½ï¿½chï¿½. The Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rï¿½s claim ï¿½aï¿½rï¿½o as their great ancestor.12 In 992 A.D., he adopted Jainism from Yaï¿½obhadrasï¿½ri of the Saï¿½ï¿½eraka Gachchha. Officially, ï¿½aï¿½rï¿½o was designed as Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rï¿½ or the person in charge of the store-house; and consequently, his descendants became known as Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ris. The earliest inscription of this clan at Nï¿½ï¿½lï¿½i of 1132 A.D. refers to Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ri Nï¿½gaï¿½iva as a witness to a certain grant.13 Another inscription of 1184 A.D. refers to one Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ri Yaï¿½ovï¿½ra as the lord of Palla (a village six miles to the west of Jodhpur).14 A Jalor inscription of 1185 A.D. records the rebuilding of the Jaina temple by Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ri Yaï¿½ovira, son of Pï¿½su, in accordance with the orders of Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½ Sï¿½manta Siï¿½ha.15 The descendants of the person, who deals in ghee, were called Ghï¿½yï¿½. In 1569 A.D., Narabaï¿½a of this Gotra set up the image of Sambhavanï¿½tha through Hï¿½ravijaya of Tapï¿½ Gachchha.16 It is heard that the ancestor of the people of Vaidys Gotra cured the disease of an eye of the queen of Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ of Udaipur. Therefore, he was given the title of Vaidya, and his descendants became famous by Veda Gotra.17 In 1455 A.D., Bhï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ka of this Gotra installed the image of Vimalanï¿½tha through Kukaï¿½ï¿½chï¿½rya of Upakeï¿½a Gachchha.18 The Mahï¿½jani Gotra was probably formed from the profession of Mahï¿½jana. The inscription of 1457 A.D. records that Nï¿½lhï¿½ of this Gotra consecrated an image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha through Kakkasï¿½rï¿½.19 There are also Chanï¿½ï¿½liyï¿½ and Bambi Gotras found among the Osavï¿½las. Their business was with these sorts of people; and, therefore, they began to call themselves by these names. In 1745 A.D., Ratnapï¿½la of Chanï¿½ï¿½liyï¿½ Gotra set up the image of Suvidhinï¿½tha for the merit of his father through Puï¿½yanidhï¿½nasï¿½ri of Maladhï¿½ri Gachchha.10
(c) Gotras after Personal Names : The names of the Gotras were also given after certain famous persons. The ï¿½dityanï¿½ga Gotra originated from the well known person ï¿½dityanï¿½ga who was very famous for liberal charities and solicitude for social welfare.21 Numerous inscriptions of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries on the pedestals of the images of this Gotra are also found in various places such as Jodhpur, Nagaur, Bï¿½lotarï¿½ etc.22 After addressing Paï¿½vï¿½ra Rï¿½japï¿½ta Lï¿½la Siï¿½ha in 1110 A.D., Jinavallabha Sï¿½ri established the Lï¿½lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Gotra.23 Lï¿½la Siï¿½ha had seven sons. The eldest son was very strong (Baï¿½ï¿½ha) and from him originated Baï¿½ï¿½hiyï¿½ Gotra. In 1444 A.D., Sï¿½ha Jayavaï¿½a of Lï¿½lï¿½nï¿½ Gotra set up the image of Dharmanï¿½tha through Jayakeï¿½ari Sï¿½ri of Aï¿½chala Gachchha.24 In 1479 A.D., Sï¿½ha Hï¿½mï¿½ of Bï¿½ï¿½ï¿½hiya Gotra made the celebration of Jinavarendra Paï¿½ï¿½ikï¿½ through Jinachandra Sï¿½ri.25. It is said that the descendants of Gadï¿½sï¿½ha were called Gadahiyï¿½.26 In 1411 A.D., Sï¿½ha ï¿½nï¿½ of this Gotra for the merit of his wife Bhï¿½manï¿½ celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha through. Devaguptasï¿½ri of Upakeï¿½a Gachchha.27 Lï¿½ï¿½iyï¿½ Gotra was named after Lï¿½ï¿½a Siï¿½ha who accepted Jainism from Jinadatta Sï¿½ri. In 1456 A.D., the image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha was consecrated by Geï¿½aka of this Gotra through Jinabhadrasï¿½ri of Kharatara Gachchha.28 In 1148 A.D., Hemachandrasï¿½ri of Pï¿½rï¿½atala Gachchha by addressing Paï¿½vï¿½ra Rajapï¿½ta Jagadeva converted him to Jainism.29 Sï¿½ra and Sï¿½ï¿½vala were the two sons of Jagadeva. The descendants of Sï¿½ra were called Surï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ and of Sï¿½ï¿½valï¿½ were known as Sï¿½ï¿½khalï¿½.30 In 1444 A.D., Sonapï¿½la of Surï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Gotra installed the image of Sumatinï¿½tha through Vijaya Chanda Sï¿½ri of Dharmaghosha Gachchha.31 The consecration ceremony of the image of Sumatinï¿½tha was performed by Lï¿½khï¿½ka of Sï¿½ï¿½khalï¿½ Gotra through Vijaya Chanda Sï¿½ri of Dharmaghosha Gachchha in 1438 A.D. 32 Dï¿½gaï¿½ and Sï¿½gaï¿½a, the two brothers accepted Jainism from Jinachandrasï¿½ri.33 The descendants of Dï¿½gaï¿½a were called Dï¿½gaï¿½a and of Sï¿½gaï¿½a by the name Sï¿½gaï¿½a. In 1460 A.D., Nï¿½garï¿½ja of this Gotra celebrated the consecration of the image of ï¿½reyï¿½ï¿½sanï¿½tha through Somasundara of Rudrapalli Gachchha.34 The Botharï¿½ Gotra was named after Bohitha, the son of the king named Sï¿½gara of Delavï¿½ï¿½ï¿½.35 In 1477 A.D., the installation ceremony of the image of ï¿½reyï¿½nï¿½anï¿½tha was performed by Thï¿½hï¿½ of Botharï¿½ Gotra through Jina Chanda Sï¿½ri of Kharatara Gachchha.36 From the person Dï¿½dherï¿½, this Gotra became famous as Dudheriyï¿½ Gotra.37 On the preaching of Jinakï¿½ï¿½ala Sï¿½ri, Dï¿½ï¿½gara Siï¿½ha, the Chauhï¿½na Rï¿½jpï¿½t accepted Jainism. From this name, his descendants were called ï¿½ï¿½gï¿½.38
(d) Kulas Converted into Gotras : Some Kulas also in course of time were converted into Gotras. The ancient Kaï¿½yapa Kula in course of time was converted into Kaï¿½yapa Gotra. From the inscription of 1458 A.D., it is clear that Chuï¿½ï¿½ of this Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Neminï¿½tha through ï¿½ï¿½varasï¿½ri of Saï¿½ï¿½eraka Gachchha.39 In the 13th century A.D., ï¿½ravaï¿½a, the son of Karï¿½a Siï¿½ha, accepted Jainism from Yaï¿½obhadra Sï¿½ri.40 His descendants also followed Jainism and became known by Sisodiyï¿½ Gotra.
(e) Gotras Formed After Actions : Some Gotras have been also formed after certain actions. The Baraï¿½iyï¿½ Gotra is said to have originated in about the 11th century A.D. from Nï¿½ga Vyantara who gave Varadiyï¿½ (gave promise) to Nï¿½rï¿½yaï¿½a.41 Baraï¿½iyï¿½ is the Apabhraï¿½ï¿½a of Varadiyï¿½. In 1527 A.D., the image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha was consecrated by Sï¿½ha ï¿½oï¿½ara of this Gotra.42Pï¿½su was an expert in examining jewels. His descendants were, therefore, known by Pï¿½rakha or Parï¿½kshï¿½.43 In 1461 A.D. Surapati of this Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Suvidhinï¿½tha through Jina Chandra of Kharatara Gachcha.44 In 1120 A.D., Jinadatta Sï¿½ri after addressing Jobana and Sachchu established Bï¿½huphaï¿½ï¿½ Gotra.45 His descendants did not move from the battlefield and therefore they were called Nï¿½haï¿½ï¿½. It may also be suggested that Bï¿½huphaï¿½ï¿½ Gotra was named after the well-known person named Bappanï¿½ga.46 It is known from the inscriptions of 1329 A.D. that Mokhaï¿½a of this Gotra for the merit of his parents set up the image of Sumatinï¿½tha through Kakka Sï¿½ri41. In 1439 A.D., Mï¿½jaï¿½a of Nï¿½haï¿½ï¿½ Gotra constructed devakulikï¿½ of Vimalanï¿½tha temple at Karahaï¿½a through Maï¿½janasï¿½gara Sï¿½ri.48 The Sultan of Mï¿½ndalgarh being impressed by the virtues of Jhï¿½ï¿½jhana Siï¿½ha, allowed him to keep the Kaï¿½ï¿½ra (knife) in the royal court. His descendants, therefore, became famous by Kaï¿½ï¿½riyï¿½ Gotra.49 By the influence of the discourses of Bhuvana Sundara, Saï¿½ghavï¿½ Tukade, Pï¿½sade, Punasï¿½ and Mï¿½lï¿½ of Kaï¿½ï¿½riyï¿½ Gotra constructed a devakulikï¿½ in Jirï¿½pallï¿½ temple in 1426 A.D.50 The people, who went on pilgrimage, were given the title of Saï¿½ghavï¿½. A person named Kï¿½kï¿½ was given the title of Nagara Seï¿½ha. His descendants therefore began to be called Seï¿½hiyï¿½.51 In 1095 A.D., Jinavallabhasï¿½ri came to Mandor which was ruled by the king named Nï¿½nuï¿½e Paï¿½ihï¿½ra. His son was Kukaï¿½adeva who was suffering from leprosy. The king requested him to cure him. He asked the king to bring ghee of some cow and got it rubbed over the body of the prince. After the treatment of three days, he became all right. The king with his family accepted Jainism and Sï¿½rijï¿½ established his Kukaiï¿½ï¿½chopaï¿½ï¿½ Gotra.52 The minister of the Paï¿½ihï¿½ra king named Gaï¿½adhara also accepted Jainism and Sï¿½riji established Gaï¿½adhara Chopaï¿½ï¿½ Gotra. There is the mention of the Kukaï¿½ï¿½ Chopaï¿½ï¿½ Gotra in the inscription of 1479 A.D.53 The inscription of 1436 A.D. records that Pï¿½saï¿½a of Gaï¿½adhara Chopaï¿½ï¿½ Gotra set up an image of Supï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha through Jinabhadrasï¿½ri.54 Kharata Siï¿½ha Rï¿½ï¿½hoï¿½a at the preaching of Jinadattasï¿½ri accepted Jainism. His elder son, Ambadeva faced the thieves (chora se bhiï¿½iyï¿½) and caught them. The name in course of time became Choraï¿½iyï¿½.55
It is known from the inscriptions of the images that some Gotras were specially connected with some Gachchhas. The people of these Gotras celebrated the consecration ceremony of the images through the Acaryas of their respective Gachchhas. The people of ï¿½dityanï¿½ga Gotra performed the consecration ceremony of the various images but all through the ï¿½chï¿½ryas of Upakeï¿½a Gacchha. Similarly, the persons belonging to Gadahiyï¿½ Gotra, Bï¿½phaï¿½ï¿½ Gotra and Rï¿½ï¿½akï¿½ Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony through the ï¿½chï¿½ryas of Upakeï¿½a Gachchha. The people of Gaï¿½adhara Chopaï¿½ï¿½ Gotra, ï¿½ï¿½gï¿½ Gotra, Dosï¿½ Gotra and Lï¿½ï¿½iyï¿½ Gotra generally performed the installation ceremony of the images through the Acaryas of Kharatara Gachchha. The people of Ghï¿½ï¿½ghï¿½ Gotra and Chaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½liyï¿½ Gotra set up the images mostly through the ï¿½chï¿½ryas of Maladhï¿½ri Gachchha. Chhï¿½jahaï¿½a Gotra is specially related to Pallivï¿½la Gachchha because its persons installed the images generally through the Acaryas of this Gachchha. The persons of Sisodiyï¿½ Gotra are seen installing the images through the Acaryas of Shaï¿½ï¿½eraka Gachchha. The persons belonging to Dï¿½gaï¿½a Gotra and Mï¿½thaï¿½iya Gotra are seen setting up the images respectively through the ï¿½chï¿½ryas of Bï¿½ihad Gachchha and Aï¿½chala Gachchha. Sometimes, the persons of the Gotra installed the images through the Acaryas of two Gachchhas. This is specially seen in the case of Sï¿½ï¿½khavï¿½lechï¿½ Gotra. They installed the images through the Acarya of Koraï¿½ï¿½aka Gachchha and Kharatara Gachchha. It is also noticed though rarely that the persons of one particular Gotra set up images through the Acaryas of more than one Gachchha.
ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½s : ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½s among Jainas originated from ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la now known as Bhimal in Marwar. In course of time, they multiplied and spread specially in Jodhpur, Udaipur and Sirohi. They occupied the influential position in the society. Their origin may be traced back to the 8th century A.D. There is a stanza in the praï¿½asti56 of Kï¿½lakï¿½chï¿½rya Kathï¿½ of 1308 A.D. which tells that ï¿½rï¿½vaka Dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ of ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la caste after listening to the religious discourses from ï¿½ï¿½nti Sï¿½ri constructed the Chaitya of ï¿½dinï¿½tha in 647 A.D. at Navahara. The oldest genealogy of the ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la Caste says that a merchant Toï¿½ï¿½ of Bhï¿½radvï¿½ja Gotra and of ï¿½rï¿½mala Caste was addressed by a Jaina Saint in 738 A.D.57 From both these instances, it is clear that Jainism was popular and prevalent in ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la in the eighth century A.D. The king named Vijayanta of ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la accepted Jainism from Udaiprabha Sï¿½ri. Along with him, sixty-two seï¿½has, followers of Brï¿½hmanism, also accepted Jainism.58 All were called ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½s. From thePaï¿½chapaï¿½arï¿½sa written by the poet Udayaratna concerning the history of the Acaryas of Dvivandanika, the branch of Upakeï¿½a Gachachha, it is known that in 700 ï¿½aka era, Ratnaprabha Sï¿½ri came to this town where he established the Srï¿½mï¿½la caste.59 From all these instances, it is clear that ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½s among the Jainas came into existence in the seventh or eighth century A.D.
In course of time, ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½s were divided into two classes namely Laghu ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ and Bï¿½ihad ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½. The inscription of 1488 A.D. indicates that Sahasakaraï¿½a of Laghu ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ of the Srï¿½mï¿½la Caste for the merit of his mother celebrated the consecration of the image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha through Siddhï¿½nta Sï¿½gara of Aï¿½chala Gachchha.60 There is als an inscription of 1944 A.D. of Bï¿½iddha ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ of ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la caste.61 Besides, there are various Gotras found among the ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½s as known to us from the inscriptions. These are based on occupations, place names and other grounds.
Gotras of ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lis : The Gotras of ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½s originated in various ways. Ambikï¿½ Gotra seems to have originated from the deity Ambikï¿½. In 1477 A.D., ï¿½reshï¿½hi Chï¿½ndrasï¿½va of this Gotra for the merit of ancestors performed the installation ceremony of the image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha through Lakshmï¿½sï¿½gara ï¿½ï¿½ri.62 Ailahara Gotra is mentioned in the inscription of 1442 A.D.63 There are also the inscriptions of Govaliyï¿½ Gotra64 and Ghevariyï¿½ Gotra.65 The inscription of 1452 A.D. records that Jï¿½vaï¿½a of Gï¿½ndhika Gotra set up the image of Dharmanï¿½tha.66 In 1476 A.D., the consecration of the image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha was celebrated by Pï¿½saï¿½a of Gautama Gotra.67 Here, this Gotra seems to have originated from the Kula founded by some saint named Gautama. Chaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½lechï¿½68Gotra and ï¿½auï¿½ï¿½ Gotra are also found in the inscriptions.69 Dosï¿½ Gotra,70 Naluriyï¿½ Gotra, Junï¿½vï¿½la Gotra, Jhungatiyï¿½ Gotra, Nï¿½vara Gotra,71 Bhï¿½ï¿½ï¿½iyï¿½72 Gotra, Mauï¿½hiyï¿½73 Gotra, Mï¿½nthalapurï¿½ Gotra,74 Vahagatï¿½ Gotra,75 ï¿½reshï¿½hï¿½ Gotra,76 Sï¿½ï¿½ghaï¿½a Gotra,77 Phophaliya Gotra,78 Bhï¿½ï¿½ï¿½avata Gotra,79 Mï¿½sala Gotra80 and Siddha Gotra81 are found in the inscriptions of the 15th century A.D. Dhï¿½nï¿½ Gotra,82 Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Gotra83 and Muhavaï¿½ï¿½ Gotra84 are seen in the inscriptions belonging to the 16th century A.D.
Poravï¿½las : It is saud that Poravï¿½las originated simultaneously with ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½s from ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la in the eighth century A.D. The people of the eastern gate of ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la, who accepted Jainism from the Jaina saints in the eighth century A.D., were called Poravï¿½las.85 The origin of the Poravï¿½las from ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la does not seem to be correct. In old inscriptions and manuscripts, Prï¿½gvï¿½ï¿½a has been used for the Poravï¿½la.86 Prï¿½gvï¿½ï¿½a was another name of Mewar (Medapï¿½ï¿½a). It seems that the people of Prï¿½gvï¿½ï¿½a country in course of time began to be called Prï¿½gvï¿½ï¿½as or Poravï¿½las. The Poravï¿½las tell their origin from the village Pura in Mewar. Like ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½s, Porvï¿½las were also divided into Laghu ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ and Bï¿½ihad ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½. We have the inscription of Laghu ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ of Poravï¿½la caste of 1653 A.D.87 The image of Sumatinï¿½tha was set up in 1534 A.D. by Mantri Vï¿½saka of Bï¿½iddha ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ of Prï¿½gvï¿½ï¿½a Caste.88
The Gotras89 of the Poravï¿½la Caste as known from the inscriptions and manuscripts are as follows90 ï¿½ Jhï¿½lara, Muï¿½ï¿½haliyï¿½, Lï¿½mbï¿½, Maï¿½ï¿½aliyï¿½, Kunagirï¿½, Paï¿½ela, Narvaï¿½a, Lolï¿½niya, Posaï¿½, Kothï¿½rï¿½, Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rï¿½, Ambï¿½i, Koï¿½akï¿½ and Nï¿½ga. In 1546 A.D., the brothers Tejapï¿½la, Rï¿½japï¿½la, Ratanasï¿½ and Rï¿½madï¿½sa of Koï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ri Gotra of Prï¿½gvï¿½ï¿½a Caste constructed the temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, at the village named Pinï¿½avï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ in Sirohi State.91 ï¿½ï¿½nti of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ri Gotra installed the image of Munisuvratanï¿½tha in 1447 A.D.92 In 1571 A.D., Vyaavahï¿½ri Khï¿½mï¿½ of Ambï¿½ Gotra set up the image of Dharmanï¿½tha.93 In 1586 A.D., Mï¿½la of Koï¿½akï¿½ Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha through Vijayasena Sï¿½ri of Tapï¿½ Gachchha.94
Pallï¿½vï¿½la Caste : Pallï¿½vï¿½las both among the Digambaras and ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras, seem to have been named after Pï¿½lï¿½ in Marwar the name of which in olden times was Pallikï¿½. It is said that the people of this place were converted to Jainism in about the eigth century A.D. by Ratnaprabhasï¿½ri who converted the people of Osiï¿½ and ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la. Pallï¿½vï¿½las are known to have celebrated the consecration ceremony of images from time to time. In 1253 A.D., Dedï¿½ of this caste installed an image of Mallinï¿½tha through Yaï¿½obhadra of Chandra Gachchha.95 People of this caste also led Saï¿½ghas to holy places from time to time from Pï¿½lï¿½.96
Khaï¿½ï¿½elavï¿½la Caste : There is no doubt that the Caste of Khaï¿½ï¿½elavï¿½las originated from the place named Khaï¿½ï¿½elï¿½. But there is some difficulty in assigning the time to this incident. According to the legendary account, Jinasenï¿½chï¿½rya in the line of the saint Aparï¿½jita, converted the Chauhï¿½n king of Khaï¿½ï¿½elï¿½ with his subjects to Jainism in V.S.I.97 Eighty-two Rajbuts and two goldsmiths were ruling over eighty-four villages of the kingdom of Khaï¿½ï¿½elï¿½. The eightyfour Gotras were formed either after the name of the villages or the heads of villages. The Gotras of the two goldsmiths became ï¿½mnï¿½ya Baja and Mohanï¿½ya Baja. The time assigned to this incident is not correct. There are no solid grounds for the existence of this caste before the eighth century A.D. The earliest mention of this caste is found in the inscription of 1197 A.D.98
The origin of the eightyfour Gotras, from the eightyfour villages at one particular time, does not seem to be correct. The number eightyfour seems to be only conventional. There are eightyfour castes, eightyfour postures (ï¿½sanas) etc. Originally, these Gotras may be less in number, but gradually they increased. Some Gotras not even in existence at the beginning were added in order to make them eightyfour in number. These Gotras seem to be based on the place names, occupations and surnames etc.
Regional Gotras : The Gotras also seem to be regional in nature. Ajmerï¿½ Gotra was probably named after Ajmer. Sunakhatï¿½, the wife of Sï¿½ha Surajana of Ajmer of this Gotra, got the Pradyumnacharitra written and gave to the nun Vinayaï¿½rï¿½ in 1538 A.D. There is also the mention of this Gotra in the inscription of 1594 A.D. Pï¿½ï¿½odï¿½ Gotra seems to have originated from the village Pï¿½ï¿½odï¿½ in ï¿½ekhï¿½vat. It is found in the Praï¿½asti of 1764 A.D.100 Dosï¿½ Gotra seems to have originated from the place named Dausï¿½ in Jaipur State. Bohitha of this Gotra of Ajmer set up the image of Chaubï¿½sï¿½ in 1601 A.D. The Gotra Kï¿½salï¿½vï¿½la seems to have come into existence from the village Kï¿½salï¿½ near Sï¿½kara in Jaipur State. It is mentioned in the Praï¿½asti of the copy of the manuscripts written in 1524 A.D.101 Pï¿½ï¿½anï¿½ Gotra started from the village named Pï¿½ï¿½ana, near Khaï¿½ï¿½elï¿½. Pï¿½tamï¿½de, the wife of Paharï¿½ja of this Gotra of Nagaur, presented a copy of the ï¿½dipurï¿½ï¿½a to Dharmachanda in 1520 A.D.102 There is also a mention of this Gotra in the inscription of 1594 A.D.103 Toï¿½gyï¿½ Gotra may have originated from Tonk. It is mentioned in the praï¿½ati of 1522 A.D.3 Kï¿½lï¿½ Gotra seems to have been named from Kï¿½lï¿½devï¿½ near Chomu in Jaipur State. Roho of this Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of an image of 1516 A.D.105 It is also found in the praï¿½asti of 1607 A.D.106
Occupational Gotras : The Gotras were also formed after the occupations. Veda Gotras started from the person who followed the profession of medicines. His descendants in course of time began to be called by this name. In 1584 A.D., Mokï¿½ with his wife and sons of this Gotra installed the Samyagdarï¿½ana Yantra.107 From the legendary account, it is clear that the ancestor of Baja Gotra was a goldsmith at the time of his conversion to Jainism. In 1646 A.D., Hï¿½thï¿½nï¿½tha of this Gotra performed the pratiï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ of Daï¿½alakshï¿½a Yantra.108 The name of this Gotra is also found in the praï¿½asti of 1688 A.D. The Sonï¿½ Gotra also indicates the profession of the people. The earliest mention of it is known from the inscription of 1584 A.D. in which Sï¿½ha Telï¿½ of this Gotra installed Karakuï¿½ï¿½apï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha Yantra.109 It is also mentioned in the praï¿½asti of 1688 A.D.110 Boharï¿½ Gotra seems to have originated from the persons who lend money. Ratanï¿½ of this Gotra with his sons celebrated the consecration ceremony of the yantra in 1484 A.D.111
Titles and Surnames : Titles and surnames also seem to have developed into the Gotras. ï¿½aha Gotra seems to have originated from the term Sï¿½ha used for respect and veneration for the person. Sï¿½hatu of this Gotra with his wife and sons installed the Arham Yantra in 1539 A.D.112 The name of this Gotra is also found in the praï¿½asti of 1518 A.D.113 The title of Chaudharï¿½ was given by the Government to those who did the work of revenue collection. In course of time, it was developed into the Gotra. Sï¿½ha Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½ of this Gotra got the copy of the Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½thacharitra written and gave it to Dharmachandra in 1554 A.D.114 Chhï¿½baï¿½ï¿½ Gotra seems to have come into existence from Sï¿½ha plus Baï¿½ï¿½ (Sï¿½ha plus great). First, it was Sï¿½baï¿½ï¿½ but in course of time, it became Chhï¿½baï¿½ï¿½. Sï¿½ha Notï¿½ of Sï¿½baï¿½ï¿½ Gotra got the copy of the Nï¿½gakumï¿½ra–charitra written and presented it to Lalitakï¿½rti.115 There is also a mention of this Gotra in the inscription of 1591 A.D.116 Bhainsï¿½ Gotra was probably formed from the terms Bhaï¿½ plus Sï¿½ha. It is found in the praï¿½asti of 1694 A.D.117 When the people of this Gotra became large in number, they were known as Baï¿½ajï¿½tyï¿½ (Big caste). At present, Bhainsï¿½ Gotra and Baï¿½ajï¿½tyï¿½ Gotra are considered to be identical Gotra. Seï¿½hï¿½ Gotra probably originated from ï¿½reshï¿½hi which meant rich merchant. This term is frequently found in ancient Buddhist and Jaina literature. This Gotra is mentioned in the praï¿½asti of 1575 A.D.118
Besides, there are other Gotras which are known from the inscriptions and praï¿½astis. The earliest mention of Godhï¿½ Gotra is found in the inscription of 1413 A.D. It records that Vï¿½lhaï¿½a of this Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of the images.119 The other Gotras are ï¿½holyï¿½ Gotra120, Pahï¿½ï¿½yï¿½ Gotra,121 Bilï¿½lï¿½ Gotra,122 Gaï¿½gavï¿½la Gotra,123 Godikï¿½ Gotra,124 Pï¿½ï¿½dyï¿½ Gotra,125Rï¿½ï¿½vakï¿½ Gotra,126 and Sogï¿½nï¿½ Gotra.127 There is also a mention of Kurakurï¿½128 Gotra in the inscription of 1584 A.D. which records that Kï¿½lu with his sons and grandsons of this Gotra performed the installation ceremony of ï¿½inkï¿½ra Yantra. This Gotra is not found in the list of eightyfour Gotras of Khaï¿½ï¿½elavï¿½la caste. It is known both from the praï¿½astis and inscriptions that the people of this caste were generally associated with the ï¿½chï¿½ryas of Mï¿½la Saï¿½gha and rarely with the ï¿½chï¿½ryas of the other Saï¿½ghas. It indicates that the centre of the activities of Mï¿½la Saï¿½gha remained in Rajasthan.
Bagheravï¿½la Caste : Bagheravï¿½la caste originated in about eighth century A.D. from Bagherï¿½, a place of great antiquity. Old Jaina temples and images were discovered and its name is also found in the Bijaulia Rock Inscription dated 1170 A.D.129 This place was aslo the seat of the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas in the twelfth century A.D.130 There is a belief that Rï¿½masena and Nemasena, the Digambara Jaina saints, converted the king of this town with his subjects to Jainism.131 If not all, majority of the citizens of the town must have embraced Jainism from their hands. Pt. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dhara, who went to Dhï¿½rï¿½nagarï¿½ from Mï¿½ndalagaï¿½ha for fear of the invasion of Muhammad Ghori in the 12th century, was of Bagheravï¿½la caste.132 Pï¿½na Siï¿½ha, who repaired the famous Kï¿½rtistambha at Chitor in the 15th century A.D. during the reign of Kumbhakaraï¿½a, was of this caste.133 The Gotras of this caste as known both from the inscriptions and praï¿½astis are as follows ï¿½ (1) Rï¿½yabhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ri134, (2) ï¿½ï¿½nkhavï¿½la,135 (3) ï¿½ï¿½nï¿½pati136 (4) ï¿½holï¿½,137 (5) Koï¿½vï¿½,138 (6) Prabhï¿½139and (7) Siravï¿½ï¿½yï¿½.140
Agravï¿½la Caste : The Agravï¿½las are found in large numbers in Rajasthan. They occupy a respectable position in the society. They are highly educated and much advanced. They are found both among the Jainas and the Hindus. They are also an important middle class of business men. They enthusiastically supported Jainism in the past. They performed the installation ceremony of numerous images and got copies of the manuscripts written. According to the traditions, Agravï¿½la caste originated from the place named Agrohï¿½ in the Punjab and was founded by Agrasena. Once he performed a sacrifice but stopped it when he saw the animals in a miserable condition. Probably, he was influenced by the doctrine of ahiï¿½sï¿½. It is not clear whether he accepted Jainism or not; but from the paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valis,141 it is known that Lohityï¿½chï¿½rya converted the Agravï¿½las with their king Divï¿½kara to Jainism. Later on, Agravï¿½las began to follow Jainism. Accoring to Nï¿½gendranï¿½tha Vasu, this Agrasena is the same Ugrasena mentioned in the Allahabada inscription of Samudra Gupta.142Lohityï¿½chï¿½rya was the master of Devarddhi Gaï¿½i who arranged the Vï¿½chanï¿½ in 453 A.D. at Valabhi. The time of Lohityï¿½chï¿½rya may be thirty years before Devarddhi. He thus converted the Agravï¿½las along with their king to Jainism in 423 A.D. But this view does not seem to be tenable. First of all, this Ugrasena was the ruler of Northern India while Ugrasena Devarï¿½shï¿½raka mentioned in the Allahabad inscription was ruling in the south. Lastly, we have no definite evidence for the existence of this caste before the 8th century A.D. Its Gotras as known both from the inscriptions and the praï¿½astis are as follows ï¿½ Goyala,143 Garga144 Siï¿½ghala145 and Baï¿½sala146etc. The Agravï¿½las seem to have been mostly associated with the Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha and rarely with Mï¿½la Saï¿½gha.
Chiï¿½ï¿½oï¿½ï¿½ and Nï¿½gadï¿½ Castes : Chittoï¿½ï¿½ and Nï¿½gadï¿½ castes among the Digambaras originated from the old places Chitor and Nï¿½gadï¿½ respectively in Mewar. These castes seem to have come into existence in medieval times. People of these castes were religious minded and got several copies of manuscripts written in medieval times in order to present them to Jaina monks. They constructed temples and placed images in them with great ceremony. They were generally concerned with the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of the Mï¿½la Saï¿½gha of Vï¿½gaï¿½a and Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha. Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Jï¿½ï¿½nabhï¿½shaï¿½a, who lived in the fifteenth century A.D., wrote the Nï¿½gadrï¿½–rï¿½sa describing the history of the Nï¿½gada caste among the Jainas.147
Humbaï¿½a Caste : The place of the origin of Humbada caste is not traceable. Most probably, like other castes, it must have originated from some particular place. In Rajasthan, the people of this caste are found in Dungarapur, Banswara and Pratapagarh, the portion of ancient Vï¿½gaï¿½a province. They are found both among the Digambaras and the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras. In the Digambaras, they remained in close touch mostly witht the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of the Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha and rarely with the ï¿½chï¿½ryas of Mï¿½la Saï¿½gh of Vï¿½gada. This caste also like other castes seems to have come into existence after the 8th century A.D. The persons of this caste also performed the installation ceremony of numerous images and temples. The famous Jaina temple at Jhï¿½lrï¿½pï¿½tan is said to have been constructed by Sï¿½ha Pipï¿½ of this caste.148
Hï¿½mbaï¿½a caste in course of time was divided into ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½s and Gotras. The three ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½s of this caste known to us are namely Laghu ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½, Bï¿½ihat ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ and Varshï¿½vata ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½. Varshï¿½vata ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ most probably originated from Varshï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha who was the minister of Mahï¿½ Rï¿½vala Harisiï¿½ha.149 On the orders of Mahï¿½rï¿½vala, he invited one thousand families of this caste to Kï¿½nthala from Sï¿½gavï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. He also started the work of the construction of the Digambara Jaina temple at Devalia but its installation ceremony was performed in 1717 A.D. after his death by his sons Vardhamï¿½na and Dayï¿½la. There are eighteen Gotras of this caste :150 (1) Kheraju, (2) Kamaleï¿½vara, (3) Kï¿½kadeï¿½vara, (4) Uttareï¿½vara, (5) Mantreï¿½vara, (6) Bhimeï¿½vara, (7) Bhadreï¿½vara, (8) Gaï¿½geï¿½vara. (9) Viï¿½veï¿½vara, (10) Sï¿½nkheï¿½vara, (11) Ambeï¿½vara, (12) Chï¿½ï¿½chaneï¿½vara, (13) Someï¿½vara, (14) Rajiyï¿½no, (15) Laliteï¿½vara, (16) Kï¿½saveï¿½vara, (17) Budheï¿½vara, (18) Sangheï¿½vara.
Dharkaï¿½a Vaï¿½ï¿½a : The people of Dharkaï¿½a caste are found both among the Digambaras and the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras. The author ofDhammaparikkhï¿½ named Harisheï¿½a of this caste lived in the 10th century A.D.151 There is a mention of this caste in the inscription of 1230 A.D. at Delavï¿½ï¿½ï¿½.152 In the two inscriptions of ï¿½bï¿½ also, these people have been described.153 In the beginning, this caste seems to have originated in Rajasthan but now its people are found in the south. From the expression, Siriujapuriya ï¿½hakkaï¿½akula of Harisheï¿½a, Pt. NATHU RAMA PREMI holds that it originated probably from Siroja in Tonk State.154 Mr. Agar Chanda Nï¿½haï¿½ï¿½ observes that it originated from Dhakaï¿½agaï¿½ha from which also originated the Dhakaï¿½a branch of the Maheï¿½vari Caste.155 On the evidence of the twopraï¿½astis,156 he tries to locate this place near ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la.
- Mantrï¿½dalï¿½ya (Matiyaï¿½a) :Maï¿½idhï¿½rï¿½ ï¿½rï¿½ Jinachandrasï¿½ri, who was born in V.S. 1197 at Vikaramapura near Jaisalmer, became the Head of the Kharataragachchha in V.S. 1211. He was a great scholar and an influential teacher. He established the Mantridalï¿½ya (Mahatiyaï¿½a) caste.157This caste became popular from the 14th to the 17th century A.D., but afterwards disappeared gradually. People of this caste were not only wealthy but some of them were high officials. They led pilgrimage to holy places. They were so much adventurous that they even migrated to Uttara Pradesh and Bihar, and settled over there. Gradually, this caste was divided into manygotras.
People of this caste performed installation ceremony of images from time to time. The Mantrï¿½dalï¿½ya caste is engraved in the three image inscriptions.158 Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, Chopaï¿½ï¿½, Jï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a Muï¿½datoï¿½a and Moï¿½a were the populer gotras of this caste. Other gotras known are Kï¿½draï¿½ï¿½, Ghevaria, Dï¿½nhaï¿½ï¿½, Dullaha, Nï¿½nhaï¿½ï¿½, Bhï¿½diya, Mahatï¿½, Rohadiyï¿½, Vï¿½yadï¿½, Vï¿½rttidï¿½pï¿½, Sayï¿½tï¿½ and Mota.159
Most of the Jaina castes both among the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras and Digambaras, originated in Rajasthan during the medieval period. Gradually, they migrated to the neighbouring regions and settled there. Even in the neighbouring regions of Rajasthan, a few new castes were founded by Jaina saints. It seems that some Jaina saints converted the tribal people of these regions to Jainism and established their castes. The Muslim rule in Northern India during this period is directly or indirectly responsible for founding these castes. Jaina castes of South India of this period are generally professional in nature. These castes were gradually divided into several gotras.
Gujarat : The name ï¿½rï¿½modha caste is derived from the ancient town Modhera, South of Anahilavï¿½ï¿½ in Gujarat. The famous Hemachandra Sï¿½ri was also born in this caste. The inscriptions of the people of this caste can be traced from the twelfth century A.D.
Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Rï¿½masena of Nandilaï¿½a gachchha founded the Narasiï¿½hapura caste after the name of the city Narasimhapura. He also got constructed the Jaina temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha in this city. Bhï¿½ma of Narasiï¿½ha caste performed the installation ceremony of images through Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Somakï¿½riti of the Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ ï¿½ Samgha in V.S. 1547.160 Nemisena, disciple of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Rï¿½masena, was the devotee of Padmï¿½vatï¿½, and founded the Bhaï¿½ï¿½apï¿½ra caste. Both Narasiï¿½hapura and Bhaï¿½ï¿½apurï¿½ were the Digambara castes. Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Devendrakï¿½rti, disciple of Padmanandi, established the seat of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha at Surat in the early half of the 14th century, and he established the Ratnï¿½kara caste after converting seven hundred families to Jainism.
From the inscriptions161 of the 15th and 16th centuries found at Palitï¿½nï¿½, ï¿½atruï¿½jaya and other sites, it is known that Osavï¿½las, ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½s, Prï¿½gvï¿½ï¿½as, Dharkaï¿½as and Humbaï¿½as performed installation ceremony of images. It seems that some people of these castes migrated from Rajasthan and settled in Gujarat. ï¿½rï¿½vaï¿½ï¿½a caste is mentioned in the Jaina inscriptions162 of V.S. 1551 and V.S. 1526.
Madhya Pradesh : Some of the Jaina castes are found mentioned in the inscriptions of the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. Chillaï¿½a, who installed two Jaina images during the reign of Naravasman in V.S. 1157 at Bhojapura, belonged to the Vemaka family.163 The inscription of V.S. 1206 on Jaina statues at Gudar, contains the name of the Vabakaï¿½chuka race.164 Besides, there are some other castes of the Vaiï¿½yas, known from inscriptions and some of them originally came from outside. The Khaï¿½ï¿½elavï¿½la caste has been mentioned in the inscriptions of V.S. 1191165, V.S. 1216166, V.S. 1305.167 The Poravï¿½la ï¿½rï¿½vakas168 are known to have performed the installation ceremony of Vardhanï¿½pura, now known as Badnawar in V.S. 1308. The Bagheravï¿½la ï¿½rï¿½vakas169 were also associated with this installation ceremony of images. These Khaï¿½ï¿½elavï¿½la, Bagheravï¿½la and Poravï¿½la castes originated in Rajasthan in about the eighth century A.D. from Khaï¿½ï¿½elï¿½, Bagherï¿½ and Prï¿½gvï¿½ta respectively, but in course of time, some members of these castes migrated even to Malwa. The Varkaï¿½a caste has been mentioned in the inscriptions of V.S. 1231.170
Nï¿½mï¿½ caste among the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras originated from the Nimï¿½ï¿½ region of Malwa. It has been mentioned in three Jaina inscriptions dated V.S 1506, V.S. 1532 and V.S. 1531 respectively.171 Numerous Jaina image inscriptions of the 15th and 16th centuries mention Prï¿½gvï¿½ï¿½a, Osavï¿½la and ï¿½rimï¿½lï¿½.172 It seems that these people of these castes migrated to Malwa from Rajasthan. Gurjara caste has been mentioned in inscription dated V.S. 1512, Sohitavï¿½la in V.S. 1573, Mantrï¿½dalï¿½ya in V.S. 1519, ï¿½rï¿½vaï¿½ï¿½a in V.S. 1515, Sonï¿½in V.S. 1573 and Modha in V.S. 1656.173
Among the Digambara castes, people of Khaï¿½ï¿½elavï¿½la, Bagheravï¿½la and Humbaï¿½a castes were large in number as known from the Jaina image inscriptions of the 15th and 16th centuries.174 They also migrated from Rajasthan and settled in Malwa. From the Rï¿½mapurï¿½ inscriptions6 dated V.S. 1664 (1667 A.D.), it is known that Podï¿½rtha, Finance Minister of the Chandrï¿½vata ruler Durgabhï¿½nu, was of the Bagheravï¿½la caste. Poravï¿½la caste has been mentioned in the inscriptions. Nï¿½gara caste has been mentioned in the inscription dated V.S. 1220, Jaisavï¿½la in V.S. 1319, Narasiï¿½hapura in V.S. 1529, Nï¿½gada or Nï¿½gadraha in V.S. 1489 and Chitrakï¿½ï¿½a in V.S. 1252.176
New castes and sub-castes among the Digambaras came into existence in the Jejjï¿½ka bhukti region (Bundelakahand) of Madhya Pradesh. The Gï¿½ihapatis mentioned in the inscriptions belonged to the Vaiï¿½hya caste. Some of the Gï¿½ihapatis followed Brahmanical religions while others were Jainas. From the Khajuraho inscriptions177 dated 1000-1001 A.D. it is known that the ancestors of Gï¿½ihapati Kokalla originally lived in Padmï¿½vatï¿½ (Pawaya, near Gwalior), but he came and settled in Khajuraho. He built the wonderful town and also the Vaidyanï¿½tha temple. Pï¿½hila, who constructed the Jaina temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha and made a number of gifts and endowments, belonged to Gï¿½ihapati family.178 The successors of Pï¿½hila are known to have installed Jaina images. Pï¿½hila and some of his successors held the ministerial posts. Devapï¿½la of this caste built the Jaina temple at Bï¿½ï¿½apur while his grandson at Madaneï¿½a Sï¿½garapura. These Gï¿½ihapatis were known as ï¿½reshthï¿½s.
The other Jaina castes known were Golï¿½pï¿½rva, Golï¿½lï¿½re, Paravï¿½ra, Paurapaï¿½ï¿½a etc.179 Sï¿½ha Gale and Tï¿½dï¿½ belonged to Golï¿½pï¿½rva caste. Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha of the Gahot caste hailed from Thï¿½bona and became very rich by business. He is known to have constructed several Jaina temples and installed images in them The gotras180 of these castes were Kochchala, Vï¿½salla, Bhï¿½ralla, Gohilla, Kï¿½silla, Vajhalla, Vï¿½chhala etc.
The Jaina inscriptions found in the region of Gopagiri give us some idea about the Jaina castes. From the Dabkund stone inscription181 dated 1088 A.D., it is known that the two traders ï¿½ishi and Dï¿½heï¿½a, on whom Vikramasiï¿½ha had conferred the rank of ï¿½reshï¿½hins, built the Jaina temple at Chaï¿½oha, the ancient name of Dubhakunda. Further, this inscription informs that their grandfather ï¿½reshï¿½hin Jasuka is described as the head of a guild of merchants, which had come from a twon Jayasapura. Jaisavï¿½la caste seems to have originated from Jayasapura but its identification is not known.
The Jaina castes known from the inscriptions were Paravï¿½ra, Golï¿½lï¿½ra, Golï¿½pï¿½rva and Paurapata while their gotras were Kochhala, Vï¿½sala, Bhï¿½ralla, Goilla, Gohila, Kï¿½silla, Vï¿½chhala, Veriyï¿½, Kï¿½siya, Vï¿½jhhala, Pedela and ï¿½vanabï¿½hï¿½ra.182The Narwar inscription dated 1284 A.D. (V.S. 1341 A.D.) of the time of Vajvapï¿½la ruler Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Gopï¿½la mentions a trader named Rï¿½ma of Bansavala gotra hailing from the village Sevayika.183
Tï¿½raï¿½asvï¿½mï¿½ observed no distinction among different sects, and there was no difference between the upper and lower castes. His followers were divided into twelve castes (1) Charaï¿½ï¿½gara, (2) ï¿½yudhyï¿½, (3) Asï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, (4) Golï¿½lï¿½re (5) Rï¿½iramana, (6) Karaï¿½ï¿½gara, (7) Samaiyï¿½, (8) Nï¿½yaka, (9) Niyamï¿½, (10) Kï¿½madamana, (11) Rajatasodhiyï¿½, and (12 Paramï¿½ra Kï¿½atrï¿½. There was no fanaticism among the followers of these castes. Mutual marriages, interdining were permitted among the followers of these castes.184
Uttara Pradesh : It seems that some of the Digambara Jaina castes such as Lambakï¿½ï¿½chuka, Budhela, Golï¿½sï¿½rï¿½nvaya and Golasiï¿½gï¿½ra originated in Uttara Pradesh. Lambakï¿½ï¿½chuka is found in the image inscriptions dated VS.S. 1412, V.S. 1509, V.S. 1525, V.S.1413, V.S. 1734, V.S. 1760, 1520, V.S. 1760, V.S. 1534, V.S. 1722, and V.S. 1471 found at Mainapuri.185
Buï¿½hela Jï¿½ati has been mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1791, 1772 and 1766. Originally Buï¿½hela was merely a gotra of Maï¿½bhechï¿½ or Lambakaï¿½chuka caste but it became a separate caste between V.S. 1590 and V.S. 1670 because of some social dispute. Golï¿½sï¿½rï¿½nvaye caste is found in the image inscriptions V.S. 1525, V.S. 1686, V.S. 1474, V.S. 1511 and V.S. 1515 and Golasiï¿½gï¿½rï¿½-rï¿½ï¿½gï¿½ gotra in V.S. 1688.
Khaï¿½delavï¿½la caste has been mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1783, V.S. 1520, V.S. 1675, V.S. 1822, and V.S. 1436 while Agravï¿½la in V.S. 1234, V.S. 1537. V.S. 1529, V.S. 1545, 1549 and V.S. 1642. Jaisavï¿½la caste is known from the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1628, V.S. 1601, V.S. 1531, V.S. 1537 and V.S. 1437. Krakeï¿½a Jï¿½ï¿½ti-Barahaï¿½ï¿½ gotra has been mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1551, Dhï¿½kau (Dharakaï¿½a) in V.S. 15, Nagara Kotela in V.S. 1411, Pule caste – Khemija gotra in V.S. 1688, Mahima caste in V.S. 1588 and Rï¿½hata caste in 10.
It seems that Krakeï¿½a Jï¿½ti and Kakasï¿½na Jï¿½ti were one and the same. Kharauï¿½ gotra became separate from Golï¿½nï¿½ra and became independent caste. Nagara Kotera Gotra or caste became famous after the village Nagara Kota in Punjab. At one time, it was a holy place of the Hindus and the Jainas. Mï¿½hima Vaï¿½ï¿½a is known as Mahiyï¿½ caste. Varahiyï¿½ kula was converted into Varaiyï¿½ caste.186
The ï¿½vetï¿½mbara castes such as Osavï¿½la, ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½ti and Prï¿½gvï¿½ï¿½a have been mentioned in the inscriptions of the 15th and 16th centuries. A few Jaina image inscriptions prove that ï¿½rï¿½vakas of Mahatiyï¿½ï¿½a (Mantrï¿½daï¿½ya) settled at Jaunapura. These inscriptions187 prove that people of these castes migrated from Rajasthan and settled in Uttara Pradesh.
Maharashtra : The metal Jaina image inscriptions from the 14th to 16th centuries found at Bombay, Nagpur, Amaravati, Chandavï¿½ï¿½a and Manamï¿½ï¿½a near Nasik, Nasik, Balapura, Karanja, Chalisaganva, Bhadravati and Sirpura prove that the ï¿½rï¿½vakas of Osavï¿½la, Prï¿½gvï¿½ta, ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½ and Pallivï¿½la castes migrated from Rajasthan to Maharashtra and settled there.188 ï¿½rï¿½ Vï¿½yaï¿½a caste has been mentioned in the metal image inscriptions189 of V.S. 1488 and Moï¿½ha caste in V.S. 1616.190 The Mahatï¿½yaï¿½a (Mantrï¿½dalï¿½ya) caste been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1516 of the three Jaina images.191
Bihar : The ï¿½rï¿½vakas of Mantrï¿½dalï¿½ya caste migrated to Bihar from Rajasthan and settled at different places. There is a Mahitiyï¿½na Muhallï¿½ named after the caste Mahitiyï¿½ï¿½a in Patna. They got constructed Jaina temples and Dharmaï¿½ï¿½lï¿½s.192 The name of this caste is mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1504, V.S. 1519, V.S. 1524, V.S. 1606 and V.S. 1686.193
The ï¿½rï¿½vakas of this caste got Jaina temple built at Vaibhï¿½ragiri and Vipulagiri at Rï¿½jagï¿½iha. The ï¿½rï¿½vakas of the ï¿½vetï¿½mbara castes namely Osavï¿½la, Prï¿½gvï¿½ta and ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½ migrated to Bihar from Rajasthan as known from the Jaina image inscriptions of the 15th and 16th centuries. The Jaisavï¿½la caste194 of the Digambaras has been mentioned in the Jaina image inscription dated V.S. 1638 while that of Bagheravï¿½la caste in the inscription195 dated V.S. 1694.
South India : The Vï¿½ra Baï¿½ajigas of the South followed Jainism. Some agricultural sections of the South were devoted to Jainism. In the inscriptions of South India, the names of the castes are not found mentioned. In some inscriptions, their designations and professions are found mentioned. Gï¿½vuï¿½ï¿½a or Gï¿½ï¿½uï¿½ï¿½a196 was the designation of village headman. It is also known that Goï¿½ï¿½ or Gauï¿½ï¿½ Kammaï¿½akï¿½ra197 was the name of the mint official. Pergaï¿½e or Heggaï¿½e was the name of the city official.198 Sï¿½manta199, Mahï¿½prabhu200, Daï¿½ï¿½anï¿½yaka201, Mahï¿½vaï¿½gavyavahari202 and Mahï¿½pradhï¿½na203 are the title names of the Jainas.
It is noticed that these castes were associated with the particular Saï¿½ghas, gaï¿½as and gachchhas ï¿½ The Humbaï¿½a caste was related with the Surat branch of Balï¿½tkï¿½ra gaï¿½a, the Lamechï¿½ caste with the Aï¿½era branch, the Paravï¿½ra caste with the Jerahaï¿½a branch and the Khaï¿½ï¿½elavï¿½la caste with the Delhi-Jaipur branch. The Agravï¿½la caste was connected with the Mï¿½thura gachchha of the Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha, the Hï¿½maï¿½a caste with the Nandï¿½taï¿½a gachchha and the Bagheravï¿½la caste with the Lï¿½ï¿½avï¿½gaï¿½a gachchha.
- Jaina Sampradï¿½ya ï¿½ikshï¿½, p. 656.
- Jaina Bhï¿½ratï¿½, Vol. XI, No. 11.
- NJI. III, p. 28.
- Ibid., No. 2328.
- APJLS., No. 611.
- NJI., No. 2325.
- NJI., Nos. 1131 and 1295.
- NJI., No. 1101.
- HOO., p. 353.
- NJI., No. 988.
- NJI., Nos. 2084 & Jaina Sampradï¿½ya ï¿½ï¿½kshï¿½, p. 625.
- Some distinguished Jainas, p. 36.
- Ibid., p. 37.
- NJI., III, No. 5372.
- HOO., p. 166.
- NJI., I, 2334.
- Ibid., 2577.
- Ibid., II, 1285.
- Bhagavï¿½n Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha kï¿½ Paramparï¿½ Kï¿½ Itihï¿½sa, p. 1109.
- NJI., Pt. I & II.
- Jaina Sampradï¿½ya ï¿½ikshï¿½, p. 626.
- NJI., No. 2317.
- Ibid., No. 2404.
- Jaina Sampradï¿½ya ï¿½ikshï¿½, p. 628, Gaddï¿½ ï¿½aha was the brother of famous Bhainsï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ha.
- NJI., No. 1062.
- Jaina Sampradï¿½ya ï¿½ikshï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ha pp. 635-637.
- NJI., No. 2186.
- Jaina Sampradï¿½ya ï¿½ikshï¿½, p. 637.
- NJI., No. 1079.
- NJI., No. 1877.
- Jaina Sampradï¿½ya ï¿½ikshï¿½, p. 638.
- NJI., No. 1267.
- Jaina Sampradï¿½ya ï¿½iksha, pp. 639, 640 and 641.
- NJI., No. 1317.
- HOO., p. 312.
- Ibid., No. 542.
- NJI., 1991.
- HOO., p. 393.
- Jaina Sampradï¿½ya ï¿½ikshï¿½, p. 622.
- NJI., No. 1192.
- Jaina Sampradï¿½ya ï¿½ikshï¿½, p. 628.
- NJI., No. 2189.
- Jaina Sampradï¿½ya Sikshï¿½, p. 631.
- Bhagavï¿½n Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha Kï¿½ Paramparï¿½ Kï¿½ Itihï¿½sa, p. 1109.
- NJI., No. 2253.
- NJI., No. 1957.
- Jaina Sampradï¿½ya ï¿½ikshï¿½, p. 634.
- APJLS., No. 113.
- Jaina Sampradï¿½ya ï¿½ikshï¿½, p. 634.
- HOO., p. 427.
- NJI., No. 2136.
- NJI., No. 2114.
- HOO., p. 509.
- Jaina Pustaka Praï¿½asti Saï¿½graha, No. 35.
- Jaina Sï¿½hitya Saï¿½ï¿½odhaka Evam Jainï¿½chï¿½rya ï¿½tmï¿½rï¿½ma ï¿½atï¿½bdï¿½ Smï¿½raka Grantha, Gujarï¿½ti Vibhï¿½ga, P. 204.
- Srï¿½ Jaina Gotra Saï¿½graha, pp. 13-23.
- Prï¿½gvï¿½ï¿½a Itihï¿½sa ï¿½ Introduction, p. 12.
- NJI., No. 1166.
- Ibid., No. 295.
- EJI., No. 1163.
- NJI., No. 1676
- Ibid., No. 412.
- Ibid., No. 413.
- Ibid., No. 2329.
- Ibid., No. 2464.
- Ibid., No. 830.
- Ibid., No. 38.
- Ibid., No. 391.
- Ibid., No. 1993.
- Ibid., No. 1974.
- Ibid., No. 1956.
- Ibid., No. 1967.
- Ibid., No. 1932.
- Ibid., No. 2085.
- Ibid., No. 1224 & 1227.
- Ibid., No. 737 & 823.
- Ibid., No. 577.
- Ibid., No. 2333.
- Ibid., No. 2292.
- Ibid., No. 2429.
- Ibid., No. 750.
- Ibid., No. 2370.
- ï¿½ri Jaina Gotra Saï¿½graha, pp. 13-23.
- Ojhï¿½ Nibandha ï¿½aï¿½graha, p. 25.
- NJI., No. 1614.
- Ibid., No. 2151.
- Srï¿½ Jaina Gotra Saï¿½graha, p. 50 (Introduction).
- NJI., No. 947, 948 and 150.
- Ibid., 621.
- Ibid., 1214.
- Ibid., 1308.
- Ibid., 1778.
- Bhagavï¿½n Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha Kï¿½ Paramparï¿½ Kï¿½ Itihï¿½sa, p. 544.
- Manuscript in the ï¿½ï¿½stra Bhaï¿½dï¿½ra at Ajmer.
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. 1250 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½UÊ¡ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê„Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Uï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ò‡ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 1 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ý²ï¿½ï¿½ (Inscription on the image of white marble in the temple of Siï¿½ghï¿½jï¿½ at Jaipur).
- PS., p. 138.
- PS., P. 175.
- PS., p. 96.
- PS., p. 2.
- See above, p. 81.
- PS., p. 177.
- See above, p. 79.
- PS., p. 89.
- See above, p. 81.
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1703 ï¿½Ò‡ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê‚ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½Uï¿½Ê ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ËŸï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- See above, p. 81.
- PS., p. 4.
- See above, p. 81.
- See above., p. 80.
- PS., p. 63.
- J.S. ï¿½ikshï¿½, p. 128.
- Ibid., p. 113.
- See above, p. 81.
- PS., p. 29.
- PS., P. 190.
- Vï¿½ravï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, Vol. VII.
- See above, p. 12 (F.N. 2).
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1590 ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 9 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½UÊ«Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½Ê„Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê– (Ins. on Daï¿½alakshaï¿½a Yantra in Jaina temple of Paï¿½odi at Jaipur).
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1799 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½U ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 10 ï¿½Ùï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½È¢ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½È¢ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½UÃ¢ï¿½ (Ins. on the metal image of Lï¿½ï¿½akaraï¿½ajï¿½ Paï¿½ï¿½yï¿½, Jaipur.)
- PS., P. 99.
- Ibid., 169.
- Ibid., p. 170.
- Ibid., p. 177.
- Ibid., pp. 44 & 77.
- See above, p. 81.
- EI., V. XXIV, p. 84, Verses, 82-83.
- IA., V. XX, See Table of Pontifical Residences, p. 57.
- Manuscript in the ï¿½ï¿½stra Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ra of Ajmer.
- JSAI., p. 134.
- ARRMA., Yr. 1926-27, No. 10.
- NJI., No. 438.
- Ibid., No. 727.
- Ibid., No. 628.
- PS., p. 147.
- PS., p. 98.
- Inscription on Yantra in the Jaina temple at Jaipur.
- See above, p. 72.
- ï¿½rï¿½ Bhagavï¿½n Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha Kï¿½ Paramparï¿½ Kï¿½ Itihï¿½sa, p. 550.
- Ibid., p. 548.
- PS., p. 85.
- Ibid., p. 119.
- Ibid., p. 82.
- Ibid., p. 97.
- ï¿½ï¿½stra Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ra ï¿½rï¿½ Digambara Jaina Mandira Sambhavanï¿½tha Baï¿½ï¿½ Bazï¿½ra, Udaipur.
- Anekï¿½nta, Vol. 13, p. 124.
- Ibid., p. 124.
- Anekï¿½nta Vol. 13, p. 124.
- JSAI., p. 468.
- Anekï¿½nta, Vol. 3, p. 124.
- JSAI., p. 468.
- Anekï¿½nta, Vol. 4, p. 610.
- Jaina Pustaka Praï¿½asti Saï¿½graha, Nos. 52 & 93.
- Manidhï¿½rï¿½ ï¿½rï¿½ Jinachandra Sï¿½ri, p. 74.
- NJI, I, Nos. 48, 236, 482.
- NJI, No. 778.
- Ibid, I.
- NJI, I, No. 119, No. 292.
- E I, XXXV.
- ARADGS, 1929-30.
- CII, VII, pp. 118-119.
- Malwa Through The Ages, p. 512, No. 6.
- Ibid, No. 7.
- Ibid, No. 8.
- Ibid, p. 2.
- Malwa Through the Ages, P. 9.
- Malavaï¿½chala Ke Jaina Lekha, Nos. 50, 162, 254.
- Ibid., Arhat Vachana, V-4, pp. 261-63.
- E I, XXXVI, pp. 121-23.
- Arhat, V-4, pp. 262-63.
- E I.I. pp. 147-152.
- Ibid, pp. 135-136.
- BBDJI, III, p. 109.
- E.I. II, pp. 232-240.
- BBDJI, III, p. 109.
- ARADGS, V.S. 1904, No. 15; Gwalior Rï¿½jya ke Abhilekha, No. 149.
- KAMTA PRASAD : Pratima Lekha Saï¿½graha.
- KAMTA PRASAD : Pratimï¿½ Lekha Saï¿½graha.
- NJI, I.
- MUNI KANTISAGAR : Jaina Dhatu Pratima Lekha Samgraha.
- Ibid., No. 79.
- Ibid., No. 30.
- Ibid., Nos. 158, 159 and 173.
- Maindhï¿½rï¿½ ï¿½ri Jinachandra Sï¿½ri, p. 20
- NJI, Nos. 239, 270, 186, 215, 216, 217, No. 257, 271, 272 and 192.
- NJI, No. 221.
- Ibid, No. 228.
- JSLS, V, Nos. 18, 36.
- Ibid, No. 80.
- Ibid, Nos. 81 and 96.
- Ibid, No. 41.
- Ibid, No. 54.
- Ibid, No. 55.
- Ibid, No. 122.
- Ibid, No. 150.