The Jaina religions like other religions of India has suffered from the tendency of schisms and secessions. The different sects gradually sprang from time to time on account of the different interpretations put on the canonical texts. Besides, the circumstances of the particular time also compelled them to give up old ideas and to adopt new ones. The separation between the Digambaras and the Svetambaras took place in 79 or 82 A.D. A terrible famine occurred in Magadha in 293 B.C. and 14,000 monks under the leadership of Bhadrabahu with Candragupta Maurya moved on to the South. Some monks under the leadership of Sthulabhadra stayed no gaoha.
Both the traditions do not differ as regards the twelve-year famine that took place in Magadha and as regards the consequent emigration of the Jaina Saï¿½gha under his leadership. But while the Digambara tradition states that the Saï¿½gha migrated to the South, ï¿½vetï¿½mbara tradition says that Bhadrabï¿½hu went to Nepal. The origin of the great schism, which later on developed into Digambara and ï¿½vetï¿½mbara sects, is ultimately traced to this event.
After Bhadrabï¿½hu’s departure Sthï¿½labhadra assumed the leadership of the Saï¿½gha in Magadha. He was a contemporary of Maurya Candragupta and Bindusï¿½ra. After the famine was over he convened a council at Pï¿½ï¿½aliputra, at which the remnant of the Saï¿½gha left behind in Magadha tried to put in order the sacred lore that had fallen into a state of decay. Sthï¿½labhadra was succeeded by ï¿½rya Mahï¿½giri and then came Suhastin who was the religious preceptor of the Maurya king Samprati who is said to have been a devout Jaina and to have done much for the glory of his religion. After Suhastin came Susthita, Indradinna (Kï¿½laka I), Priyagrantha and Vï¿½ddhavï¿½dï¿½, one after the other. At this time lived Kï¿½laka II of the ï¿½aka-Vikrama fame. Then followed Dinnasï¿½ri, Siï¿½hagiri and Vairasvï¿½mi. The last of these was the last Daï¿½apï¿½rvï¿½ or keeper of a part of the original canon. It was in his time in M.E. 609 (or A.D. 82) that the gradually growing schism in the Jaina Saï¿½gha was finalised and the two sects, ï¿½vetï¿½mbara and Digambara, separated for good.
JACOBI observes that the division of the Jaina Saï¿½gha into Svetambara-Digambara took place gradually, and that they became aware of their mutual differences about the end of the first century A.D. It is necessary to know what is the exact difference between these two sects, Literally, Digambara mean, ‘sky-clad’ and ï¿½vetambara means ‘white-robed’ i.e. the monks of the Digambaras are naked, while those of the Svetambaras wear white clothes. In fact there is very little difference between the two branches as regards the essentials of doctrine. The most authoritative book, namely, Tattvartha Sutra by Umasvati or Umasvami has been accepted by both the sects. However, there are some major as well as minor points on which the two sections are opposed to each other. The major points of difference between the Digambaras and Svetambaras are as follows :
(i) While the Digambaras believe that a monk who wears clothes, can not attain salvation; the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras assert that the practice of complete nudity is not essential to attain liberation.
(ii) The Digambaras hold the view that woman, is not entitled to Mokï¿½a in this life. On the contrary, the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras believe that women can attain Moksa in this life.
(iii) According to the Digambaras, once a saint has attained Kevala Jï¿½ï¿½na (Omniscience) he needs no food, but can sustain life without eating. The view is not acceptable to the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras.
Leaving aside the trivial differences in rituals, customs and manners, the following are some of the minor points on which the two sects do not agree :
(i) The Digambaras maintain that the embryo of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, the last Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara, was not removed from the womb of Devï¿½nadï¿½, a Brï¿½hmin lady, to that of Triï¿½alï¿½ or Priyakï¿½riï¿½i, a Kshatriya lady, as the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras contend.
(ii) The Digambaras believe in the complete disappearance of the ancient sacred literature and as such they disown the canonical books of the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras.
(iii) The Digambaras assert that Mahï¿½vï¿½ra never married but according to the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras, Mahï¿½vï¿½ra married Yaï¿½odï¿½ and had a daughter by name Anojjï¿½ or Priyadarï¿½anï¿½.
(iv) The ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras consider Mallinï¿½tha, the 19th Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara as a female but the Digambaras state that Mallinï¿½tha was a male.
(v) According to Digambaras, the Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas must be represented as nude and unadorned and with downcast eyes. The need not be so according to ï¿½vetï¿½mbars.6
Saï¿½gha, Gaï¿½a and Gachchha
The Saï¿½gha and Gaï¿½a are well known political terms. The Saï¿½gha–rï¿½jya means the rule of a community and the Gana–rï¿½jya indicates the rule of many a republic. In early times, there was perhaps no distinction between political Saï¿½gha and Gana, because Pï¿½ï¿½ini equates Gaï¿½a with Saï¿½gha. The Saï¿½gha and Gaï¿½a in Jainism and Buddhism might have come into existence in imitations of the political Saï¿½ghas and Gaï¿½as which flourished in ancient India. Both Mahï¿½vï¿½ra and Buddha were born and brought up in the republican atmosphere. They had Saï¿½ghas arround them. It is for this reason that they adopted the name as well as the constitution of the political Saï¿½gha in organizing their religious Saï¿½ghas. It is also possible to suggest that the political Saï¿½ghas as Gaï¿½as might have been founded in imitation of the religious Saï¿½ghas and Gaï¿½as which had existed since the time when the two great religions were organized. The head of the Gaï¿½a was known as Gaï¿½adhara. Both these terms in the political and religious spheres indicate the group of persons with the main characteristic of possessing a mind conscious of certain ideology. The existence of large number of Saï¿½ghas and Gaï¿½as in the Jaina community in ancient times points out that it was politically and culturally Saï¿½gha highly organized. It is due to the efficiency of the Saï¿½gha organization that Jainism has survived through all vicissitudes. The Gaï¿½as in course of time also began to be known as Gacchas.
Gaï¿½a in the Kalpa-Sï¿½tra and Kushï¿½ï¿½a Inscriptions of Mathura
The Kalpasï¿½tra tells us that there were seven schools of thought with their respective branches (ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½s) each of which separated in course of time into its own family Kula. It is interesting to note that several of these Jaina orders are mentioned in Kushï¿½ï¿½a records. The seven Gaï¿½as are Godï¿½sa, Uddeha, Uduvï¿½ï¿½ika, Vesavï¿½ï¿½ika, Cï¿½raï¿½a, Mï¿½nava and Kauï¿½ika.7
The first Gaï¿½a had four ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½s and Kulas. The second Gaï¿½a Uddeha was founded by ï¿½rya Rohaï¿½a and was divided into four ï¿½akhï¿½s and six kulas. Nï¿½gabhï¿½ta and Parihasaka Kulas of Kalpasï¿½tra may be identified with Nï¿½gabhï¿½tikï¿½ya8 and the Paridhï¿½sika9 of the Kuï¿½ï¿½na records. The third gaï¿½a Uduvï¿½ï¿½ika was subdivided into four ï¿½akhï¿½s and three kulas. None of these can be traced in any of the Kuï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a inscriptions. The fourth Gaï¿½a Veï¿½avï¿½tika, founded by Kï¿½marddhi, was subdivided into four ï¿½akhï¿½s and Kulas. Among these, only, the Mehika Kula10 is mentioned in a Kushaï¿½a grant. The fifth Gaï¿½a Caraï¿½a identified by BUHLER with Vï¿½raï¿½a Gaï¿½a of the inscriptions, was subdivided into four ï¿½akhï¿½s and seven Kulas.11 The Kuï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a inscriptions refer to several of them.12 The ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½s may be identified with the Hï¿½ritamalakari, Vajranï¿½gari and Sï¿½ï¿½kï¿½ï¿½ikï¿½ and Partidharmikï¿½ of the Kalpasï¿½tra. The sixth Gaï¿½a Mï¿½nava was divided into four ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½s and three Kulas. But only a few of these are mentioned in Kuï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a records. The seventh Gaï¿½a Kauï¿½iya Gaï¿½a founded by Susthita was subdivided into four Kulas and seven ï¿½akhï¿½s. This Gaï¿½a is well represented in the Kuï¿½aï¿½a inscriptions.13 The ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½s must be identified with the Vajrï¿½, Mï¿½dhyamikï¿½, Uchhï¿½nagari and the Vï¿½tsaliya while the Kulas may be identified with the Vï¿½ï¿½iya, Brahmaliptika and the Pï¿½ishï¿½avï¿½hanaka of the Kalpasï¿½tra. The Madhyamikï¿½ branch was named after the ancient place Madhyamikï¿½ identified with modern Nagarï¿½ in Mewar. It was founded by Priyagrantha, the second pupil of Susthita and Supratibuddha.14
Paï¿½castï¿½pï¿½nyï¿½ya ï¿½ There is a controversy regarding the origin of the Paï¿½castï¿½panyï¿½ya, a sect of the Digambaras. One view is that it originated from Mathura while the other view is that it was established by Arhadbali who was the native of Puï¿½ï¿½ravardhana. Puï¿½ï¿½ravardhana was a centre of Jainism. The Pahï¿½rpur copper plate grant of the year 159 (478-479 A.D.)15 records that a Brï¿½hmaï¿½a and his wife deposited three dinï¿½rs or gold coins with the city Council and lands for the maintenance of worship of the divine Arhats at the Vihï¿½ra of Vaï¿½a-Gohï¿½li which was presided over by the disciples and the disciples of disciples of the Nirgrantha preceptor Guhanandin, belonging to the Paï¿½chastï¿½panikï¿½ya of Banaras. It seems that Guhanandina belonged to the third or fourth century A.D. Vï¿½rasena, who wrote a commentary on the Dhavlï¿½, was the follower of Paï¿½chastï¿½panyï¿½ya. Harisheï¿½a has mentioned it in the Kathï¿½kosha written in 937 A.D.
Digambara Saï¿½ghas, Gaï¿½as and Gachchhas of the South Nirgrantha Mahï¿½ï¿½ramaï¿½a Saï¿½gha
From the two inscriptions16 of the Kadamba ruler Mï¿½geï¿½a (500 A.D.), it is known that villages and lands were given to the Munis of Nirgrantha Mahï¿½ï¿½ramaï¿½a Saï¿½gha. What was the shape of this original Saï¿½gha, it is not known. The term Nirgrantha or Niganï¿½hawas used for Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, and also for his followers. It seems that Nirgrantha Mahï¿½ï¿½ramaï¿½a Saï¿½ga was in existence during the time of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, and it continued even afterwards. Bhadrabï¿½hu accompanied this Saï¿½gha for going to the South. During the third or fourth century A.D., there were two main divisions of the Jaina Saï¿½gha (1) Nirgrantha Mahï¿½ï¿½ramaï¿½a Saï¿½gha and (2) ï¿½vetapata. The Digambaras and the ï¿½vetambaras lived together at Devagiri as known from the inscription17 and probably there were no separate temples. The Nirgrantha Mahï¿½sramaï¿½a Saï¿½gha was of the Digambaras.
Mï¿½la Saï¿½gha ï¿½ The earliest mention of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha is in the inscription (C. 400 A.D.) of Gaï¿½ga ruler Mï¿½dhavavarma II, and in the inscription of 425 A.D. of his son Avinï¿½ta.18 In the above two inscriptions, we find the names of ï¿½cï¿½rya Vï¿½radeva and Candranandi. These two ï¿½cï¿½ryas performed the consecration of the temples, and the Gaï¿½ga rulers Mï¿½dhava II and his son Avinï¿½ta granted lands and villages. It seems that in South India, Mï¿½lasï¿½gha was used to indicate the separation of the Digambaras from the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras. The name Nirgrantha-Mahï¿½sramaï¿½a Saï¿½gha probably ceased, and it seems to have been called the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha. The early great Acaryas Kundakunda, Umï¿½svï¿½mï¿½ and Samantabhadra belonged to the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha.
The Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha has been divided into seven Gaï¿½as – Devagaï¿½a, Senagaï¿½a, Deï¿½iyagaï¿½a, Sï¿½rasï¿½hagaï¿½a Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ragaï¿½a and Balï¿½tkï¿½ragaï¿½a. Generally these Gaï¿½as were called after the end names of the Munis, and after the names of the provinces and regions.
Devagana ï¿½ Among the above Gaï¿½as, Devagaï¿½a is the oldest. The existence of this Gaï¿½a is known from the four inscriptions19 of Lakï¿½ameï¿½vara and the eleventh century inscription20 of Kadavanti. It is not mentioned afterwards. The names of the ï¿½cï¿½ryas of this Gaï¿½a are ï¿½ Pï¿½jyapï¿½da, Udayadeva21, Rï¿½madeva, Jayadeva, Vijayadeva22, Ekadeva, Jayadeva23, Aï¿½kadeva and Mahï¿½deva24. Pujyapada was the founder of this Gaï¿½a.
Deï¿½ï¿½ Gaï¿½a and Koï¿½ï¿½akunï¿½ï¿½nvaya
Deï¿½igaï¿½a is mentioned in several inscriptions as Desiya, Deï¿½ika, Desiga and Deï¿½ï¿½ya. The term Deï¿½ï¿½ originated from Deï¿½a which meant province. Some region of Karï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aka was known by the name of Deï¿½a. From the inscriptions, it is known that there were several centres of this Gaï¿½a in Karï¿½ï¿½taka. Among them, Hanasoge (Cikahanasoge) was prominent. From the ï¿½cï¿½ryas of this place originated the Hanasogebali or Gaccha. From the inscriptions25 of Chikahanasoge, it is learnt that there were several Vasadis (Temples) of this Gaï¿½a here, and they received patronage from the Caï¿½gï¿½lva rulers.
Deï¿½ï¿½gaï¿½a has been classified into Pustakagachchha, ï¿½ryasiï¿½hagrahakula, Candrakarï¿½c ï¿½rjï¿½mnï¿½ya and Maitradï¿½nvya.
Pustakagaccha ï¿½ In the Puï¿½ra inscription26 dated 1087 A.D., the donation of the land given to Padmanandi Maladharideva of the Pustakagachchha has been described. In the Halebeed inscription27 of the eleventh century, the erection of an image by the disciples of Nemichand Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka has been mentioned. In the Citapura inscription28 of the twelfth century A.D., the renovation of a temple by this Gaccha has been recorded. In the image inscription of Peddatuï¿½balam, the name of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Cï¿½ndrakï¿½rti is found. In the Stavanidhi inscription29 of 1400 A.D., the construction of the temple at the preaching of Vï¿½ranandi of this Gaccha has been mentioned. TheSamï¿½dhimaraï¿½a of the ï¿½cï¿½rya of Gomini ï¿½nvaya of the Pustakagaccha in the Heritage inscription dated 1224 has been engraved.30
The first subdivision of Pustakagaccha was Panasoge (Hanasoge) Bali. Its first mention31 is in the early tenth century and there is a reference to Samï¿½dhimarana of Nemicandra, disciple of Sridharadeva. The second mention32 of this Bali is of 1180 A.D. Balacanda, pupil of Jayakï¿½rti, installed an image. There are four inscriptions33 of this branch which belong from 12th to 14th century A.D. The ï¿½cï¿½ryas Lalitakï¿½rti, Devacandra and Nayakï¿½rti have been mentioned.
The second sub-division of Pustakagaccha was Iï¿½guleï¿½vara Bali. It is mentioned in the seven inscriptions34 and they belong to the 12th-13th centuries A.D. In these inscriptions, the names of the ï¿½cï¿½ryas Haricandra, ï¿½rutakï¿½rti, Bhanukirti, Mï¿½ghanandi, Nemideva, Chandrakï¿½rti and Jayadeva are mentioned.
Pustakagaccha has been mentioned without any sub-division in several inscriptions. The first such inscription35 is of 1081 A.D., and Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Sakalakï¿½rti is mentioned in it. There are seventeen such inscriptions which belong to the 16th century A.D.
The Pustakagaccha of Deï¿½igï¿½a is found with Koï¿½ï¿½akuï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nvaya. In some inscriptions, only Koï¿½ï¿½akunï¿½ï¿½nvaya is mentioned. The oldest inscription regarding. Konï¿½akunï¿½anvaya is the Tamra idia obtained for Markarï¿½bhip Lekh Tï¿½mrapatra. The other inscriptions37 are dated 802 A.D. and 797 A.D. It mentions Koï¿½ï¿½akunï¿½eye Anvaya. It indicates the place Koï¿½ï¿½akunï¿½a. This inscription mentions that Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakï¿½ta ruler Kambharï¿½ja donated a village to the Acarya Vardhamï¿½na.
The Second Sub-division of Deï¿½ï¿½gaï¿½a named ï¿½ryasaï¿½gha Graha Kula is found only in one inscription38. It belongs to the tenth century, and it mentions ï¿½ubhacandra, disciple of Kulacandra. This inscription was discovered in the Khaï¿½ï¿½agiri hill of Orissa, while other inscriptions of Deï¿½igaï¿½a belonged to Karï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aka.
The third sub-division of Deï¿½igaï¿½a is Candrakarï¿½-cï¿½ryï¿½mnï¿½ya which is mentioned in only one inscription.39 It has been discovered in Madhya Pradesh. Subhadra is known to have performed the consecration ceremony of the temple. The fourth sub-division of Mainadï¿½nvaya of Subhacandra ï¿½cï¿½rya is mentioned in the inscription40 and it belonged to the 13th century.
The are several inscriptions of Deï¿½igana without any sub-division. In two inscriptions41 dated 950 and 1096 A.D., there is mention respectively of the ï¿½cï¿½ryas Guï¿½acandra and Ravichandra. In these inscriptions, there is mention of Deï¿½ï¿½gaï¿½a along with Koï¿½ï¿½a Kundï¿½nvaya. In eighteen inscriptions, there is mention of Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha ï¿½ Deï¿½ï¿½gaï¿½a. Among them, old inscriptions42belong to the twelfth century A.D. Eight inscriptions mention Deï¿½ï¿½gaï¿½a only. The old inscription43 among them are dated 1032 A.D. and 1054 A.D.
The ancient name in the inscription of the current name Kundakundï¿½nvaya was Koï¿½ï¿½akundï¿½nvaya, which means it originated from Koï¿½ï¿½akundapura. Some scholars prove on literary grounds that Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha and Koï¿½ï¿½akundï¿½nvaya are synonymous, and ï¿½cï¿½rya Kondakunda is the founder of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha. This is not proved from any inscription before the eleventh century A.D. Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha and Koï¿½ï¿½akundï¿½nvaya were together used in the inscription44 of 1044 A.D. Koï¿½ï¿½akundï¿½nvaya has been independently used in the inscriptions45 of the eighth or ninth century A.D. In the inscription of 802 A.D., Koï¿½ï¿½akundï¿½nvaya was regarded as Gaï¿½a46. The earliest use of Deï¿½ï¿½yagana with Koï¿½ï¿½akundï¿½nvaya was used in the inscription of 931 A.D.47 From the inscriptions, it appears that the use of Koï¿½ï¿½akundï¿½nvaya started from the later half of the seventh century A.D., and in the eighth or ninth century, efforts were made to make it powerful. Its first influence fell on the Deï¿½astha Saints of Karï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aka region. They began to be called Koï¿½ï¿½akundï¿½nvaya Deï¿½ï¿½yagï¿½a. The Draviï¿½a Saï¿½gha was also slightly influenced by Koï¿½ï¿½akundï¿½nvaya.48 It is known from the inscription but it seems that influence was not permanent. The Drï¿½viï¿½a Saï¿½gha Koï¿½ï¿½akundï¿½nvaya is not found mentioned in any other inscription.
Nandi Gana ï¿½ Seeing the similar names of the ancient ï¿½cï¿½ryas in the inscriptions of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha and the Drï¿½viï¿½asï¿½gha, it appears that old Nandigaï¿½a (Saï¿½ga) might have come from outside in these two Saï¿½ghas. These ancient ï¿½cï¿½ryas might have belonged to Nandigana. It seems that the Draviï¿½a-Saï¿½gha and the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha might have adopted the Nandigana of the Yï¿½panï¿½ya Saï¿½gha. The Nandisaï¿½gha was on important one among the Yï¿½panï¿½yas.
Senagan ï¿½ The earliest mention of the Senagaï¿½a is found in the inscription49 dated 821 A.D. It is also found in the Mulagunda inscription50 of 903 A.D. Guï¿½abhadra, the author of the Uttarapurï¿½na, regarded his teacher Jinasena and grand-teacher as scholars of Senï¿½nvaya. Vï¿½rasena and Jinasena in the commentaries of Dhavala and Jayadhavala mention Paï¿½chastï¿½pï¿½nvaya. Gunabhadra mentions for the first time Paï¿½chï¿½stï¿½pï¿½nvaya as Senï¿½nvaya in the Uttarapurï¿½ï¿½a.
Senagaï¿½a has been sub-divided into three Gacchas ï¿½ (1) Pogari or Hogiri Gaccha, (2) Pustakagaccha and (3) Chandrakapï¿½ï¿½a. The first mention of the Pogarigaccha is found in the inscription dated 893 A.D. This inscription51 records the grant of the village to Kanakasena, disciple of Vinayasena. In this inscription, it has been called Pogariyagaï¿½a of Mï¿½lasenï¿½nvaya. Another inscription52 is of 1047 A.D., and Pandita Nï¿½gasena has been called the ï¿½cï¿½rya of Senagaï¿½a-Hogari-gaccha. The Cï¿½lukya queen Akkï¿½devï¿½ granted some donation to him. The Pogarï¿½ Gachchha is found mentioned in the inscriptions53 up to the 13th century A.D.
The first inscription54 of Chandrakavï¿½ï¿½a Anvaya is dated 1053 A.D. wherein the lineage of Ajitasena, Kanakasena, Nayasena etc. has been described. Saradï¿½ra Kancarasena of Sindakula gave some charity to Nayasena. Narendrasena II, disciple of Nayasena, has been mentioned in 1081 A.D.55 An officer named Droï¿½a gave him some donation. Narendrasena and Nayasena were well versed in Grammar. In the inscription56 of 1066 A.D., Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka ï¿½ï¿½ntinandi of Candrikï¿½vaï¿½a has been mentioned. The name Mulasamgha is given but not of Senagaï¿½a.
The third sub-division Pustakagachchha of Senagaï¿½a is found in the inscription of the 14th century A.D. A lineage of the eleven ï¿½cï¿½ryas has been given in it. There is a mention of Samï¿½dhimaraï¿½a of Laksmï¿½sena and of Mï¿½nasena, disciple of Lakï¿½misena.
Thirteen inscriptions of the Senagaï¿½a from the eighth to seventeenth centuries are known. Five inscriptions from the 12th to the 15th century of this Gaï¿½a were found at Hire ï¿½vali.This proves that Hire ï¿½vali was a great centre of this Gaï¿½a. In the inscription of the 13th century A.D., Kundakundanvaya was associated with Senagaï¿½a. From the 15th century onwards, its influence gradually decreased.
Sï¿½rastha Gaï¿½a ï¿½ A Gaï¿½a named Sï¿½rastha of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha was famous. This Gaï¿½a is known from the inscriptions.57It is mentioned as Sï¿½rastha, Surï¿½stra, and Sï¿½rastha. It appears that the monks of this Gaï¿½a might have lived in Surasï¿½hra from the beginning. Hence, this name was given. It is possible that there might be some region of Surï¿½sï¿½ra in South India, from where the Munis might have derived this name. The first mention of this Gaï¿½a is in the inscription58 of 962 A.D. in which Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha has been associated with Draviï¿½a Saï¿½gha. The lineage of the saints namely Prabhï¿½candra, Kalneledeva, Ravicandra, Ravinadi and Elï¿½cï¿½rya has been decribed. The Ganga ruler Marasiï¿½ha II donated a village to Elï¿½cï¿½rya. The inscriptions of this Gaï¿½a from the 11th to the 13th century are found. No Kundakundanvaya has been found in the inscriptions of this Gaï¿½a.
Two sub-divisions of the Sï¿½rastha Gaï¿½a are known Kï¿½rï¿½ra Gachchha and Chitrakuï¿½ï¿½nvaya. There is only one inscription59dated 1007 A.D. in which Arhanandi Paï¿½ï¿½ita has been described. There are ten inscriptions of Chitrakï¿½ï¿½ï¿½nvaya.
The first inscription60 is dated 1071 A.D. in which some donation given to ï¿½ishyï¿½ of Sri Nandi Pandita has been described. The thrid inscription61 is dated 1074 A.D. in which some donation given to ï¿½rya Pandita, pupil of Arhanandi has been mentioned. The next two inscriptions62 give the lineage of this Aanvaya ï¿½ Vï¿½supï¿½jya, Harinandi and Nï¿½gachandra. Harinandi and Nï¿½gacandra got some donation in 1148 A.D. That the Sï¿½rastha gaï¿½a was in existence from the tenth to the twelfth century is known from fourteen inscriptions.
The donation of village to Elï¿½cï¿½rya of this Gaï¿½a has been mentioned in the Kï¿½dalï¿½ra Copper plate inscription.63 In this inscription dated 963, the names of early ï¿½cï¿½ryas are given ï¿½ Prabhï¿½chandra, Kalneledeva, Ravicandra, and Ravinandi. In three inscriptions64 of the 13th century Adalageri, Nï¿½gachandra, Nandibhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka and Jayakriti of this Gaï¿½a have been mentioned. These are the memorials of the Samï¿½dhimaraï¿½a of those Saints
Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ra Gaï¿½a ï¿½ Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ragaï¿½a is similar to Kaï¿½ï¿½ura Gaï¿½a the Yï¿½panï¿½yas. Both Kï¿½ï¿½ura and Kandï¿½ra reveals a particular place, from where the group of monks of this Gaï¿½a derived this name. The earliest inscription of this Gaï¿½a belongs to the tenth century A.D.65 It describes the teachers lineage, and mentions some donation given to the disciple of ï¿½cï¿½rya Municandra. The inscriptions of this Gaï¿½a up to the 14th century are available. From the inscription, it is known that in the 11th and 12th centuries, Gaï¿½a king Bhujabala, Gaï¿½gavarmadeva, his queen Gaï¿½ga Mahadevi and four sons were devotees of the ï¿½cï¿½ryas of thisGaï¿½a and honoured them by the charities.
Three sub-divsions of Krï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ra Gaï¿½a are known (i) Tintriï¿½ï¿½ Gachchha, (ii) Meshapï¿½shï¿½ï¿½a Gachchha are (iii) Pustaka Gachchha.
Tintrinï¿½ Gachchha ï¿½ There are six inscriptions66 of Tintriï¿½ï¿½gachchha. The first two belong to the twelfth century A.D. and they describe Meghacandra and Parvatamuni ï¿½cï¿½ryas. The thrid is dated 1207 A.D. and it mentions some donation given to Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Anantakï¿½rti. The fourth inscription67 dated 1556 A.D. mentions Devakï¿½rti, Municandra and Devacandra.
The inscription68 dated 1130 of Meï¿½apaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a gachchha describes ï¿½cï¿½rya Kulacandra or Prabhï¿½candra, and another inscription69 is concerned with Vasadikï¿½. There are inscriptions of Meshapï¿½shï¿½ï¿½a gachchha70 and Tintrinï¿½ka gachchha71. Meï¿½apï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a means stone meant for sitting of goats. It seems to be a particular place from where the saints of this Gaï¿½a might be somehow related. Tintriï¿½ika was a name of the tree. An inscription of the Pustaka Gachchha is dated 1150 A.D.72 The existence of this Gaï¿½a from the tenth to the sixteenth century is known from sixteen inscriptions.
Balï¿½tkï¿½ra Gaï¿½a ï¿½ Looking at the resemblance, Balï¿½tkï¿½ragaï¿½a originated from Balihï¿½ri or Balahï¿½ragaï¿½a of the Yï¿½paniya. Balihï¿½ra or Balagï¿½ra appears to be territorial in nature. There was a village named Balagï¿½ra in South India.73 The earliest inscription74 of Balï¿½tkï¿½ragaï¿½a is dated 1071 A.D. It mentions the names of eight ï¿½cï¿½ryas. Another inscription75 of 1075 mentions Anantakï¿½rti, disciple of Municanda of Chitrakï¿½ï¿½ï¿½mnï¿½ya of this gaï¿½a. Anotherinscription76 mentions the names of threeï¿½cï¿½ryas. There is mention of Tribhuvanacandra in the inscription77 dated 1074 A.D. Next important inscriptions of this Gaï¿½a are of the 13th century78. In the 14th century, Balï¿½tkaragaï¿½a is found associated with Sarasvatï¿½gachchha. In the inscriptions of the later half of the 14th century, there was special influence of this Gaï¿½a. The kings of the Vijayanagara kingdom honoured them. An inscription79 of the reign of Vï¿½ra Bukkyarï¿½ya mentions ï¿½cï¿½rya Siï¿½hanandi as Rï¿½jaguru and Maï¿½ï¿½alï¿½cï¿½rya. Another inscription80 mentioning Nandisaï¿½gha with Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha and Sï¿½rasvata gachchha with Balï¿½tkï¿½ra gaï¿½a is important. Inscriptions of Kï¿½raï¿½ja branch and its Lï¿½tï¿½ra sub-branch of Balï¿½tkarï¿½gaï¿½a of the South were discovered at Ukhalada.
Nigamï¿½nvaya : An inscription81 of Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha-Nigaï¿½ï¿½nvaya is dated 1310 A.D. It records the installation of an image by Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½adeva.
Yï¿½panï¿½a Saï¿½gha : According to the Darï¿½anasï¿½ra of Devasena- Sï¿½ri, Yï¿½panï¿½ya Saï¿½gha was established by ï¿½vetambara ï¿½rï¿½kalaï¿½a in V.S. 205 at Kalyï¿½ï¿½a town in Gulbarga District in Karï¿½ï¿½taka. Like ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras, it recognized the existence of sacred books and believed that women could attain salvation and saints could take food after attaining omniscience. At the same time, it was, like the Digambaras, against using clothes and it followed the rules and regulations of Digambara ascetics. They used the bunch of peacock feathers. It appears that this Saï¿½gha was a connecting link between the Digambaras and the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras. This Saï¿½gha produced several renowned scholars such as Aparï¿½jita, Pï¿½lyakï¿½rti ï¿½ï¿½kaï¿½ï¿½yana and Vimalasuri.
The Yï¿½panï¿½ya Saï¿½gha received the royal patronage from the kings of Kadamba, Chï¿½lukya, Gaï¿½ga, Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ta and Baï¿½ï¿½a dynasties. These kings donated lands to this Saï¿½gha and its saints. The Kadamba ruler Mï¿½igeï¿½avarï¿½ (470-490 A.D.) performed pious deed by donating land at the place Palï¿½sikï¿½ to this Saï¿½gha along with other Saï¿½ghas namely Nirgranthas and Kï¿½rchakas82 Ravivarmï¿½, son of the above Kadamba king, donated the Purukheï¿½aka village in donation to Kumï¿½radatta, the mainï¿½cï¿½rya of this Saï¿½gha.83 Yuvarï¿½ja Devavarmï¿½ of the second branch of the Kadamba dynasty also granted some lands to thisSaï¿½gha84. Some Kadamba inscriptions85 inform that the influence of Yï¿½panï¿½ya Saï¿½gha at the time early Kadamba kings was great.
We learn about the Gaï¿½as and Gachchhas of Yapaniya-Saï¿½gha from some inscriptions86. In the Sect of the Yï¿½panï¿½yas, Nandi Saï¿½gha was the main, and also the oldest. The names of the ï¿½cï¿½ryas of this Saï¿½gha were particularly Nandyanta and Kirtyanta.87Nandisamgha was divided into several Ganas. Among them Kanakopala Saï¿½bhï¿½ta Vï¿½iksha Mï¿½la Gaï¿½a88, Sri Mï¿½lamï¿½la Gaï¿½a89 and Puï¿½ï¿½ï¿½gavï¿½iksha Mï¿½lagaï¿½a90 were important. The names of the Gaï¿½as were connected with some trees. The lineage of the ï¿½cï¿½ryas of Kanakopalasambhutavï¿½ikï¿½a Mï¿½lagaï¿½a, as mentioned in the inscription91 dated 488 A.D. is as follows :
Siddhanandi, Chitakï¿½cï¿½rya (who had five hundred disciples), Nï¿½gadeva and Jinanandi. A feudatory named Sï¿½miyï¿½ra of Sendraka dynasty of Chï¿½lukya king Jayasiï¿½ha after constructing Jaina temple for Jinanandi donated a village and some land. Chandranandi, Kumï¿½ranandi, Kï¿½rtinandi and Vimalachandrchï¿½rya are mentioned in the inscription92. This inscription refers to Eregitturagaï¿½a and Pulikalagachchha. At the preaching of Vimalï¿½candrï¿½cï¿½rya, a Sï¿½manta Nirgundarï¿½ja Paramagï¿½la during fifty year reign of the Gaï¿½ga ruler ï¿½rï¿½ Purusha after constructing Jaina temple and freeing people from all taxes granted a village in charity. The lineage of the ï¿½cï¿½ryas of Punnï¿½ga Vï¿½iksha Mï¿½la Gaï¿½a in the inscription93 is given as follows ï¿½
ï¿½rï¿½ Kityï¿½cï¿½rya, Kavilï¿½cï¿½rya, Vijayakï¿½rti and Arhakï¿½rti. At the request of his feudatory Cï¿½kirï¿½ja, the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a king Prabhrita Varsha Govinda III donated a village named Jï¿½lamaï¿½gala to Arakakï¿½rti for the management of a Jaina temple in 812 AD. ï¿½cï¿½rya Pï¿½lyakï¿½rti, author of the Sï¿½katï¿½yana Vyï¿½karana of the Yï¿½panï¿½ya Saï¿½gha lived during the time of Amï¿½ghavarsha. Palyakï¿½rti was either a disciple or a religious associate of Arkakï¿½rti. In the inscription94 of 1108 A.D., we find Puï¿½ï¿½agavï¿½ksha Mï¿½lagaï¿½a as branch of the Mulasaï¿½gha which was afterwards it was absorbed by the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha.
Like Karï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aka, Yï¿½panï¿½ya Saï¿½gha was popular even in Tamil Province. Koï¿½imaï¿½uvagï¿½a of Nandi Gacchha (Saï¿½gha) of the Yï¿½panï¿½yas is mentioned in the inscription95 and its ï¿½cï¿½ryas were Jinanandi, Divï¿½kara and ï¿½rï¿½ Mandiradeva (Dhï¿½radeva). Dhï¿½radeva was the Adhishthï¿½tï¿½ (Builder) of the Kaï¿½akï¿½maraï¿½a Jinï¿½laya. At the request of commander (Kaï¿½akarï¿½ja) Durgarï¿½ja. Ambharï¿½ja II of the Early Cï¿½lukya Dynasty, donated a village to that temple for the Yapanï¿½ya Sï¿½ï¿½gha. In another inscription,96 the lineage of the ï¿½cï¿½ryas of Aï¿½kaligacchha Balaharigaï¿½a has been given as follows ï¿½ Sakalacandra, Ayyapoti and Arhanandi. Ambharï¿½ja II donated a village named Kalucumbaru on Attilinaï¿½du province for repairing of the kitchen of Sarvalokï¿½ï¿½raya Jinï¿½laya. It appears that Balahï¿½rigaï¿½a and Aï¿½kaligaccha belonged to the Yï¿½panï¿½yas. Balahï¿½ri or Balagï¿½ragaï¿½a is mentioned in the inscription97 of the later half of the eleventh century A.D. in the form of Balï¿½tkï¿½ragana of the Mulasaï¿½gha.
In the inscriptions of the kings of Raï¿½ï¿½a dynasty, we find two names of the Gaï¿½as of the Yï¿½panï¿½yas ï¿½ Kï¿½reyagaï¿½a and Kaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ragaï¿½a. Indrakï¿½rti (disciple of Guï¿½akirti), teacher of the first ruler Pï¿½ithvï¿½rï¿½ma of the Raï¿½ï¿½a dynasty, belonged to the Yï¿½panï¿½ya Saï¿½gha. In another inscritpion,98 Kï¿½reyagaï¿½a is mentioned, and Mailï¿½pï¿½nvaya in place of Mailï¿½patï¿½rtha. The lineage of the saints of Kï¿½reyagaï¿½a Mailï¿½pa Anvaya is as follows ï¿½ Mï¿½labhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Guï¿½akï¿½rti, Indra Kï¿½rti, Nï¿½gachandra, Jinacandra, ï¿½ubhakï¿½rti and Devakï¿½rti. Gaï¿½ga feudatory of some Amoghavarï¿½a king after constructing Jaina temple donated a village to Muni Devakï¿½rti. The existence of Kaï¿½dï¿½ra Gaï¿½a of the Yï¿½panï¿½yas is known from the two inscriptions99 of Raï¿½ï¿½a kings. The lineage of the teachers of Kaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ragaï¿½a of the Yï¿½panï¿½yas is given as below ï¿½ Devacandra, Devasiï¿½ha, Ravicandra, Arhanandi, ï¿½ubhacandra, Maunideva and Prabhï¿½candra Deva.
From the inscriptions of the Yï¿½panï¿½yas, it is learnt, that it remained well organized from the fifth to the fifteenth century A.D. There were several influential Gaï¿½as in it. Later on, Punnï¿½ga Vï¿½iksha Mulagaï¿½a, Balahï¿½rigaï¿½a and Kaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ra Gaï¿½a joined the Mulasaï¿½gha, Nandi saï¿½gha, Draviï¿½asaï¿½gha first, but were afterwards absorbed in the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha.
There is a copper plate inscription100 of the early sixth century A.D. of the Yï¿½panï¿½yas. It belongs to Ganga king Avinï¿½ta. It records the donation of a temple installed by Yavanika Saï¿½gha.
There is mention of Kumili or Kumudi gaï¿½a of Yï¿½panï¿½ya ï¿½ Saï¿½gha in four inscriptions101. The first inscription102 of the ninth century A.D. describes Amara Mudala Guru, disciple of the Acarya Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. He got built Deï¿½avallabha Jinï¿½laya in the north of the village Kï¿½reppï¿½kkam. In another inscription103 dated 1045 A.D., some ï¿½cï¿½ryas of this Gaï¿½a have been described. At this time, an official name Chï¿½vuï¿½ï¿½a got a Jinï¿½laya constructed. Other two inscriptions104 are of uncertain time. These are Niï¿½idhi inscriptions. The first inscription is the memorial of Samadhimaraï¿½a of ï¿½ï¿½nta Vï¿½radeva of this Gaï¿½a.
There are four inscriptions105 of Punnï¿½gavrikshamï¿½lagaï¿½a of the Yï¿½panï¿½ya Saï¿½gha. The first inscription dated 1044 records the donation to Bï¿½lachandra ï¿½cï¿½rya of this gaï¿½a for the newly constructed Jinï¿½laya in Pulinagara. It also mentions donation to Rï¿½macandra ï¿½cï¿½rya in 1145 A.D. The next inscription106 is dated 1165 A.D., and the lineage of the teachers is given. The commander Kï¿½laï¿½a of the ï¿½ilï¿½hï¿½ra king Vijayï¿½ditya after constructing a Jinï¿½laya at Ekkasambuge city made some donation to Vijayakï¿½rti for it. The inscription107 dated 1096 A.D. records some donation to Paï¿½ï¿½ita Cï¿½rukï¿½rti, disciple of Munichandra Traividya of Vï¿½iksha Mï¿½lagaï¿½a. In an inscription108 of the time not definite, there is mention of the temple of Kusuma Jinï¿½laya of Vï¿½ikï¿½amï¿½lagaï¿½a.
The Kaï¿½ï¿½ura gaï¿½a of the Yï¿½panï¿½ya Saï¿½gha is mentioned in three inscriptions.109 The first is of the early twelfth century A.D., and it describes the four ï¿½cï¿½ryas namely Bï¿½hubali, ï¿½ubhacandra, Maunideva and Maghanandi. There is a reference to a temple of this gaï¿½a in the inscription of the 13th century. The third inscription mentions a Jaina image of this time. The reference to Kï¿½reyagaï¿½a of Yï¿½panï¿½ya Saï¿½gha is in the inscription110 of the early twelfth century A.D. Mï¿½la Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka and Jinadevasï¿½ri were the ï¿½cï¿½ryas of this Gaï¿½a.
Yï¿½panï¿½ya saï¿½gha has been mentioned in the five inscriptions111 without any reference to Gana or Gaccha. The first inscription is dated 1060 A.D., and it informs the lineage of teachers ï¿½ Jayakï¿½rti, Nï¿½gacandra and Kanakaï¿½akti. The next two inscriptions belong to the twelfth century A.D., and they mention the Samï¿½dhimaraï¿½a of Municandra and his disciple Pï¿½lyakï¿½rti. The last inscription of the 13th century A.D. refers to Traikï¿½rti ï¿½cï¿½rya.
The Dharmapurï¿½ inscription112 of the eleventh century A.D. records donation to Mahï¿½vï¿½ra Paï¿½ï¿½ita of Vandiyï¿½ra gaï¿½a of Yï¿½pï¿½nï¿½ya Saï¿½gha. The Varaï¿½gala inscription of 1132 A.D. refers to the passing away of Gunacandra of Mahï¿½muni of this gaï¿½a.113 In the Tengalï¿½ inscription114 of the twelfth century A.D., Vaï¿½iyï¿½ragaï¿½a has been mentioned. The disciple of ï¿½cï¿½rya of Nï¿½gavï¿½ra of this gaï¿½a installed in image115. The four inscriptions of this Gaï¿½a belong from 980 A.D. to the 13th century.
Kï¿½rcaka Saï¿½gha : The Kï¿½rcaka Saï¿½gha was in existence in Karï¿½ataka during the fifth century A.D. along with the Yapaniya Saï¿½gha as is guided from the inscriptions of the Kadamba rulers. As the Monks of this Saï¿½gha had beard-mustache, it was called Kï¿½rchaka.
In the Kadamba inscription115, Kï¿½rcaka Saï¿½gha is mentioned along with the Nirgranthas and the Yï¿½paniyas. Kadamba ruler Mrigeï¿½avarmï¿½ granted land to the Kï¿½rcakas along with the Yï¿½panï¿½yas and the Nirgranthas. In an inscription116, Vï¿½rasneï¿½ï¿½cï¿½rya Saï¿½gha, a branch of the Kï¿½rcakas, has been mentioned Kadamba king Harivarmï¿½ at the preaching of ï¿½ivaratha donated a village named Vasuntavï¿½taka for the worship of a Jaina temple built by Mï¿½igesï¿½, son of the Senapati Siï¿½ha and for ï¿½hï¿½ra (food) or Sarvasaï¿½gha. In the inscription117, there is mention of one more ï¿½ramana Saï¿½gha named Aharishï¿½i to which at the request of Sendraka feudatory Bhaï¿½uï¿½akti, Kadamba King Harivarmï¿½ donated a village named Marade.
Dravida Samgha : A group of Jaina Saints residing in Draviï¿½adeï¿½a was known as Drï¿½viï¿½asaï¿½gha. In the inscriptions, it is mentioned as Draviï¿½a, Draviï¿½a, Draviï¿½a, Drï¿½viï¿½a, Davila and Tibula. Draviï¿½adeï¿½a covers the modern Andhra and Madras region which is called Tamiladeï¿½a. According to the Darï¿½anasï¿½ra of ï¿½cï¿½rya Devasena, Drï¿½viï¿½asaï¿½gha, was established by Vajranandi disciple of Pï¿½jyapï¿½da at Madura in the South in V.S. 526. Generally, most of the inscriptions of this Saï¿½gha belong to the kings of Koï¿½gï¿½lva dynasty, ï¿½ï¿½ntara dynasty and Hoysala dynasties. These inscriptions inform that Drï¿½viï¿½asaï¿½gha received royal patronage from the kings of these dynasties. Most of the inscriptions of this Saï¿½gha belong to the kings of Hoysala dynasty. It is learnt from these inscriptions that ï¿½cï¿½rya of this Saï¿½gha contributed to the propagation of worship of Padmï¿½vati. The monks of this Saï¿½gha renovated the Vasadis or Jaina temples in which they were living, gave ï¿½hï¿½radï¿½na, and managed lands, Jï¿½gira etc.
The early inscriptions of Drï¿½vï¿½ï¿½a Saï¿½gha were found at Aï¿½gadi (Solebï¿½raan), the origin place of the Hoysalas. In one inscription119 dated 990 of this place, this Saï¿½gha was written as Draviï¿½asaï¿½gha Koï¿½ï¿½akundï¿½nvaya and in another inscription120dated 1040 as Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha Dravidï¿½nvaya. But in the inscriptions121 of the later half of the eleventh century A.D., it has been mentioned Draviï¿½agaï¿½a along with Nandisaï¿½gha I Saï¿½galï¿½nvaya or Aruï¿½galï¿½nvaya. In the beginning, Dravida Saï¿½gha reamined associated with Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha or Kundakundï¿½nvaya but afterwords, it came to be related with the Nandisaï¿½gha of the Yï¿½panï¿½yas. When Draviï¿½agaï¿½a became influential, it became Drï¿½viï¿½a Saï¿½gha. The discovery of early inscriptions of the Hoysalas at Aï¿½gï¿½di (Solebï¿½ra) proves that they might have contributed to strengthen the Drabida Saï¿½gha. In some inscriptions of Nandisaï¿½gha, Aruï¿½galï¿½nvaya has been mentioned. Aruï¿½gala is the name of the place in Gudiyapattana Tï¿½lukï¿½ of Tamila Province. The combined name Draviï¿½a Saï¿½gha, Nandi Saï¿½gha Aruï¿½galï¿½nvaya informs that it was the Nandisaï¿½gha of Tamil province, and Nandisamgha originated from Arungala. From the Nandisaï¿½gha of the Yï¿½panï¿½yas came into existence the Nandisaï¿½gha of Drï¿½vida Saï¿½gha. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the seats of the Munis of this Saï¿½gha were Mullï¿½ra of Kongï¿½lva kingdom and Hummach, capital of ï¿½ï¿½ntara Kings. The inscriptions122 found at Hummach inform about several ï¿½cï¿½ryas of this Saï¿½gha ï¿½ ï¿½reyï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a Pandita, Sudharmï¿½, Kamalabhadra, Vï¿½dhï¿½bhasiï¿½ha and Ajitasena Pandita.
An inscription123 of Nandigaï¿½a ï¿½ Aruï¿½gala Anvaya of Drï¿½viï¿½a Saï¿½gha belongs to the eleventh century A.D. The lineage of ï¿½ï¿½ntamuni, Vï¿½dirï¿½ja and Vardhamï¿½na has been given in it. The next inscription124 of this Anvaya is dated 1192 A.D. and it describes about Vajaranandi, disciple of Vï¿½sapï¿½jya. In an inscription125 of the 14th century A.D., the lineage of the Anvaya-ï¿½rï¿½pï¿½la, Padmaprabha and Dharmasena is known. In three inscriptions126 of the Drï¿½viï¿½a Saï¿½gha, Aruï¿½gala Anvaya has not been mentioned.
The Vajï¿½rakheï¿½a copper plate inscriptions127 dated 915 A.D. record the donation of village to Vardhamï¿½na guru, disciple of Lekabhadra of Vï¿½ragaï¿½a-Vï¿½rnï¿½ya Anvaya of Draviï¿½ Saï¿½gha. Amoghavasati of Chandanï¿½purï¿½ and Uriammavasati of Vaï¿½anera were looked after by them. It is the oldest of all the available inscriptions so far available. Varnita Viragana Vï¿½rï¿½ayya Anvaya is not found mentioned in any other inscription. It is the first and only inscription of the Drï¿½viï¿½a Saï¿½gha found outside Mysore Pradeï¿½a. The Pudï¿½ra inscription128 dated 1087 A.D. records the donation of land to ï¿½cï¿½rya Kanakasena for Pallava Jinï¿½laya. The Ujjili inscription129 dated 1167 A.D. mentions the donation of land to Indrasena ï¿½cï¿½rya of Drï¿½vida Saï¿½gha ï¿½ Senagana Kairï¿½ra gachchha. The association of Sï¿½nagaï¿½a with Drï¿½vï¿½ï¿½a-Saï¿½gha was not known earlier. Earlier Senagaï¿½a was told related with Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha and Kairï¿½ra gaccha with Surï¿½stha gaï¿½a. The inscription130 dated 1194 A.D. is the last of this collection. It was discovered from Yetina hatti and it records the death of ï¿½cï¿½rya Ajitasena.
Kï¿½shthï¿½ Saï¿½gha ï¿½ There is a controversy among scholars about the origin of the Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha. Devasena, an author of the tenth century A.D., mentions in the Darï¿½anasï¿½ra that Kumï¿½rasena established the Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha in the south. In two inscriptions,131 its name has been mentioned Kï¿½ï¿½chï¿½ Saï¿½gha. It has been written in the Vacanakoï¿½a of the 17th century that Lohï¿½cï¿½rya, Pattadhara of Umï¿½svï¿½mï¿½ established this Saï¿½gha at Amarohï¿½ in North India. According to KAMTA PRASAD,132Kï¿½shthï¿½ Saï¿½gha originated from Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ village near Mathura located on the bank of the river Yamunï¿½. The main gacchas or branches of the Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha were Nanditala, Mï¿½thura, Vï¿½gaï¿½a and Lï¿½ï¿½avï¿½gaï¿½a.
Jambï¿½khanda, Gaï¿½a ï¿½ Jambï¿½khaï¿½ï¿½agaï¿½a has been mentioned in the inscription133 of the sixth-seventh century A.D. Sentraka king Indraï¿½anda donated something to ï¿½cï¿½rya ï¿½ryanandi.
Siï¿½havï¿½ra Gaï¿½a ï¿½ There is an inscription134 dated 860 A.D. of Siï¿½havï¿½ra gaï¿½a. It records some donation by king Amoghavarsha to ï¿½cï¿½rya Nï¿½ganandi of this Gaï¿½a.
It seems that there was not much difference in the functiong of the Saï¿½has, Gaï¿½as and Gacchas of the South. Munis of these organizations go constructed temples and Mathas (Monasteries). They received the donation of the villages, lands, gardens, houses etc. They participated in discussions of the royal courts. Incidentally, they helped the kings to manage the affairs of their kingdoms. They tried to increase the influence of Jainism even by Mantra Sï¿½dhanï¿½, Astrology and Medicines.
ï¿½vetï¿½mbara Gachchhas of North India During Medieval Period
The number of ï¿½vetï¿½mbara Gachchhas was originally 84 but it seems to be only conventional. Neither the castes nor the Gachchhas were founded at one time. They came into existence at different times. Some names of the Gachchhas have no significance but were added simply to make their number 84. This increase in number started about the eleventh century A.D. At present, their number seems to be about one hundred fifty. Most of these Gachchhas originated in Rajasthan, but a few in Gujarat. The ï¿½cï¿½ryas of these Gachchhas are known to have performed the consecration ceremony of images and temples at different times and places. These gachchhas originaged in different ways. Some of the gachchhas were named after certain good deeds by certain persons while others named after influential persons. Some of the ancient Kulas in course of time were also converted into the Gacchas. The Gacchas are also territorial in origin.
ACTIONAL Ï¿½ GACHCHHAS
(1) Bï¿½ihad Gachchha
Uddyotana Suri bestowed the designation of ‘Sï¿½ri’ on the eight monks including Devasï¿½ri under the shade of a large banian tree at a village Teli situated at Mount Abu. According to the opinion of some, the designation of the (highest priest) was conferred only on Sarvadevasuri. As the designation was conferred under the banian tree, the Nirgrantha Gaccha began to be called Vaï¿½a Gaccha. Vaï¿½a Gachcha is known also by another name Brihad Gaccha.135 The earliest inscription of 1086 A.D. of this Gaccha in Rajasthan is found at Kotarï¿½ in Sirohi State.136 The next early inscription of 1158 A.D. is found at Nï¿½dol in Marwar.137 From the inscriptions it seems that it became popular in Sirohi138 and Marwar States in the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries. The inscriptions of the 14th and 15th centuries of this Gaccha are also found Udaipur and Jaisalmer.139
(2) Kharatara Gaccha ï¿½ Kharatara Gaccha is the most famous and influential Gaccha. Jineï¿½varasï¿½ri by defeatng the Chaityavï¿½sï¿½s in the royal court of Durlabharï¿½ja got the title ‘Kharatara’ in 1017 A.D. From him started the Kharatara Gaccha.140 It arose outside Rajasthan but gathered a large number of followers here. In course of time, it was divided into many branches.The inscriptions of this Gaccha are found in the different parts of Rajasthan. But it remained dominant in Jaisalmer from the 14th century to the 19th century.141 The ï¿½chï¿½ryas of this Gaccha installed several images and wrote many works.
(3) Tapï¿½ Gaccha : Jagacandra Sï¿½ri was not only a scholar but he was also a great ascetic practising penances. He accepted the penance of doing ‘ï¿½yambil‘ for the whole life and passed twelve years in this way. Seeing it, Jaitra Simha, the king of Mewar, gave him the title of Tapï¿½ (which means a real ascetic) in 1228 A.D. From this time, Nirgrantha Gaccha got another name of Tapï¿½ Gaccha.142 The saints of this Gaccha contributed considerably to the growth of Jainism. Later on, it was also divided into many branches. Vï¿½iddha Pausï¿½lika Tapï¿½-Gaccha started from Vijayacandra who was the pupil of Jagacandra Sï¿½ri. From Devendra Suri, there started the Laghu Pausï¿½lika Tapï¿½-Gaccha. Vijayacandra Suri was indolent in the performance of religious rites while Devendra Sï¿½ri devoted himself to the performance of the purifying rites and contributed to the development of Jainism.143 The images installed by the ï¿½cï¿½ryas of this Gaccha are found in different parts of Rajasthan. But still, it remained strong in Sirohi,144 Mewar and Jaisalmer.145
(4) Aï¿½chala Gaccha : Vijayachanda Upï¿½dhyï¿½ya was the first person to start a Gaccha called Vidhipakï¿½ha in order to support the pure rites. Once the merchant Koï¿½ï¿½ went to Pï¿½tan. While performing the rites of paï¿½ikkamaï¿½a, he used the edge of his cloth in bowing down instead of using the ‘mubhapaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½‘ (a piece of cloth kept on the mouth by the Jaina ascetics). Kumï¿½rapï¿½la asked him the reason of this. The Guru told him about Vidhi–paksha (the new sect) and then Kumï¿½rapï¿½la used the edge of his cloth (called ï¿½ï¿½chala in Gujarï¿½ti) in saluting. Thence forward, Vidhi–pakï¿½ha was called ï¿½ï¿½chala Gaccha.146
This Gaccha started in 1166 A.D. outside Rajasthan but it spread in Jaisalmer, Udaipur, Jï¿½rï¿½ualï¿½ in Sirohi State and Nagara in Marwar in the 15th century A.D. as known to us from the inscriptions. Several ï¿½cï¿½ryas of this Gaccha composed important works and celebrated the consecration of many images.147
(5) Pï¿½rï¿½imiyï¿½ Gaccha and Sï¿½rdha Pï¿½rï¿½imiyï¿½ Gaccha : From Pï¿½rï¿½imï¿½, it seems to be named Pï¿½rï¿½imiyï¿½ Gaccha. Sï¿½rdha Pï¿½rï¿½imiyï¿½ system started in 1179 A.D. The great king Kumï¿½rapï¿½la once asked Hemachandra to call the leader of the Pï¿½rï¿½imiyï¿½ Gaccha in order to inquire whether its followers acted according to the Jaina holy books or not. The leader of the Gaccha was called and questioned by Kumï¿½rapï¿½la. But he could not give satisfactory answers, so the ascetics of the Gaccha were asked to go into exile. After the death of Kumï¿½rapï¿½la, Sumatisiï¿½ha, the ï¿½chï¿½rya of the Gaccha, came to Pï¿½tan. On being asked by the people about his Gaccha, he said, ‘We belong to Sï¿½rdha Pï¿½rï¿½imiya Gaccha.’ The followers of this system do not worship a Jaina shrine with fruits.148 It originated outside Rajasthan but it gathered the followers here also. It remained very dominant in the 15th century in Jaisalmer and Sirohi States as it is known to us from the inscriptions. Its inscriptions are also found at Jodhpur and Nagaur in Marwar, Ajmer and Udaipur.149
(6) ï¿½gamika Gaccha : ï¿½ï¿½laguï¿½asï¿½ri and Devabhadrasï¿½ri were the two ï¿½cï¿½ryas who belonged to Pï¿½rï¿½imiyï¿½ Gaccha. They joined the ï¿½ï¿½cala Gaccha, but they soon left it and started their own sect. They taught that prayers should not be offered to Kï¿½etra Devatï¿½. Besides this, they propounded some new theories and gave the name of ï¿½gamika Gaccha to their section.150 This sect either started in 1157 A.D., or 1193 A.D., but in Rajasthan it spread in the 15th century A.D. It was prevalent in Jaisalmer, Ajmer, Jaipur and Nagaur, Barmer and Osiï¿½ in Marwar State and Sirohi State.151
Kula Gacchas :
(1) Candra Gaccha : Candra Kula in course of time was converted into Candra Gaccha. Its name is also mentioned in the inscription of 1182 A.D. at Jï¿½lor in Marwar.152 It seems to have been in existence from 1125 A.D. to 1435 A.D. in Sirohi State as known to us from the inscriptions.153
(2) Nï¿½gendra Gaccha : From Nï¿½gendra Kula, it became famous as Nï¿½gendra Gaccha. The preceptor of the founder of Aï¿½ahilapura-pï¿½tan named ï¿½ï¿½laguï¿½asï¿½ri also belongs to this Gaccha. The earliest inscription of 1031 A.D. of this Gaccha in Rajasthan is found at Osiï¿½ in Marwar.154 It became dominant at Jaisalmer from the 13th century to the 16th century. It was in existence at Pï¿½lï¿½, Nagaur, Sirohi and Udaipur at this time.155
(3) Nivï¿½tti Gaccha : Probably Nivï¿½itti Kula in course of time began to be called Nivï¿½itti Gaccha. In the early inscriptions discovered in Sirohi State, Nivï¿½itti-kula is mentioned,156 but in the inscriptions of 1412 A.D. on the metal image of Sï¿½talanï¿½tha at Udaipur, Nivï¿½itti Gaccha is mentioned.157
Gacchas Named after Influential Persons
(1) Kharatara Gaccha : The Kharatara Gaccha in course of time was divided into many branches which were started after the influential persons. Bhï¿½vaharï¿½a Kharatara Sï¿½khï¿½ is the 7th Gacchabheda, and it was founded by Bhï¿½vaharshopï¿½dhyï¿½ya.158 In 1643 A.D., there originated the Raï¿½gavijaya Kharatara ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ from Raï¿½gavijaya Gaï¿½i. This is the 9th Gaccha-bheda, and from this ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ sprang the ï¿½rï¿½sï¿½rï¿½ya Kharatara ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ founded by ï¿½rï¿½sï¿½ropï¿½dhyï¿½ya as the tenth Gaccha-bheda.159 It seems to have remained in existence at Jaipur in the 19th century.
(2) Tatï¿½ Gaccha : In course of time, the Tapï¿½ Gaccha was also divided into many branches. Some of the branches were named after the great ï¿½cï¿½ryas. After the demise of ï¿½cï¿½rya Mahï¿½rja Vijayasena Sï¿½ri, there were the five divisions in Tapï¿½ Gaccha after the names of ï¿½cï¿½ryas. One was formed by the followers of ï¿½cï¿½rya Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Deva Sï¿½ri and known as Deva Sï¿½ri Gaccha. The second formed by the followers of ï¿½cï¿½rya ï¿½nanda Sï¿½ri was known as ï¿½nanda Sï¿½ri Gaccha. The third division known as Sï¿½gara Gaccha was organized in 1629 A.D. by ï¿½cï¿½rya Rï¿½ja Sï¿½gara Sï¿½ri. The fourth division named Vimala Gaccha was named after Vimala Sï¿½ri in 1692 A.D. The fifth division known as Saï¿½vegï¿½ Gaccha was created by Pannyï¿½sa Satya Vijayajï¿½ Gaï¿½i.160
Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha Gaccha is also a branch of Tapï¿½ Gaccha. An intelligent man called Pï¿½rï¿½va Candra took initiation under ï¿½rï¿½ Sï¿½dhuratna Sï¿½ri of Nï¿½gauri Tapï¿½ Gaccha in 1515 A.D. About some courses of conduct, he differed from his perceptor and aptly preached his view vigorously. His Gaccha was named after his own name.161 He too believed in image worship, and images have been consecrated by himself and other saints of the Gaccha.
The saint Kï¿½ishï¿½arshi founded Kï¿½ishï¿½arshi Gaccha, a branch of Tapï¿½ Gaccha. The earliest mention of it is found in the inscription of 1426 A.D. at Jï¿½rï¿½valï¿½ in Sirohi State.162 The next mention of it is found in the inscription of 1468 A.D. of Nagaur in Marwar.163 In the 15th century, this Gaccha was in existence at Jaisalmer.164
Kamala Kalaï¿½a is also a branch of the Tapï¿½ Gaccha and it became separated as Kamala Kalaï¿½a in the 16th century. It seems to have reamined popular in Sirohi State as known from the inscriptions.165
(3) Gaccha of this Type in Sirohi State : From the name of the ï¿½chï¿½rya Pishpï¿½lï¿½chï¿½rya, it was known Pishpï¿½lï¿½chï¿½rya Gaccha. It was in existence in Sirohi State from 1151A.D. as it is known from the inscriptions.166 Mahendra Sï¿½ri Gaccha came into existence after the name of the ï¿½cï¿½rya Mahendra Sï¿½ri. It is mentioned in the inscription of the 13th century at Ajï¿½rï¿½ in Sirohi State.167ï¿½mradevï¿½cï¿½rya Gaccha was named after ï¿½mradevï¿½cï¿½rya. It was in existence at Ajï¿½ri and Lotï¿½ï¿½a in Sirohi State in the 11th century. From the inscriptions, it seems that it was associated with Nivï¿½itti Kula.168
(4) Gaccha of this Type in Jodhpur State : From the Achï¿½rya Prabhï¿½kara, it became famous as Prabhï¿½kara Gaccha. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1515 A.D. found at Mertï¿½ in Marwar.169 The name of Kaï¿½aumati Gaccha became famous after the name of Kaï¿½ï¿½vï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha in 1505 A.D. The name of this Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1626 A.D. of Osia.170
(5) Common Gaccha Found in the States : Dharmaghosha Gaccha was named after Dharmaghoï¿½a Sï¿½ri probably in the 12th or 13th century. It became dominant at places such as Jaisalmer, Udaipur and Nagaur in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries.171
From Bhï¿½vadeva Sï¿½ri, Bhï¿½vadevï¿½chï¿½rya Gaccha was named. Bhï¿½vadï¿½ra Gaccha and Baï¿½ï¿½haï¿½a Gachha also seem to be of the above type. The earliest mention of its is found in the inscription of 1157 A.D. discovered at a village Sï¿½verï¿½ in Sirohi State.172From the 13th century to 15th century, the existence of this Gaccha in Jaisalmer is known from the inscriptions.173
Malladhï¿½rï¿½ Gaccha was called after Malladhï¿½rï¿½ ï¿½cï¿½rya. It remained in existence from the 13th century to the 16th century at the places such as Jaisalmer, Udaipur and Sirohi State.174
Vidyï¿½dhara Gaccha was probably named after Vidyï¿½dhara Sï¿½ri. From the 14th century to the 17th century, it seems to have been in existence in Rajasthan. Its inscriptions are found at Osia and Nagaur in Marwar, Nï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ in Sirohi State and Jaisalmer.175
Probably, Vijaya Gaccha was named after Vijayadeva Sï¿½ri. There is an inscription of 1642 A.D. found at Bhï¿½raja in Sirohi State.176Another inscription of 1661 A.D. is found at Bï¿½lotarï¿½ in Marwar.177 In the 19th century, a person belonging to Alwar of this Gaccha performed the installation ceremony of the image.178
Rï¿½maseniya Gaccha was probably named after Rï¿½masena. The earliest inscription of 1401 A.D. of this Gaccha is found at Nagur in Marwar.179 It seems to have been in existence in Mewar in the 15th century.180
Yaï¿½a Sï¿½ri Gaccha was established after the name of the ï¿½cï¿½rya Yaï¿½a Sï¿½ri. The inscription of 1185 A.D. of this Gaccha was found out at Ajmer.181
(1) Gacchas Originated from the Places in Sirohi State : Sirohi State remained the stronghold of the Jaina religion in early Hindu period. It was, therefore, natural that the Gacchas were named after the places thereof. Madï¿½haï¿½a Gaccha became famous from the village Maï¿½ï¿½ra in Sirohi State. The oldest inscription of 1230 A.D. of this Gaccha has been found at Maï¿½ï¿½ra, the place of its origin.182 The large number of inscriptions of this Gaccha discovered in Sirohi State indicate that this area remained the stronghold of this Gaccha.183 In the 14th and 15th centuries, it was also prevalent in Jaisalmer and Udaipur.184
Nï¿½navï¿½la Gaccha and Jï¿½ï¿½nakï¿½ya Gaccha seem to be the one and the same Gaccha. It seems to have originated from the village named Nï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ in Sirohi State. Numerous inscriptions from the 11th century to the 15th century discovered in Sirohi State indicate that it was the centre of this Gaccha.185 It was in existence at Jaisalmer from the 13th to 15th century.186 In the 15th and 16th centuries, it was found in Mewar.187
According to the Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½vali, Jirï¿½valï¿½ Gaccha is a branch of Bï¿½ihad Gaccha. It originated from the place named Jirï¿½vali in Sirohi State. It was even in existence in the 14th century at the very place of its origin.188
Brï¿½hamï¿½a Gaccha among the Jainas originated from the place Varmï¿½na the ancient name of which was Brï¿½hamaï¿½a Mahï¿½sthï¿½na. The centre of this Gaccha was the region of Sirohi State from the 12th century to the 16th century A.D. as it is clear from a large number inscriptions discovered in this area.189 It was found at Varmï¿½na in the 12th century A.D. The Jaina temple of Mahï¿½vira of this place belonged to this Gacha, and it was built in 1185 A.D. or even before by the ï¿½rï¿½vakas or lay disciples. The inscription of 1185 A.D. records that Puniga and other ï¿½rï¿½vakas constructed Padmaï¿½ilï¿½ of the temple, of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra of Brï¿½hamaï¿½a Gaccha.190 There is an inscription of 1087 A.D. with the name of this Gaccha found at Pï¿½lï¿½ in Marwar.191 This Gaccha was prevalent in Mewar in the 14th and 15th centuries and in the 15th and 16th centuries, it was in existence at Jaisalmer.192
Kï¿½choli Gaccha seems to be connected with the place named Kï¿½cholï¿½ in Sirohi State. It was a branch of the Pï¿½rnimï¿½-pakï¿½a. It was in existence in Sirohi State in the 14th and 15th centuries.193
(2) Gaccha Originated from the Places in Marwar : Upakeï¿½a Gaccha was named after Osiï¿½ in Marwar. The inscription of 1202 A.D. with the name of this Gaccha has been also discovered at this place.194 There is also the inscription of 1137 A.D. found at the village Ajï¿½rï¿½ in Sirohi State.195 It remained popular from the 13th to the 16th century in Jaisalmer, Udaipur and Sirohi States as a very large number of the inscriptions have been discovered here.196
The name of Koraï¿½ï¿½aka Gaccha was given after Koraï¿½ï¿½a in Marwar. The earliest inscription of this Gaccha of 1031 A.D. has been found out at Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½avï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ in Sirohi State.197 From this time to the 16th century it remained in existence in this area.198 From the 14th century to the 16th century, it was also prevalent in Jaisalmer.199
Saï¿½ï¿½erï¿½ in Marwar is supposed to be the original seat of Saï¿½ï¿½eraka Gaccha, founded by Yaï¿½odeva Sï¿½ri who came from Kathiawar because of the fear of the Mlecchas. He settled with the people at the tank. He saw a fight between the bull and the lion in which the bull emerged victorious. The village and Gaccha were named as Saï¿½ï¿½eraka Gaccha. This Gaccha spread much in the different parts of Rajasthan. It was in existence at Nï¿½ï¿½ol in Marwar in the 12th century.200 In the 15th century, it was dominant in Jaisalmer. From the 14th century to the 16th century, it was prevalent in Mewar.5
From the place named Hatikuï¿½dï¿½ in Marwar, Hastikuï¿½dï¿½ Gaccha became famous. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1396 A.D. of Udaipur.202
Chaitravï¿½la Gaccha and Chaitra Gaccha seem to be identical. They possibly originated from the place named Chaitravï¿½la-nagara in Marwar. They prevailed in Jaisalmer and Udaipur from the 13th to the 16th century.203
Pallivï¿½la Gaccha originated from Pï¿½lï¿½ of Marwar. It is known both as Pallivï¿½la Gaccha and Pï¿½lli Gaccha. Palli Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1405 A.D. at Jaisalmer and of 1451 A.D. at Jaipur.204 Pallivï¿½la Gaccha is found in two incriptions of the 15th century found at Ajmer.205
Nï¿½gapurï¿½ya Gaccha originated from Nagaur in Marwar. The disciple of the famous Vï¿½dideva Sï¿½ri named Padma Prabha Sï¿½ri practised hard austerities at Nagaur in 1117 A.D. and he was therefore given the title Nï¿½gaurï¿½ya Tapa.
Harshapurï¿½ya Gaccha, a branch of Srï¿½ Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½thakula, originated probably from the place named Harsaur situated between Ajmer and Pushkar. Some of the ï¿½chï¿½ryas of this Gaccha were very powerful and had great influence over their contemporary rulers. At the request of Abhayadeva Sï¿½ri, the Cauhï¿½na ruler Pï¿½ï¿½hvï¿½rï¿½ja I of ï¿½ï¿½kambharï¿½, who lived in 1105 A.D., put the golden cupolas on the Jaina temples of Raï¿½thambhoï¿½.206 His pupil was Maladhï¿½rï¿½ Hemachandra who had influence over Jayasiï¿½ha Siddharï¿½ja of Gujarat. The name of this Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1498 A.D. found at Nagaur.207
Maï¿½ï¿½ovara Gaccha is a branch of the Kharatara Gaccha. In 1745 A.D., this branch became separated from Jinamahendra Sï¿½ri at Maï¿½ï¿½ovara and therefore was named Maï¿½ï¿½ovara Sï¿½khï¿½.208
(3) Gacchas Originated from the Places in Mewar : Bhartï¿½ipurï¿½ya Gaccha orginated from the village Bhartï¿½ipura now known as Bhaï¿½evara in Mewar. It was founded by Bhartï¿½ibhaï¿½a, the father of the famous king Allaï¿½a, in the 10th century A.D. This Gaccha is mentioned in an inscription of the 13th century.209 Ratnapurï¿½ya Gaccha was originally a branch of Maï¿½ï¿½haï¿½ Gaccha, but afterwards, it became a separate Gaccha after Ratanapura in Mewar. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1453 A.D. on the metal image found in the Jaina temple of Udaipur.210
(4) Gacchas Originated from the Other Known Places : Kï¿½myaka Gaccha originated from Kï¿½mï¿½ in Bharatpur State. It is said that there was a Kï¿½myaka forest in this area. It is mentioned in the Bayï¿½nï¿½ stone inscription of 1043 A.D. The names of the Jaina teachers Vishï¿½u Sï¿½ri and Maheï¿½vara Sï¿½ri are mentioned.211 Rudrapalliya Gaccha is a branch of the Kharatara Gaccha. In 1147 A.D. at Rudrapalli, it was founded by Jinaï¿½ekharï¿½chï¿½rya.212 It is said to have originated from the place named Rudrapalli near Delhi. In the 15th century it spread at Nagaur and Bï¿½lotarï¿½ in Marwar and Jaisalmer.213
(5) Gacchas Originated from Unknown Places : There are some regional Gacchas but the places of their origin have not been definitely identified. Pï¿½ppï¿½laka Gaccha is also one of the branches of the Kharatara sect. This branch became separated in 1417 A.D. from Jinavardhana Sï¿½ri.214 It was connected with the place Pippï¿½laka and therefore it was named Pï¿½ppï¿½laka.
It seems that both Humbaï¿½a Caste as well as Gaccha originated from the place named Humbaï¿½a which has not been identified yet. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1396 A.D. of Udaipur,215 Jalyodhara Gaccha originated from the village named Jorï¿½udra. This name has been mentioned in an inscription of 1156 A.D. which has been discovered at Ajï¿½rï¿½ in Sirohi State.216 This Gaccha was especially connected with Moï¿½havaï¿½ï¿½a from 1169 A.D., to 1366 A.D.
Bhï¿½mapallï¿½ya Gaccha is a branch of Pï¿½rï¿½imï¿½ Gaccha and originated from the village named Bhï¿½mapallï¿½ya. It is, therefore, known as Bhï¿½mapallï¿½ya Gaccha. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1541 A.D. found at Jodhpur.217 Kuï¿½uvapurï¿½ Gaccha is one of the branches of Tapï¿½ Gaccha. It started from the place named Kuï¿½uvapurï¿½. It was prevalent at Nï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ï¿½ in the early 16th century. Indranandi of this Gaccha installed the images in 1512 A.D., 1513 A.D. and 1514 A.D. at this place.218
Other Remaining Gaccha
(1) Sub-Branches of Kharatara Gaccha : It is mentioned in the paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½s that Madhukharatara ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ was the first Gaccha-bheda which started in about 1107 A.D. from Jinavallabha Sï¿½ri. Laghukharatara Sï¿½khï¿½, the third schism, was founded by Jina Siï¿½ha Sï¿½ri in 1274 A.D. In 1365 A.D., Vegaï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ took its rise founded by Dharma – Vallabha Gani. It remained dominant from the 16th century to the 19th century in Jaisalmer.219 It was the fourth Gaccha-bheda. In 1507 A.D., Acï¿½ryï¿½ya Kharatara Sï¿½khï¿½ arose founded by ï¿½chï¿½rya ï¿½ï¿½ntisï¿½gï¿½ra in Marudeï¿½a. This is the sixth division. In 1629 A.D., there originated the Laghuvï¿½chï¿½ryï¿½ya Kharatara ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ from ï¿½chï¿½rya Jinasï¿½gara Sï¿½ri occasioned by Harshanandana, pupil of Samaya Sundara. This is the eighth Gaccha-bheda in the Kharatara sect.220
(2) Gacchas Found in Marwar : Marwar remained the chief centre of the Jaina religion, therefore, the followers of the different Gacchas resided here. Siddhï¿½ntï¿½ Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1508 A.D. found out at Jodhpur.221 Jï¿½paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a Gaccha is mentined in the inscription of 1477 A.D. of Nagaur.222 An inscription (19th century) referring to Kavala Gaccha is engraved on the pillar of the Jaina temple at Rainapura.223 The name of Tï¿½vaï¿½ï¿½ra Gaccha is found in the inscription of 1442 A.D. of the Jaina temple of Munisuvrata at Jodhpur.224
(3) Gacchas Found in Jaisalmer State : In Jaisalmer State, Jainism flourished greatly because of its situation in the heart of the desert. Vï¿½ï¿½apï¿½ya Gaccha is mentioned in the two inscriptions of 1105 A.D. and 1281 A.D. discovered at Jaisalmer.225 Saravï¿½la Gaccha seems to be in existence the 12th and 13th centuries in the area.226 In 1364 A.D., Iï¿½vara Sï¿½ri of Bï¿½haï¿½a Gaccha performed the installation ceremony of the image of Sumatinï¿½tha.227
(4) Gacchas Found in Jaipur State : Some Gacchas are also found to be mentioned in the inscriptions of Jaipur. In 1472 A.D., the image of Padmaprabhu was set up by Bhï¿½khara through Vajreï¿½vara Sï¿½ri of Cï¿½ï¿½acï¿½la Gaccha.228 In 1452 A.D., ï¿½ivarï¿½ja celebrated the consecrations ceremony of the image of Kunthunï¿½tha through Padmananda of Rï¿½ja Gaccha.229 Chahiterï¿½ Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1555 A.D., found on the Paï¿½catï¿½rthï¿½ in the Jaina temple of Jaipur.230
(5) Gacchas Found in Mewar : There are some Gacchas which are not known to have been in existence at any other place except Mewar. The inscription of 1317 A.D. with the name of Prï¿½yï¿½ Gaccha is found at Udaipur.231 In 1144 A.D., Kanudeva of Devï¿½bhidita Gaccha performed the installation ceremony of the image through Sï¿½la Sï¿½ri of Devï¿½bhidita Gaccha.232 The inscription of 1439 A.D. with the name of Niï¿½ï¿½hati Gaccha233 is engraved.
(6) Common Gacchas : Thï¿½rï¿½padrï¿½ya Gaccha and Thirï¿½drï¿½ Gaccha seem to be the one and the same Gaccha. In the 12th century, it was in existence in Sirohi State.234 In the 15th century, it seems to be prevalent in Jaisalmer.235 The earliest mention of Pippala Gaccha is in the inscription of 1151 A.D. found at Koï¿½arï¿½ in Sirohi State.236 It was in existence from the 14th century to the 16th century in Jaisalmer.237 Mahukara Gaccha also seems to be known by the name of Madhukara Gaccha which is mentioned in the inscription of 1436 A.D. discovered at Rohiï¿½ï¿½ in Sirohi State.238 It is also mentioned in the inscriptions of 1470 A.D. and 1506 A.D. discovered at Alwar and Jaisalmer respectively239. Bokadiyï¿½ Gaccha seems to have been prevalent in the area of Jaipur and Nagaur in the 14th and 15th centuries.240
Gujarat : That Jamaï¿½apura Gaccha originated from Jamanapura is situated in Mahesana District. This Gaccha is mentioned in a metal icon of V.S. 1285. The Tharï¿½padra Gaccha, originated from the ancient name Tharï¿½padra, is located in Banas Kantha District. At present, it is known as Tharï¿½da. Harï¿½jagaccha originated from the place Hï¿½rï¿½jagaccha originated from the place Hï¿½rï¿½ja in Mehasana District241. The literary evidence for the existenve of this Gaccha is dated V.S. 1556 (1500 A.D.) while the epigraphical evidence goes from V.S. 1330 to V.S. 1577. The Aï¿½ï¿½ï¿½lijiya Gaccha is connected with a place named Aï¿½ï¿½laja, near Ahmedabad.242 Four inscriptions dated V.S. 1136, V.S. 1207, V.S. 1228 and V.S. 1273 found in the Jaina temple at Badhavï¿½ï¿½a mention this Gaccha. The inscriptions engraved on the Jaina images found at Palithana, ï¿½aturunjaya, Cambay, Bharu Kaccha (Gandhara). Anahilavada etc. mention different Gacchas. Some of them might have originated in Gujarat.
The followers of the different ï¿½vetï¿½mbara Gacchas migrated from Rajasthan to the neighbouring regions of Malwa, Maharashtra and Uttara Pradesh, and settled there. They became prosperous and performed the installation ceremony of images. They also carried old images with them and placed them in the temples. Numerous images engraved with the names of the Gacchaas of the 15th and 16th centuries are noticed. The ï¿½rï¿½vakas of these Gacchas also got prepared the copies of manuscripts for presentation to the ï¿½cï¿½ryas. It seems that there was nothing like unity in the ï¿½vetï¿½mbara Jaina Saï¿½gha, but on the contrary, it was divided into several Gacchas with differences. They gradually spread throughout North India. There was no personality to unite them under One Saï¿½gha.
Malvï¿½ : Tapï¿½gaccha became very popular in Malwa during the 15th and 16th centuries. Next important Gacchas known were Khaï¿½atara, ï¿½gama, ï¿½ï¿½chala and Upakeï¿½a. The other Gacchas mentioned in the Jaina inscriptions are Nï¿½ï¿½apï¿½la, Pali, Bhï¿½vada, Nï¿½ï¿½akï¿½ya, ï¿½ï¿½apallï¿½ya, Nagendra, Koraï¿½ta, Dharmaghoï¿½a, Jï¿½rapallï¿½ya, Rudrapalliya, Brahmaï¿½a etc. The main centres of these Gacchas were Ujjain, Badnawar (Vardhamï¿½napura), Mandu (Mandapadurga) and Dhar.243
Mahï¿½raï¿½tra : The inscriptions are engraved on Jaina metal images place in the Jaina temples of Bombay, Nagpur, Amravati, Akola, Chandvï¿½ï¿½ near Nasik, Manamï¿½da, Karanja, Wardha, Chï¿½lï¿½sagï¿½ï¿½va and Bhadravati244. Some Jaina inscriptions were found at Dhulia245. These inscriptions give information about the gacchas. The most popular, in this region, were Tapï¿½ and Kharatara Gacchas. The other Gacchas known from the inscriptions of the metal images were Kuranï¿½a, Chitra, Bï¿½ihad, ï¿½ï¿½chala, Jirï¿½pali, Pali, Dharmaghosha, Sandera, Kï¿½ishnarshi, ï¿½gama, Pippala, Nï¿½gendra, Brahmaï¿½a, Bhï¿½mapalli, Gyï¿½nakï¿½ya, Bhï¿½vadï¿½ra etc.
Uttra Pradeï¿½a : The inscriptions of Jaina images found at Banaras, Agra, Ayodhya etc. also give information of these Gacchas such as Kharatara, Tapï¿½, Pï¿½rnima pakï¿½a, Maladhï¿½rï¿½, Dharmaghosha, ï¿½nchala, Koranï¿½a, Brahamaï¿½a ï¿½gama etc.
An important inscription from Kangra, Himachal Pradesh mentions the names of two Jaina saints belonging to Rï¿½jakula-gaccha which is probably the same as Rï¿½jagaccha. The Komalagaccha was already in existence in Multan.248
Digambara Saï¿½ghas, Ganas and Gacchas in the North during the Medieval Period
The Digambara Saï¿½ghas of the Medieval period in North-India were Mï¿½thura, Vï¿½gaï¿½a, Lï¿½tavï¿½geda and Nandï¿½tata. Besides, there were Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha and ï¿½ï¿½lasaï¿½gha. Later on, Mï¿½thura, Vï¿½gada, Lï¿½ï¿½avï¿½geï¿½a and Nandi became the branches of the Kï¿½shthï¿½-saï¿½gha. The ï¿½ï¿½lasaï¿½gha along with the Balï¿½tkï¿½ragana became powerful from the 14th century onwards. The ï¿½cï¿½ryas of these Saï¿½ghas performed the installation ceremony of images and got prepared the copies of the manuscripts. They led pilgrimage to the holy places along with the ï¿½rï¿½vakas. The image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha was consecrated by the ï¿½cï¿½rya Subhadra who belonged to the line of Deï¿½ï¿½gaï¿½a in the ï¿½mnï¿½ya of Candrakara ï¿½cï¿½rya249. The Puï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ta-Saï¿½gha from Badnawar is also known.
Mï¿½thura Saï¿½gha : Mï¿½thura Saï¿½gha seems to have originated from Mathura. According to the Darï¿½anasï¿½ra, Rï¿½masena was the ï¿½cï¿½rya of the Saï¿½gha. He prohibited the use of Picchï¿½ (small brown peacok feather). The frist historical mention of this Saï¿½gha is found in the works of Amitagati. His teacher’s lineage is Devasena, Amitagati, Nemiseï¿½a and Mï¿½dhavasena. He wrote the Subhï¿½ï¿½itaratnasaï¿½doha in V.S. 1050 during the reign of Paramï¿½ra king Muï¿½ja, the Vardhamï¿½nanï¿½ti in V.S. 1068, theDharmaparï¿½kshï¿½ in V.S. 1070 and the Paï¿½casaï¿½graha in V.S. 1073250 :
Another old ï¿½cï¿½rya of Mï¿½thura Saï¿½gha was Chatrasena. His ï¿½cï¿½rya ï¿½loka got the ï¿½ï¿½abhanï¿½tha temple built in V.S. 1166. The third known ï¿½cï¿½rya of this Saï¿½gha is Gunabhadra. He wrote a lengthy Praï¿½asti of the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha in V.S. 1226. Lalitakï¿½rti is the fourth ï¿½cï¿½rya who installed the Devï¿½ image in V.S. 1234. The fifth ï¿½cï¿½rya was Amarakï¿½rti who wrote the Neminï¿½thacarita, and Shaï¿½akarmopadeï¿½a in V.S. 1247251. The Mï¿½thura Sï¿½gha is known from the inscriptions of the twelfth century engraved on the Jaina images discovered at Badnawar252. The Mï¿½thura Saï¿½gha and its ï¿½cï¿½ryas are known from the inscription of V.S. 1308.253
Mï¿½thura Saï¿½gha seems to have remained dominant in Rajasthan during the eleventh and the twelfth centuries. At this time, images were installed by the ï¿½cï¿½ryas of this Saï¿½gha at different places. There is a mention of Paï¿½ï¿½ita Mahï¿½sena of Mï¿½thura Saï¿½gha in the inscription of 1158 A.D. on the stone image of Brahmï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ in the Jaina temple of Baghera.254 Yaï¿½akï¿½rti appears to be the influential ï¿½cï¿½rya who performed the consecration ceremony of the white stone image now placed in the temple of Singhiji at Sanganer in 1167 A.D.255 and the white marble image of Padmaprabhu now found at Maroth in 1175 A.D.256 This function was organized by Kuladhara, son of Manoratha who seems to be a rich ï¿½rï¿½vaka. In 1175 A.D., Hetyï¿½ and his son Vilhaï¿½a also installed the image of Mï¿½roï¿½ha through the same Yaï¿½akï¿½rti257. The author of the Bijaulia inscription of 1170 A.D. was Guï¿½abhadra, a Mahï¿½muni who belonged to the Mï¿½thura Saï¿½gha258. An inscription of 1176 A.D. engraved on one side of a four-sided massive Jaina pillar in the Jaina temple at Rï¿½pï¿½helï¿½, near Udaipur, records that the pillar was erected by Padmaï¿½rï¿½, a female disciple of Ajikï¿½ belonging to the Mï¿½thura Saï¿½gha259. There was a hold of Mï¿½thura Saï¿½gha at Badnawar in Malwa. This is clear from the Jaina inscriptions of V.S. 1210, 1226 and 1236 of images260.
The medieval lineage of Mï¿½thura Gaï¿½a starts from Mï¿½dhavasena who had two disciples Uddharasena and Vijayasena. According to traditions, Mï¿½dhavasena lived during the reign of Alauddï¿½n Khilji261.
After Uddharasena, Devasena, Vimalasena, Dharmasena, Sahasrakï¿½rti and Guï¿½akï¿½rti gradually became Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas. In the ï¿½mnï¿½ya of Guï¿½akï¿½rti, a copy of the Paï¿½cï¿½stikï¿½ya was written in V.S. 1468 during the reign of Vï¿½ramadeva of Gwalior. The successor of Gunakirti was Yaï¿½ahkirti. In V.S. 1486, he got the Bhavishyadatta Paï¿½chamï¿½ Kathï¿½ prepared at Gwalior during reign of Dï¿½ï¿½garasiï¿½ha. Paï¿½dita Raidhu, disciple of Yaï¿½ahkï¿½rti, installed an image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha in Gwalior during the reign of ï¿½ï¿½ngarasiï¿½ha. The Paï¿½ï¿½aï¿½ishya of Yasahkï¿½rti was Malayakï¿½rti who installed the Yantra in 1502 and image in V.S. 1510. After Guï¿½abhadra, Malayakï¿½rti became Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka. Jinadï¿½sa got a copy of the Samayasï¿½ra written in Gwalior during the reign of ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½garasiï¿½ha. A copy of the Jï¿½ï¿½nï¿½rï¿½ava was prepared in Gwalior in V.S. 1521 during the reign of Kï¿½rtisï¿½ha. The consecration of images was performed in V.S. 1529, 1531, 1547 and 1548 during the reign of Kalyï¿½ï¿½amala. Caudharï¿½ ï¿½odarmala of the ï¿½mnï¿½ya of Guï¿½abhadra got a copy of the Mahï¿½purï¿½ï¿½a written. Brahma Maï¿½ï¿½ana, grand disciple of Guï¿½abhadra wrote a Guï¿½akï¿½ of Stotras at Sonapata in V.S. 1576 during the reign of Ibrï¿½him. In the Amnï¿½ya of Dharmadï¿½sa, pupil of Guï¿½abhadra, a copy of the Dhanadacarita was written in V.S. 1590 during the reign of Humayun. Bhï¿½nukï¿½rti became Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka after Guï¿½abhadra. Sï¿½ha Rï¿½pacanda presented a copy of the Uttarapurï¿½ï¿½a to Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka, Bhï¿½nukï¿½rti in V.S. 1606 during the reign of ï¿½ï¿½ha Salï¿½ma (ruler of the Sur dynasty V.S. 1545-1554) at Abrï¿½hmï¿½bï¿½ï¿½a.
A copy of the Bhavishyadatta carita was written in the ï¿½mnï¿½ya of Kumï¿½rasena, disciple of Bhï¿½nukï¿½rti in V.S. 1615 during the reign of Akbar. At the request of Sï¿½hu Todara, Paï¿½ï¿½ita Rï¿½jamalla wrote the Jambï¿½svï¿½mï¿½ Charita in V.S. 1632 during the reign of Akbar.
The second lineage of medieval period of Mï¿½thura Gaccha started from Vijayasena, disciple of Mï¿½dhavasena. Afterwards, Mï¿½sopavï¿½sï¿½ Jayasena, ï¿½reyï¿½ï¿½sasena, Anantakï¿½rti and Kamalakï¿½rti respectively became the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas. Kamalakï¿½rti established an image in V.S. 1443 during the reign of Nï¿½thadeva (Local ruler). Harirï¿½ja, pupil of Padmakï¿½rti, wrote a copy of the Pravacanasï¿½ra in V.S. 1469 at Gwalior during the reign of Viramadeva.
The disciple of Hemakï¿½rti was Kmalakï¿½rti who erected an image of Chandraprabhu in V.S. 1506. A copy of the Bhavisatta–Kathï¿½ was written in V.S. 1056 in his ï¿½mnï¿½ya at Gwalior during the reign of Dï¿½ï¿½garasiï¿½ha. ï¿½ubacandra and Kumï¿½rasena, disciples of Kamalakï¿½rti erected an image of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra in V.S. 1510. ï¿½ubhacandra installed an image in V.S. 1530 at Gwalior during the reign of Kï¿½rtisiï¿½ha. From the Harivaï¿½ï¿½a Purï¿½na of Raidhu, it is known that their monastery was at Sonagiri. His pupil Yaï¿½ahsena installed the Daï¿½alakshaï¿½aYantra in V.S. 1639. Another disciple of Kamalakï¿½rti was Kumï¿½rasena. His disciple was Hemacandra whose pupil was Padmanandi. Padmanandi’s disciple was Mï¿½ï¿½ikarï¿½ja. The disciple of Padmanandi was Yaï¿½ahkï¿½rti. Bhagavatï¿½dï¿½sa wrote the Mugatiï¿½iromani Cï¿½nadï¿½ in V.S. 1680 during the reign of Jahangir and the ï¿½nckï¿½rtha Nï¿½mamï¿½la in V.S. 1687 during the reign f Shahjahan. Another disciple of Yaï¿½ahkï¿½rti was Kshemakï¿½rtï¿½. Pandit Rï¿½jamalla wrote the Lï¿½ï¿½isamhita in V.S. 1641 for Sï¿½ha Fï¿½mana when Akbar was ruling. The natives of Bairï¿½ï¿½h were the followers of Kï¿½emakï¿½rti. The successor of Kï¿½emakï¿½rti was Tribhuvanakï¿½rti. His paï¿½ï¿½a ceremony was held at Hisï¿½ra. Then, Sahasrakirti became successor in V.S. 1663. The Paï¿½ï¿½a ï¿½iï¿½hya of Sahasrakï¿½rti was Mahï¿½candra. Devendrakï¿½rti, disciple of Mahicandra, renovated the Jaina temple of Fatehapur in V.S. 1770. The disciple of Devendrakï¿½rti was Jagatkï¿½rti.262
Kï¿½ï¿½thï¿½ Saï¿½gha : There is some controversy among scholars about the origin of the Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha. One view263 is that it originated from the village Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½hï¿½, near Delhi. It was the capital of the rulers of Takka dynasty in the twelfth century A.D. Devasena, author of the Darï¿½anasï¿½ra, holds a different view264 about the origin of the Kï¿½ï¿½thï¿½ Saï¿½gha. Kumï¿½rasena, disciple of Vinayasena, established this Saï¿½gha at Nandiyï¿½da (modern Nï¿½ndeï¿½a in Maharashtra). The earliest inscription265 of the Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha is engraved on a memorial of Jaina Pillar dated 1095 A.D. of the great Acarya Devasena at Dubkunda. After the 14th century A.D., this Saï¿½gha was divided into four branches ï¿½ Mï¿½thura Gaccha, Vï¿½gaï¿½a Gaccha, Lï¿½ï¿½avï¿½gaï¿½a Gaccha and Nanditaï¿½a Gaccha. Surendrakï¿½rti who lived in V.S. 1747 and belonged to Nanditaï¿½a-Gaccha, mentions the above four branches266.
Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha was in existence at some places in Dhï¿½ra District. It is clear from the Jaina image inspriptions dated V.S. 1328, V.S. 1408, V.S. 1470 and V.S. 1510267 discovered there. That there were followers of the Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½hï¿½saï¿½gha at Mainapuri in Uttar Pradesh as known from the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1414, V.S. 1473 and V.S. 1515.268
Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½hï¿½saï¿½gha seems to have flourished mostly in the Paï¿½jï¿½ba and Mï¿½lawï¿½, and Agravalas generally remained associated with it. Most probably, the images and the manuscripts of this Saï¿½gha found in Rajasthan were either brought later from outside or installed by Agravï¿½las of Rajasthan. In Rajasthan, there were still some places which somehow remained associated with this Saï¿½gha. The work of restoration and repairs of the famous temple of ï¿½ishabhadeva of Dhuleva near Udaipur was carried out by the followers of this Saï¿½gha. The inscription of 1374 A.D. tells us that Hardï¿½na, the son of Sï¿½ha Vï¿½jï¿½, restored this temple at the instrictions of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Dharmakï¿½rti of Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½hï¿½saï¿½gha. From the inscription of 1515 A.D., it is clear that Kadiyï¿½priyï¿½ of Kï¿½cchlï¿½ gotra with his son and wife constructed a hall and a shrine in the time of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka of Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha. Bhoja, son of Sanghï¿½ ï¿½lhï¿½ of the Bagheravï¿½la caste, celebrated the installation ceremony of the newly constructed temple, with the members of his family in the time of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Surendrakï¿½rti. Through the influence of the same Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka, Bhï¿½patï¿½ constructed a small shrine in 1697 A.D.269 From some inscriptions and Praï¿½astis of manuscripts, it is known that the ancient Vï¿½gaï¿½a Province, including the area of ï¿½ï¿½ngarpur, Bï¿½nswï¿½rï¿½ and Pratapagï¿½h, was the headquarters of this Saï¿½gha.
Vï¿½gaï¿½a Saï¿½gha : Vï¿½gaï¿½asaï¿½gha originated from the region Vï¿½gaï¿½a which includes Dï¿½ï¿½garpura, Bï¿½ï¿½savarï¿½ and Pratï¿½pagaï¿½ha Districtis of Rajasthan. The inscription of 994 A.D. on the image of a Jaina found at Bayï¿½nï¿½ says that it was caused to be made in accordance with the instructions of Sï¿½rasena of the Vï¿½gaï¿½a Saï¿½gha by three brothers Siï¿½haka, Yaï¿½orï¿½ja and Nonnaika270. There is an image inscription dated V.S. 1324 of Vï¿½gaï¿½a Saï¿½gha Daï¿½apurï¿½nvaye found at Ujjaina271. Another Jaina image inscription dated V.S. 1325 found at Tï¿½lanpur (Dhar District) is of Vagaï¿½a Saï¿½gha272.
Lï¿½ï¿½a Vï¿½gada Gaï¿½a : The Lï¿½ï¿½a Vï¿½gada Gaï¿½a originated from the region of Gujarat ï¿½ Vï¿½gaï¿½a, ï¿½cï¿½rya Mahï¿½sena, who composed the Pradyumna Carita Kï¿½vya in V.S. 1050 during the reign of Paramï¿½ra ruler Maï¿½ju, belonged to Lï¿½ï¿½a Vï¿½gaï¿½a Saï¿½gha. From the Dubakuï¿½da stone inscription273, it is known that encouraged by the teaching of the Jaina monk Vijayakï¿½rti of the Lï¿½ï¿½avï¿½gaï¿½a Gaï¿½a, some Jaina ï¿½rï¿½vakas (Laymen) constructed Jaina temple, and the Kacchapaghï¿½ï¿½a ruler Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½dhirï¿½ja of the Dubakunda branch made some donation of land and other things in favour of this temple in 1088 A.D. The Lï¿½ï¿½a Vï¿½gaï¿½ Gaccha is also mentioned in the Jaina image dated V.S. 1325 found at Tï¿½lanpura274. The Laï¿½a Vï¿½gaï¿½a Gaccha is found mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions of V.S. 1251 at Badnï¿½wara, of V.S. 1288 at Dhï¿½ra and of V.S. 1325 at Tï¿½lanpur in Dhï¿½ra District.275
Nandi Tata Gaccha : Nanditata Gaccha seems to have been named after Nanditaï¿½a village (modern Nï¿½ndeda) in Mahï¿½rï¿½shtra. Rï¿½masena of this gaccha founded the Narasiï¿½hapura caste and got constructed the temple of ï¿½antinï¿½tha in Narsiï¿½hapura. His disciple Nemisena worshipped Padmï¿½vatï¿½ and founded the Bhaï¿½ï¿½apurï¿½ caste.
The historical period of Nanditaï¿½a Gaccha is available from Lakshmsena, disciple of Ratnakï¿½rt. The two disciples of Lakshmï¿½sena were Bhï¿½masena and Dharmasena. From thems two lineage of ï¿½cï¿½ryas are known. The pupil of Bhï¿½masena was Somakï¿½rti. He installed an image of ï¿½italanï¿½tha in V.S. 1532 along with Vï¿½rasena. He wrote the Yaï¿½odhara carita at Godhili in V.S. 1536 and set up an image in V.S. 1540. He showed a miracle of flying in the sky at Pï¿½vï¿½gaï¿½ha by the grace of Padmï¿½vati in the reign of Firozshah.
After Somakï¿½rti, Vijayasena, Yaï¿½ahkï¿½rti, Udayasena, Tribhuvanakï¿½rti and Ratnabhï¿½shaï¿½a became Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas one after another. Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½adï¿½sa, pupil of Ratnabhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a, composed the Vimalanatha puraï¿½a in V.S. 1674 at Kalpavalli. After Ratnabhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a Jayakï¿½rti became Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka. An image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha was set up in V.S. 1686. Then, Keï¿½avasena became Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka after Jayakï¿½rti. Keï¿½avasena was succeeded by Viï¿½vakirti who wrote a copy of the Harivaï¿½ï¿½a Purï¿½ï¿½a in V.S. 1700.
The second lineage of Acaryas of Nanditaï¿½a Gaccha starts from Dharmasena, disciple of Lakshmï¿½sena. He wrote the Atiï¿½aya Jayamï¿½la. After Dharmasena, Vimalasena and Viï¿½ï¿½lakï¿½rti respectively became Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas. His disciple Viï¿½vasena installed an image in V.S. 1596. Vidyï¿½bhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a, disciple of Viï¿½vasena, set up the image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha in V.S. 1604, and another image in V.S. 1636. Vidyï¿½bhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a was succeeded by ï¿½rï¿½bhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a. He installed the Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha image in V.S. 1636, wrote the Sï¿½ntinï¿½tha Purï¿½ï¿½a at Sojitra in V.S. 1659, installed the image of Padmï¿½vatï¿½ in V.S. 1660, a Ratnatraya Yaï¿½tra in V.S. 1665 and Candraprabha image in V.S. 1676.
The main disciple of ï¿½rï¿½ Bhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a was Brahma Jï¿½ï¿½nasï¿½gara who wrote several works… ï¿½ri Bhï¿½shaï¿½a was succeeded by Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Candrakï¿½rti who wrote the Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha Purï¿½ï¿½a in V.S. 1654 at Devagiri, installed Padmï¿½vati image in V.S. 1681 and composed several Pï¿½jï¿½s. Candrakï¿½rti, while going on pilgrimage of the South, defeated Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a Bhaï¿½ï¿½a at Narasiï¿½ha Paï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a on the bank of Kï¿½verï¿½. Candrakï¿½rti’s disciple was Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Rï¿½jakï¿½rti who gained victory in discussion at Varï¿½nasi. Rï¿½jakï¿½rti’s pupil was Lakshmï¿½sena who set up the image of Padmï¿½vatï¿½ image in ï¿½aka Sï¿½mvat 1561 and Bï¿½hubali image in V.S. 1703. Indrabhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a became Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka after Lakshmï¿½sena. Some of his disciples led pilgrimage to Gommateï¿½vara in V.S. 1718.
After Indrabhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a, Surendrakï¿½rti became Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka. Images ad Yaï¿½tras were installed, and copies of the manuscripts were prepared. The three disciples of Surendrasena were Lakshmï¿½sena, Sakalakï¿½rti and Devendrakï¿½rti. After Lakshmisena, Vijayakï¿½rti became Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka276.
Punnï¿½ta Saï¿½gha : As ï¿½cï¿½ryas of this Saï¿½gha moved in Karï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aka regioï¿½, it became famous by the name of Puï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a Saï¿½gha. Badnï¿½vara (Vardhamï¿½napura) in Malwa became a stronghold of Jainism. ï¿½cï¿½rya Jinasena of this Saï¿½gha wrote the Harivaï¿½ï¿½apurï¿½ï¿½a at Vardhamï¿½napura in ï¿½aka Samvat 705 (782 A.D.). ï¿½cï¿½rya Hï¿½riï¿½eï¿½a composed the Bï¿½ihat Kathï¿½-Kosha in V.S. 989 at this place. Vijayakirti, disciple of ï¿½cï¿½rya Amritacndra of this Saï¿½gha, installed an image in V.S. 1154277. There is an image inscription of V.S. 1227 mentioning Puï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½asaï¿½gha at Badnavana.278
Mï¿½la Saï¿½gha : There is a divergence of traditions found in Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½s279 not only about succession but also about the residence or immigrations of the Pontiffs of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha. The four Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½s agree on the main points but the fifth Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½ presents considerably different traditions. The fifth Pattï¿½valï¿½ closes with the name of ï¿½ubhachandra who reigned up to 1443 A.D. Hence, this is the oldest Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½ and as such the information supplied by it seems to be correct. The Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½s tell us that the first 26 pontificates took place in Bhaddalapura. According to the four Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½s, Bhaddalapura is in Malwa, while the fifth Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½ tells us correctly that it was in the South. After that the 27th pontiff transferred his seat from Bhaddalapura to Ujjaina according to all Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½s. From Ujjaiï¿½a Mï¿½ghacandra II, the 53rd pontiff, shifted his seat to Bï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ in Kotï¿½ state in about 1083 A.D. Down to No. 63 or 64, the pontificates took place in Bï¿½rï¿½ï¿½. From here, 14 pontificates, took place in Gvaliara down to 77 according to the four Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½s ï¿½ but the fifth Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½ tells us correctly that ten pontificates were established at Cittora and four at Bagherï¿½. This is further confirmed from the fact that there was the existence of a prosperous colony of Digambara Jainas on the hill at Cittora at the time of Kumï¿½rapï¿½la280, and Bagheravï¿½las were converted to Jainism, and Jaina temples were built at Bagherï¿½ in about eleventh century A.D.281. From the 78th Pontiff Vasantakï¿½rti, the seat was transferred to Ajmer in about 1208 A.D. according to all the Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½s.
From the 84th Pontiff Padmanandi, the seat was transferred to Delhi in about 1328 A.D. according to the four Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½s but the fifth Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½vali tells us correctly that it was trasnferred to Idar in ancient Vï¿½gaï¿½a province. Padmanandi was especially associated with Vï¿½gaï¿½a province. A certain ï¿½rï¿½vaka of Vï¿½gaï¿½a called Prabhï¿½candra II of Ajmer was invited for the purpose of performing a consecration ceremony of images but he could not come. Then after giving the Sï¿½rï¿½antra to ï¿½cï¿½rya Padmanandi, the ï¿½rï¿½vaka conferred on him the title of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka. Thus Padmanandi became the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka in 1328 A.D. of Vï¿½gaï¿½a. The term Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka is applied to a particular type of Jaina ascetics who unlike Munis assumed the position of religious rulers and enjoyed supreme authority in religious matters.
After Padmanandi, separation took place among his successive Acaryas. These separations were not actually the schisms but seem to be based on temperaments. Padmanandi had two pupils namely Sakalakï¿½rti and ï¿½ubhachandra. During his lifetime, the separation took place between his two pupils. One section under Sï¿½bhacandra moved to Cittora while the other continued to live under Sakalakï¿½rti. Again under Jinacandra the 86th pontiff, the disagreement arose between the two disciples namely Prabhï¿½candra and Ratnakï¿½rti. Prabhï¿½candra continued to live at Cittor, but one section under Ratnakï¿½rti moved to Nagaura. Again, differences arose at Nï¿½gaura and one section continued to reside at Nï¿½gaura, while the other under Ratnakï¿½rti shifted to Ajamera. From Cittora, it came to Cï¿½tasu in the time of Candrakï¿½rti. After that, it migrated to Sanganera, ï¿½ï¿½vï¿½, ï¿½mber and lastly to Jaipur.
Balï¿½tkï¿½ra Gana : Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha, in course of time, became associated with Balï¿½tkï¿½ragaï¿½a which seems to have derived its name Balï¿½tkï¿½ra Gaï¿½a (powerful gaï¿½a) from its ancestor Arhadbalin, who was also known as Guptigupta, the master of Mï¿½ghanandi. Its earliest mention is found in the inscription of the 11th century282 but it was in existence considerably earlier. Afterwards, this was distinguished by the term Sarasvatï¿½. In the 14th century A.D., this name seems to have come from the miracle of the pontiff padmanandi who is said to have made a stone figure of Sarasvastï¿½ speak283.
Several branches of the Balï¿½tkï¿½ragaï¿½a are known. The Kï¿½raï¿½ja ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ started from Amarakï¿½rti. The Lï¿½tï¿½ra ï¿½ï¿½kha began from Ajitakirti. The Delhi-Jaipur branch began from ï¿½ubhacandra. The Nagaura branch started from Ratnakirti, the Atera branch from Siï¿½hakï¿½rti, Idar branch from Sakalakï¿½rti, Bhï¿½napurï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ from Jï¿½anakï¿½rti, the Sï¿½rat branch from Devendrakï¿½rti and Jerahaï¿½ï¿½ branch from Tribhuvanakï¿½rti.284
No activities of the early Bhï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas before Padmanandi are known in Northern India from any other source. No doubt, there is mention of Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha in the inscription of 1170 A.D. and 1186 A.D.285 but without any reference to any Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka. Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha has been mentioned in the inscirption of V.S. 1230 found at Badnawar in Malwa. The Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha and its ï¿½cï¿½rya Ratnakï¿½rti has been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1323286 From Padmanandi onwards, we possess some knowledge of the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha regarding their activities. The Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha remained dominant in North India from the fourteenth century to the eighteenth century A.D. The ï¿½cï¿½ryas of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha are noticed to have performed installation ceremony of the images and temples in Rajasthana287, Madhya Pradeï¿½a288 and Uttara Pradeï¿½a289. Various copies of Manuscripts were prepared. Their Pï¿½dukï¿½s and Nishedhikas are also found.
Padmanandi : According to the Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½s, Padmanandi became Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka in 1325 A.D. This date seems to be doubtful as he was living in 1415 A.D. He did enjoy such a long age as known from the Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½s and he therefore, must have become Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka sometime after 1325 A.D. He was an influential Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka who is said to have caused a stone figure of Sarasvatï¿½ to speak. From this miracle, Mï¿½la Saï¿½gha was distinguished by the term Sarasvatï¿½. He made the installation ceremony of images from time to time. The image with the inscription of 1400 A.D. was installed at his bidding.290 He had two disciples namely Viï¿½ï¿½lakï¿½rti and Nemicanda who also set up images in his time. From the inscription of 1413 A.D. engraved on the images discovered at Tonk, it is clear that Vï¿½lhaï¿½a and his sons got installed several images by his pupil Viï¿½ï¿½lakï¿½rti.291 In 1415 A.D., Asapï¿½la on his preaching set up the image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha.292 In the same year, the consecration ceremony of the image was performed by ï¿½pï¿½ through his pupil Nemicanda.293
Sakalakï¿½rti : After Padmanandi, Sakalakï¿½rti became the head of the seat of Vï¿½gaï¿½a in about 1420 A.D. He was the highly respected saint of medieval times and had also a good reputation for his scholarship. He wandered from place to place for the propagation of Jainism. In 1424 A.D., he came to Baï¿½alï¿½ where he spent the rainy season with his Saï¿½gha.294 Several images were installed by him from time to time. There is a mention of his name in the inscription of 1430 A.D. found on the image in the Digambara Jaina temple at Abu.295 It is known from the inscription of 1433 A.D. that as a result of his preaching, Nï¿½sala with his wife, sons and brothers set up the Caubï¿½sï¿½ with ï¿½dinï¿½tha as a Mï¿½lanï¿½yaka.296 In 1435 A.D., Campï¿½ set up the image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha after hearing his discourses.297 He is said to have passed away in 1442 A.D. at Mahï¿½sana in Gujarata.
Bhuvanakï¿½rti : After Sakalakï¿½rti, Bhuvanakï¿½rti became the Paï¿½ï¿½adhara. He was also a scholar like his predecessor. The consecration function of several images was performed by him. The installation ceremony of the Trimï¿½rti was presided over by him in 1443 A.D.298 In 1458 A.D., Nï¿½huyï¿½, the son of Sï¿½rï¿½, performed the Daï¿½alakshaï¿½a Yantra Pratiï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ on his instructions.299 In 1459 A.D., Surï¿½ of his line celebrated the consecration ceremony.300 As a result of his preaching, Chï¿½pï¿½ and his wife Gaï¿½gï¿½ performed the installation ceremony of some yantra in 1471 A.D.301
Jï¿½ï¿½nabhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a : After Bhuvanakï¿½rti, Jï¿½ï¿½nabhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a became the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka. There is a Yantra of 1377 A.D. consecrated by him in the Jaina temple of Udaipur.302 On his advice, Rï¿½ma with his wife and son set up the image of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra in 1487 A.D.303
Other Bhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½rakas of this Seat : Jï¿½ï¿½nabï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a was succeeded by Vijayakï¿½ti in about 1500 A.D. At his discourses, ï¿½resï¿½hï¿½ Melï¿½ with his wife, son and brothers made the Pratiï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ of Samavaï¿½araï¿½a of ï¿½dinï¿½tha in 1513 A.D. 304Then ï¿½ubhacandra became the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka in about 1515 A.D. He was a well known scholar who wrote a large number of works in a period between 1515 A.D. and 1556 A.D. His earliest work is Adhyï¿½tmataraï¿½giï¿½ï¿½ and the latest work written by him in 1556 A.D. is the Sanskrit commentary on the Svï¿½mikï¿½rttikeyï¿½nuprekï¿½ï¿½. On his instructions, Dhannï¿½ and his wife Dhannï¿½de set up the metal image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha in 1538 A.D.305 In 1550 A.D., ï¿½reï¿½ï¿½hi Sï¿½vara with his brothers, wife and son celebrated the function of Jï¿½ï¿½nanirvï¿½aï¿½a on his preachings.306 After his discourses, ï¿½rï¿½pï¿½la erected the image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha in 1551 A.D.307 He was succeeded by Sumatikï¿½rti. On his instructions, Sï¿½ha Jayavanta with his wife and brothers set up the metal image of Padmaprabhu in 1563 A.D.308 He installed the images of Munisuvrata309 and Anantanï¿½tha310 in 1562 A.D. and 1570 A.D. respectively. After him, Guï¿½akï¿½rti became the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka. He was succeeded by Vï¿½dibhï¿½saï¿½a. On his advice, ï¿½sï¿½ of Idar with his wife Lakshmï¿½ and daughter Jhilï¿½ installed the image of Neminï¿½tha.311 An inscription on the pedestal of a stone image of ï¿½italanï¿½tha in the ï¿½vetï¿½mbara Jaina temple at Maujï¿½pura in Alwar State records that it was set up by Humbaï¿½a Lï¿½la and Galï¿½ resident of Hardoya in 1597 A.D. as a result of his preaching.312 After his discourï¿½es, Hansa with his wife and son performed the installation ceremony of Shoï¿½aï¿½akï¿½raï¿½a yantra in 1604 A.D.313
After him, Rï¿½makï¿½rti became the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka. He was succeeded by Padmanandi II. At his preaching, the consecration ceremony was performed by Ratnï¿½.314 Then, Devendrakï¿½rti became his paï¿½ï¿½adhara. He was succeeded by Kï¿½emakï¿½rti. By the influence of his discourses, Saï¿½ghï¿½ Dï¿½galadï¿½sa, Mï¿½naka, Nemidï¿½sa, Anantadï¿½sa, Somadï¿½sa and Ratnï¿½ erected the image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha in 1639 A.D.315 Soma316 with the whole Saï¿½gha constructed the Pï¿½rï¿½gï¿½ra in the Jaina temple of ï¿½dinï¿½tha at Sï¿½gavï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. After him, Narï¿½ndrakï¿½rti, Vijayakï¿½rti II, Nemicanda, Candrakï¿½rti, Rï¿½makï¿½rti, Yaï¿½akï¿½rti, Surendrakï¿½rti, Vijayakï¿½rti II, Nemichanda, Chandrakï¿½rti, Rï¿½makï¿½rti, Yaï¿½akï¿½rti, Surendrakï¿½rti, Ramacandrakï¿½rti and Kanakakï¿½rti became the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of the seat of Idar one after another in succession.
Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of the Seat of Cittorr : During the lifetime of Padmanandi, ï¿½ubhacandra separated from Sakalakï¿½rti and established his own Paï¿½ï¿½a at Cittora in about 1415 A.D. At this time, Mewara became a centre of Jainism under the royal patronage of Kumbhakaraï¿½a. The famous Jaina Kï¿½rtistambha was also built. The two Bijaulia inscriptions of 1405 A.D. and 1426 A.D. speak of a Niï¿½edhikï¿½ of a Jaina nun named Bï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½gamasiri and of a Niï¿½edhikï¿½ of Hemakï¿½rti, pupil of ï¿½ubhacandra respectively.317 With regard to these Niï¿½edhikï¿½s, a wish has been expressed that they may be endured as long as the Sun and Moon last. On the same pillar that bears the second inscription are sculptured the foot-prints of some saints or pontiffs. On one side is engraved the name of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka ï¿½rï¿½ Padmanandideva and on the other of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka ï¿½ri ï¿½ubhacandra. At ï¿½ï¿½vï¿½ near Uniara in Jaipur district, there is a Niï¿½edhikï¿½ of ï¿½ubhacandra.
ï¿½ubhacandra was followed by Jinacandra in about 1450 A.D. Under his inspiration many-sided activities for the propagation of Jainism received an impetus. Copies of several manuscripts such as ï¿½rï¿½pï¿½lacaritra,318 Pradyumnacaritra319 and Varddhamï¿½nacaritra320 were prepared in his time and probably inspired by him. A number of temples were built and images were placed in them. There is a Caubï¿½sï¿½ consecrated by Hararï¿½ja of his line in 1460 A.D.321 In 1466 A.D., Sï¿½ha Dharmasï¿½ with his wife and sons celebrated the consecration ceremony in his time.322 The installation ceremony of the metal image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha was also performed through him in 1485 A.D.323Jï¿½varï¿½ja Pï¿½paï¿½ivala at his instructions performed the installation ceremony of a large number of images at Muï¿½ï¿½ï¿½sï¿½ in the reign of Rï¿½vala ï¿½lï¿½vasiï¿½ha in 1461 A.D.324 The city Muï¿½ï¿½ï¿½sï¿½ seems to be in Gujarat; but from there, these images were sent to the seats of Jainism in different parts of Rajasthan. He enjoyed a long life because Sï¿½ha Seï¿½a with his wife and sons performed the Yantra Praiiï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ in 1514 A.D. when Jinacandra was living.325 There is also a niï¿½edhikï¿½ of Jinacandra at ï¿½ï¿½vï¿½.
Prabhï¿½candra came after Jinacandra in about 1515 A.D. By his persuasion, a large number of manuscripts were written for presentation to the monks. His followerrs got copies of the manuscripts such as Madanaparï¿½jaya,326 Kriyï¿½kalï¿½pastuti,327 ï¿½rï¿½pï¿½lacaritra,328Karakaï¿½ï¿½acaritra,329 Bï¿½bubalicaritra330 and Ratnakaraï¿½ï¿½a331 prepared in 1519 A.D. 1522 A.D., 1524 A.D., 1527 A.D. and 1535 A.D. respectively. In 1518 A.D. Bï¿½i Pï¿½rvatï¿½ got the Yaï¿½odharacaritra written and presented to him.332 Sï¿½ha Dodu got theYaï¿½odharacaritra written and gave it to Bramha Vï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, pupil of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Prabhï¿½candra.333 Images and Yantras were also installed through him in 1515 A.D. Sï¿½ha ï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ of his line performed the Cï¿½raï¿½ayaï¿½tra Pratiï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ in 1516 A.D.334 In the same year, Rï¿½ho with his wife, son and daughter-in-law celebrated the installation ceremony of Samyakcï¿½ritrayantra through him.335 His Niï¿½edhikï¿½ also exists at ï¿½ï¿½vï¿½.
After Prabhï¿½candra, Dharmacandra became the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka in about 1518 A.D. Under his patronage and inspiration, various copies of manuscripts were prepared at different places for presentation to him and his disciples. With a view to propagating Jainism, he proceeded to Nagaur where his devotees got the copies of the Uttarapurï¿½ï¿½a saï¿½ï¿½ka,336 Pravacanasï¿½ra–prï¿½bhï¿½itavï¿½itti,337Karmaprakï¿½itti338 and Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½thacaritra339 written in 1520 A.D. in order to present him. In 1526 A.D., a copy of the Candraprabhacaritra was made at Cï¿½tasu as a result of his discourses.340 In 1528 A.D., Kodamade got a copy of the ï¿½aï¿½pï¿½huï¿½a written for offering him.341 Sï¿½ha Kï¿½lhï¿½ made a copy of the Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½avapurï¿½ï¿½a342 ready in 1545 A.D. to give it to his pupil Kamalakï¿½rti. In 1554, Sï¿½ha Mahï¿½rï¿½ja prepared the Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½thacaritra for his presentation.343
Besides other copies of manuscripts such as the Sukumï¿½lacarita344 in 1526 A.D., Bhavishyadattacarita345 in 1532 A.D.,Varddhamï¿½nacaritra346 in 1536 A.D. ï¿½dipurï¿½ï¿½a347 and Saï¿½pï¿½huï¿½a348 in 1537 A.D.,Varï¿½ï¿½gacaritra349 andBhavishyadattacaritra350 in 1538 A.D. and Candraprabahcï¿½rita351 in 1546 A.D., were prepared with the object of offering them as gifts to Sï¿½dhus. Several Yantra Pratiï¿½ï¿½hï¿½s are also known to have been performed in his time. Tï¿½lu352 and Vï¿½lamita353 of his line performed the consecration ceremony of Samyagdarï¿½anayantra and Soï¿½aï¿½akï¿½raï¿½ayantra in 1532 A.D. Inm 1536 A.D., Sï¿½ha Pï¿½sa and Hemï¿½ installed the Arham-yantra.354
Dharmacandra was followed by Lalitakï¿½rti in about 1546 A.D. A large number of mansucripts were written in his time. In 1553 A.D., Lohara got a copy of the Yaï¿½odharacaritra written for him.355 At the invitation of the ï¿½rï¿½vakas, he went to Todaraisingh where Sï¿½ha Tehï¿½ and Sï¿½ha Pï¿½jï¿½ got the copies of the Nï¿½gakumï¿½racaritra,356 and Yaï¿½odharacaritra357 prepared in order to offer him as present. Besides other copies of manuscripts such as the Upï¿½sakï¿½dhyayana358 in 1566 A.D. ï¿½reï¿½ikacaritra359 in 1570 A.D.,Varddhamï¿½nacaritra360 in 1574 A.D. amd Sudarï¿½anacaritra361 in 1575 A.D. were made ready by his followers for presenting them to monks.
Candrakï¿½rti became Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka after Lalitakï¿½rti in about 1575 A.D. He seems to have removed his seat from Cittora and established it at Cï¿½tasu as known from the inscription of 1604 A.D. that he was residing at Cï¿½tasu.362 The reason was that Mewar at this time was unsafe and insecure ï¿½mera from the political point of view. On the other hand, Cï¿½tasu was under ï¿½mera rulers who were on friendly relations with Mughal emperors and were patrons of Jainism. This was the time of Akbar who followed the policy of religious toleration. It was, therefore, natural that the activities of Jainism progressed. Some of the copies of manuscripts such as Jï¿½vandharacaritra and Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½avapurï¿½ï¿½a363 in 1579 A.D., Paï¿½hï¿½stikï¿½yaprï¿½bhï¿½ita364 in 1580 A.D. and Harivaï¿½ï¿½apurï¿½ï¿½ï¿½365 in 1588 A.D. were prepared by his devotees for offering them to monks of his line.
Besides, Candrakï¿½rti is known to have performed the installation ceremony of images, Yantras and temples. In 1584 A.D., Sï¿½ha Mokï¿½,366 Sï¿½ha Kï¿½lu,367 Sï¿½ha Chelï¿½368 and Sï¿½ha Ratnï¿½369 of his line with the members of their respective families separately made the pratiï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ of Samayagdarï¿½ana Yantra, ï¿½iï¿½kï¿½ra Yantra, Karakuï¿½ï¿½a Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha Yantra and Daï¿½alakshaï¿½a Yantra. In 1591 A.D., Thï¿½nasiï¿½ha went on pilgrimage to Pï¿½vï¿½puri where he celebrated the installation ceremony of ï¿½oï¿½aï¿½akï¿½raï¿½a Yantra at his preaching.370 In the same year, Cokhï¿½ of his line installed the Samyak cï¿½ritra Yantra and Samyagjï¿½ï¿½na Yantra with the members of their family.371 In 1603 A.D., Sï¿½ha Jï¿½tï¿½372 and Sï¿½ha Jï¿½ï¿½gï¿½373 performed the consecration ceremony of the metal image and ï¿½oï¿½aï¿½akï¿½raï¿½ayantra through him separately. Bohitha of Ajmer with his sons and grandsons set up Caubï¿½sï¿½ through him in 1601 A.D.374 In 1604 A.D., ï¿½sï¿½nï¿½tha of his line made the Pratiï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ of Riï¿½kï¿½ra Yantra.375 An inscription of 1604 A.D. stated that the pillar of the Jaina temple was erected by him when he was residing at Campï¿½vatï¿½ (Cï¿½tasu).376
Candrakï¿½rti was succeeded by Devendrakï¿½rti in about 1606 A.D. Some copies of the manuscripts were written by his inspiration. In 1605 A.D., he went to Sanganer where Kalyï¿½ï¿½a gave a copy of the Harivaï¿½ï¿½apurï¿½ï¿½na377 to him in present. Nï¿½nu and his wife Nikï¿½de got a copy of the ï¿½dipurï¿½ï¿½a written in the temple of ï¿½dinï¿½tha at Todaraisingh and presented to him in 1607 A.D.378 A copy of the Neminï¿½thapurï¿½ï¿½a was prepared in 1617 A.D.379 In 1620 A.D., when he went to Cï¿½tasu, Sï¿½ha Debï¿½ offered him a welcome by presenting a mansucript of the Sudarï¿½anacaritra.380
Narendrakï¿½rti came after Devendrakï¿½rti in about 1634 A.D. He is known to have performed the installation ceremony of images and Yantras. An inscription of 1649 A.D. engraved on the lower portion of a large pillar records that it was erected in the temple of Neminï¿½tha at Cï¿½tasu by Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Narendrakï¿½rti.381 He went on pilgrimage to holy places such as Girnar and Hastinï¿½pura from time to time with the Saï¿½gha. In 1652 A.D., Saï¿½ghï¿½ Tejasi and Udaikaraï¿½a of Nevaï¿½ï¿½ led the Saï¿½gha to Girnar where the Yantra–pratisï¿½hï¿½ was performed by Narendrakï¿½rti.382 Saï¿½ghï¿½ Sambhï¿½ and Saï¿½ghï¿½ Nï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ together celebrated the installation ceremony of Daï¿½alakshaï¿½a Yantra at his hands in 1653 A.D.383 In 1654 A.D., Jagatasiï¿½ha in the company of the Caturvidha–Saï¿½ghawent to Hastinï¿½pura where he installed the Samyak Yantra.384 In 1659 A.D. Jagatasiï¿½ha also celebrated the installation ceremony of Riï¿½kï¿½ra Yantra through him.385 At the same time, his devotee Khemasiï¿½ha of Amber led a pilgrimage to Hastinï¿½pura where the installation ceremony of the ï¿½inkï¿½ra Yantra was performed by him.386
Surendrakï¿½rti became the Paï¿½ï¿½adhara of Narendrakï¿½rti in about 1665 A.D. In 1672 A.D., he proceeded to Sammedaï¿½ikhara where his followers named Saï¿½ghavi Naraharidï¿½sa and Saï¿½ghï¿½ Pï¿½rvï¿½nanda celebrated the installation ceremony of Daï¿½alakshaï¿½ayantra as a result of his preaching.387 In 1675 A.D., Naraharidï¿½sa and Sukhï¿½nanda of Amber and Ghï¿½sï¿½rï¿½ma with his wife and sons celebrated the consecration ceremony of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha Yantra through him.388
Surendrakï¿½rti was succeeded by Jagatakï¿½rti in about 1676 A.D. This was a terribe time and the persecutions of Aurangzeb were going on. The old temples were pulled down and the construction of the new ones was not allowed. In spite of this, the activities for the propagation of Jainism continued because some ruling chiefs of Rajasthan were on friendly terms with Aurangzeb. Some copies of the manuscripts such asUpadeï¿½aratnamï¿½la389 in 1688 A.D., Padmatpurï¿½ï¿½a390 in 1694 A.D. and Saï¿½pï¿½huï¿½asatï¿½ka391 in 1708 A.D. were prepared by his followers in order to present them to Bramhacï¿½rï¿½ Nï¿½thï¿½rï¿½ma, Acï¿½rya ï¿½ubhacandra and ï¿½oï¿½arï¿½ja, pupils of Jagatakï¿½rti. He also celebrated the consecration ceremony of images and Yantras. In 1684 A.D., Saï¿½ghï¿½ Sonapï¿½la made the Yantra Pratiï¿½thï¿½ at Karavara through him.392 The consecration ceremony of a large number of images was organized by his devotee Saï¿½ghï¿½ Kï¿½ishï¿½adï¿½sa at Cï¿½ndakheï¿½ï¿½ in 1689 A.D.393 In 1709 A.D, Dayï¿½ladï¿½sa of his line set up the metal image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha.394
The next Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka after Jagatakï¿½rti was Devendrakï¿½rit II. Under his patronage, manuscripts were written and the consecration of the images took place. Dhanarï¿½ja wrote a copy of the Karmakï¿½ï¿½ï¿½asatï¿½ka in 1720 A.D. at ï¿½mber for the study of Paï¿½ï¿½ita Kiï¿½anadï¿½sa, pupil of Devendrakirti.395 In 1728 A.D., A specimen of Harivaï¿½ï¿½apurï¿½ï¿½a was prepared by his followers for the presentation.396 Chï¿½haï¿½a and Sagamala performed the installation ceremony of images at Dholeï¿½a through him in 1716 A.D.397 In 1726 A.D., the consecration ceremony of images was organized at Bansakhoha by his devotee Hï¿½idayarï¿½ma.398
The successor of Devendrakï¿½rti II was Mahendrakï¿½rti who became Pontiff in 1735 A.D. He came from Sanganer and established his seat at Amber. It is for this reason ï¿½mer Paï¿½ï¿½a started from him. It is further confirmed by a praï¿½asti.399 Copies of theJambï¿½svï¿½micaritra400 in 1736 A.D., and Trilokadarpaï¿½a401 in 1741 A.D. were prepared by his devotees.
Mahendrakï¿½rti was succeeded by Kï¿½emendrakï¿½rti in about 1758 A.D. After him, Surendrakï¿½rti became the paï¿½ï¿½adhara in 1765 A.D. In 1769 A.D., Saï¿½ghï¿½ Nandalï¿½la performed the installation cerermony of images on a large scale at Sawaimadhopura as a result of his preaching402 Vadhurï¿½ma prepared a copy of the Munisuvrata–purï¿½ï¿½a403 in order to offer him as a gift. Sukhendrakï¿½rti became his successor in 1795 A.D. His followers made the specimen of Vï¿½raï¿½gacaritra404 ready for presentation in 1816 A.D. He participated in the Saï¿½gha led by Saï¿½ghi Rï¿½yacandra to Junagad where an Installation ceremony of some Yantra was performed by Rï¿½yacandra through him.405 In 1804 A.D., the same person celebrated the consecration ceremony of images at Jaipur as a result of his preachng.406 After him, Narendrakï¿½rti II, Devendrakirti and Mahendrakï¿½rti became the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas one after another in succession.
Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of Nagaura Paï¿½ï¿½a : Jinacandra had two pupils named Prabhï¿½candra and Ratnakï¿½rti. During his life time, there arose a disagreement and his second disciple Ratnakï¿½rti established his separate seat at Nagaur. He died at Ajmer which is shown by an inscription of 1515 A.D. on the Chatrï¿½ of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Ratnakï¿½rti.407 After him, Bhuvanakï¿½rti became the Paï¿½ï¿½adhara who was followed by Dharmakï¿½rti in about 1533 A.D. In 1542 A.D., a copy of the Dharmaparï¿½kï¿½ï¿½408 was prepared by this devotee. After him, Viï¿½ï¿½lakï¿½rti became the Pontiff in about 1544 A.D. He was followed Lakshmï¿½candra. In 1579 A.D., Lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ of his line got a copy of the Dhanyakumï¿½racaritra409 written in order ot offer it to the nun Karamï¿½i in present. Later on, Sahasrakï¿½rti, Nemicandra and Yaï¿½akï¿½rti became Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas one after another in succession.
Yaï¿½akï¿½rti was the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka of some importance. Under his inspiration, manuscripts were prepared and images were installed. An inscription engraved in the Jaina temple of ï¿½dinï¿½tha at Revï¿½sï¿½ of 1604 A.D. records that it was constructed by Sï¿½ha Jitamala and his brother Nathamala, the two sons of Devidï¿½sa the chief minister of Rï¿½yasï¿½la at the preaching of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Yaï¿½akï¿½rti.410 His followers Rï¿½pï¿½ and his son Dï¿½ï¿½garasï¿½ of Jobanera made the specimen of Dharmaparï¿½khï¿½411 ready for presenting it to Guï¿½acandra in 1609 A.D. The Paï¿½cas of Revï¿½sï¿½ presented a throne to him in 1615 A.D.412 He was followed by Bhï¿½nukï¿½rti and Bhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½akï¿½rti. Bhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½akï¿½rti had two pupils namely Dharmacandra and Ratnakï¿½rti. Again a trouble arose between them, and Ratnakï¿½rti established his separate Paï¿½ï¿½a at Ajamera. After Dharmacandra, Devendrakï¿½rti, Amerandrakï¿½rti and Ratnakï¿½rti became the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas one after another in succession of Nagaura Paï¿½ï¿½a.
Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of Ajamera Paï¿½ï¿½a : Ajamera already remained a seat of the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas in early times; but fot it, there is no definite epigraphical and monumental evidence. Mr. Harbilï¿½sa ï¿½ï¿½rdï¿½ in his book413 mentioned the inscriptions of the eighth or ninth century on the Cabï¿½taras and Chatrï¿½s commemorating the death of the Digambara Jaina Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas and the Paï¿½ï¿½itas. But in reality these inscriptions belong to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Ratnakï¿½rti separated himself from Nagaura Paï¿½ï¿½a and established his seat at Ajamera. In 1694 A.D., Saï¿½ghï¿½ Jesï¿½ of his line celebrated the consecration ceremony of images at Jobanera through him.414 He was followed by Vidyï¿½dhara and then, Mahendrakï¿½rti became the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka. In 1709 A.D., Vijayakï¿½rti constructed the Cabï¿½tarï¿½ over the remains of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Ratnakï¿½rti. Later on, Anantakï¿½rti became the Pontiff. Rï¿½masiï¿½ha performed the consecration of the temple of Sï¿½has as well as of images at Mï¿½roï¿½ha in 1737 A.D. as advised by him.415 Next Bhuvanabhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a became the Paï¿½ï¿½adhara who was followed by Vijayakï¿½rti. In 1753 A.D., Vijayakï¿½rti constructed the Chatrï¿½s over the remains of Anantakï¿½rti and Bhuvanabhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a. ï¿½cï¿½rya Rï¿½jyakï¿½rti constructed the Chatrï¿½ over Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Vidyï¿½nanda. In 1760 A.D., Vijayakï¿½rti spent the rainy seasons at Mï¿½roï¿½ha.416 After him, Trilokendrakï¿½rti became the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka. Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Bhuvanakï¿½rti erected the Pï¿½dukï¿½ of Trilokendrakï¿½rti in 1781 A.D. In 1795 A.D., Dharmadï¿½sa celebrated the installation ceremony of images on a large scale through Bhuvanakï¿½rti.417 In 1805, he visited Maroï¿½ha from where he proceeded to Kucï¿½maï¿½418
In 1818 A.D., Pannï¿½lï¿½la, pupil of Bhuvanakï¿½rti repaired the throne brought from Revï¿½sï¿½ for Yaï¿½akï¿½rti. Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Ratnabhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a constructed Chatrï¿½s over the remains of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Bhuvanakï¿½rti in 1835 A.D. There is also the Chatrï¿½ of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Padmanandi with the inscription of 1871 A.D.
Besides, a large number of Cabï¿½tarï¿½s and Chatrï¿½s built over the remains of the ï¿½cï¿½ryas and the Paï¿½ï¿½itas are found at Ajmer. There is an inscription of 1725 A.D. on the Cabï¿½tarï¿½ built over the remains of Viï¿½ï¿½lakirti. ï¿½cï¿½rya Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka ï¿½rï¿½ Vijayakriti constructed the Cabï¿½tarï¿½ and footprints of ï¿½cï¿½rya ï¿½rï¿½ Bhï¿½nukirti in 1744 A.D. at Ajamera whereas he actually passed away at Danta in ï¿½ekhï¿½vï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. Paï¿½ï¿½ita Basantarï¿½ma constructed the Cabï¿½tarï¿½ of the ï¿½cï¿½rya Ratnabhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a in 1756 A.D. The Cabï¿½tarï¿½ of ï¿½cï¿½rya Devendrakï¿½rti was built by Gaï¿½eï¿½ï¿½mala in 1757 A.D. Paï¿½ï¿½ita Basantarï¿½ma also constructed the Cabï¿½tarï¿½ over the remains of Tilakabhï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a in 1754 A.D.
Pt. Tulasï¿½dï¿½sa constructed the Chatrï¿½ over the remains of Pt. Hemarï¿½ja, a disciple of ï¿½cï¿½rya Rï¿½jakï¿½rti. In 1754 A.D., the Pï¿½dukï¿½ of Pt. Vakasarï¿½ma was erected. In 1760 A.D., Pt. Daulatarï¿½ma constructed the Pï¿½dukï¿½ of his teacher Rï¿½machandra who was a pupil of Hemarï¿½ja. In 1761 A.D., Pt. Savï¿½irama constructed the Cabï¿½tarï¿½s of Pt. Rï¿½pachanda, Pt. Malukacanda and Pt. Abhairï¿½ma. The Pï¿½dukï¿½ of Pt. Viradhicanda was erected in 1798 A.D. The Cabï¿½tarï¿½ of Pt. Pannï¿½lï¿½la was built in 1844 A.D. Pt. Pannï¿½lï¿½la was a disciple of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Bhuvanakï¿½rti who repaired the throne of his master in 1818 A.D.
It is thus clear that several Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas, ï¿½cï¿½ryas and Paï¿½ï¿½itas lived and played an important part in the history of medieval Jaina society when there was anarchy. At this time, the Muslims were carrying on persecutions and destruction, and the Marï¿½ï¿½hï¿½s were raiding the different parts of the country. The life and property of the people became unsafe and insecure. Even at this time, Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas wandered from place to place without any anxiety and fear for the propagation of Jainism.
Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas rendered valuable services to Jainism in medieval times. Some of the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas like Sakalakï¿½rti and ï¿½ubhacandra were great scholars who wrote their literary works in Sanskrit, Prï¿½krit, Apabhraï¿½ï¿½a, Hindi, Gujarï¿½ti and Rï¿½jasthï¿½nï¿½ languages. The preservation of manuscripts was the most valuable work done by them at this time. Several copies of the works on grammar, medicine, mathematics and similar subjects were prepared. They also contributed towards art and architecture. Installation of various images was considered to be their main work. As their Maï¿½has were cultural centres, they patronised music, painting, sculpture, dancing and other arts. In social sphere also, their services are remarkable. They often arranged long pilgrimages with a large number of followers. They sometimes looked after the management of the holy places; for instance, ï¿½rï¿½ Mahï¿½viraji was managed by the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of Jaipur. Some of them possessed miraculous powers gained through Mantras. To walk through air, to remove the effect of poison and to make stone image speak are some of the miracles ascribed to them. They used to visit the courts of Hindu and Muslim rulers and induced them to observe the doctrine of Ahimsï¿½ by the prohibition of the slaughter of animals in their kingdom on certain fixed days of the year.
Caityavï¿½sï¿½ System in Rï¿½jasthï¿½na
The system of the Caityavï¿½sï¿½ functioned in Rï¿½jasthï¿½na with great success and advantage. A Jaina monk according to the rule prescribed for him does not usually stay longer than one night in a village or five nights in a town. This practice is found in Jainism as well as in Buddhism; and it is an inheritance of ï¿½ramaï¿½a culture. At the same time, there came gradually a good deal of laxity in the conduct of the saints.
ï¿½cï¿½rya Dharmasï¿½gara in his Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½ writes that in 355 A.D., this practice of Caityavï¿½sï¿½ started.419 But according to Muni Kalyï¿½ï¿½a Vijaya, it had originated even earlier and in 355 A.D., it had become well established practice.420 At present, the Yatis or ï¿½rï¿½pï¿½jyas in the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras and the Bhattï¿½rakas in the Digambaras are known as Maï¿½havï¿½sï¿½. All are collectively known as Caityavasï¿½.
The Caityavï¿½sï¿½ system seems to have developed in Rajasthana from about the 8th century A.D. The Jaina ï¿½cï¿½ryas of Rï¿½jasthï¿½na such as Haribadrasï¿½ri421 and Jinavallabhasï¿½ri422 had drawn the attention of the people towards the laxity in the ways of the monks. They resided in temples and used their wealth for their personal good. They put on even coloured or scented clothes. They are food or sweets fetched by the monks. They used to hoard money and relish delicious dishes. They used Sacitta water as well as fruits and flowers. They sold idols and purchased children in order to make them their disciples.
ï¿½ï¿½laguï¿½asï¿½ri, the teacher of king Vanarï¿½ja Cï¿½vadï¿½ (765-825 A.D.) asked him to issue orders forbidding the stay of other saints except Caityavï¿½sï¿½ saints in the city of Aï¿½ahilavï¿½da. In order to violate it, in 957 A.D. Jineï¿½varasï¿½ri and Buddhisï¿½garasï¿½ri defeated the Caityavï¿½sï¿½s in the debate in the royal court of Durlabharï¿½ja and thus sought permission for the admission of the Vidhimï¿½rga in Pï¿½ï¿½aï¿½.
That Caityavuasï¿½s had deviated considerably from the traditional ways of Jaina Sï¿½dhus is evident from several Jaina temples and idols installed by them. This was the practice of the laity and not of the Sï¿½dhus. But the Caityavï¿½sï¿½s saw no harm in these deviations and argued that what was meritorious for the laity was equally creditable for the Sï¿½dhus. There are inscriptions which give us information about the practice of the Caityavï¿½sï¿½ in Rï¿½jasthï¿½na. In 1354 A.D., Rï¿½macandrasï¿½ri of Jï¿½rï¿½pallï¿½ Gaccha for self-merit constructed the Devakulikï¿½ at Jï¿½rï¿½pallï¿½ in Sirohi State.423 Hematilakasï¿½ri for the merit of his teacher constructed the Raï¿½gamaï¿½ï¿½apa of the temple at the village Varmï¿½na in Sirohi State in 1389 A.D.424 In 1397 A.D., Vï¿½caka Somaprabhasï¿½ri of Pispalï¿½cï¿½rya Gaccha constructed an image of Sumatinï¿½tha at Ajï¿½rï¿½ which was consecrated by Vï¿½raprabhasï¿½ri.425Vï¿½raprabhasï¿½ri constructed the Maï¿½ï¿½apa in 1418 A.D. at the village Vï¿½ravï¿½ï¿½ï¿½.426 In 1464 A.D. Vijayaprabhasï¿½ri of Kï¿½ccholï¿½vï¿½lï¿½ Gaccha built the Devakulikï¿½ in the temple of Ajitanï¿½tha for the merit of Guï¿½asï¿½garasï¿½ri at Sirohi.427Bhadreï¿½varasï¿½ri for the merit of Tilaka Sï¿½ri made Devakulikï¿½ of ï¿½dinï¿½tha at Jï¿½rapallï¿½.428 Udaivardhana of Kï¿½ccholï¿½vï¿½la Gaccha built Devakulikï¿½ at Sirohi.429 Pï¿½rï¿½vadevasï¿½ri of Nï¿½ï¿½aka Gaccha with his disciple Vï¿½racanda constructed Lagikï¿½ at the village Velï¿½ra.430 Nanna Sï¿½ri of Pratimï¿½kadhï¿½ra Pratishï¿½hï¿½ Gachcha erected the image of ï¿½dideva in the building at Vasantagadh.431
In the Digambara Jaina literature, there is no definite and clear mention of the time when the system of Caityavï¿½sï¿½s started. But that it was in existence in the 8th century A.D. in the south is known from several inscriptions. In Rï¿½jasthï¿½na, the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas were also in possession of villages and gardens. They renovated temples, constructed inns and gave good to other monks. It seems that, in spite of their being Caityavï¿½sï¿½s, the earlier Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas remained naked, and this was probably necessary in order to show their separation from the saints of the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras. At present, there is a tendency in the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas to put off their clothes while eating food but wear them at all other times. It shows that they remained naked in the past and the practice of wearing clothes started afterwards.
In the domain of religion, the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas were the spiritual heads. They enjoyed comforts and received money in various ways from the ï¿½rï¿½vakas. They possessed administrative powers and used to appoint the Paï¿½ï¿½itas at different places in order to carry on the religious affairs.
Minor Protestant and Non-Protestant Sects
The effect of the Muslim invasions of the Jaina religion is seen in two ways. It brought different Jaina sects closer together for self-defence against the iconoclasts. At the same time, it drove others away from idolatry altogether. It, therefore, naturally divided both Digambaras and ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras each into two divisions known as idol-worshippers and non-idol-worshippers. The sect of non-idol-worshippers reminds one of the early Hindu traditions of Vedï¿½nta and Nirguï¿½a Bhakti movement of Kabï¿½ra and Nï¿½naka. With the impact of the Muslim culture, some sections of Jains began to denounce idol worship with great vehemence. The following sects are the opponents of the idol worship in Rajasthan.
(a) Loï¿½kï¿½ Sect : In Ahmedabada, Loï¿½kï¿½ earned his livelihood by copying books in the Upï¿½sarï¿½ of a Yati called Jï¿½ï¿½najï¿½. While writing these books, he was struck with the fact that idol worship was not mentioned them. He pointed it out to Jï¿½ï¿½najï¿½ and others, and a sharp controversy arose between them as to the desirability of idolatry. At last in 1451 A.D., he organized a new sect of his own called Loï¿½kï¿½ Sect after his own name. He declared his disbelief in such essential rites as Paushadha, Pratikramaï¿½a, Pratyï¿½khyï¿½na and even in charity. He did not like the rites in which even the slightest touch of violence or injury was involved. The Muslims at this time were destroying the temples and the images. This gave him the opportunity to spread his doctrine well. Great slackness had also come in the mendicants, because they possessed not only the books and clothes but even wealth. There were mutual quarrels among them. For this type of behaviour, the people began to criticize them. He took advantage of all these circumstances in propagating his doctrines by going from place to place.
Loï¿½kï¿½ pronounced 31 Sï¿½tras as the foundation of his tenet and gave a new interpretation of such Sï¿½tras seemed to support image worship. He made such drastic changes in the ï¿½vaï¿½yakasï¿½tra that they altogether assumed a new form. In 1476 A.D., he met a man named Bhï¿½ï¿½a, a native of ï¿½rï¿½ghaï¿½apï¿½ï¿½aka near Sirohi who took Sanyï¿½sa without being initiated by any Acarya. This monk assumed the false name of Dhuï¿½ï¿½haka. In 1511 A.D., he secured a disciple called Rï¿½pakajï¿½ and the old Vara Siï¿½ha became his disciples in 1521 A.D. and 1530 A.D. respectively. Thus, though Loï¿½kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha himself was not initiated, others were initiated by him and became saints.
(b) Sthï¿½nakavasï¿½ Sect : Some of the members of the Loï¿½ks Sect disapproved of the lines of their Sï¿½dhus declaring that they lived less strictly than Mahï¿½vï¿½ra would have wished. A Loï¿½kï¿½ layman Vï¿½rajï¿½ of Sï¿½rat received initiation as a Sï¿½dhu and won great admiration through the strictness of his life. Many from the Loï¿½kï¿½ Sect joined this reformer; and they took the name of Sthï¿½nakavï¿½sï¿½s while their enemies called them Dhï¿½ï¿½dhiyï¿½. The followerss of this sect are found in all the important cities of Rï¿½jasthï¿½na.
(c) Terï¿½panthï¿½ Sect : The founder of Terï¿½panthï¿½ Sect was Bhï¿½kamajï¿½. After a critical study of the scriptures, he came to know that the Jaina Sï¿½dhus were not leading their lives according to ï¿½ï¿½stric injunctions and were not promulgating the true principles of Jainism. The Sthï¿½nakvï¿½sï¿½s stayed in the places specially set apart for Sï¿½dhus to live in. He began to stay even in the places meant for laymen. Once, a strange coincidence took place. Some Sï¿½dhus and laymen both numbering thirteen were staying in a shop. This led a poet of the Sevaga class to compose a short parody ridiculing the sect and nicknaming it Terï¿½panthï¿½ (the path of thirteen). Bhï¿½kamajï¿½ gave a very appropriate interpretation to it. He said the number indicated five great vows (Mahï¿½vrata), five rules of conduct (Samitis), and control of body, mind and speech (three Guptis).
Terï¿½panthï¿½s do not worship idols. They think that worship of idols does not lead to salvation. They meditate upon and mentally worship those highly developed souls who have attained liberation. They worship and revere those living beings who have renounced the world asbsolutely and lead the life of asceticism strictly observing the five great vows. The followers of this sect are mostly found in Bikanera and Jodhpura States.
Like the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras, the Digambaras were also divided into the sects of idol-worshippers and non-idol-worshippers. In course of time, the sect of idol-worshippers was further split into several sub-sects.
(a) Tï¿½raï¿½asvï¿½mï¿½, who was the revolutionary saint, born in V.S. 1505 at Pushpï¿½vatï¿½ Nagarï¿½ (Bailahari), near Katni in Madhya Pradesh. He raised his voice against the rituals of the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas. He was highly influenced by the works of Kundakunda. He was against the Idol worship but emphasised on the worship of manuscripts in Jaina temples. He wrote 14 works, and out of them Mï¿½lï¿½rohanajï¿½, Paï¿½dita Pï¿½jï¿½jï¿½ and Kamala Battï¿½sï¿½ji are important. He died in V.S. 1572.432
(b) Terï¿½panthi Sect : The idolatrous sect of Terï¿½panthï¿½s was founded by Pt. Banarasidas, a resident of Ajgra. It became rapidly popular in Rajputana in the 17th century. Originally, it was known as Vidhimï¿½rga but its opponents nicknamed it as Terï¿½panthï¿½s just to ridicule it. The Terï¿½panthï¿½s protested against the elaborate ritualism of the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas. During the lifetime of Banï¿½rasï¿½dï¿½sa, the great scholar and reformer of Agra, this sect gained great popularity. It is defined by some as a sect which emphasizes the thirteen points of self discipline for building up the character; others, however, believe that the name was given by its opponents to ridicule it.433 The Digambara Terï¿½panthï¿½s are held in contempt by the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rkas like the ï¿½vetï¿½mbara Terï¿½panthï¿½s by the ï¿½rï¿½pï¿½jyas. Bakhata Rï¿½ma in the Buddhivilï¿½sa says that this sect differs from the original faith in thirteen points; and hence, it is called Terï¿½panthï¿½. The Terï¿½panthï¿½s do not recognize the superior position of the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rkas. The Terï¿½panthï¿½s of the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras and the Digambaras differ from each other. The former do not worhsip the images while the later do. The Digambara Terï¿½panthï¿½s worship the images but not with the flowers, fruits, sandal and prakï¿½ï¿½la. The worship, in this way according to them, involves Hiï¿½sï¿½ and therefore militates against the fundamental principles of Jainism.
(c) Gumï¿½napanthi Sect : Gumï¿½napanthï¿½ Sect flourished in the 18th century A.D. and was so called after the name of its founder Gumï¿½nï¿½rï¿½ma, the son of Pt. Toï¿½armal of Jaipur. It was also known as ï¿½uddhï¿½mnï¿½ya, because particular emphasis was laid on the purity of conduct of its followers by imposing certain rules of discipline on them. This sect spread in several parts of Rajasthana outside Jaipur such as Mï¿½rotha, Bhï¿½davï¿½ etc.
(d) Bï¿½sapanthi Sect : The Bï¿½sapanthï¿½s are the followers of the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas. They assumed its name because they thought that they were superior to Terï¿½panthï¿½s. This sect permits idol worship and supports the cult and methods of the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas. In this sect, the idols are worshipped with water, lamp, flowers and sandal. The followers of this sect are found in Jaipur, Ajamera, Nagaura and Mï¿½roï¿½ha.
(e) Totï¿½panthi Sect : In course of time, an attempt was made for the compromise between Bï¿½sapanthï¿½s and Terï¿½panthï¿½s. A new sect known as Totï¿½panthï¿½ came into existence. This sect partly consists of Bï¿½sapanthï¿½ Sect and partly Terï¿½panthï¿½ Sect. It is, therefore, also known as Sï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ Solï¿½ha Panthï¿½ Sect. It remained confined only to Nagaur.
These idolatrous sects do not materially differ from each other in the Digambaras. Their founders namely Amara Canda Baï¿½ajï¿½tyï¿½ and Gumï¿½nï¿½ Rï¿½ma were anxious to maintain the individuality of their sects; and hence, the nominal differences were emphasized.
- Darï¿½anasï¿½ra, p.7.
- ï¿½ramaï¿½a Bhagvï¿½n Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, IV, P. 269
- Ibid, p. 272
- EI, XXI, p. 85; IHQ, 1934, p. 57.
- JACOBI H : Encylopedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. VII, p. 473.
- VILAS A. SANGAVE : Jaina community – A Social Survey, pp. 50-51.
- Kalpasï¿½tra, S.B.E., Vol. 22, p. 288 f.
- E I, I, No. XIX, p. 391.
- Lï¿½ders : Epig. Notes. IA, XXXIII, p. 109
- E I, II, p. 382.
- BUHLER : On the Indian Sect of the Jainas, p. 55.
- E I, I, No. VI, pp. 385, 87, 88, 97, 96 and 289.
- E.I., I, VI, pp. 385, 87, 88, 97, 96 and 289.
- Kalpï¿½sï¿½tra, SBE, XXII, p. 293.
- E I, XX, pp. 59-61
- JSLS, Nos. 96, 99.
- Ibid, 90, 94.
- JSLS, Nos. 90, 94.
- Ibid Nos. 111, 113, 114, and 149.
- Ibid, No. 193
- Ibid, No. 113.
- Ibid, No. 114.
- Ibid, No. 149.
- Ibid, No. 193.
- JSLS, Nos. 175, 195, 196 and 223.
- Ibid, V, No. 55.
- Ibid, No. 66.
- Ibid, No. 130.
- Ibid, No. 183.
- Ibid, No. 139.
- JSLS, V, No. 74.
- Ibid, No. 262.
- Ibid, IV, Nos. 292, 335, 416 and 538.
- Ibid, Nos. 290, 310, 369, 378, 382, 606 and 642.
- Ibid, No. 164.
- Ibid, Nos. 180 and 222.
- Ibid, No. 54.
- Ibid, IV, No. 94.
- JSLS, II No. 217.
- Ibid, No. 372.
- Ibid, IV, Nos. 83 and 169.
- Ibid, Nos. 193, 229 and 256.
- Ibid Nos. 126, 139 and 140.
- JSLS, No. 1, 180.
- Ibid, Nos. 122, 123, and 135.
- Ibid, No. 123.
- Ibid, No. 150.
- Ibid, No. 166
- JSLS, N. 55.
- Ibid, No. 137.
- Ibid, IV, No. 61.
- Ibid, No. 134.
- Ibid, III, No. 186, 217 and 511.
- Ibid, No. 138.
- Ibid, II, No. 165.
- Ibid, No. 147.
- JSLS, IVI, No. 185, 234, 269, 318, 490 and 541.
- Ibid, No. 185.
- Ibid, IV, No. 117.
- JSLS, III, No. 153.
- Ibid, No. 158.
- Ibid, Nos, 237-238.
- Ibid, No. 17.
- Ibid Nos. 163-165.
- Ibid, IV, No. 96.
- JSLS, No. IV, No. 212, 291, 323, 476, 565 and 609.
- Ibid, No. 476.
- Ibid, No. 214.
- Ibid, No. 603.
- Ibid, III, Nos. 267, 277, 299 and 353.
- Ibid, 209, 263, 313, 377, 389, 408, 431, 459, 582.
- Ibid, IV, No. 240
- Medieval Jainism, P. 327.
- Ibid, IV, No. 154.
- JSLS, III, No. 208.
- Ibid, IV, No. 55.
- Ibid, IV, No. 157.
- Ibid, Nos. 342, 376.
- Ibid, III, No. 569.
- Ibid, No. 585.
- Ibid, IV, No. 390, p. 13.
- JSLS, III, No. 99.
- Ibid, No. 100.
- Ibid, No. 105.
- Ibid, Nos. 99, 100, 105.
- Ibid, I, Nos. 106, 121, 124 and 142.
- Ibid, III, No. 124.
- Ibid, No. 106.
- Ibid, No. 121.
- Ibid, No. 124.
- Ibid, No. 106.
- JSLS, III, No. 121.
- Ibid, No. 124.
- Ibid, No. 250.
- Ibid, No. 143.
- Ibid, No. 144.
- JSLS, III, No. 130.
- Ibid, No. 182.
- Ibid, Nos. 160 and 205.
- JSLS, IV, No. 20.
- Ibid, Nos. 70, 131, 611 and 612.
- Ibid, No. 70.
- Ibid, No. 131.
- Ibid, Nos. 611 and 612.
- Ibid, Nos. 130, 259, 168, 607.
- Ibid, No. 259.
- Ibid, No. 168.
- Ibid, No. 607.
- JSLS, IV, Nos. 207, 368 and 386.
- Ibid, No. 209.
- Ibid, Nos. 143, 298, 300 and 384.
- Ibid, V, No. 70.
- Ibid, No. 86.
- Ibid, No. 125.
- JSLS, V, No. 117
- Ibid, III, No. 103.
- Ibid, No. 104.
- Ibid, No. 104.
- JSLS, III, No. 166.
- Ibid, No. 178
- Ibid, Nos. 188, 189, 190, 192, 202, 214, 215, 216 and 226.
- JSLS, III, Nos. 213, 214, 215, 216.
- Ibid, IV, No. 175.
- Ibid, No. 282
- Ibid, No. 344.
- Ibid, Nos. 252, 357 and 409.
- JSLS, V, Nos. 14-15.
- Ibid, No. 56.
- Ibid, No. 104.
- Ibid, No. 111.
- J.S.L.S., III, Nos. 633 and 640.
- Jaina Siddhï¿½nta Bhaskara, Vol. 2, IV, pp. 28-29.
- J.S.L.S. IV, No. 22.
- Ibid, No. 56.
- ï¿½ramaï¿½a Bhagavï¿½n Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, Vol, V, Pt. II. Sthavirï¿½valï¿½, p. 2.
- PJS, Pt. I, No. 3.
- MJI., No. 833 and 834.
- NJI., Pt. I, II & III.
- I.A., Vol. IX, p. 248.
- NJI. Pt. III.
- ï¿½ramaï¿½a Bhagavï¿½n Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavirï¿½valï¿½, p. 75.
- ï¿½ramaï¿½a B.M.
- NJI. Pt. I, II & III and PLS.
- ï¿½ramaï¿½a Bhagvï¿½n Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, Vol. V. Pt. II. Sthavirï¿½valï¿½, p. 65.
- NJI. Pt. II, III, PLS. Pt. I, and APJLS.
- ï¿½ramaï¿½a Bhagvï¿½n Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavirï¿½valï¿½, p. 65.
- NJI. Pt. I, II and III & APJLS.
- ï¿½ramaï¿½a Bhagvï¿½n Mahï¿½vï¿½a, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavirï¿½valï¿½, Pt. II, p. 66.
- NJI. Pt. I, II and III & APJLS.
- NJI., No. 899.
- NJI. No. 792.
- NJI., Pt. I & II.
- PLS. No. 106.
- IA., V. XI, p. 250.
- IA., V. XI, p. 250.
- ï¿½raman Bhagavï¿½n Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavirï¿½valï¿½, p. 176.
- ï¿½raman Bhagavï¿½n Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavirï¿½valï¿½ p. 176.
- APJLS. No. 138 & 141.
- NJI., Pt II No. 1275.
- Ibid. Pt. III.
- NJI., Pt. I, No. 970 & 971.
- Ibid., No. 425.
- APJLS. Nos. 396, 470, 471, 472 and 473.
- NJI., Pt. No. 764.
- Ibid., No. 899.
- NJI., Pt. I, II & III.
- APJLS., No. 319.
- NJI., Pt. III.
- NJI., Pt. I, II and III & APJLS., Nos. 82 & 142.
- NJI., Nos. 789, 1313 & 2278. APJLS., No. 348.
- APJLS., No. 620.
- NJI., No. 738.
- Ibid., No. 1000.
- NJI., No. 1236.
- Ibid., Nos. 1080 & 1017.
- NJI., No. 530.
- APJLS., No. 66.
- NJI., Pt. I, II & III.
- NJI., Pt. III.
- Ibid., Nos. 1111, 1143 & 1031.
- APJLS., Nos. 74 and 119.
- Ibid., No. 110.
- NJI., No. 811.
- NJI., Pt. I, II & III.
- NJI., Pt. I, No. 791.
- APJLS., No. 404.
- NJI., Pt. II & III & APJLS.
- APJLS., No. 366.
- NJI., Pt. III.
- PLS., Nos. 5 & 23.
- NJI., Pt. II & III.
- PLS., No. 43.
- NJI., Pt. II & III.
- NJI., Nos. 2478 & 577.
- Ibid., Nos. 533 & 539.
- Catalogue of the MSS in the Patan Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ras, p. 312.
- NJI., No. 1295.
- IA., XI, p. 249.
- ARRMA. Yr. 1923 No. IX.
- PLS., Nos. 49, 124 & 256.
- IA., XIV, p. 8.
- IA., XI, p. 248.
- NJI., Nos. 734, 1267, 1315 & pt. III.
- I.A., XI, 249.
- NJI., No. 1059.
- APJLS., No. 408.
- NJI., No. 604.
- NJI., Nos. 849, 850 and 851.
- NJI., Pt. III.
- IA., XI, pp. 248-249.
- NJI., No. 597.
- Ibid., No. 1288.
- NJI., No. 717.
- NJI., No. 616.
- NJI., Nos. 2218 & 2232.
- Ibid., Nos. 2220-22 & 2415.
- Ibid., No. 2269.
- Ibid., 1159.
- NJI., No. 1174.
- Ibid., No. 1194.
- Ibid., 1042.
- NJI., No 1998.
- Ibid., 1078.
- APJLS. Nos. 9, 454 & 466.
- NJI., Pt. III.
- NJI. No. 966.
- NJI., Pt. III.
- ABJLS, No. 575.
- NJI, Pt. I & III.
- Ibid, Nos. 1167, 1169 and 1246.
- Sramana Oct. -Dec. 1995, p. 28.
- Ibid, 1997, pp. 81-82.
- Malavï¿½ï¿½chala Ke Jaina-lekha.
- MUNI KANTISAGAR : Jaina Dhï¿½thu Pratï¿½ma Lekha Saï¿½graha, I.
- Mï¿½lavï¿½nchala Ke Jaina-Lekha. pp. 77-78.
- P.C. NAHAR : Jaina Inscriptions III, Nos. 403-425.
- E.I., I, P. 120.
- Jaina Jorunal Mahavï¿½ra Jayantï¿½ Special, pp. 195-196.
- K.M.T.J., II, p. 410.
- Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Sampradï¿½ya, p. 239.
- Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Sampradï¿½ya,
- KMTJ, p. 505.
- Ibid, p. 505.
- Vï¿½ravï¿½nï¿½, VI, p. 355.
- Ibid, V, p. 41.
- Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 72.
- E.I., XXIV, p. 84.
- ARRMA, 1925-26, No. 3.
- Mï¿½lavï¿½ï¿½chala Ke Jaina-lekha, Nos 3, 6 and 7.
- Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Sampradï¿½ya, p. 239.
- Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Sampradï¿½ya, pp. 241-242.
- Ibid, p. 211.
- Bhandarkar List No. 161; ARADGS, 1973, No. 48.
- Bhaï¿½ï¿½araka Sampradï¿½ya, p. 211.
- Malï¿½vanchala Ke Jaina-Lekha, Nos. 217, 209, 198 and 106.
- KAMTA PRASAD – Pï¿½atimï¿½ Lekha Saï¿½grah, Nos. 60, 56 and 20.
- Udaipur Rï¿½jya Kï¿½ Itihï¿½sa, p. 41.
- PRAS, WC, 1909-10, P. 52.
- Malavï¿½ï¿½chala Ke Jaina-Lekha, No. 59.
- Mï¿½lavï¿½ï¿½chala Ke Jaina-Lekha, No. 170.
- E.I., II, pp. 232-240.
- K.M.T.A., p. 505.
- Mï¿½lavï¿½ï¿½chala Ke Jaina-Lekha, Nos, 7, 167, 215, 216.
- Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Sampradï¿½ya, pp. 293-294.
- JSLS, V, p.No. 98.
- Mï¿½lavï¿½ï¿½chala Ke Jaina-Lekha, p. 24, No. 7.
- PR 1883-84; I.A., XX and IA XXI.
- PRAS. WC, 1903-04, p. 46.
- E.I., XXIV, p. 84.
- JSLS. No. 208.
- JBBRAS, No. XLIV, Vol. XVII, p. 163 and PR 1883-84.
- Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Sampradï¿½ya.
- Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 74.
- KMTA, p. 505.
- Jainism in Rajasthan,
- Mï¿½lvï¿½ï¿½chala Ke Jaina Lekha.
- KAMATA PRASAD JAIN : Pratima Lekha Saï¿½graha.
- NJI, No, 1009.
- Vï¿½ravï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, VII.
- Anekï¿½nta, XIII, p. 126.
- JGPS, p. 10 (Int.)
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1490 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ò‡ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 9 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ë‚ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ý§Ê¦U ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½USï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½È§ï¿½ï¿½È§ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½^ÔŠU ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ý§ï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ã˜ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê¢ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ë‚ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ ï¿½Ê¢ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ß¢ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ëï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ ï¿½UÊ„ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÊŸï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½È§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ý§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½ï¿½U Ý§Ê¦Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Ý§ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U Sï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Õ¸ï¿½ 1476 Ý§ï¿½ ï¿½Ö¡ÒŸ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½.
- Anekï¿½nta, XIII, p. 126.
- In the Jaina temple at Jaipur.
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1515 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 11 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ý§Ê¦U ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½USï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ë¿ŠU ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½È¢ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½È¢ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ý§ï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ï¿½ï¿½^ÔŠU ï¿½. ï¿½Èï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ã˜ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê¦Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê„Uï¿½ï¿½ ßŒï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã– (In the temple of Chaudharis, Jaipur). ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ã˜ 1496 ï¿½Ò‡ï¿½Ê ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ -11 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ý§ï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ Ý§ï¿½ ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ – ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½. Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1516 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½ï¿½ 5 ï¿½È¦Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½. ï¿½Èï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½È¦Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½Ê„UÊ‹ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½UÝ§ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ ï¿½UÊ‹ï¿½ ï¿½ÃŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã– (On the metal image in the temple of Lunakarana, Jaipur).
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1528 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ò‡ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1 ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Èï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ã˜ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½Ê¬ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã– (Inscription on a Yantra in the temple of Chaudharis, Jaipur)
- NJI., No. 1120.
- Anekï¿½nta, XIII, P. 126.
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1570 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ù· – ï¿½ÃŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¦Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1595 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ò‡ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ x ï¿½Ùï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº² ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ã˜ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŒï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ã–
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1607 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ò‡ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½È¦Uï¿½ ï¿½Êªï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½Êªï¿½Ê«ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Sï¿½ÊŸï¿½ ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½UÊï¿½ ï¿½Ê·Ý§ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº² ï¿½ï¿½Mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ã˜ ï¿½U. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½UÊ¡ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Êï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½Í§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÊŠ ÃŠï¿½ï¿½, ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½, ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê‚, ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½Mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÃŠï¿½ Ý§ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŸ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ï¿½ï¿½ Ý§ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ (In the temple of Laskara, Jaipur).
- NJI., No. 520.
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1620 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ò‡ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 9 ï¿½Èœï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½USï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ë¿ŠU ï¿½ ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Èï¿½ï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ï¿½ï¿½Lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ã˜ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ã¦UÊ©Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½UÊ‚ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê¢ ï¿½UÊï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½UÊÊŒï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. Ý§ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ÙŸï¿½, ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- NJI., No 1636.
- Ibid., No. 631.
- Anekï¿½nta; XIII; p: 126.
- ARRMA, 1919-20 Nos. 1 & 6.
- Inscription in the temple of Pï¿½ï¿½odï¿½ at Jaipur.
ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1661 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê„Uï¿½ÈŒï¿½ ï¿½Ùï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Í·ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ã˜ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½È§ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½Ê¦Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½Ë¦Uï¿½Ê„Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ù«ï¿½Uï¿½ Ý§Ê¦Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- Anekï¿½nta, XIII, p. 127.
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1751 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½U ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 5 ï¿½Ùï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Çï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½Êªï¿½ÃŠï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ÃŠï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½USï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ë¿ŠU ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ý§Ê¦U ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½È§ï¿½ï¿½È§ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ý§ï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº² Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ï¿½ï¿½^ÔŠU ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÊŠï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ï¿½ï¿½Mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ã˜ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ùï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Sï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½U Ý§Ê¦Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- PRAS. wc., 1904-05, p. 57.
- PS, p. 177.
- Ibid., p. 138.
- Ibid., p. 170.
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1517 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 10 ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº²ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½Uï¿½Uï¿½UÊ¡ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ ï¿½Ê„UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÊŒï¿½ ï¿½Ê„Uï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ (Jaina temple of Patodi, Jaipur).ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1299 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 9 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½U— ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1523 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Ê…ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 2 ï¿½ï¿½Lï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½^ÔŠU ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº²ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½^ÔŠUï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº²ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½Ê‹ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½Ê«ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ ï¿½Mï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, ï¿½UË¦Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½ï¿½ (Jaina temple Siramauriya, Jaipur).
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1532 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ò‡ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 7 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº²ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠï¿½Uï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½Uï¿½Ý§ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Ý§ÊŸï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Sï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½Ê©U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1518 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ò‡ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 3 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº²ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½Ëï¿½UÊ¡ ï¿½Ê¬ï¿½ï¿½UËÊ‹ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½UÊ¡ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½UÊï¿½ ï¿½Ê„Uï¿½U ï¿½È¢ï¿½UÊ‚Ê–
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1571 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½U ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 2 ï¿½Ùï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½È§ï¿½ï¿½È§ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº²ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½Ê«ï¿½U ï¿½ÙŠï¿½ÊŠï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½È„UÊªï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Sï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Õï¿½, ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê‚, ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê‚, ï¿½Õï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê¡ï¿½, ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÃŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
326 PS., P. 154.
- Ibid., p. 98.
- Ibid., p. 177.
- Ibid., p. 96.
- Ibid., p. 147.
- Ibid., p. 167.
- Ibid., p. 163
- Ibid., p. 164.
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1573 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 3 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº²ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ã˜ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº²ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½UÊ’ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½UË‹ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1573 ï¿½ï¿½Êªï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 3 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½USï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ë¿ŠU ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ý§Ê¦U ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½È§ï¿½ï¿½È§ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº²ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½^ÔŠU ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº²ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Ý§Ê‹ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½UÙ„Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ Ý§Êï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½kï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½kï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- PS., p.2.
- Ibid., pp. 36 & 37.
- Ibid., p. 96.
- Ibid., p. 131.
- Ibid., p. 99.
- Ibid., p. 174.
- PS., p. 127.
- Ibid., p. 128.
- Ibid., p. 200.
- Ibid., p. 149.
- Ibid., p. 170.
- Ibid., p. 88.
- Ibid., p. 175.
- Ibid., p. 55.
- Ibid., p. 148.
- Ibid., p. 99.
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1590 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 7 ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº² ï¿½Ã˜ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº² ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½ÊŠï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ÃŠï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŒï¿½ ï¿½Ã˜ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã– (Temple of Luï¿½akaranajï¿½, Jaipur).
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1590 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 4 ï¿½Èœï¿½Ê¦ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ý§Ê¦Uï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½USï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ë¿ŠU ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½È¢ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½È¢ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãŒŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ã˜ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãŒŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½È„Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÊŸï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ÊœÊï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê¦UÊ„ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ã– (Temple of Lunakaranji, Jaipur).
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1593 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½U ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 3 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº²ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ã˜ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½Ê„Uï¿½ï¿½ ÃŒï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ ï¿½Uï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ÃŒï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½Ê‚ï¿½ ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- P.S., p. 163.
- Ibid., p. 77
- Ibid., p. 162.
- Ibid., p. 94.
- Ibid., p. 169.
- Ibid., p. 17.
- Ibid., p. 190.
- ARAMA, 1927-28, No.11.
- PS., p. 125.
- Ibid., p. 132.
- Ibid., p. 73.
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1642 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÍŸ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 7 ï¿½Èœï¿½Ê‚ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº²ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº²ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½Ý§ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ÕŠï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½UÊ„Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½UÊ¡ ï¿½ÃŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1641 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÍŸ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 7 ï¿½Èœï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ã˜ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ã¢ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ï¿½Ã˜ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Ý§ï¿½Uï¿½Ý§ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê„U Ý§Ê‹ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1641 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÈŸ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 2 ï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÙŸï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ ÃŠï¿½ï¿½, ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ ÃŠï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. Ý§ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½UÊ¡ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1641 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÈŸ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 7 ï¿½Èœï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ù„Uï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ÙŠï¿½ÊŠï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½UÃŸï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ß¸ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. Ý§ï¿½Êœï¿½U, ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½Ê‚ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1648 ï¿½Ò‡ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê‚ ï¿½ÊÊ¬È¦U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½UÊ¡ï¿½ ï¿½ÊŸï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ï¿½ï¿½Mï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ã˜ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ ï¿½Ê’ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ ÊŠï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½È„UÊªï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ËŸï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Ê¦Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½UÊ¡ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½Uï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Ê¦Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½Ê³Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½UÊ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÊŸï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÊŸï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1648 ï¿½Ò‡ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 5 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ò¥ ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ËŸï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ ß«ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ÃŠï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1651 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 10 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê³Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½ÊŸï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½UÃŸï¿½
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1651 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê ï¿½È¦Uï¿½ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½Í¢ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1658 ï¿½Ê·Ê…ï¿½U ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 10 ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¦ï¿½U ï¿½ ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ù‚ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½SÃšï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ÃŠï¿½ï¿½, mï¿½. ï¿½Uï¿½Uï¿½, ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ÃŠï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½, ï¿½Ëï¿½, ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1661 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÈŸ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 2 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ Õ‹ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê‡ï¿½ÊŸï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- ARRMA, 1927-28, p.11.
- PS. p. 76.
- Ibid., p. 89.
- Ibid., p. 28.
- Ibid., pp. 189-90.
- ARRMA., 1927-28, No. 12.
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1709 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÈŸ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 7 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ÃŠï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ý§ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¢ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½Ã˜ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½Ê¦Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ý§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ã–
- See above, p. 48.
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1711 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 4 ï¿½Ùï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½…. ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½UÊ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½UÙï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½USÃŸÊªï¿½È¦ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½Êªï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê– ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1716 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 4 ï¿½Ùï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 108 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½UÊ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½Uï¿½ Ý§Ê¦Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê–
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1716 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 4 ï¿½Ùï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½UÊ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½USÃŸÊªï¿½È¦ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½Êªï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1729 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÈŸ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 9 ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ý§Ê¦Uï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½USï¿½ï¿½Ëªë¿ŠU ï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½È¦ï¿½Uãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê„Uï¿½ ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½Ê‚ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê„Uï¿½ ï¿½Í¦Uï¿½ÊŸï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê ï¿½êŠï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1732 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½U ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 2 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½È¦ï¿½Uãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Îœï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê„Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½Uï¿½Uï¿½Ê‚ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŸï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Êï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½SÃšï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Ê‚Ë¦UÊ ï¿½Sï¿½ Sï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Ù³Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Õ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÊŒÙ¦Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Sï¿½ Sï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ù‚ÊŒï¿½ ï¿½mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ý§ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÃŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½êŠï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U Ý§ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½Ê–
- Ps. p. 4.
- Ibid., 29.
- Ibid. p. 174.
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1743 Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸Ý§ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 15 Ý§ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê„Uï¿½ ï¿½ÙŸï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½Uï¿½ Ý§Ê¦Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê–
- See above, p. 36.
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1766 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 6 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê„Uï¿½ Uï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½Ê‚ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½Uï¿½ Ý§ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê–
- Ps., p. 7.
- Ibid., p. 77.
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1773 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê‚ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ä‹ ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Õ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ —- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½È„Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½Ù‹ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê„Uï¿½ ï¿½UË„Uï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½Uï¿½ Ý§ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ (Temple of Chaudharis, Jaipur).
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1783 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 8 ï¿½Èœï¿½ ï¿½Ê¢ï¿½ï¿½Ù„U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãº²Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½UÊ«Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê„Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½UÊï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½Uï¿½ Ý§ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½Ê– ï¿½Ò¥ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Ò¦UÊ¡ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Êï¿½Ã–
- PS., pp. 48 and 56.
- Ibid., p. 124.
- Ibid., p. 219.
- See above, p. 47.
- PS., p. 48.
- Ibid., p. 56.
- See above p. 47.
- See above p. 47.
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1572 Ý§ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Êªï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 6 ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¦ï¿½U ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Uï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ï¿½ï¿½ Ý§ï¿½ ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ë–
- PS., p. 21.
- Ibid., p. 108.
- ARRMA, 1934-35, Non.
- PS., p. 20.
- ï¿½ï¿½Ëï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 108 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Sï¿½ ï¿½Êï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Ý§ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½UÊ‚ï¿½ Ý§ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½Ê‚ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½. 1672 Ý§ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 5ï¿½
- Ajmer Historical and Descriptive, p. 123.
- See above, p. 48.
- See above, p. 43.
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1814 Ý§ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê·Ê…ï¿½U ï¿½ÈŒï¿½ 10 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Ùï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ ï¿½ï¿½UÊ¦UÊ¡ ï¿½ï¿½UÙ¦Uï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ÈÊ¸ï¿½ ï¿½Ý§ï¿½Ù–
- ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1852 ï¿½Ò‡ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê„U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ä‹ ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŸï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Lï¿½ï¿½Ê‚ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½UÊŒÈªï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ë¥ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ã¦UÊï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Èï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸SÃŒï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê‹ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê„Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê‚ï¿½ï¿½ ßŒï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ãï¿½ Ý§Ê¦Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê–
- ï¿½ï¿½UÊ¦Uï¿½cï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ãŒ¦ï¿½U ï¿½ÊÊ¢ ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ã¦U ï¿½ï¿½. 1862 Ý§ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê‚Ê…ï¿½U ï¿½Ê‚ï¿½ ï¿½Î§cï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½cï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½Ê ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê¦ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Í‹ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÊŠ ï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½^ÔŠU ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½^ï¿½UÊ¦UÝ§ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 108 ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Èï¿½Ý§ï¿½ï¿½Ã¸ï¿½ï¿½, ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ Ý§Ê‹Í¦UÊ ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½UÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½UÊ¦Uï¿½ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½Ê¦Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê„UÊ¢ Ý§ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½cï¿½Uï¿½ Ý§ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Sï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½UÊ¡ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ÊÝ§ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ý§ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½Ê¸ï¿½È¦UÊª ï¿½Ê ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Ê– ï¿½Ê¿U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê¦Uï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½Ê¢ï¿½Ý§ï¿½U ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ÈŸ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 5 ï¿½È§ï¿½Êï¿½ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Uï¿½Ê– (Inscription, Sï¿½ha Jaina Temple Mï¿½roï¿½ha).
- JSAI., p. 351.
- Sambodhaprakaraï¿½a, Verses 27, 34, 46-49, 61, 63, 68 etc.
- Saï¿½ghapaï¿½ï¿½aka, Verses 7, 11, 12, 15, 21 etc.
- APJLS, No. 119.
- Ibid., No. 113.
- APJLS, No. 432.
- Ibid., No. 278.
- Ibid., No. 246-248.
- Ibid., No. 116.
- Ibid., No. 249.
- Ibid., No. 337.
- Ibid., No. 445.
- JSAI., p. 363.
- I.A., XX, p. 347.
- V.S. 1572.
- JSAI., p. 367.