Chapter X


The Jaina religions like other religions of India has suffered from the tendency of schisms and secessions. The different sects gradually sprang from time to time on account of the different interpretations put on the canonical texts. Besides, the circumstances of the particular time also compelled them to give up old ideas and to adopt new ones. The separation between the Digambaras and the Svetambaras took place in 79 or 82 A.D. A terrible famine occurred in Magadha in 293 B.C. and 14,000 monks under the leadership of Bhadrabahu with Candragupta Maurya moved on to the South. Some monks under the leadership of Sthulabhadra stayed no gaoha.

Both the traditions do not differ as regards the twelve-year famine that took place in Magadha and as regards the consequent emigration of the Jaina Sa�gha under his leadership. But while the Digambara tradition states that the Sa�gha migrated to the South, �vet�mbara tradition says that Bhadrab�hu went to Nepal. The origin of the great schism, which later on developed into Digambara and �vet�mbara sects, is ultimately traced to this event.

After Bhadrab�hu’s departure Sth�labhadra assumed the leadership of the Sa�gha in Magadha. He was a contemporary of Maurya Candragupta and Bindus�ra. After the famine was over he convened a council at P��aliputra, at which the remnant of the Sa�gha left behind in Magadha tried to put in order the sacred lore that had fallen into a state of decay. Sth�labhadra was succeeded by �rya Mah�giri and then came Suhastin who was the religious preceptor of the Maurya king Samprati who is said to have been a devout Jaina and to have done much for the glory of his religion. After Suhastin came Susthita, Indradinna (K�laka I), Priyagrantha and V�ddhav�d�, one after the other. At this time lived K�laka II of the �aka-Vikrama fame. Then followed Dinnas�ri, Si�hagiri and Vairasv�mi. The last of these was the last Da�ap�rv� or keeper of a part of the original canon. It was in his time in M.E. 609 (or A.D. 82) that the gradually growing schism in the Jaina Sa�gha was finalised and the two sects, �vet�mbara and Digambara, separated for good.

JACOBI observes that the division of the Jaina Sa�gha into Svetambara-Digambara took place gradually, and that they became aware of their mutual differences about the end of the first century A.D. It is necessary to know what is the exact difference between these two sects, Literally, Digambara mean, ‘sky-clad’ and �vetambara means ‘white-robed’ i.e. the monks of the Digambaras are naked, while those of the Svetambaras wear white clothes. In fact there is very little difference between the two branches as regards the essentials of doctrine. The most authoritative book, namely, Tattvartha Sutra by Umasvati or Umasvami has been accepted by both the sects. However, there are some major as well as minor points on which the two sections are opposed to each other. The major points of difference between the Digambaras and Svetambaras are as follows :

(i)      While the Digambaras believe that a monk who wears clothes, can not attain salvation; the �vet�mbaras assert that the practice of complete nudity is not essential to attain liberation.

(ii)      The Digambaras hold the view that woman, is not entitled to Mok�a in this life. On the contrary, the �vet�mbaras believe that women can attain Moksa in this life.

(iii)      According to the Digambaras, once a saint has attained Kevala J��na (Omniscience) he needs no food, but can sustain life without eating. The view is not acceptable to the �vet�mbaras.

Leaving aside the trivial differences in rituals, customs and manners, the following are some of the minor points on which the two sects do not agree :

(i)      The Digambaras maintain that the embryo of Mah�v�ra, the last T�rtha�kara, was not removed from the womb of Dev�nad�, a Br�hmin lady, to that of Tri�al� or Priyak�ri�i, a Kshatriya lady, as the �vet�mbaras contend.

(ii)      The Digambaras believe in the complete disappearance of the ancient sacred literature and as such they disown the canonical books of the �vet�mbaras.

(iii)      The Digambaras assert that Mah�v�ra never married but according to the �vet�mbaras, Mah�v�ra married Ya�od� and had a daughter by name Anojj� or Priyadar�an�.

(iv)      The �vet�mbaras consider Mallin�tha, the 19th T�rtha�kara as a female but the Digambaras state that Mallin�tha was a male.

(v)      According to Digambaras, the T�rtha�karas must be represented as nude and unadorned and with downcast eyes. The need not be so according to �vet�mbars.6

Sa�gha, Ga�a and Gachchha

The Sa�gha and Ga�a are well known political terms. The Sa�ghar�jya means the rule of a community and the Ganar�jya indicates the rule of many a republic. In early times, there was perhaps no distinction between political Sa�gha and Gana, because P��ini equates Ga�a with Sa�gha. The Sa�gha and Ga�a in Jainism and Buddhism might have come into existence in imitations of the political Sa�ghas and Ga�as which flourished in ancient India. Both  Mah�v�ra and Buddha were born and brought up in the republican atmosphere. They had Sa�ghas arround them. It is for this reason that they adopted the name as well as the constitution of the political Sa�gha in organizing their religious Sa�ghas. It is also possible to suggest that the political Sa�ghas as Ga�as might have been founded in imitation of the religious Sa�ghas and Ga�as which had existed since the time when the two great religions were organized. The head of the Ga�a was known as Ga�adhara. Both these terms in the political and religious spheres indicate the group of persons with the main characteristic of possessing a mind conscious of certain ideology. The existence of large number of Sa�ghas and Ga�as in the Jaina community in ancient times points out that it was politically and culturally Sa�gha highly organized. It is due to the efficiency of the Sa�gha organization that Jainism has survived through all vicissitudes. The Ga�as in course of time also began to be known as Gacchas.

Ga�a in the Kalpa-S�tra and Kush��a Inscriptions of Mathura

The Kalpas�tra tells us that there were seven schools of thought with their respective branches (��kh�s) each of which separated in course of time into its own family Kula. It is interesting to note that several of these Jaina orders are mentioned in Kush��a records. The seven Ga�as are God�sa, Uddeha, Uduv��ika, Vesav��ika, C�ra�a, M�nava and Kau�ika.7

The first Ga�a had four ï¿½ï¿½kh�s and Kulas. The second Ga�a Uddeha was founded by �rya Roha�a and was divided into four ï¿½akh�s and six kulas. N�gabh�ta and Parihasaka Kulas of Kalpas�tra may be identified with N�gabh�tik�ya8 and the Paridh�sikaof the Ku��na  records. The third ga�a Uduv��ika was subdivided into four ï¿½akh�s and three kulas. None of these can be traced in any of the Ku���a inscriptions. The fourth Ga�a Ve�av�tika, founded by K�marddhi, was subdivided into four ï¿½akh�s and Kulas. Among these, only, the Mehika Kula10 is mentioned in a Kusha�a grant. The fifth Ga�a Cara�a identified by BUHLER with V�ra�a Ga�a of the inscriptions, was subdivided into four ï¿½akh�s and seven Kulas.11 The Ku���a inscriptions refer to several of them.12 The ï¿½ï¿½kh�s may be identified with the H�ritamalakari, Vajran�gari and S��k��ik� and Partidharmik� of the Kalpas�tra. The sixth Ga�a M�nava was divided into four ï¿½ï¿½kh�s and three Kulas. But only a few of these are mentioned  in Ku���a records. The seventh Ga�a Kau�iya Ga�a founded by Susthita was subdivided into four Kulas and seven ï¿½akh�s. This Ga�a is well represented in the Ku�a�a inscriptions.13 The ï¿½ï¿½kh�s must be identified with the Vajr�, M�dhyamik�, Uchh�nagari and the V�tsaliya while the Kulas may be identified with the V��iya, Brahmaliptika and the P�ish�av�hanaka of the Kalpas�tra. The Madhyamik� branch was named after the ancient place Madhyamik� identified with modern Nagar� in Mewar. It was founded by Priyagrantha, the second pupil of Susthita and Supratibuddha.14

Pa�cast�p�ny�ya ï¿½ There is a controversy regarding the origin of the Pa�cast�pany�ya, a sect of the Digambaras. One view is that it originated from Mathura while the other view is that it was established by Arhadbali who was the native of Pu��ravardhana. Pu��ravardhana was a centre of Jainism. The Pah�rpur copper plate grant of the year 159 (478-479 A.D.)15 records that a Br�hma�a and his wife deposited three din�rs or gold coins with the city Council and lands for the maintenance of worship of the divine Arhats at the Vih�ra of Va�a-Goh�li which was presided over by the disciples and the disciples of disciples of the Nirgrantha preceptor Guhanandin, belonging to the Pa�chast�panik�ya of Banaras. It seems that Guhanandina belonged to the third or fourth century A.D. V�rasena, who wrote a commentary on the Dhavl�, was the follower of Pa�chast�pany�ya. Harishe�a has mentioned it in the Kath�kosha written in 937 A.D.

Digambara Sa�ghas, Ga�as and Gachchhas of the South Nirgrantha Mah��rama�a Sa�gha

From the two inscriptions16 of the Kadamba ruler M�ge�a (500 A.D.), it is known that villages and lands were given to the Munis of Nirgrantha Mah��rama�a Sa�gha. What was the shape of this original Sa�gha, it is not known. The term Nirgrantha or Nigan�hawas used for  Mah�v�ra, and also for his followers. It seems that Nirgrantha Mah��rama�a Sa�ga was in existence during the time of Mah�v�ra, and it continued even afterwards. Bhadrab�hu accompanied this Sa�gha for going to the South. During the third or fourth century A.D., there were two main divisions of the Jaina Sa�gha (1) Nirgrantha Mah��rama�a Sa�gha and (2) �vetapata. The Digambaras and the �vetambaras lived together at Devagiri as known from the inscription17 and probably there were no separate temples. The Nirgrantha Mah�srama�a Sa�gha was of the Digambaras.

M�la Sa�gha ï¿½ The earliest mention of the M�lasa�gha is in the inscription (C. 400 A.D.) of Ga�ga ruler M�dhavavarma II, and in the inscription of 425 A.D. of his son Avin�ta.18 In the above two inscriptions, we find the names of ï¿½c�rya V�radeva and Candranandi. These two ï¿½c�ryas performed the consecration of the temples, and the Ga�ga rulers M�dhava II and his son Avin�ta granted lands and villages. It seems that in South India, M�las�gha was used to indicate the separation of the Digambaras from the �vet�mbaras. The name Nirgrantha-Mah�srama�a Sa�gha probably ceased, and it seems to have been called the M�lasa�gha. The early great Acaryas Kundakunda, Um�sv�m� and Samantabhadra belonged to the M�lasa�gha.

The M�lasa�gha has been divided into seven Ga�as – Devaga�a, Senaga�a, De�iyaga�a, S�ras�haga�a K���raga�a and Bal�tk�raga�a. Generally these Ga�as were called after the end names of the Munis, and after the names of the provinces and regions.

Devagana ï¿½ Among the above Ga�as, Devaga�a is the oldest. The existence of this Ga�a is known from the four inscriptions19 of Lak�ame�vara and the eleventh century inscription20 of Kadavanti. It is not mentioned afterwards. The names of the �c�ryas of this Ga�a are � P�jyap�da, Udayadeva21, R�madeva, Jayadeva, Vijayadeva22, Ekadeva, Jayadeva23, A�kadeva and Mah�deva24. Pujyapada was the founder of this Ga�a.

De�� Ga�a and Ko��akun��nvaya

De�iga�a is mentioned in several inscriptions as DesiyaDe�ikaDesiga and De��ya. The term De�� originated from De�a which meant province. Some region of Kar���aka was known by the name of De�a. From the inscriptions, it is known that there were several centres of this Ga�a in Kar��taka. Among them, Hanasoge (Cikahanasoge) was prominent. From the ï¿½c�ryas of this place originated the Hanasogebali or Gaccha. From the inscriptions25 of Chikahanasoge, it is learnt that there were several Vasadis (Temples) of this Ga�a here, and they received patronage from the Ca�g�lva rulers.

De��ga�a has been classified into Pustakagachchha, �ryasi�hagrahakula, Candrakar�c �rj�mn�ya and Maitrad�nvya.

Pustakagaccha ï¿½ In the Pu�ra inscription26 dated 1087 A.D., the  donation of the land given to Padmanandi Maladharideva of the Pustakagachchha has been described. In the Halebeed inscription27 of the eleventh century, the erection of an image by the disciples of Nemichand Bha���raka has been mentioned. In the Citapura inscription28 of the twelfth century A.D., the renovation of a temple by this Gaccha has been recorded. In the image inscription of Peddatu�balam, the name of Bha���raka C�ndrak�rti is found. In the Stavanidhi inscription29 of 1400 A.D., the construction of the temple at the preaching of V�ranandi of this Gaccha has been mentioned. TheSam�dhimara�a of the ï¿½c�rya of Gomini �nvaya of the Pustakagaccha in the Heritage inscription dated 1224 has been engraved.30

The first subdivision of Pustakagaccha was Panasoge (Hanasoge) Bali. Its first mention31 is in the early tenth century and there is a reference to Sam�dhimarana of Nemicandra, disciple of Sridharadeva. The second mention32 of this Bali is of 1180 A.D. Balacanda, pupil of Jayak�rti, installed an image. There are four inscriptions33 of this branch which belong from 12th to 14th century A.D. The ï¿½c�ryas Lalitak�rti, Devacandra and Nayak�rti have been mentioned.

The second sub-division of Pustakagaccha was I�gule�vara Bali. It is mentioned in the seven inscriptions34 and they belong to the         12th-13th centuries A.D. In these inscriptions, the names of the ï¿½c�ryas Haricandra, �rutak�rti, Bhanukirti, M�ghanandi, Nemideva, Chandrak�rti and Jayadeva are mentioned.

Pustakagaccha has been mentioned without any sub-division in several inscriptions. The first such inscription35 is of 1081 A.D., and Bha���raka Sakalak�rti is mentioned in it. There are seventeen such inscriptions which belong to the 16th century A.D.

The Pustakagaccha of De�ig�a is found with Ko��aku���nvaya. In some inscriptions, only Ko��akun��nvaya is mentioned. The oldest inscription regarding. Kon�akun�anvaya is the Tamra idia obtained for Markar�bhip Lekh T�mrapatra. The other inscriptions37 are dated 802 A.D. and 797 A.D. It mentions Ko��akun�eye Anvaya. It indicates the place Ko��akun�a. This inscription mentions that R���rak�ta ruler Kambhar�ja donated a village to the Acarya Vardham�na.

The Second Sub-division of De��ga�a named �ryasa�gha Graha Kula is found only in one inscription38. It belongs to the tenth century, and it mentions �ubhacandra, disciple of Kulacandra. This inscription was discovered in the Kha��agiri hill of Orissa, while other inscriptions of De�iga�a belonged to Kar���aka.

The third sub-division of De�iga�a is Candrakar�-c�ry�mn�ya which is mentioned in only one inscription.39 It has been discovered in Madhya Pradesh. Subhadra is known to have performed the consecration ceremony of the temple. The fourth sub-division of Mainad�nvaya of Subhacandra ï¿½c�rya is mentioned in the inscription40 and it belonged to the 13th century.

The are several inscriptions of De�igana without any sub-division. In two inscriptions41 dated 950 and 1096 A.D., there is mention respectively of the ï¿½c�ryas Gu�acandra and Ravichandra. In these inscriptions, there is mention of De��ga�a along with Ko��a Kund�nvaya. In eighteen inscriptions, there is mention of M�lasa�gha � De��ga�a. Among them, old inscriptions42belong  to the twelfth century A.D. Eight inscriptions mention De��ga�a only. The old inscription43 among them are dated 1032 A.D. and 1054 A.D.

The ancient name in the inscription of the current name Kundakund�nvaya was Ko��akund�nvaya, which means it originated from Ko��akundapura. Some scholars prove on literary grounds that M�lasa�gha and Ko��akund�nvaya are synonymous, and ï¿½c�rya Kondakunda is the founder of the M�lasa�gha. This is not proved from any inscription before the eleventh century A.D. M�lasa�gha and Ko��akund�nvaya were together used in the inscription44 of 1044 A.D. Ko��akund�nvaya has been independently used in the inscriptions45 of the eighth or ninth century A.D. In the inscription of 802 A.D., Ko��akund�nvaya was regarded as Ga�a46. The earliest use of De��yagana with Ko��akund�nvaya was used in the inscription of 931 A.D.47 From the inscriptions, it appears that the use of Ko��akund�nvaya started from the later half of the seventh century A.D., and in the eighth or ninth century, efforts were made to make it powerful. Its first influence fell on the De�astha Saints of Kar���aka region. They began to be called Ko��akund�nvaya De��yag�a. The Dravi�a Sa�gha was also slightly influenced by Ko��akund�nvaya.48 It is known from the inscription but it seems that influence was not permanent. The Dr�vi�a Sa�gha Ko��akund�nvaya is not found mentioned in any other  inscription.

Nandi Gana ï¿½ Seeing the similar names of the ancient ï¿½c�ryas in the inscriptions of the M�lasa�gha and the Dr�vi�as�gha, it appears that old Nandiga�a (Sa�ga) might have come from outside in these two Sa�ghas. These ancient ï¿½c�ryas might have belonged to Nandigana. It seems that the Dravi�a-Sa�gha and the M�lasa�gha might have adopted the Nandigana of the Y�pan�ya Sa�gha. The Nandisa�gha was on important one among the Y�pan�yas.

Senagan ï¿½ The earliest mention of the Senaga�a is found in the inscription49 dated 821 A.D. It is also found in the Mulagunda inscription50 of 903 A.D. Gu�abhadra, the author of the Uttarapur�na, regarded his teacher Jinasena and grand-teacher as scholars of Sen�nvaya. V�rasena and Jinasena in the commentaries of Dhavala and Jayadhavala mention Pa�chast�p�nvaya. Gunabhadra mentions for the first time Pa�ch�st�p�nvaya as Sen�nvaya in the Uttarapur��a.

Senaga�a has been sub-divided into three Gacchas � (1) Pogari or Hogiri Gaccha, (2) Pustakagaccha and (3) Chandrakap��a. The first mention of the Pogarigaccha is found in the inscription dated 893 A.D. This inscription51 records the grant of the village to Kanakasena, disciple of Vinayasena. In this inscription, it has been called Pogariyaga�a of M�lasen�nvaya. Another inscription52 is of 1047 A.D., and Pandita N�gasena has been called the ï¿½c�rya of Senaga�a-Hogari-gaccha. The C�lukya queen Akk�dev� granted some donation to him. The Pogar� Gachchha is found mentioned in the inscriptions53 up to the 13th century A.D.

The first inscription54 of Chandrakav��a Anvaya is dated 1053 A.D. wherein the lineage of Ajitasena, Kanakasena, Nayasena etc. has been described. Sarad�ra Kancarasena of Sindakula gave some charity to Nayasena. Narendrasena II, disciple of Nayasena, has been mentioned in 1081 A.D.55 An officer named Dro�a gave him some donation. Narendrasena and Nayasena were well versed in Grammar. In the inscription56 of 1066 A.D., Bha���raka ��ntinandi of Candrik�va�a has been mentioned. The name Mulasamgha is given but not of Senaga�a.

The third sub-division Pustakagachchha of Senaga�a is found in the inscription of the 14th century A.D. A lineage of the eleven ï¿½c�ryas has been given in it. There is a mention of Sam�dhimara�a of Laksm�sena and of M�nasena, disciple of Lak�misena.

Thirteen inscriptions of the Senaga�a from the eighth to seventeenth centuries are known. Five inscriptions from the 12th to the 15th century of this Ga�a were found at Hire �vali.This proves  that Hire �vali was a great centre of this Ga�a. In the inscription of the 13th century A.D., Kundakundanvaya was associated with Senaga�a. From the 15th century onwards, its influence gradually decreased.

S�rastha Ga�a � Ga�a named S�rastha of the M�lasa�gha was famous. This Ga�a is known from the inscriptions.57It is mentioned as S�rastha, Sur�stra, and S�rastha. It appears that the monks of this Ga�a might have lived in Suras�hra from the beginning. Hence, this name was given. It is possible that there might be some region of Sur�s�ra in South India, from where the Munis might have derived this name. The first mention of this Ga�a is in the inscription58 of 962 A.D. in which M�lasa�gha has been associated with Dravi�a Sa�gha. The lineage of the saints namely Prabh�candra, Kalneledeva, Ravicandra, Ravinadi and El�c�rya has been decribed. The Ganga ruler Marasi�ha II donated a village to El�c�rya. The inscriptions of this Ga�a from the 11th to the 13th century are found. No Kundakundanvaya has been found in the inscriptions of this Ga�a.

Two sub-divisions of the S�rastha Ga�a are known K�r�ra Gachchha and Chitraku��nvaya. There is only one inscription59dated 1007 A.D. in which Arhanandi Pa��ita has been described. There are ten inscriptions of Chitrak���nvaya.

The first inscription60 is dated 1071 A.D. in which some donation given to ï¿½ishy� of Sri Nandi Pandita has been described. The thrid inscription61 is dated 1074 A.D. in which some donation given to �rya Pandita, pupil of Arhanandi has been mentioned. The next two inscriptions62 give the lineage of this Aanvaya ï¿½ V�sup�jya, Harinandi and N�gachandra. Harinandi and N�gacandra got some donation in 1148 A.D. That the S�rastha ga�a was in existence from the tenth to the twelfth century is known from fourteen inscriptions.

The donation of village to El�c�rya of this Ga�a has been mentioned in the K�dal�ra Copper plate inscription.63 In this inscription dated 963, the names of early ï¿½c�ryas are given � Prabh�chandra, Kalneledeva, Ravicandra, and Ravinandi. In three inscriptions64 of the 13th century Adalageri, N�gachandra, Nandibha���raka and Jayakriti of this Ga�a have been mentioned. These are the memorials of the Sam�dhimara�a of those Saints

K���ra Ga�a ï¿½ K���raga�a is similar to Ka��ura Ga�a the Y�pan�yas. Both K��ura and Kand�ra reveals a particular place, from where the group of monks of this Ga�a derived this name. The earliest inscription of this Ga�a belongs to the tenth century A.D.65 It describes the teachers lineage, and mentions some donation given to the disciple of ï¿½c�rya Municandra. The inscriptions of this Ga�a up to the 14th century are available. From the inscription, it is known that in the 11th and 12th centuries, Ga�a king Bhujabala, Ga�gavarmadeva, his queen Ga�ga Mahadevi and four sons were  devotees of the ï¿½c�ryas of thisGa�a and honoured them by the charities.

Three sub-divsions of Kr���ra Ga�a are known (i) Tintri�� Gachchha, (ii) Meshap�sh��a Gachchha are (iii) Pustaka Gachchha.

Tintrin� Gachchha ï¿½ There are six inscriptions66 of Tintri��gachchha. The first two belong to the twelfth century A.D. and they describe Meghacandra and Parvatamuni ï¿½c�ryas. The thrid is dated 1207 A.D. and it mentions some donation given to Bha���raka Anantak�rti. The fourth inscription67 dated 1556 A.D. mentions Devak�rti, Municandra and Devacandra.

The inscription68 dated 1130 of Me�apa���a gachchha describes ï¿½c�rya Kulacandra or Prabh�candra, and another inscription69 is concerned with Vasadik�. There are inscriptions of Meshap�sh��a gachchha70 and Tintrin�ka gachchha71Me�ap��a�a means stone meant for sitting of goats. It seems to be a particular place from where the saints of this Ga�a might be somehow related. Tintri�ika was a name of the tree. An inscription of the Pustaka Gachchha is dated 1150  A.D.72 The existence of this Ga�a from the tenth to the sixteenth century is known from sixteen inscriptions.

Bal�tk�ra Ga�a ï¿½ Looking at the resemblance, Bal�tk�raga�a originated from Balih�ri or Balah�raga�a of the Y�paniya. Balih�ra or Balag�ra appears to be territorial in nature. There was a village named Balag�ra in South India.73 The earliest inscription74 of Bal�tk�raga�a is dated 1071 A.D. It mentions the names of eight �c�ryas. Another  inscription75 of 1075 mentions Anantak�rti, disciple of Municanda of Chitrak���mn�ya of this ga�a. Anotherinscription76 mentions the names of three�c�ryas. There is mention of Tribhuvanacandra in the inscription77 dated 1074 A.D. Next important inscriptions of this Ga�a are of the 13th century78. In the 14th century, Bal�tkaraga�a is found associated with Sarasvat�gachchha. In the inscriptions of the later half of the 14th century, there was special influence of this Ga�a. The kings of the Vijayanagara kingdom honoured them. An inscription79 of the reign of V�ra Bukkyar�ya mentions ï¿½c�rya Si�hanandi as  R�jaguru and Ma��al�c�rya. Another inscription80 mentioning Nandisa�gha with M�lasa�gha and S�rasvata gachchha with Bal�tk�ra ga�a is important. Inscriptions of K�ra�ja branch and its L�t�ra sub-branch of Bal�tkar�ga�a of the South were discovered at Ukhalada.

Nigam�nvaya : An inscription81 of M�lasa�gha-Niga��nvaya is dated 1310 A.D. It records the installation of an image by K���adeva.

Y�pan�a Sa�gha : According to the Dar�anas�ra of Devasena- S�ri, Y�pan�ya Sa�gha was established by �vetambara �r�kala�a in V.S. 205 at Kaly��a town in Gulbarga District in Kar��taka. Like �vet�mbaras, it recognized the existence of sacred books and believed that women could attain salvation and saints could take food after attaining omniscience. At the same time, it was, like the Digambaras, against using clothes and it followed the rules and regulations of Digambara ascetics. They used the bunch of peacock feathers. It appears that this Sa�gha was a connecting link between the Digambaras and the �vet�mbaras. This Sa�gha produced several renowned scholars such as Apar�jita, P�lyak�rti ��ka��yana and Vimalasuri.

The Y�pan�ya Sa�gha received the royal patronage from the kings of Kadamba, Ch�lukya, Ga�ga, R�sh�rak�ta and Ba��a dynasties. These kings donated lands to this Sa�gha and its saints.  The Kadamba ruler M�ige�avar� (470-490 A.D.) performed pious deed by donating land at the place Pal�sik� to this Sa�gha along with other Sa�ghas namely Nirgranthas and K�rchakas82 Ravivarm�, son of the above Kadamba king, donated the Purukhe�aka village in donation to Kum�radatta, the main�c�rya of this Sa�gha.83 Yuvar�ja Devavarm� of the second branch of the Kadamba dynasty also granted some lands to thisSa�gha84. Some Kadamba inscriptions85 inform that the influence of Y�pan�ya Sa�gha at the time early Kadamba kings was great.

We learn about the Ga�as and Gachchhas of Yapaniya-Sa�gha from some inscriptions86. In the Sect of the Y�pan�yas, Nandi Sa�gha was the main, and also the oldest. The names of the ï¿½c�ryas of this Sa�gha were particularly Nandyanta and Kirtyanta.87Nandisamgha was divided into several Ganas. Among them Kanakopala Sa�bh�ta V�iksha M�la Ga�a88, Sri M�lam�la Ga�a89 and Pu���gav�iksha M�laga�a90 were important. The names of the Ga�as were connected with some trees. The lineage of the ï¿½c�ryas of Kanakopalasambhutav�ik�a M�laga�a, as mentioned in the inscription91 dated 488 A.D. is as follows :

Siddhanandi, Chitak�c�rya (who had five hundred disciples), N�gadeva and Jinanandi. A feudatory named S�miy�ra of Sendraka dynasty of Ch�lukya king Jayasi�ha after constructing Jaina temple for Jinanandi donated a village and some land. Chandranandi, Kum�ranandi, K�rtinandi and Vimalachandrch�rya are mentioned in the inscription92. This inscription refers to Eregitturaga�a and Pulikalagachchha. At the preaching of Vimal�candr�c�rya, a S�manta Nirgundar�ja Paramag�la during fifty year reign of the Ga�ga ruler �r� Purusha after constructing Jaina temple and freeing people from all taxes granted a village in charity. The lineage of the ï¿½c�ryas of Punn�ga V�iksha M�la Ga�a in the inscription93 is given as follows ï¿½

�r� Kity�c�rya, Kavil�c�rya, Vijayak�rti and Arhak�rti. At the request of his feudatory C�kir�ja, the R�sh�rak��a king Prabhrita Varsha Govinda III donated a village named J�lama�gala to Arakak�rti for the management of a Jaina temple in 812 AD. ï¿½c�rya P�lyak�rti, author of the S�kat�yana Vy�karana of the Y�pan�ya Sa�gha lived during the time of Am�ghavarsha. Palyak�rti was either a disciple or a religious associate of Arkak�rti. In the inscription94 of 1108 A.D., we find Pu��agav�ksha M�laga�a as branch of the Mulasa�gha which was afterwards it was absorbed by the M�lasa�gha.

Like Kar���aka, Y�pan�ya Sa�gha was popular even in Tamil Province. Ko�ima�uvag�a of Nandi Gacchha (Sa�gha) of the Y�pan�yas is mentioned in the inscription95 and its ï¿½c�ryas were Jinanandi, Div�kara and �r� Mandiradeva (Dh�radeva). Dh�radeva was the Adhishth�t� (Builder) of the Ka�ak�mara�a Jin�laya. At the request of commander (Ka�akar�ja) Durgar�ja. Ambhar�ja II of the Early C�lukya Dynasty, donated a village to that temple for the Yapan�ya S��gha. In another inscription,96 the lineage of the ï¿½c�ryas of A�kaligacchha Balahariga�a has been given as follows � Sakalacandra, Ayyapoti and Arhanandi. Ambhar�ja II donated a village named Kalucumbaru on Attilina�du province for repairing of the kitchen of Sarvalok��raya Jin�laya. It appears that Balah�riga�a and A�kaligaccha belonged to the Y�pan�yas. Balah�ri or Balag�raga�a is mentioned in the inscription97 of the later half of the eleventh century A.D. in the form of Bal�tk�ragana of the Mulasa�gha.

In the inscriptions of the kings of Ra��a dynasty, we find two names of the Ga�as of the Y�pan�yas � K�reyaga�a and Ka���raga�a. Indrak�rti (disciple of Gu�akirti), teacher of the first ruler P�ithv�r�ma of the Ra��a dynasty, belonged to the Y�pan�ya Sa�gha. In another inscritpion,98 K�reyaga�a is mentioned, and Mail�p�nvaya in place of Mail�pat�rtha. The lineage of the saints of K�reyaga�a Mail�pa Anvaya is as follows � M�labha���raka Gu�ak�rti, Indra K�rti, N�gachandra, Jinacandra, �ubhak�rti and Devak�rti. Ga�ga feudatory of some Amoghavar�a king after constructing Jaina temple donated a village to Muni Devak�rti. The existence of Ka�d�ra Ga�a of the Y�pan�yas is known from the two inscriptions99 of Ra��a kings. The lineage of the teachers of Ka���raga�a of the Y�pan�yas is given as below � Devacandra, Devasi�ha, Ravicandra, Arhanandi, �ubhacandra, Maunideva and Prabh�candra Deva.

From the inscriptions of the Y�pan�yas, it is learnt, that it remained well organized from the fifth to the fifteenth century A.D. There were several influential Ga�as in it. Later on, Punn�ga V�iksha Mulaga�a, Balah�riga�a and Ka���ra Ga�a joined the Mulasa�gha, Nandi sa�gha, Dravi�asa�gha first, but  were  afterwards absorbed in the M�lasa�gha.

There is a copper plate inscription100 of the early sixth century A.D. of the Y�pan�yas. It belongs to Ganga king Avin�ta. It records the donation of a temple installed by Yavanika Sa�gha.

There is mention of Kumili or Kumudi ga�a of Y�pan�ya � Sa�gha in four inscriptions101. The first inscription102 of the ninth century A.D. describes Amara Mudala Guru, disciple of the Acarya Mah�v�ra. He got built De�avallabha Jin�laya in the north of the village K�repp�kkam. In another inscription103 dated 1045 A.D., some ï¿½c�ryas of this Ga�a have been described. At this time, an official name Ch�vu��a got a Jin�laya constructed. Other two inscriptions104 are of uncertain time. These are Ni�idhi inscriptions. The first inscription is the memorial of Samadhimara�a of ��nta V�radeva of this Ga�a.

There are four inscriptions105 of Punn�gavriksham�laga�a of the Y�pan�ya Sa�gha. The first inscription dated 1044 records the donation to B�lachandra ï¿½c�rya of this ga�a for the newly constructed Jin�laya in Pulinagara. It also mentions donation to R�macandra ï¿½c�rya in 1145 A.D. The next inscription106 is dated 1165 A.D., and  the lineage of the teachers is given. The commander K�la�a of the �il�h�ra king Vijay�ditya after constructing a Jin�laya at Ekkasambuge city made some donation to Vijayak�rti for it. The inscription107 dated 1096 A.D. records some donation to Pa��ita C�ruk�rti, disciple of Munichandra Traividya of V�iksha M�laga�a. In an inscription108 of the time not definite, there is mention of the temple of Kusuma Jin�laya of V�ik�am�laga�a.

The Ka��ura ga�a of the Y�pan�ya Sa�gha is mentioned in three inscriptions.109 The first is of the early twelfth century A.D., and it describes the four ï¿½c�ryas namely B�hubali, �ubhacandra, Maunideva and Maghanandi. There is a reference to a temple of this ga�a in the inscription of the 13th century. The third inscription   mentions a Jaina image of this time. The reference to K�reyaga�a of Y�pan�ya Sa�gha is in the inscription110 of the early twelfth century A.D. M�la Bha���raka and Jinadevas�ri were the ï¿½c�ryas of this Ga�a.

Y�pan�ya sa�gha has been mentioned in the five inscriptions111 without any reference to Gana or Gaccha. The first inscription is dated 1060 A.D., and it informs the lineage of teachers � Jayak�rti, N�gacandra and Kanaka�akti. The next two inscriptions belong to the twelfth century A.D., and they mention the Sam�dhimara�a of  Municandra and his disciple P�lyak�rti. The last inscription of the 13th century A.D. refers to Traik�rti ï¿½c�rya.

The Dharmapur� inscription112 of the eleventh century A.D. records donation to Mah�v�ra Pa��ita of Vandiy�ra ga�a of Y�p�n�ya Sa�gha. The Vara�gala inscription of 1132 A.D. refers to the passing away of Gunacandra of Mah�muni of this ga�a.113 In the Tengal� inscription114 of the twelfth century A.D., Va�iy�raga�a has been mentioned. The disciple of ï¿½c�rya of N�gav�ra of this ga�a installed in image115. The four inscriptions of this Ga�a belong from 980 A.D. to the 13th century.

K�rcaka Sa�gha : The K�rcaka Sa�gha was in existence in Kar�ataka during the fifth century A.D. along with the Yapaniya Sa�gha as is guided from the inscriptions of the Kadamba rulers. As the Monks of this Sa�gha had beard-mustache, it was called K�rchaka.

In the Kadamba inscription115, K�rcaka Sa�gha is mentioned along with the Nirgranthas and the Y�paniyas. Kadamba ruler Mrige�avarm� granted land to the K�rcakas along with the Y�pan�yas and the Nirgranthas. In an inscription116, V�rasne��c�rya Sa�gha, a branch of the K�rcakas, has been mentioned Kadamba king Harivarm� at the preaching of �ivaratha donated a village named Vasuntav�taka for the worship of a Jaina temple built by M�iges�, son of the Senapati Si�ha and for ï¿½h�ra (food) or Sarvasa�gha. In the inscription117, there is mention of one more ï¿½ramana Sa�gha named Aharish�i to which at the request of Sendraka feudatory Bha�u�akti, Kadamba King Harivarm� donated a village named Marade.

Dravida Samgha : A group of Jaina Saints residing in Dravi�ade�a was known as Dr�vi�asa�gha. In the inscriptions, it is mentioned as Dravi�a, Dravi�a, Dravi�a, Dr�vi�a, Davila and Tibula. Dravi�ade�a covers the modern Andhra and Madras region which is  called Tamilade�a. According to the Dar�anas�ra of ï¿½c�rya Devasena, Dr�vi�asa�gha, was established by Vajranandi disciple of P�jyap�da at Madura in the South in V.S. 526. Generally, most of the inscriptions of this Sa�gha belong to the kings of Ko�g�lva dynasty, ��ntara dynasty and Hoysala dynasties. These inscriptions inform that Dr�vi�asa�gha received royal patronage from the kings of these dynasties. Most of the inscriptions of this Sa�gha belong to the kings of Hoysala dynasty. It is learnt from these inscriptions that �c�rya of this Sa�gha contributed to the propagation of worship of Padm�vati. The monks of this Sa�gha renovated the Vasadis or Jaina temples in which they were living, gave ï¿½h�rad�na, and managed lands, J�gira etc.

The early inscriptions of Dr�v��a Sa�gha were found at A�gadi (Soleb�raan), the origin place of the Hoysalas. In one inscription119 dated 990 of this place, this Sa�gha was written as Dravi�asa�gha Ko��akund�nvaya and in another inscription120dated 1040 as M�lasa�gha Dravid�nvaya. But in the inscriptions121 of the later half of the eleventh century A.D., it has been mentioned Dravi�aga�a along with Nandisa�gha I Sa�gal�nvaya or Aru�gal�nvaya. In the beginning, Dravida Sa�gha reamined associated with M�lasa�gha or Kundakund�nvaya but afterwords, it came to be related with the Nandisa�gha of the Y�pan�yas. When Dravi�aga�a became influential, it became Dr�vi�a Sa�gha. The discovery of early inscriptions of the Hoysalas at A�g�di (Soleb�ra) proves that they might have contributed to strengthen the Drabida Sa�gha. In some inscriptions of Nandisa�gha, Aru�gal�nvaya has been mentioned. Aru�gala is the name of the place in Gudiyapattana T�luk� of Tamila Province. The combined name Dravi�a Sa�gha, Nandi Sa�gha Aru�gal�nvaya informs that it was the Nandisa�gha of Tamil province, and Nandisamgha originated from Arungala. From the Nandisa�gha of the Y�pan�yas came into existence the Nandisa�gha of Dr�vida Sa�gha. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the seats of the Munis of this Sa�gha were Mull�ra of Kong�lva kingdom and Hummach, capital of ��ntara Kings. The inscriptions122 found at Hummach inform about several ï¿½c�ryas of this Sa�gha � �rey���a Pandita, Sudharm�, Kamalabhadra, V�dh�bhasi�ha and Ajitasena Pandita.

An inscription123 of Nandiga�a � Aru�gala Anvaya of Dr�vi�a Sa�gha belongs to the eleventh century A.D. The lineage of ��ntamuni, V�dir�ja and Vardham�na has been given in it. The next inscription124 of this Anvaya is dated 1192 A.D. and it describes about Vajaranandi, disciple of V�sap�jya. In an inscription125 of the 14th century A.D., the lineage of the Anvaya-�r�p�la, Padmaprabha and Dharmasena is known. In three inscriptions126 of the Dr�vi�a Sa�gha, Aru�gala Anvaya has not been mentioned.

The Vaj�rakhe�a copper plate inscriptions127 dated 915 A.D. record the donation of village to Vardham�na guru, disciple of Lekabhadra of V�raga�a-V�rn�ya Anvaya of Dravi� Sa�gha. Amoghavasati of Chandan�pur� and Uriammavasati of Va�anera were looked after by them. It is the oldest of all the available inscriptions so far available. Varnita Viragana V�r�ayya Anvaya is not found mentioned in any other inscription. It is the first and only inscription of the Dr�vi�a Sa�gha found outside Mysore Prade�a. The Pud�ra inscription128 dated 1087 A.D. records the donation of land to ï¿½c�rya Kanakasena for Pallava Jin�laya. The Ujjili inscription129 dated 1167 A.D. mentions the donation of land to Indrasena ï¿½c�rya of Dr�vida Sa�gha � Senagana Kair�ra gachchha. The association of S�naga�a with Dr�v��a-Sa�gha was not known earlier. Earlier Senaga�a was told related with M�lasa�gha and Kair�ra gaccha with Sur�stha ga�a. The inscription130 dated 1194 A.D. is the last of this collection. It was discovered from Yetina hatti and it records the  death of ï¿½c�rya Ajitasena.

K�shth� Sa�gha ï¿½ There is a controversy among scholars about the origin of the K�sh�h� Sa�gha. Devasena, an author of the tenth century A.D., mentions in the Dar�anas�ra that Kum�rasena established the K�sh�h� Sa�gha in the south. In two inscriptions,131 its name has been mentioned K��ch� Sa�gha. It has been written in the Vacanako�a of the 17th century that Loh�c�rya, Pattadhara of Um�sv�m� established this Sa�gha at Amaroh� in North India. According to KAMTA PRASAD,132K�shth� Sa�gha originated from K�sh�h� village near Mathura located on the bank of the river Yamun�. The main gacchas or branches of the K�sh�h� Sa�gha were Nanditala, M�thura, V�ga�a and L��av�ga�a.

Jamb�khanda, Ga�a ï¿½ Jamb�kha��aga�a has been mentioned in the inscription133 of the sixth-seventh century A.D. Sentraka king Indra�anda donated something to ï¿½c�rya ï¿½ryanandi.

Si�hav�ra Ga�a ï¿½ There is an inscription134 dated 860 A.D. of Si�hav�ra ga�a. It records some donation by king Amoghavarsha to  ï¿½c�rya N�ganandi of this Ga�a.

It seems that there was not much difference in the functiong of the Sa�hasGa�as and Gacchas of the South. Munis of these organizations go constructed temples and Mathas (Monasteries). They received the donation of the villages, lands, gardens, houses etc.  They participated in discussions of the royal courts. Incidentally, they helped the kings to manage the affairs of their kingdoms. They tried to increase the influence of Jainism even by Mantra S�dhan�, Astrology and Medicines.

�vet�mbara Gachchhas of North India During Medieval Period

The number of �vet�mbara Gachchhas was originally 84 but it seems to be only conventional. Neither the castes nor the Gachchhas were founded at one time. They came into existence at different times. Some names of the Gachchhas have no significance but were added simply to make their number 84. This increase in number started about the eleventh century A.D. At present, their number seems to be about one hundred fifty. Most of these Gachchhas originated in Rajasthan, but a few in Gujarat. The �c�ryas of these Gachchhas are known to have performed the consecration ceremony of images and temples at different times and places. These gachchhas originaged in different ways. Some of the gachchhas were named after certain good deeds by certain persons while others named after influential persons. Some of the ancient Kulas in course of time were also converted into the Gacchas. The Gacchas are also territorial in origin.



(1)       B�ihad Gachchha

Uddyotana Suri bestowed the designation of ‘S�ri’ on the eight monks including Devas�ri under the shade of a large banian tree at a village Teli situated at Mount Abu. According to the opinion of some, the designation of the (highest priest) was conferred only on Sarvadevasuri. As the designation was conferred under the banian tree, the Nirgrantha Gaccha began to be called Va�a Gaccha. Va�a Gachcha is known also by another name Brihad Gaccha.135 The earliest inscription of 1086 A.D. of this Gaccha in Rajasthan is found at Kotar� in Sirohi State.136 The next early inscription of 1158 A.D. is found at N�dol in Marwar.137 From the inscriptions it seems that it became popular in Sirohi138 and Marwar States in the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries. The inscriptions  of the 14th and 15th centuries of this Gaccha are also found Udaipur and Jaisalmer.139

(2) Kharatara Gaccha ï¿½ Kharatara Gaccha is the most famous and influential Gaccha. Jine�varas�ri by defeatng the Chaityav�s�s in the royal court of Durlabhar�ja got the title ‘Kharatara’ in 1017 A.D. From him started the Kharatara Gaccha.140 It arose outside Rajasthan but gathered a large number of followers here. In course of time, it was divided into many branches.The inscriptions of this Gaccha are found in the different parts of Rajasthan. But it remained dominant in Jaisalmer from the 14th century to the 19th century.141 The ï¿½ch�ryas of this Gaccha installed several images and wrote many works.

(3) Tap� Gaccha : Jagacandra S�ri was not only a scholar but he  was also a great ascetic practising penances. He accepted the penance  of doing ‘�yambil‘ for the whole life and passed twelve years in this way. Seeing it, Jaitra Simha, the king of Mewar, gave him the title of Tap� (which means a real ascetic) in 1228 A.D. From this time, Nirgrantha Gaccha got another name of Tap� Gaccha.142 The saints of this Gaccha contributed considerably to the growth of Jainism. Later on, it was also divided into many branches. V�iddha Paus�lika Tap�-Gaccha started from Vijayacandra who was the pupil of Jagacandra S�ri. From Devendra Suri, there started the Laghu Paus�lika Tap�-Gaccha. Vijayacandra Suri was indolent in the performance of religious rites while Devendra S�ri devoted himself to the performance of the purifying rites and contributed to the development of Jainism.143 The images installed by the �c�ryas of this Gaccha are found in different parts of Rajasthan. But still, it remained strong in Sirohi,144 Mewar and Jaisalmer.145

(4) A�chala Gaccha : Vijayachanda Up�dhy�ya was the first person to start a Gaccha called Vidhipak�ha in order to support the pure rites. Once the merchant Ko�� went to P�tan. While performing the rites of pa�ikkama�a, he used the edge of his cloth in bowing down instead of using the ‘mubhapa���‘ (a piece of cloth kept on the mouth by the Jaina ascetics). Kum�rap�la asked him the reason of this. The Guru told him about Vidhipaksha (the new sect) and then Kum�rap�la used the edge of his cloth (called ��chala in Gujar�ti) in saluting. Thence forward, Vidhipak�ha was called ��chala Gaccha.146

This Gaccha started in 1166 A.D. outside Rajasthan but it spread in Jaisalmer, Udaipur, J�r�ual� in Sirohi State and Nagara in Marwar in the 15th century A.D. as known to us from the inscriptions. Several ï¿½c�ryas of this Gaccha composed important works and celebrated the consecration of many images.147

(5) P�r�imiy� Gaccha and S�rdha P�r�imiy� Gaccha : From P�r�im�, it seems to be named P�r�imiy� Gaccha. S�rdha P�r�imiy� system started in 1179 A.D. The great king Kum�rap�la once asked Hemachandra to call the leader of the P�r�imiy� Gaccha in order to inquire whether its followers acted according to the Jaina holy books or not. The leader of the Gaccha was called and questioned by Kum�rap�la. But he could not give satisfactory answers, so the ascetics of the Gaccha were asked to go into exile. After the death of Kum�rap�la, Sumatisi�ha, the �ch�rya of the Gaccha, came to P�tan. On being asked by the people about his Gaccha, he said, ‘We belong to S�rdha P�r�imiya Gaccha.’ The followers of this system do not worship a Jaina shrine with fruits.148 It originated outside Rajasthan but it gathered the followers here also. It remained very dominant in the 15th century in Jaisalmer and Sirohi States as it is known to us from the inscriptions. Its inscriptions are also found at Jodhpur and Nagaur in Marwar, Ajmer and Udaipur.149

(6) ï¿½gamika Gaccha : ��lagu�as�ri and Devabhadras�ri were the two �c�ryas who belonged to P�r�imiy� Gaccha. They joined the ��cala Gaccha, but they soon left it and started their own sect. They taught that prayers should not be offered to K�etra Devat�. Besides this, they propounded some new theories and gave the name of �gamika Gaccha to their section.150 This sect either started in 1157 A.D., or 1193 A.D., but in Rajasthan it spread in the 15th century A.D. It was prevalent in Jaisalmer, Ajmer, Jaipur and Nagaur, Barmer and Osi� in Marwar State and Sirohi State.151

Kula Gacchas :

(1) Candra Gaccha : Candra Kula in course of time was converted into Candra Gaccha. Its name is also mentioned in the inscription of 1182 A.D. at J�lor in Marwar.152 It seems to have been in existence from 1125 A.D. to 1435 A.D. in Sirohi State as known to us from the inscriptions.153

(2) N�gendra Gaccha : From N�gendra Kula, it became famous as N�gendra Gaccha. The preceptor of the founder of A�ahilapura-p�tan named ��lagu�as�ri also belongs to this Gaccha. The earliest inscription of 1031 A.D. of this Gaccha in Rajasthan is found at Osi� in Marwar.154 It became dominant at Jaisalmer from the 13th century to the 16th century. It was in existence at P�l�, Nagaur, Sirohi and Udaipur at this time.155

(3) Niv�tti Gaccha : Probably Niv�itti Kula in course of time began to be called Niv�itti Gaccha. In the early inscriptions discovered in Sirohi State, Niv�itti-kula is mentioned,156 but in the inscriptions of 1412 A.D. on the metal image of S�talan�tha at Udaipur, Niv�itti Gaccha is mentioned.157

Gacchas Named after Influential Persons

(1) Kharatara Gaccha : The Kharatara Gaccha in course of time was divided into many branches which were started after the influential persons. Bh�vahar�a Kharatara S�kh� is the 7th Gacchabheda, and it was founded by Bh�vaharshop�dhy�ya.158 In 1643 A.D., there originated the Ra�gavijaya Kharatara ��kh� from Ra�gavijaya Ga�i. This is the 9th Gaccha-bheda, and from this ��kh� sprang the �r�s�r�ya Kharatara ��kh� founded by �r�s�rop�dhy�ya as the tenth Gaccha-bheda.159 It seems to have remained in existence at Jaipur in the 19th century.

(2) Tat� Gaccha : In course of time, the Tap� Gaccha was also divided into many branches. Some of the branches were named after the great �c�ryas. After the demise of �c�rya Mah�rja Vijayasena S�ri, there were the five divisions in Tap� Gaccha after the names of �c�ryas. One was formed by the followers of �c�rya Mah�r�ja Deva S�ri and known as Deva S�ri Gaccha. The second formed by the followers of �c�rya �nanda S�ri was known as �nanda S�ri Gaccha. The third division known as S�gara Gaccha was organized in 1629 A.D. by �c�rya R�ja S�gara S�ri. The fourth division named Vimala Gaccha was named after Vimala S�ri in 1692 A.D. The fifth division known as Sa�veg� Gaccha was created by Panny�sa Satya Vijayaj� Ga�i.160

P�r�van�tha Gaccha is also a branch of Tap� Gaccha. An intelligent man called P�r�va Candra took initiation under �r� S�dhuratna S�ri of N�gauri Tap� Gaccha in 1515 A.D. About some courses of conduct, he differed from his perceptor and aptly preached his view vigorously. His Gaccha was named after his own name.161 He too believed in image worship, and images have been consecrated by himself and other saints of the Gaccha.

The saint K�ish�arshi founded K�ish�arshi Gaccha, a branch of Tap� Gaccha. The earliest mention of it is found in the inscription of 1426 A.D. at J�r�val� in Sirohi State.162 The next mention of it is found in the inscription of 1468 A.D. of Nagaur in Marwar.163 In the 15th century, this Gaccha was in existence at Jaisalmer.164

Kamala Kala�a is also a branch of the Tap� Gaccha and it became separated as Kamala Kala�a in the 16th century. It seems to have reamined popular in Sirohi State as known from the inscriptions.165

(3) Gaccha of this Type in Sirohi State : From the name of the �ch�rya  Pishp�l�ch�rya, it was known Pishp�l�ch�rya Gaccha. It was in existence in Sirohi State from 1151A.D. as it is known from the inscriptions.166 Mahendra S�ri Gaccha came into existence after the name of the �c�rya Mahendra S�ri. It is mentioned in the inscription of the 13th century at Aj�r� in Sirohi State.167�mradev�c�rya Gaccha was named after �mradev�c�rya. It was in existence at Aj�ri and Lot��a in Sirohi State in the 11th century. From the inscriptions, it seems that it was associated with Niv�itti Kula.168

(4) Gaccha of this Type in Jodhpur State : From the Ach�rya Prabh�kara, it became famous as Prabh�kara Gaccha. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1515 A.D. found at Mert� in Marwar.169 The name of Ka�aumati Gaccha became famous after the name of Ka��v���ha in 1505 A.D. The name of this Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1626 A.D. of Osia.170

(5) Common Gaccha Found in the States : Dharmaghosha Gaccha was named after Dharmagho�a S�ri probably in the 12th or 13th century. It became dominant at places such as Jaisalmer, Udaipur and Nagaur in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries.171

From Bh�vadeva S�ri, Bh�vadev�ch�rya Gaccha was named. Bh�vad�ra Gaccha and Ba��ha�a Gachha also seem to be of the above type. The earliest mention of its is found in the inscription of 1157 A.D. discovered at a village S�ver� in Sirohi State.172From the 13th century to 15th century, the existence of this Gaccha in Jaisalmer is known from the inscriptions.173

Malladh�r� Gaccha was called after Malladh�r� �c�rya. It remained in existence from the 13th century to the 16th century at the places such as Jaisalmer, Udaipur and Sirohi State.174

Vidy�dhara Gaccha was probably named after Vidy�dhara S�ri. From the 14th century to the 17th century, it seems to have been in existence in Rajasthan. Its inscriptions are found at Osia and Nagaur in Marwar, N��� in Sirohi State and Jaisalmer.175

Probably, Vijaya Gaccha was named after Vijayadeva S�ri. There is an inscription of 1642 A.D. found at Bh�raja in Sirohi State.176Another inscription of 1661 A.D. is found at B�lotar� in Marwar.177 In the 19th century, a person belonging to Alwar of this Gaccha performed the installation ceremony of the image.178

R�maseniya Gaccha was probably named after R�masena. The earliest inscription of 1401 A.D. of this Gaccha is found at Nagur in Marwar.179 It seems to have been in existence in Mewar in the 15th  century.180

Ya�a S�ri Gaccha was established after the name of the �c�rya Ya�a S�ri. The inscription of 1185 A.D. of this Gaccha was found out at Ajmer.181

Territorias Gacchas

(1) Gacchas Originated from the Places in Sirohi State : Sirohi State remained the stronghold of the Jaina religion in early Hindu period. It was, therefore, natural that the Gacchas were named after the places thereof. Mad�ha�a Gaccha became famous from the village Ma��ra in Sirohi State. The oldest inscription of 1230 A.D. of this Gaccha has been found at Ma��ra, the place of its origin.182 The large number of inscriptions of this Gaccha discovered in Sirohi State indicate that this area remained the stronghold of this Gaccha.183 In the 14th and 15th centuries, it was also prevalent in Jaisalmer and Udaipur.184

N�nav�la Gaccha and J��nak�ya Gaccha seem to be the one and the same Gaccha. It seems to have originated from the village named N��� in Sirohi State. Numerous inscriptions from the 11th century to the 15th century discovered in Sirohi State indicate that it was the centre of this Gaccha.185 It was in existence at Jaisalmer from the  13th to 15th century.186 In the 15th and 16th centuries, it was found in Mewar.187

According to the Pa���vali, Jir�val� Gaccha is a branch of B�ihad Gaccha. It originated from the place named Jir�vali in Sirohi State. It was even in existence in the 14th century at the very place of its origin.188

Br�ham�a Gaccha among the Jainas originated from the place Varm�na the ancient name of which was Br�hama�a Mah�sth�na. The centre of this Gaccha was the region of Sirohi State from the 12th century to the 16th century A.D. as it is clear from a large number inscriptions discovered in this area.189 It was found at Varm�na in the 12th century A.D. The Jaina temple of Mah�vira of this place belonged to this Gacha, and it was built in 1185 A.D. or even before by the �r�vakas or lay disciples. The inscription of 1185 A.D. records that Puniga and other �r�vakas constructed Padma�il� of the temple, of Mah�v�ra of Br�hama�a Gaccha.190 There is an inscription of 1087 A.D. with the name of this Gaccha found at P�l� in Marwar.191 This Gaccha was prevalent in Mewar in the 14th and 15th centuries and in the 15th and 16th centuries, it was in existence at Jaisalmer.192

K�choli Gaccha seems to be connected with the place named K�chol� in Sirohi State. It was a branch of the P�rnim�-pak�a. It was in existence in Sirohi State in the 14th and 15th centuries.193

(2) Gaccha Originated from the Places in Marwar : Upake�a Gaccha was named after Osi� in Marwar. The inscription of 1202 A.D. with the name of this Gaccha has been also discovered at this place.194 There is also the inscription of 1137 A.D. found at the village Aj�r� in Sirohi State.195 It remained popular from the 13th to the 16th century in Jaisalmer, Udaipur and Sirohi States as a very large number of the inscriptions have been discovered here.196

The name of Kora��aka Gaccha was given after Kora��a in Marwar. The earliest inscription of this Gaccha of 1031 A.D. has been found out at P���av��� in Sirohi State.197 From this time to the 16th century it remained in existence in this area.198 From the 14th century to the 16th century, it was also prevalent in Jaisalmer.199

Sa��er� in Marwar is supposed to be the original seat of Sa��eraka Gaccha, founded by Ya�odeva S�ri who came from Kathiawar because of the fear of the Mlecchas. He settled with the people at the tank. He saw a fight between the bull and the lion in which the bull emerged victorious. The village and Gaccha were named as Sa��eraka Gaccha. This Gaccha spread much in the different parts of Rajasthan. It was in existence at N��ol in Marwar in the 12th century.200 In the 15th century, it was dominant in Jaisalmer. From the 14th century to the 16th century, it was prevalent in Mewar.5

From the place named Hatiku�d� in Marwar, Hastiku�d� Gaccha became famous. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1396 A.D. of Udaipur.202

Chaitrav�la Gaccha and Chaitra Gaccha seem to be identical. They possibly originated from the place named Chaitrav�la-nagara in Marwar. They prevailed in Jaisalmer and Udaipur from the 13th to the 16th century.203

Palliv�la Gaccha originated from P�l� of Marwar. It is known both as Palliv�la Gaccha and P�lli Gaccha. Palli Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1405 A.D. at Jaisalmer and of 1451 A.D. at Jaipur.204 Palliv�la Gaccha is found in two incriptions of the 15th century found at Ajmer.205

N�gapur�ya Gaccha originated from Nagaur in Marwar. The disciple of the famous V�dideva S�ri named Padma Prabha S�ri practised hard austerities at Nagaur in 1117 A.D. and he was therefore given the title N�gaur�ya Tapa.

Harshapur�ya Gaccha,  a branch of Sr� P�r�van�thakula, originated probably from the place named Harsaur situated between Ajmer and Pushkar. Some of the �ch�ryas of this Gaccha were very powerful and had great influence over their contemporary rulers. At the request of Abhayadeva S�ri, the Cauh�na ruler P��hv�r�ja I of ��kambhar�, who lived in 1105 A.D., put the golden cupolas on the Jaina temples of Ra�thambho�.206 His pupil was Maladh�r� Hemachandra who had influence over Jayasi�ha Siddhar�ja of Gujarat. The name of this Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1498 A.D. found at Nagaur.207

Ma��ovara Gaccha is a branch of the Kharatara Gaccha. In 1745 A.D., this branch became separated from Jinamahendra S�ri at Ma��ovara and therefore was named Ma��ovara S�kh�.208

(3) Gacchas Originated from the Places in Mewar : Bhart�ipur�ya Gaccha orginated from the village Bhart�ipura now known as Bha�evara in Mewar. It was founded by Bhart�ibha�a, the father of the famous king Alla�a, in the 10th century A.D. This Gaccha is mentioned in an inscription of the 13th century.209 Ratnapur�ya Gaccha was originally a branch of Ma��ha� Gaccha, but afterwards, it became a separate Gaccha after Ratanapura in Mewar. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1453 A.D. on the metal image found in the Jaina temple of Udaipur.210

(4) Gacchas Originated from the Other Known Places : K�myaka Gaccha originated from K�m� in Bharatpur State. It is said that there was a K�myaka forest in this area. It is mentioned in the Bay�n� stone inscription of 1043 A.D. The names of the Jaina teachers Vish�u S�ri and Mahe�vara S�ri are mentioned.211 Rudrapalliya Gaccha is a branch of the Kharatara Gaccha. In 1147 A.D. at Rudrapalli, it was founded by Jina�ekhar�ch�rya.212 It is said to have originated from the place named Rudrapalli near Delhi. In the 15th century it spread at Nagaur and B�lotar� in Marwar and Jaisalmer.213

(5) Gacchas Originated from Unknown Places : There are some regional Gacchas but the places of their origin have not been definitely identified. P�pp�laka Gaccha is also one of the branches of the Kharatara sect. This branch became separated in 1417 A.D. from Jinavardhana S�ri.214 It was connected with the place Pipp�laka and therefore it was named P�pp�laka.

It seems that both Humba�a Caste as well as Gaccha originated from the place named Humba�a which has not been identified yet. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1396 A.D. of Udaipur,215 Jalyodhara Gaccha originated from the village named Jor�udra. This name has been mentioned in an inscription of 1156 A.D. which has been discovered at Aj�r� in Sirohi State.216 This Gaccha was especially connected with Mo�hava��a from 1169 A.D., to 1366 A.D.

Bh�mapall�ya Gaccha is a branch of P�r�im� Gaccha and originated from the village named Bh�mapall�ya. It is, therefore, known as Bh�mapall�ya Gaccha. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1541 A.D. found at Jodhpur.217 Ku�uvapur� Gaccha is one of the branches of Tap� Gaccha. It started from the place named Ku�uvapur�. It was prevalent at N��l�� in the early 16th century. Indranandi of this Gaccha installed the images in 1512 A.D., 1513 A.D. and 1514 A.D. at this place.218

Other Remaining Gaccha

(1) Sub-Branches of Kharatara Gaccha : It is mentioned in the pa���val�s that Madhukharatara ��kh� was the first Gaccha-bheda which started in about 1107 A.D. from Jinavallabha S�ri. Laghukharatara S�kh�, the third schism, was founded by Jina Si�ha S�ri in 1274 A.D. In 1365 A.D., Vega� ��kh� took its rise founded by Dharma – Vallabha Gani. It remained dominant from the 16th century to the 19th century in Jaisalmer.219 It was the fourth Gaccha-bheda. In 1507 A.D., Ac�ry�ya Kharatara S�kh� arose founded by �ch�rya ��ntis�g�ra in Marude�a. This is the sixth division. In 1629 A.D., there originated the Laghuv�ch�ry�ya Kharatara ��kh� from �ch�rya Jinas�gara S�ri occasioned by Harshanandana, pupil of Samaya Sundara. This is the eighth Gaccha-bheda in the Kharatara sect.220

(2) Gacchas Found in Marwar : Marwar remained the chief centre of the Jaina religion, therefore, the followers of the different Gacchas resided here. Siddh�nt� Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1508 A.D. found out at Jodhpur.221 J�pa���a Gaccha is mentined in the inscription of 1477 A.D. of Nagaur.222 An inscription (19th century) referring to Kavala Gaccha is engraved on the pillar of the Jaina temple at Rainapura.223 The name of T�va��ra Gaccha is found in the inscription of 1442 A.D. of the Jaina temple of Munisuvrata at Jodhpur.224

(3) Gacchas Found in Jaisalmer State : In Jaisalmer State, Jainism flourished greatly because of its situation in the heart of the desert. V��ap�ya Gaccha is mentioned in the two inscriptions of 1105 A.D. and 1281 A.D. discovered at Jaisalmer.225 Sarav�la Gaccha seems to be in existence the 12th and 13th centuries in the area.226 In 1364 A.D., I�vara S�ri of B�ha�a Gaccha performed the installation ceremony of the image of Sumatin�tha.227

(4) Gacchas Found in Jaipur State : Some Gacchas are also found to be mentioned in the inscriptions of Jaipur. In 1472 A.D., the image of Padmaprabhu was set up by Bh�khara through Vajre�vara S�ri of C��ac�la Gaccha.228 In 1452 A.D., �ivar�ja celebrated the consecrations ceremony of the image of Kunthun�tha through Padmananda of R�ja Gaccha.229 Chahiter� Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1555 A.D., found on the Pa�cat�rth� in the Jaina temple of Jaipur.230

(5) Gacchas Found in Mewar : There are some Gacchas which are not known to have been in existence at any other place except Mewar. The inscription of 1317 A.D. with the name of Pr�y� Gaccha is found at Udaipur.231 In 1144 A.D., Kanudeva of Dev�bhidita Gaccha performed the installation ceremony of the image through S�la S�ri of Dev�bhidita Gaccha.232 The inscription of 1439 A.D. with the name of Ni��hati Gaccha233 is engraved.

(6) Common Gacchas : Th�r�padr�ya Gaccha and Thir�dr� Gaccha seem to be the one and the same Gaccha. In the 12th century, it was in existence in Sirohi State.234 In the 15th century, it seems to be prevalent in Jaisalmer.235 The earliest mention of Pippala Gaccha is in the inscription of 1151 A.D. found at Ko�ar� in Sirohi State.236 It was in existence from the 14th century to the 16th century in Jaisalmer.237 Mahukara Gaccha also seems to be known by the name of Madhukara Gaccha which is mentioned in the inscription of 1436 A.D. discovered at Rohi�� in Sirohi State.238 It is also mentioned in the inscriptions of 1470 A.D. and 1506 A.D. discovered at Alwar and Jaisalmer respectively239. Bokadiy� Gaccha seems to have been prevalent in the area of Jaipur and Nagaur in the 14th and 15th centuries.240

Gujarat : That Jama�apura Gaccha originated from Jamanapura is situated in Mahesana District. This Gaccha is mentioned in a metal icon of V.S. 1285. The Thar�padra Gaccha, originated from the ancient name Thar�padra, is located in Banas Kantha District. At  present, it is known as Thar�da. Har�jagaccha originated from the place H�r�jagaccha originated from the place H�r�ja in Mehasana District241. The literary evidence for the existenve of this Gaccha is dated V.S. 1556 (1500 A.D.) while the epigraphical evidence goes from V.S. 1330 to V.S. 1577. The A���lijiya Gaccha is connected with a place named A��laja, near Ahmedabad.242 Four inscriptions dated V.S. 1136, V.S. 1207, V.S. 1228 and V.S. 1273 found in the Jaina temple at Badhav��a mention this Gaccha. The inscriptions engraved on the Jaina images found at Palithana, �aturunjaya, Cambay, Bharu Kaccha (Gandhara). Anahilavada etc. mention different Gacchas. Some of them might have originated in Gujarat.

The followers of the different �vet�mbara Gacchas migrated from Rajasthan to the neighbouring regions of Malwa, Maharashtra and Uttara Pradesh, and settled there. They became prosperous and performed the installation ceremony of images. They also carried old images with them and placed them in the temples. Numerous images engraved with the names of the Gacchaas of the 15th and 16th centuries are noticed. The ï¿½r�vakas of these Gacchas also got prepared the copies of manuscripts for presentation to the ï¿½c�ryas. It seems that there was nothing like unity in the �vet�mbara Jaina Sa�gha, but on the contrary, it was divided into several Gacchas with differences. They gradually spread throughout North India. There was no personality to unite them under One Sa�gha.

Malv� : Tap�gaccha became very popular in Malwa during the 15th and 16th centuries. Next important Gacchas known were Kha�atara, �gama, ��chala and Upake�a. The other Gacchas mentioned in the Jaina inscriptions are N��ap�la, Pali, Bh�vada,  N��ak�ya, ��apall�ya, Nagendra, Kora�ta, Dharmagho�a, J�rapall�ya, Rudrapalliya, Brahma�a etc. The main centres of these Gacchas were Ujjain, Badnawar (Vardham�napura), Mandu (Mandapadurga) and Dhar.243

Mah�ra�tra : The inscriptions are engraved on Jaina metal images place in the Jaina temples of Bombay, Nagpur, Amravati, Akola, Chandv�� near Nasik, Manam�da, Karanja, Wardha, Ch�l�sag��va and Bhadravati244. Some Jaina inscriptions were found at Dhulia245. These inscriptions give information about the gacchas. The most popular, in this region, were Tap� and Kharatara Gacchas. The other Gacchas known from the inscriptions of the metal images were Kuran�a, Chitra, B�ihad, ��chala, Jir�pali, Pali, Dharmaghosha, Sandera, K�ishnarshi, �gama, Pippala, N�gendra, Brahma�a, Bh�mapalli, Gy�nak�ya, Bh�vad�ra etc.

Uttra Prade�a : The inscriptions of Jaina images found at Banaras, Agra, Ayodhya etc. also give information of these Gacchas such as Kharatara, Tap�, P�rnima pak�a, Maladh�r�, Dharmaghosha, �nchala, Koran�a, Brahama�a �gama etc.

An important inscription from Kangra, Himachal Pradesh mentions the names of two Jaina saints belonging to R�jakula-gaccha which is probably the same as R�jagaccha. The Komalagaccha was already in existence in Multan.248

Digambara Sa�ghas, Ganas and Gacchas in the North during the Medieval Period

The Digambara Sa�ghas of the Medieval period in North-India were M�thura, V�ga�a, L�tav�geda and Nand�tata. Besides, there were K�sh�h� Sa�gha and ��lasa�gha. Later on, M�thura, V�gada, L��av�ge�a and Nandi became the branches of the K�shth�-sa�gha. The ��lasa�gha along with the Bal�tk�ragana became powerful from the 14th century onwards. The ï¿½c�ryas of these Sa�ghas performed the installation ceremony of images and got prepared the copies of the manuscripts. They led pilgrimage to the holy places along with the ï¿½r�vakas. The image of ��ntin�tha was consecrated by the ï¿½c�rya Subhadra who belonged to the line of De��ga�a in the ï¿½mn�ya of Candrakara �c�rya249. The Pu���ta-Sa�gha from Badnawar is also known.

M�thura Sa�gha : M�thura Sa�gha seems to have originated from Mathura. According to the Dar�anas�ra, R�masena was the ï¿½c�rya of the Sa�gha. He prohibited the use of Picch� (small brown peacok feather). The frist historical mention of this Sa�gha is found in the works of Amitagati. His teacher’s lineage is Devasena, Amitagati, Nemise�a and M�dhavasena. He wrote the Subh��itaratnasa�doha in V.S. 1050 during the reign of Param�ra king Mu�ja, the Vardham�nan�ti in V.S. 1068, theDharmapar�ksh� in V.S. 1070 and the Pa�casa�graha in V.S. 1073250 :

Another old ï¿½c�rya of M�thura Sa�gha was Chatrasena. His ï¿½c�rya ï¿½loka got the ��abhan�tha temple built in V.S. 1166. The third  known ï¿½c�rya of this Sa�gha is Gunabhadra. He wrote a lengthy Pra�asti of the temple of P�r�van�tha in V.S. 1226. Lalitak�rti is the fourth ï¿½c�rya who installed the Dev� image in V.S. 1234. The fifth ï¿½c�rya was Amarak�rti who wrote the Nemin�thacarita, and Sha�akarmopade�a in V.S. 1247251. The M�thura S�gha is known from the inscriptions of the twelfth century engraved on the Jaina images discovered at Badnawar252. The M�thura Sa�gha and its ï¿½c�ryas are known from the inscription of V.S. 1308.253

M�thura Sa�gha seems to have remained dominant in Rajasthan during the eleventh and the twelfth centuries. At this time, images were installed by the ï¿½c�ryas of this Sa�gha at different places. There is a mention of Pa��ita Mah�sena of M�thura Sa�gha in the inscription of 1158 A.D. on the stone image of Brahm��� in the Jaina temple of Baghera.254 Ya�ak�rti appears to be the influential ï¿½c�rya who performed the consecration ceremony of the white stone image now placed in the temple of Singhiji at Sanganer in 1167 A.D.255 and the white marble image of Padmaprabhu now found at Maroth in 1175 A.D.256 This function was organized by Kuladhara, son of Manoratha who seems to be a rich �r�vaka. In 1175 A.D., Hety� and his son Vilha�a also installed the image of M�ro�ha through the same Ya�ak�rti257. The author of the Bijaulia inscription of 1170 A.D. was Gu�abhadra, a Mah�muni who belonged to the M�thura Sa�gha258. An inscription of 1176 A.D. engraved on one side of a four-sided massive Jaina pillar in the Jaina temple at R�p�hel�, near Udaipur,   records that the pillar was erected by Padma�r�, a female disciple of Ajik� belonging to the M�thura Sa�gha259. There was a hold of M�thura Sa�gha at Badnawar in Malwa. This is clear from the Jaina inscriptions of V.S. 1210, 1226 and 1236 of images260.

The medieval lineage of M�thura Ga�a starts from M�dhavasena who had two disciples Uddharasena and Vijayasena. According to traditions, M�dhavasena lived during the reign of Alaudd�n Khilji261.

After Uddharasena, Devasena, Vimalasena, Dharmasena, Sahasrak�rti and Gu�ak�rti gradually became Bha���rakas. In the �mn�ya of Gu�ak�rti, a copy of the Pa�c�stik�ya was written in V.S. 1468 during the reign of V�ramadeva of Gwalior. The successor of Gunakirti was Ya�ahkirti. In V.S. 1486, he got the Bhavishyadatta Pa�cham� Kath� prepared at Gwalior during reign of D��garasi�ha. Pa�dita Raidhu, disciple of Ya�ahk�rti, installed an image of �din�tha in Gwalior during the reign of ��ngarasi�ha. The Pa��a�ishya of Yasahk�rti was Malayak�rti who installed the Yantra in 1502 and image in V.S. 1510. After Gu�abhadra, Malayak�rti became Bha���raka. Jinad�sa got a copy of the Samayas�ra written in Gwalior during the reign of ���garasi�ha. A copy of the J��n�r�ava was prepared in Gwalior in V.S. 1521 during the reign of K�rtis�ha. The consecration of images was performed in V.S. 1529, 1531, 1547 and 1548 during the reign of Kaly��amala. Caudhar� �odarmala of the �mn�ya of Gu�abhadra got a copy of the Mah�pur��a written. Brahma Ma��ana, grand disciple of Gu�abhadra wrote a Gu�ak� of Stotras at Sonapata in V.S. 1576 during the reign of Ibr�him. In the Amn�ya of Dharmad�sa, pupil of Gu�abhadra, a copy of the Dhanadacarita was written in V.S. 1590 during the reign of Humayun. Bh�nuk�rti became Bha���raka after Gu�abhadra. S�ha R�pacanda presented a copy of the Uttarapur��a to Bha���raka, Bh�nuk�rti in V.S. 1606 during the reign of ��ha Sal�ma (ruler of the Sur dynasty V.S. 1545-1554) at Abr�hm�b��a.

A copy of the Bhavishyadatta carita was written in the ï¿½mn�ya of Kum�rasena, disciple of Bh�nuk�rti in V.S. 1615 during the reign of Akbar. At the request of S�hu Todara, Pa��ita R�jamalla wrote the Jamb�sv�m� Charita in V.S. 1632 during the reign of Akbar.

The second lineage of medieval period of M�thura Gaccha started from Vijayasena, disciple of M�dhavasena. Afterwards, M�sopav�s� Jayasena, �rey��sasena, Anantak�rti and Kamalak�rti respectively became the Bha���rakas. Kamalak�rti established an image in V.S. 1443 during the reign of N�thadeva (Local ruler). Harir�ja, pupil of Padmak�rti, wrote a copy of the Pravacanas�ra in V.S. 1469 at Gwalior during the reign of Viramadeva.

The disciple of Hemak�rti was Kmalak�rti who erected an image of Chandraprabhu in V.S. 1506. A copy of the BhavisattaKath� was written in V.S. 1056 in his �mn�ya at Gwalior during the reign of D��garasi�ha. �ubacandra and Kum�rasena, disciples of Kamalak�rti erected an image of Mah�v�ra in V.S. 1510. �ubhacandra installed an image in V.S. 1530 at Gwalior during the reign of K�rtisi�ha. From the Hariva��a Pur�na of Raidhu, it is known that their monastery was at Sonagiri. His pupil Ya�ahsena installed the Da�alaksha�aYantra in V.S. 1639. Another disciple of Kamalak�rti was Kum�rasena. His disciple was Hemacandra whose pupil was Padmanandi. Padmanandi’s disciple was M��ikar�ja. The disciple of Padmanandi was Ya�ahk�rti. Bhagavat�d�sa wrote the Mugati�iromani C�nad� in V.S. 1680 during the reign of Jahangir and the ï¿½nck�rtha N�mam�la in V.S. 1687 during the reign f Shahjahan. Another disciple of Ya�ahk�rti was Kshemak�rt�. Pandit R�jamalla wrote the L��isamhita in V.S. 1641 for S�ha F�mana when Akbar was ruling. The natives of Bair��h were the followers of K�emak�rti. The successor of K�emak�rti was Tribhuvanak�rti. His pa��a ceremony was held at His�ra. Then, Sahasrakirti became successor in V.S. 1663. The Pa��a �i�hya of Sahasrak�rti was Mah�candra. Devendrak�rti, disciple of Mahicandra, renovated the Jaina temple of Fatehapur in V.S. 1770. The disciple of Devendrak�rti was Jagatk�rti.262

K��th� Sa�gha : There is some controversy among scholars about the origin of the K���h� Sa�gha. One view263 is that it originated from the village K���h�, near Delhi. It was the capital of the rulers of Takka dynasty in the twelfth century A.D. Devasena, author of the Dar�anas�ra, holds a different view264 about the origin of the K��th� Sa�gha. Kum�rasena, disciple of Vinayasena, established this Sa�gha at Nandiy�da (modern N�nde�a in Maharashtra). The earliest inscription265 of the K�sh�h� Sa�gha is engraved on a memorial of Jaina Pillar dated 1095 A.D. of the great Acarya Devasena at Dubkunda. After the 14th century A.D., this Sa�gha was divided into four branches � M�thura Gaccha, V�ga�a Gaccha, L��av�ga�a Gaccha and Nandita�a Gaccha. Surendrak�rti who lived in V.S. 1747 and belonged to Nandita�a-Gaccha, mentions the above four branches266.

K���h� Sa�gha was in existence at some places in Dh�ra District. It is clear from the Jaina image inspriptions dated V.S. 1328, V.S. 1408, V.S. 1470 and V.S. 1510267 discovered there. That there were followers of the K���h�sa�gha at Mainapuri in Uttar Pradesh as known from the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1414, V.S. 1473 and V.S. 1515.268

K���h�sa�gha seems to have flourished mostly in the Pa�j�ba and M�law�, and Agravalas generally remained associated with it. Most probably, the images and the manuscripts of this Sa�gha found in Rajasthan were either brought later from outside or installed by Agrav�las of Rajasthan. In Rajasthan, there were still some places which somehow remained associated with this Sa�gha. The work of restoration and repairs of the famous temple of �ishabhadeva of Dhuleva near Udaipur was carried out by the followers of this Sa�gha. The inscription of 1374 A.D. tells us that Hard�na, the son of S�ha V�j�, restored this temple at the instrictions of Bha���raka Dharmak�rti of K���h�sa�gha. From the inscription of 1515 A.D., it is clear that Kadiy�priy� of K�cchl� gotra with his son and wife constructed a hall and a shrine in the time of Bha���raka of K���h� Sa�gha. Bhoja, son of Sangh� �lh� of the Bagherav�la caste, celebrated the installation ceremony of the newly constructed temple, with the members of his family in the time of Bha���raka Surendrak�rti. Through the influence of the same Bha���raka, Bh�pat� constructed a small shrine in 1697 A.D.269 From some inscriptions and Pra�astis of manuscripts, it is known that the ancient V�ga�a Province, including the area of ��ngarpur, B�nsw�r� and Pratapag�h, was the headquarters of this Sa�gha.

V�ga�a Sa�gha : V�ga�asa�gha originated from the region V�ga�a which includes D��garpura, B��savar� and Prat�paga�ha Districtis of Rajasthan. The inscription of 994 A.D. on the image of a Jaina found at Bay�n� says that it was caused to be made in accordance with the instructions of S�rasena of the V�ga�a Sa�gha by three brothers Si�haka, Ya�or�ja and Nonnaika270. There is an image inscription dated V.S. 1324 of V�ga�a Sa�gha Da�apur�nvaye found at Ujjaina271. Another Jaina image inscription dated V.S. 1325 found at T�lanpur (Dhar District) is of Vaga�a Sa�gha272.

L��a V�gada Ga�a : The L��a V�gada Ga�a originated from the region of Gujarat � V�ga�a, ï¿½c�rya Mah�sena, who composed the Pradyumna Carita K�vya in V.S. 1050 during the reign of Param�ra ruler Ma�ju, belonged to L��a V�ga�a Sa�gha. From the Dubaku�da stone inscription273, it is known that encouraged by the teaching of the Jaina monk Vijayak�rti of the L��av�ga�a Ga�a, some Jaina ï¿½r�vakas (Laymen) constructed Jaina temple, and the Kacchapagh��a ruler Mah�r�j�dhir�ja of the Dubakunda branch made some donation of land and other things in favour of this temple in 1088 A.D. The L��a V�ga� Gaccha is also mentioned in the Jaina image dated V.S. 1325 found at T�lanpura274. The La�a V�ga�a Gaccha is found mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions of V.S. 1251 at Badn�wara, of V.S. 1288 at Dh�ra and of V.S. 1325 at T�lanpur in Dh�ra District.275

Nandi Tata Gaccha : Nanditata Gaccha seems to have been named after Nandita�a village (modern N�ndeda) in Mah�r�shtra. R�masena of this gaccha founded the Narasi�hapura caste and got constructed the temple of �antin�tha in Narsi�hapura. His disciple Nemisena worshipped Padm�vat� and founded the Bha��apur� caste.

The historical period of Nandita�a Gaccha is available from Lakshmsena, disciple of Ratnak�rt. The two disciples of Lakshm�sena were Bh�masena and Dharmasena. From thems two lineage of ï¿½c�ryas are known. The pupil of Bh�masena was Somak�rti. He installed an image of �italan�tha in V.S. 1532 along with V�rasena. He wrote the Ya�odhara carita at Godhili in V.S. 1536 and set up an image in V.S. 1540. He showed a miracle of flying in the sky at P�v�ga�ha by the grace of Padm�vati in the reign of Firozshah.

After Somak�rti, Vijayasena, Ya�ahk�rti, Udayasena, Tribhuvanak�rti and Ratnabh�sha�a became Bha���rakas one after another. K���ad�sa, pupil of Ratnabh��a�a, composed the Vimalanatha pura�a in V.S. 1674 at Kalpavalli. After Ratnabh��a�a Jayak�rti became Bha���raka. An image of P�r�van�tha was set up in V.S. 1686. Then, Ke�avasena became Bha���raka after Jayak�rti. Ke�avasena was succeeded by Vi�vakirti who  wrote a copy of the Hariva��a Pur��a in V.S. 1700.

The second lineage of Acaryas of Nandita�a Gaccha starts from Dharmasena, disciple of Lakshm�sena. He wrote the Ati�aya Jayam�la. After Dharmasena, Vimalasena and Vi��lak�rti respectively became Bha���rakas. His disciple Vi�vasena installed an image in V.S. 1596. Vidy�bh��a�a, disciple of Vi�vasena, set up the image of P�r�van�tha in V.S. 1604, and another image in V.S. 1636. Vidy�bh��a�a was succeeded by �r�bh��a�a. He installed the P�r�van�tha image in V.S. 1636, wrote the S�ntin�tha Pur��a at Sojitra in V.S. 1659,  installed the image of Padm�vat� in V.S. 1660, a Ratnatraya Ya�tra in V.S. 1665 and Candraprabha image in V.S. 1676.

The main disciple of �r� Bh��a�a was Brahma J��nas�gara who wrote several works… �ri Bh�sha�a was succeeded by Bha���raka Candrak�rti who wrote the P�r�van�tha Pur��a in V.S. 1654 at Devagiri, installed Padm�vati image in V.S. 1681 and composed several P�j�s. Candrak�rti, while going on pilgrimage of the South, defeated K���a Bha��a at Narasi�ha Pa��a�a on the bank of K�ver�. Candrak�rti’s disciple was Bha���raka R�jak�rti who gained victory in discussion at Var�nasi. R�jak�rti’s pupil was Lakshm�sena who set up the image of Padm�vat� image in �aka S�mvat 1561 and B�hubali image in V.S. 1703. Indrabh��a�a became Bha���raka after Lakshm�sena. Some of his disciples led pilgrimage to Gommate�vara in V.S. 1718.

After Indrabh��a�a, Surendrak�rti became Bha���raka. Images ad Ya�tras were installed, and copies of the manuscripts were prepared. The three disciples of Surendrasena were Lakshm�sena, Sakalak�rti and Devendrak�rti. After Lakshmisena, Vijayak�rti became Bha���raka276.

Punn�ta Sa�gha : As ï¿½c�ryas of this Sa�gha moved in Kar���aka regio�, it became famous by the name of Pu��a�a Sa�gha. Badn�vara (Vardham�napura) in Malwa became a stronghold of Jainism. �c�rya Jinasena of this Sa�gha wrote the Hariva��apur��a at Vardham�napura in �aka Samvat 705 (782 A.D.). ï¿½c�rya H�ri�e�a composed the B�ihat Kath�-Kosha in V.S. 989 at this place. Vijayakirti, disciple of ï¿½c�rya Amritacndra of this Sa�gha, installed an image in V.S. 1154277. There is an image inscription of V.S. 1227 mentioning Pu����asa�gha at Badnavana.278

M�la Sa�gha : There is a  divergence of traditions found in Pa���val�s279 not only about succession but also about the residence or immigrations of the Pontiffs of the M�lasa�gha. The four Pa���val�s agree on the main points but the fifth Pa���val� presents considerably different traditions. The fifth Patt�val� closes with the name of �ubhachandra who reigned up to 1443 A.D. Hence, this is the oldest Pa���val� and as such the information supplied by it seems to be correct. The Pa���val�s tell us that the first 26 pontificates took place in Bhaddalapura. According to the four Pa���val�s, Bhaddalapura is in Malwa, while the fifth Pa���val� tells us correctly that it was in the South. After that the 27th pontiff transferred his seat from Bhaddalapura to Ujjaina according to all Pa���val�s. From Ujjai�a M�ghacandra II, the 53rd pontiff, shifted his seat to B�r�� in Kot� state in about 1083 A.D.  Down to No. 63 or 64, the pontificates took place in B�r��. From here, 14 pontificates, took place in Gvaliara down to 77 according to the four Pa���val�s ï¿½ but the fifth Pa���val� tells us correctly that ten pontificates were established at Cittora and four at Bagher�. This is further confirmed from the fact that there was the existence of a prosperous colony of Digambara Jainas on the hill at Cittora at the time of Kum�rap�la280, and Bagherav�las were converted to Jainism, and Jaina temples were built at Bagher� in about eleventh century A.D.281. From the 78th Pontiff Vasantak�rti, the seat was transferred to Ajmer in about 1208 A.D. according to all the Pa���val�s.

From the 84th Pontiff Padmanandi, the seat was transferred to Delhi in about 1328 A.D. according to the four Pa���val�s but the fifth Pa���vali tells us correctly that it was trasnferred to Idar in ancient V�ga�a province. Padmanandi was especially associated with V�ga�a province. A certain ï¿½r�vaka of V�ga�a called Prabh�candra II of Ajmer was invited for the purpose of performing a consecration ceremony of images but he could not come. Then after giving the S�r�antra to ï¿½c�rya Padmanandi, the �r�vaka conferred on him the title of Bha���raka. Thus Padmanandi became the Bha���raka in 1328 A.D. of V�ga�a. The term Bha���raka is applied to a particular type of Jaina ascetics who unlike Munis assumed  the position of religious rulers and enjoyed supreme authority in religious matters.

After Padmanandi, separation took place among his successive Acaryas. These separations were not actually the schisms but seem to be based on temperaments. Padmanandi had two pupils namely Sakalak�rti and �ubhachandra. During his lifetime, the separation took place between his two pupils. One section under S�bhacandra moved to Cittora while the other continued to live under Sakalak�rti. Again under Jinacandra the 86th pontiff, the disagreement arose between the two disciples namely Prabh�candra and Ratnak�rti. Prabh�candra continued to live at Cittor, but one section under Ratnak�rti moved to Nagaura. Again, differences arose at N�gaura and one section continued to reside at N�gaura, while the other under Ratnak�rti shifted to Ajamera. From Cittora, it came to C�tasu in the time of Candrak�rti. After that, it migrated to Sanganera, ��v�, �mber and lastly to Jaipur.

Bal�tk�ra Gana : M�lasa�gha, in course of time, became associated with Bal�tk�raga�a which seems to have derived its name Bal�tk�ra Ga�a (powerful ga�a) from its ancestor Arhadbalin, who was also known as Guptigupta, the master of M�ghanandi. Its earliest mention is found in the inscription of the 11th century282 but it was in existence considerably earlier. Afterwards, this was distinguished by the term Sarasvat�. In the 14th century A.D., this name seems to have come from the miracle of the pontiff padmanandi who is said to have made a stone figure of Sarasvast� speak283.

Several branches of the Bal�tk�raga�a are known. The K�ra�ja ï¿½ï¿½kh� started from Amarak�rti. The L�t�ra ï¿½ï¿½kha began from Ajitakirti. The Delhi-Jaipur branch began from �ubhacandra. The Nagaura branch started from Ratnakirti, the Atera branch from Si�hak�rti, Idar branch from Sakalak�rti, Bh�napur� ï¿½ï¿½kh� from J�anak�rti, the S�rat branch from Devendrak�rti and Jeraha�� branch from Tribhuvanak�rti.284

No activities of the early Bh����rakas before Padmanandi are known in Northern India from any other source. No doubt, there is mention of M�lasa�gha in the inscription of 1170 A.D. and 1186 A.D.285 but without any reference to any Bha���raka. M�lasa�gha has been mentioned in the inscirption of V.S. 1230 found at Badnawar in Malwa. The M�lasa�gha and its �c�rya Ratnak�rti has been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1323286 From Padmanandi onwards, we possess some knowledge of the Bha���rakas of M�lasa�gha regarding their activities. The M�lasa�gha remained dominant in North India from the fourteenth century to the eighteenth century A.D. The ï¿½c�ryas of the M�lasa�gha are noticed to have performed installation ceremony of the images and temples in Rajasthana287, Madhya Prade�a288 and Uttara Prade�a289. Various copies of Manuscripts were prepared. Their P�duk�s and Nishedhikas are also found.

Padmanandi : According to the Pa���val�s, Padmanandi became Bha���raka in 1325 A.D. This date seems to be doubtful as he was living in 1415 A.D. He did enjoy such a long age as known from the Pa���val�s and he therefore, must have become Bha���raka sometime after 1325 A.D. He was an influential Bha���raka who is said to have caused a stone figure of Sarasvat� to speak. From this miracle, M�la Sa�gha was distinguished by the term Sarasvat�. He made the installation ceremony of images from time to time. The image with the inscription of 1400 A.D. was installed at his bidding.290 He had two disciples namely Vi��lak�rti and Nemicanda who also set up images in his time. From the inscription of 1413 A.D. engraved on the images discovered at Tonk, it is clear that V�lha�a and his sons got installed several images by his pupil Vi��lak�rti.291 In 1415 A.D., Asap�la on his preaching set up the image of P�r�van�tha.292 In the same year, the consecration ceremony of the image was performed by �p� through his pupil Nemicanda.293

Sakalak�rti : After Padmanandi, Sakalak�rti became the head of the seat of V�ga�a in about 1420 A.D. He was the highly respected saint of medieval times and had also a good reputation for his scholarship. He wandered from place to place for the propagation of Jainism. In 1424 A.D., he came to Ba�al� where he spent the rainy season with his Sa�gha.294 Several images were installed by him from time to time. There is a mention of his name in the inscription of 1430 A.D. found on the image in the Digambara Jaina temple at Abu.295 It is known from the inscription of 1433 A.D. that as a result of his preaching, N�sala with his wife, sons and brothers set up the Caub�s� with �din�tha as a M�lan�yaka.296 In 1435 A.D., Camp� set up the image of ��ntin�tha after hearing his discourses.297 He is said to have passed away in 1442 A.D. at Mah�sana in Gujarata.

Bhuvanak�rti : After Sakalak�rti, Bhuvanak�rti became the Pa��adhara. He was also a scholar like his predecessor. The consecration function of several images was performed by him. The  installation ceremony of the Trim�rti was presided over by him in 1443 A.D.298 In 1458 A.D., N�huy�, the son of S�r�, performed the Da�alaksha�a Yantra Prati��h� on his instructions.299 In 1459 A.D.,  Sur� of his line celebrated the consecration ceremony.300 As a result of his preaching, Ch�p� and his wife Ga�g� performed the installation ceremony of some yantra in 1471 A.D.301

J��nabh��a�a : After Bhuvanak�rti, J��nabh��a�a became the Bha���raka. There is a Yantra of 1377 A.D. consecrated by him in the Jaina temple of Udaipur.302 On his advice, R�ma with his wife and son set up the image of Mah�v�ra in 1487 A.D.303

Other Bh��a�rakas of this Seat : J��nab��a�a was succeeded by Vijayak�ti in about 1500 A.D. At his discourses, �res�h� Mel� with his wife, son and brothers made the Prati��h� of Samava�ara�a of �din�tha in 1513 A.D. 304Then �ubhacandra became the Bha���raka in about 1515 A.D. He was a well known scholar who wrote a large number of works in a period between 1515 A.D. and 1556 A.D. His earliest work is Adhy�tmatara�gi�� and the latest work written by him in 1556 A.D. is the Sanskrit commentary on the Sv�mik�rttikey�nuprek��. On his instructions, Dhann� and his wife Dhann�de set up the metal image of P�r�van�tha in 1538 A.D.305  In 1550 A.D., �re��hi S�vara with his brothers, wife and son celebrated the function of J��nanirv�a�a on his preachings.306 After his discourses, �r�p�la erected the image of ��ntin�tha in 1551 A.D.307 He was succeeded by Sumatik�rti. On his instructions, S�ha Jayavanta with his wife and brothers set up the metal image of Padmaprabhu in 1563 A.D.308 He installed the images of Munisuvrata309 and Anantan�tha310 in 1562 A.D. and 1570 A.D. respectively. After him, Gu�ak�rti became the Bha���raka. He was succeeded by V�dibh�sa�a. On his advice, �s� of Idar with his wife Lakshm� and daughter Jhil� installed the image of Nemin�tha.311 An inscription on the pedestal of a stone image of �italan�tha in the �vet�mbara Jaina temple at Mauj�pura in Alwar State records that it was set up by Humba�a L�la and Gal� resident of Hardoya in 1597 A.D. as a result of his preaching.312 After his discour�es, Hansa with his wife and son performed the installation ceremony of Sho�a�ak�ra�a yantra in 1604 A.D.313

After him, R�mak�rti became  the Bha���raka. He was succeeded by Padmanandi II. At his preaching, the consecration ceremony was performed by Ratn�.314 Then, Devendrak�rti became his pa��adhara. He was succeeded by K�emak�rti. By the influence of his discourses, Sa�gh� D�galad�sa, M�naka, Nemid�sa, Anantad�sa, Somad�sa and Ratn� erected the image of ��ntin�tha in 1639 A.D.315 Soma316 with the whole Sa�gha constructed the P�r�g�ra in the Jaina temple of �din�tha at S�gav���. After him, Nar�ndrak�rti, Vijayak�rti II, Nemicanda, Candrak�rti, R�mak�rti, Ya�ak�rti, Surendrak�rti, Vijayak�rti II, Nemichanda, Chandrak�rti, R�mak�rti, Ya�ak�rti, Surendrak�rti, Ramacandrak�rti and Kanakak�rti became the Bha���rakas of the seat of Idar one after another in succession.

Bha���rakas of the Seat of Cittorr : During the lifetime of Padmanandi, �ubhacandra separated from Sakalak�rti and established  his own Pa��a at Cittora in about 1415 A.D. At this time, Mewara became a centre of Jainism under the royal patronage of Kumbhakara�a. The famous Jaina K�rtistambha was also built. The two Bijaulia inscriptions of 1405 A.D. and 1426 A.D. speak of a Ni�edhik� of a Jaina nun named B�� ��gamasiri and of a Ni�edhik� of Hemak�rti, pupil of �ubhacandra respectively.317 With regard to these Ni�edhik�s, a wish has been expressed that they may be endured  as long as the Sun and Moon last. On the same pillar that bears the second inscription are sculptured the foot-prints of some saints or pontiffs. On one side is engraved the name of Bha���raka �r� Padmanandideva and on the other of Bha���raka �ri �ubhacandra. At ��v� near Uniara in Jaipur district, there is a Ni�edhik� of �ubhacandra.

�ubhacandra was followed by Jinacandra in about 1450 A.D. Under his inspiration many-sided activities for the propagation of Jainism received an impetus. Copies of several manuscripts such as ï¿½r�p�lacaritra,318 Pradyumnacaritra319 and Varddham�nacaritra320 were prepared in his time and probably  inspired by him. A number of temples were built and images were placed in them. There is a Caub�s� consecrated by Harar�ja of his line in 1460 A.D.321 In 1466 A.D., S�ha Dharmas� with his wife and sons celebrated the consecration ceremony in his time.322 The installation ceremony of the metal image of P�r�van�tha was also performed through him in 1485 A.D.323J�var�ja P�pa�ivala at his instructions performed the installation ceremony of a large number of images at Mu���s� in the reign of R�vala �l�vasi�ha in 1461 A.D.324 The city Mu���s� seems to be in Gujarat; but from there, these images were sent to the seats of Jainism in different parts of Rajasthan. He enjoyed a long life because S�ha Se�a with his wife and sons performed the Yantra Praii��h� in 1514 A.D. when Jinacandra was living.325 There is also a ni�edhik� of Jinacandra at ��v�.

Prabh�candra came after Jinacandra in about 1515 A.D. By his persuasion, a large number of manuscripts were written for presentation to the monks. His followerrs got copies of the manuscripts such as Madanapar�jaya,326 Kriy�kal�pastuti,327 ï¿½r�p�lacaritra,328Karaka��acaritra,329 B�bubalicaritra330 and Ratnakara��a331 prepared in 1519 A.D. 1522 A.D., 1524 A.D., 1527 A.D. and 1535 A.D.  respectively. In 1518 A.D. B�i P�rvat� got the Ya�odharacaritra written and presented to him.332 S�ha Dodu got theYa�odharacaritra written and gave it to Bramha V���, pupil of Bha���raka Prabh�candra.333 Images and Yantras were also installed through him in 1515 A.D. S�ha ��l� of his line performed the C�ra�aya�tra Prati��h� in 1516 A.D.334 In the same year, R�ho with his wife, son and daughter-in-law celebrated the installation ceremony of Samyakc�ritrayantra through him.335 His Ni�edhik� also exists at ��v�.

After Prabh�candra, Dharmacandra became the Bha���raka in about 1518 A.D. Under his patronage and inspiration, various copies of manuscripts were prepared at different places for presentation to him and his disciples. With a view to propagating Jainism, he proceeded to Nagaur where his devotees got the copies of the Uttarapur��a sa��ka,336 Pravacanas�rapr�bh�itav�itti,337Karmaprak�itti338 and P�r�van�thacaritra339 written in 1520 A.D. in order to present him. In 1526 A.D., a copy of the Candraprabhacaritra was made at C�tasu as a result of his discourses.340 In 1528 A.D., Kodamade got a copy of the ï¿½a�p�hu�a written for offering him.341 S�ha K�lh� made a copy of the P���avapur��a342 ready in 1545 A.D. to give it to his pupil Kamalak�rti. In 1554, S�ha Mah�r�ja prepared the P�r�van�thacaritra for his presentation.343

Besides other copies of manuscripts such as the Sukum�lacarita344 in 1526 A.D., Bhavishyadattacarita345 in 1532 A.D.,Varddham�nacaritra346 in 1536 A.D. ï¿½dipur��a347 and Sa�p�hu�a348 in 1537 A.D.,Var��gacaritra349 andBhavishyadattacaritra350 in 1538 A.D. and Candraprabahc�rita351 in 1546 A.D., were prepared with the object of offering them as gifts to S�dhus. Several Yantra Prati��h�s are also known to have been performed in his time. T�lu352 and V�lamita353 of his line performed the consecration ceremony of Samyagdar�anayantra and So�a�ak�ra�ayantra in 1532 A.D. Inm 1536 A.D., S�ha P�sa and Hem� installed the Arham-yantra.354

Dharmacandra was followed by Lalitak�rti in about 1546 A.D. A large number of mansucripts were written in his time. In 1553 A.D., Lohara got a copy of the Ya�odharacaritra written for him.355 At the invitation of the �r�vakas, he went to Todaraisingh where S�ha Teh� and S�ha P�j� got the copies of the N�gakum�racaritra,356 and Ya�odharacaritra357 prepared in order to offer him as present. Besides other copies of manuscripts such as the Up�sak�dhyayana358 in 1566 A.D. ï¿½re�ikacaritra359 in 1570 A.D.,Varddham�nacaritra360 in 1574 A.D. amd Sudar�anacaritra361 in 1575 A.D. were made ready by his followers for presenting them to monks.

Candrak�rti became Bha���raka after Lalitak�rti in about 1575 A.D. He seems to have removed his seat from Cittora and established it at C�tasu as known from the inscription of 1604 A.D. that he was residing at C�tasu.362 The reason was that Mewar at this time was unsafe and insecure �mera from the political point of view. On the other hand, C�tasu was under �mera rulers who were on friendly relations with Mughal emperors and were patrons of Jainism. This was the time of Akbar who followed the policy of religious toleration.  It was, therefore, natural that the activities of Jainism progressed. Some of the copies of manuscripts such as J�vandharacaritra and P���avapur��a363 in 1579 A.D., Pa�h�stik�yapr�bh�ita364 in 1580 A.D. and Hariva��apur���365 in 1588 A.D. were prepared by his devotees for offering them to monks of his line.

Besides, Candrak�rti is known to have performed the installation ceremony of images, Yantras and temples. In 1584 A.D., S�ha Mok�,366 S�ha K�lu,367 S�ha Chel�368 and S�ha Ratn�369 of his line with the members of their respective families separately made the prati��h� of Samayagdar�ana Yantra, �i�k�ra Yantra, Karaku��a P�r�van�tha Yantra and Da�alaksha�a Yantra. In 1591 A.D., Th�nasi�ha went on pilgrimage to P�v�puri where he celebrated the installation ceremony of �o�a�ak�ra�a Yantra at his preaching.370 In the same year, Cokh� of his line installed the Samyak c�ritra Yantra and Samyagj��na Yantra with the members of their family.371 In 1603 A.D., S�ha J�t�372 and S�ha J��g�373 performed the consecration ceremony of the metal image and �o�a�ak�ra�ayantra through him separately. Bohitha of Ajmer with his sons and grandsons set up Caub�s� through him in 1601 A.D.374 In 1604 A.D., �s�n�tha of his line made the Prati��h� of Ri�k�ra Yantra.375 An inscription of 1604 A.D. stated that the pillar of the Jaina temple was erected by him when he was residing at Camp�vat� (C�tasu).376

Candrak�rti was succeeded by Devendrak�rti in about 1606 A.D. Some copies of the manuscripts were written by his inspiration. In 1605 A.D., he went to Sanganer where Kaly��a gave a copy of the Hariva��apur��na377 to him in present. N�nu and his wife Nik�de got a copy of the ï¿½dipur��a written in the temple of �din�tha at Todaraisingh and presented to him in 1607 A.D.378 A copy of the Nemin�thapur��a was prepared in 1617 A.D.379 In 1620 A.D., when he went to C�tasu, S�ha Deb� offered him a welcome by presenting a mansucript of the Sudar�anacaritra.380

Narendrak�rti came after Devendrak�rti in about 1634 A.D. He is known to have performed the installation ceremony of images and Yantras. An inscription of 1649 A.D. engraved on the lower portion of a large pillar records that it was erected in the temple of Nemin�tha at C�tasu by Bha���raka Narendrak�rti.381 He went on pilgrimage to holy places such as Girnar and Hastin�pura from time to time with the Sa�gha. In 1652 A.D., Sa�gh� Tejasi and Udaikara�a of Neva�� led the Sa�gha to Girnar where the Yantrapratis�h� was performed by Narendrak�rti.382 Sa�gh� Sambh� and Sa�gh� N��� together celebrated the installation ceremony of Da�alaksha�a Yantra at his hands in 1653 A.D.383 In 1654 A.D., Jagatasi�ha in the company of the CaturvidhaSa�ghawent to Hastin�pura where he installed the Samyak Yantra.384 In 1659 A.D. Jagatasi�ha also celebrated the installation ceremony of Ri�k�ra Yantra through him.385 At the same time, his devotee Khemasi�ha of Amber led a pilgrimage to Hastin�pura where the installation ceremony of the �ink�ra Yantra was performed by him.386

Surendrak�rti became the Pa��adhara of Narendrak�rti in about 1665 A.D. In 1672 A.D., he proceeded to Sammeda�ikhara where his followers named Sa�ghavi Naraharid�sa and Sa�gh� P�rv�nanda celebrated the installation ceremony of Da�alaksha�ayantra as a result of his preaching.387 In 1675 A.D., Naraharid�sa and Sukh�nanda of Amber and Gh�s�r�ma with his wife and sons celebrated the consecration ceremony of P�r�van�tha Yantra through him.388

Surendrak�rti was succeeded by Jagatak�rti in about 1676 A.D. This was a terribe time and the persecutions of Aurangzeb were going on. The old temples were pulled down and the construction of the new ones was not allowed. In spite of this, the activities for the propagation of Jainism continued because some ruling chiefs of Rajasthan were on friendly terms with Aurangzeb. Some copies of the manuscripts such asUpade�aratnam�la389 in 1688 A.D., Padmatpur��a390 in 1694 A.D. and Sa�p�hu�asat�ka391 in 1708 A.D. were prepared by his followers in order to present them to Bramhac�r� N�th�r�ma, Ac�rya ï¿½ubhacandra and �o�ar�ja, pupils of Jagatak�rti. He also celebrated the  consecration ceremony of images and Yantras. In 1684 A.D., Sa�gh� Sonap�la made the Yantra Prati�th� at Karavara through him.392 The consecration ceremony of a large number of images was organized by his devotee Sa�gh� K�ish�ad�sa at C�ndakhe�� in 1689 A.D.393 In 1709 A.D, Day�lad�sa of his line set up the metal image of P�r�van�tha.394

The next Bha���raka after Jagatak�rti was Devendrak�rit II. Under his patronage, manuscripts were written and the consecration of the images took place. Dhanar�ja wrote a copy of the Karmak���asat�ka in 1720 A.D. at �mber for the study of Pa��ita Ki�anad�sa, pupil of Devendrakirti.395 In 1728 A.D., A specimen of Hariva��apur��a was prepared by his followers for the presentation.396 Ch�ha�a and Sagamala performed the installation ceremony of images at Dhole�a through him in 1716 A.D.397 In 1726 A.D., the consecration ceremony of images was organized at Bansakhoha by his devotee H�idayar�ma.398

The successor of Devendrak�rti II was Mahendrak�rti who became Pontiff in 1735 A.D. He came from Sanganer and established his seat at Amber. It is for this reason �mer Pa��a started from him. It is further confirmed by a pra�asti.399 Copies of theJamb�sv�micaritra400 in 1736 A.D., and Trilokadarpa�a401 in 1741 A.D. were prepared by his devotees.

Mahendrak�rti was succeeded by K�emendrak�rti in about 1758 A.D. After him, Surendrak�rti became the pa��adhara in 1765 A.D. In 1769 A.D., Sa�gh� Nandal�la performed the installation cerermony of images on a large scale at Sawaimadhopura as a result of his preaching402 Vadhur�ma prepared a copy of the Munisuvratapur��a403 in order to offer him as a gift. Sukhendrak�rti became his successor in 1795 A.D. His followers made the specimen of V�ra�gacaritra404 ready for presentation in 1816 A.D. He participated in the Sa�gha led by Sa�ghi R�yacandra to Junagad where an Installation ceremony of some Yantra was performed by R�yacandra through him.405 In 1804 A.D., the same person celebrated the consecration ceremony of images  at Jaipur as a result of his preachng.406 After him, Narendrak�rti II,  Devendrakirti and Mahendrak�rti became the Bha���rakas one after another in succession.

Bha���rakas of Nagaura Pa��a : Jinacandra had two pupils named Prabh�candra and Ratnak�rti. During his life time, there arose a disagreement and his second disciple Ratnak�rti established his separate seat at Nagaur. He died at Ajmer which is shown by an inscription of 1515 A.D. on the Chatr� of Bha���raka Ratnak�rti.407 After him, Bhuvanak�rti became the Pa��adhara who was followed by Dharmak�rti in about 1533 A.D. In 1542 A.D., a copy of the Dharmapar�k��408 was prepared by this devotee. After him, Vi��lak�rti became the Pontiff in about 1544 A.D. He was followed Lakshm�candra. In 1579 A.D., L��� of his line got a copy of the Dhanyakum�racaritra409 written in order ot offer it to the nun Karam�i in present. Later on, Sahasrak�rti, Nemicandra and Ya�ak�rti became Bha���rakas one after another in succession.

Ya�ak�rti was the Bha���raka of some importance. Under his inspiration, manuscripts were prepared and images were installed. An inscription engraved in the Jaina temple of �din�tha at Rev�s�  of 1604 A.D. records that it was constructed by S�ha Jitamala and his brother Nathamala, the two sons of Devid�sa the chief minister of R�yas�la at the preaching of Bha���raka Ya�ak�rti.410 His followers R�p� and his son D��garas� of Jobanera made the specimen of Dharmapar�kh�411 ready for presenting it to Gu�acandra in 1609 A.D. The Pa�cas of Rev�s� presented a throne to him in 1615 A.D.412 He was followed by Bh�nuk�rti and Bh��a�ak�rti. Bh��a�ak�rti had two pupils namely Dharmacandra and Ratnak�rti. Again a trouble arose between them, and Ratnak�rti established his separate Pa��a at Ajamera. After Dharmacandra, Devendrak�rti, Amerandrak�rti and Ratnak�rti became the Bha���rakas one after another in succession of Nagaura Pa��a.

Bha���rakas of Ajamera Pa��a : Ajamera already remained a seat of the Bha���rakas in early times; but fot it, there is no definite epigraphical and monumental evidence. Mr. Harbil�sa ��rd� in his book413 mentioned the inscriptions of the eighth or ninth century on the Cab�taras and Chatr�s commemorating the death of the Digambara Jaina Bha���rakas and the Pa��itas. But in reality these inscriptions belong to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Ratnak�rti separated himself from Nagaura Pa��a and established his seat at Ajamera. In 1694 A.D., Sa�gh� Jes� of his line celebrated the consecration ceremony of images at Jobanera through him.414 He was followed by Vidy�dhara and then, Mahendrak�rti became the Bha���raka. In 1709 A.D., Vijayak�rti constructed the Cab�tar� over the remains of Bha���raka Ratnak�rti. Later on, Anantak�rti became the Pontiff. R�masi�ha performed the consecration of the temple of S�has as well as of images at M�ro�ha in 1737 A.D. as advised by him.415 Next Bhuvanabh��a�a became the Pa��adhara who was followed by Vijayak�rti. In 1753 A.D., Vijayak�rti constructed the Chatr�s over the remains of Anantak�rti and Bhuvanabh��a�a. �c�rya R�jyak�rti constructed the Chatr� over Bha���raka Vidy�nanda. In 1760 A.D., Vijayak�rti spent the rainy seasons at M�ro�ha.416 After him, Trilokendrak�rti became the Bha���raka. Bha���raka Bhuvanak�rti erected the P�duk� of Trilokendrak�rti in 1781 A.D. In 1795 A.D., Dharmad�sa celebrated the installation ceremony of images on a large scale through Bhuvanak�rti.417 In 1805, he visited Maro�ha from where he proceeded to Kuc�ma�418

In 1818 A.D., Pann�l�la, pupil of Bhuvanak�rti repaired the throne brought from Rev�s� for Ya�ak�rti. Bha���raka Ratnabh��a�a constructed Chatr�s over the remains of Bha���raka Bhuvanak�rti in 1835 A.D. There is also the Chatr� of Bha���raka Padmanandi with the inscription of 1871 A.D.

Besides, a large number of Cab�tar�s and Chatr�s built over the remains of the �c�ryas and the Pa��itas are found at Ajmer. There is an inscription of 1725 A.D. on the Cab�tar� built over the remains of Vi��lakirti. �c�rya Bha���raka �r� Vijayakriti constructed the Cab�tar� and footprints of �c�rya �r� Bh�nukirti in 1744 A.D. at Ajamera whereas he actually passed away at Danta in �ekh�v���. Pa��ita Basantar�ma constructed the Cab�tar� of the �c�rya Ratnabh��a�a in 1756 A.D. The Cab�tar� of �c�rya Devendrak�rti was built by Ga�e��mala in 1757 A.D. Pa��ita Basantar�ma also constructed the Cab�tar� over the remains of Tilakabh��a�a in 1754 A.D.

Pt. Tulas�d�sa constructed the Chatr� over the remains of Pt. Hemar�ja, a disciple of �c�rya R�jak�rti. In 1754 A.D., the P�duk� of Pt. Vakasar�ma was erected. In 1760 A.D., Pt. Daulatar�ma constructed the P�duk� of his teacher R�machandra who was a pupil of Hemar�ja. In 1761 A.D., Pt. Sav�irama constructed the Cab�tar�s of Pt. R�pachanda, Pt. Malukacanda and Pt. Abhair�ma. The P�duk� of Pt. Viradhicanda was erected in 1798 A.D. The Cab�tar� of Pt. Pann�l�la was built in 1844 A.D. Pt. Pann�l�la was a disciple of Bha���raka Bhuvanak�rti who repaired the throne of his master in 1818 A.D.

It is thus clear that several Bha���rakas, �c�ryas and Pa��itas lived and played an important part in the history of medieval Jaina society when there was anarchy. At this time, the Muslims were carrying on persecutions and destruction, and the Mar��h�s were raiding the different parts of the country. The life and property of the people became unsafe and insecure. Even at this time, Bha���rakas wandered from place to place without any anxiety and fear for the  propagation of Jainism.

Bha���rakas rendered valuable services to Jainism in medieval times. Some of the Bha���rakas like Sakalak�rti and �ubhacandra were great scholars who wrote their literary works in Sanskrit, Pr�krit, Apabhra��a, Hindi, Gujar�ti and R�jasth�n� languages. The preservation of manuscripts was the most valuable work done by them at this time. Several copies of the works on grammar, medicine, mathematics and similar subjects were prepared. They also contributed towards art and architecture. Installation of various images was considered to be their main work. As their Ma�has were cultural centres, they patronised music, painting, sculpture, dancing and other arts. In social sphere also, their services are remarkable. They often arranged long pilgrimages with a large number of followers. They sometimes looked after the management of the holy places; for instance, �r� Mah�viraji was managed by the Bha���rakas of Jaipur. Some of them possessed miraculous powers gained through Mantras. To walk through air, to remove the effect of poison and to make stone image speak are some of the miracles ascribed to them. They used to visit the courts of Hindu and Muslim rulers and induced them to observe the doctrine of Ahims� by the prohibition of the slaughter of animals in their kingdom on certain fixed days of the year.

Caityav�s� System in R�jasth�na

The system of the Caityav�s� functioned in R�jasth�na with great success and advantage. A  Jaina monk according to the rule prescribed for him does not usually stay longer than one night in a village or five nights in a town. This practice is found in Jainism as well as in Buddhism; and it is an inheritance of �rama�a culture. At the same time, there came gradually a good deal of laxity in the conduct of the saints.

�c�rya Dharmas�gara in his Pa���val� writes that in 355 A.D., this practice of Caityav�s� started.419 But according to Muni Kaly��a Vijaya, it had originated even earlier and in 355 A.D., it had become well established practice.420 At present, the Yatis or �r�p�jyas in the �vet�mbaras and the Bhatt�rakas in the Digambaras are known as Ma�hav�s�. All are collectively known as Caityavas�.

The Caityav�s� system seems to have developed in Rajasthana from about the 8th century A.D. The Jaina �c�ryas of R�jasth�na such as Haribadras�ri421 and Jinavallabhas�ri422 had drawn the attention of the people towards the laxity in the ways of the monks. They resided in temples and used their wealth for their personal good. They put on even coloured or scented clothes. They are food or sweets fetched by the monks. They used to hoard money and relish delicious dishes. They used Sacitta water as well as fruits and flowers. They sold idols and purchased children in order to make them their disciples.

��lagu�as�ri, the teacher of king Vanar�ja C�vad� (765-825 A.D.) asked him to issue orders forbidding the stay of other saints except  Caityav�s�  saints in the city of A�ahilav�da. In order to violate it, in 957 A.D. Jine�varas�ri and Buddhis�garas�ri defeated the  Caityav�s�s in the debate in the royal court of Durlabhar�ja and thus sought permission for the admission of the Vidhim�rga in P��a�.

That Caityavuas�s had deviated considerably from the traditional ways of Jaina S�dhus is evident from several Jaina temples and idols installed by them. This was the practice of the laity and not of the S�dhus. But the Caityav�s�s saw no harm in these deviations and argued that what was meritorious for the laity was equally creditable for the S�dhus. There are inscriptions which give us information about the practice of the Caityav�s� in R�jasth�na. In 1354  A.D., R�macandras�ri of J�r�pall� Gaccha for self-merit constructed the Devakulik� at J�r�pall� in Sirohi State.423 Hematilakas�ri for the merit of his teacher constructed the Ra�gama��apa of the temple at the village Varm�na in Sirohi State in 1389 A.D.424 In 1397 A.D., V�caka Somaprabhas�ri of Pispal�c�rya Gaccha constructed an image  of Sumatin�tha at Aj�r� which was consecrated by V�raprabhas�ri.425V�raprabhas�ri constructed the Ma��apa in 1418 A.D. at the village V�rav���.426 In 1464 A.D. Vijayaprabhas�ri of K�cchol�v�l� Gaccha built the Devakulik� in the temple of Ajitan�tha for the merit of Gu�as�garas�ri at Sirohi.427Bhadre�varas�ri for the merit of Tilaka S�ri made Devakulik� of �din�tha at J�rapall�.428 Udaivardhana of K�cchol�v�la Gaccha built Devakulik� at Sirohi.429 P�r�vadevas�ri of N��aka Gaccha with his disciple V�racanda constructed Lagik� at the village Vel�ra.430 Nanna S�ri of Pratim�kadh�ra Pratish�h� Gachcha erected the image of �dideva in the building at Vasantagadh.431

In the Digambara Jaina literature, there is no definite and clear mention of the time when the system of Caityav�s�s started. But that it was in existence in the 8th century A.D. in the south is known from several inscriptions. In R�jasth�na, the Bha���rakas were also in possession of villages and gardens. They renovated temples, constructed inns and gave good to other monks. It seems that, in spite of their being Caityav�s�s, the earlier Bha���rakas remained naked, and this was probably necessary in order to show their separation from the saints of the �vet�mbaras. At present, there is a tendency in the Bha���rakas to put off their clothes while eating food but wear them at all other times. It shows that they remained naked in the past and the practice of wearing clothes started afterwards.

In the domain of religion, the Bha���rakas were the spiritual heads. They enjoyed comforts and received money in various ways from the �r�vakas. They possessed administrative powers and used to appoint the Pa��itas at different places in order to carry on the religious affairs.

Minor Protestant and Non-Protestant Sects

The effect of the Muslim invasions of the Jaina religion is seen in two ways. It brought different Jaina sects closer together for self-defence against the iconoclasts. At the same time, it drove others away from idolatry altogether. It, therefore, naturally divided both Digambaras and �vet�mbaras each into two divisions known as idol-worshippers and non-idol-worshippers. The sect of non-idol-worshippers reminds one of the early Hindu traditions of Ved�nta and Nirgu�a Bhakti movement of Kab�ra and N�naka. With the impact of the Muslim culture, some sections of Jains began to denounce idol worship with great vehemence. The following sects are the opponents of the idol worship in Rajasthan.

(a) Lo�k� Sect : In Ahmedabada, Lo�k� earned his livelihood by copying books in the Up�sar� of a Yati called J��naj�. While writing these books, he was struck with the fact that idol worship was not mentioned them. He pointed it out to J��naj� and others,  and a sharp controversy arose between them as to the desirability of idolatry. At last in 1451 A.D., he organized a new sect of his own called Lo�k� Sect after his own name. He declared his disbelief in such  essential rites as PaushadhaPratikrama�aPraty�khy�na and even in charity. He did not like the rites in which even the slightest touch of violence or injury was involved. The Muslims at this time were destroying the temples and the images. This gave him the opportunity to spread his doctrine well. Great slackness had also come in the mendicants, because they possessed not only the books and clothes but even wealth. There were mutual quarrels among them. For this type of behaviour, the people began to criticize them. He took advantage of all these circumstances in propagating his doctrines  by going from place to place.

Lo�k� pronounced 31 S�tras as the foundation of his tenet and gave a new interpretation of such S�tras seemed to support image worship. He made such drastic changes in the ï¿½va�yakas�tra that they altogether assumed a new form. In 1476 A.D., he met a man named Bh��a, a native of �r�gha�ap��aka near Sirohi who took Sany�sa without being initiated by any Acarya. This monk assumed the false name of Dhu��haka. In 1511 A.D., he secured a disciple called R�pakaj� and the old Vara Si�ha became his disciples in 1521 A.D. and 1530 A.D. respectively. Thus, though Lo�k���ha himself was not initiated, others were initiated by him and became saints.

(b) Sth�nakavas� Sect : Some of the members of the Lo�ks Sect disapproved of the lines of their S�dhus declaring that they lived less strictly than Mah�v�ra would have wished. A Lo�k� layman V�raj� of S�rat received initiation as a S�dhu and won great admiration through the strictness of his life. Many from the Lo�k� Sect joined this reformer; and they took the name of Sth�nakav�s�s while their enemies  called them Dh��dhiy�. The followerss of this sect are found in all the important cities of R�jasth�na.

(c) Ter�panth� Sect : The founder of Ter�panth� Sect was Bh�kamaj�. After a critical study of the scriptures, he came to know that the Jaina S�dhus were not leading their lives according to ��stric injunctions and were not promulgating the true principles of Jainism. The Sth�nakv�s�s stayed in the places specially set apart for S�dhus to live in. He began to stay even in the places meant for laymen. Once, a strange coincidence took place. Some S�dhus and laymen       both numbering thirteen were staying in a shop. This led a poet of the Sevaga class to compose a short parody ridiculing the sect and nicknaming it Ter�panth� (the path of thirteen). Bh�kamaj� gave a very appropriate interpretation to it. He said the number indicated five great vows (Mah�vrata), five rules of conduct (Samitis), and control of body, mind and speech (three Guptis).

Ter�panth�s do not worship idols. They think that worship of idols does not lead to salvation. They meditate upon and mentally worship those highly developed souls who have attained liberation. They worship and revere those living beings who have renounced the world asbsolutely and lead the life of asceticism  strictly observing the five great vows. The followers of this sect are mostly found in Bikanera and Jodhpura States.

Like the �vet�mbaras, the Digambaras were also divided into the sects of idol-worshippers and non-idol-worshippers. In course of time, the sect of idol-worshippers was further split into several sub-sects.

(a) T�ra�asv�m�, who was the revolutionary saint, born in V.S. 1505 at Pushp�vat� Nagar� (Bailahari), near Katni in Madhya Pradesh. He raised his voice against the rituals of the Bha���rakas. He was highly influenced by the works of Kundakunda. He was against the Idol worship but emphasised on the worship of manuscripts in Jaina temples. He wrote 14 works, and out of them M�l�rohanaj�Pa�dita P�j�j� and Kamala Batt�s�ji are important. He died in V.S. 1572.432

(b) Ter�panthi Sect : The idolatrous sect of Ter�panth�s was founded by Pt. Banarasidas, a resident of Ajgra. It became rapidly popular in Rajputana in the 17th century. Originally, it was known as Vidhim�rga but its opponents nicknamed it as Ter�panth�s just to ridicule it. The Ter�panth�s protested against the elaborate ritualism of the Bha���rakas. During the lifetime of Ban�ras�d�sa, the great scholar and reformer of Agra, this sect gained great popularity. It is defined by some as a sect which emphasizes the thirteen points of self discipline for building up the character; others, however, believe that the name was given by its opponents to ridicule it.433 The Digambara Ter�panth�s are held in contempt by the Bha���rkas like the �vet�mbara Ter�panth�s by the �r�p�jyas. Bakhata R�ma in the Buddhivil�sa says that this sect differs from the original faith in thirteen points; and hence, it is called Ter�panth�. The Ter�panth�s do not recognize the superior position of the Bha���rkas. The Ter�panth�s of the �vet�mbaras and the Digambaras differ from each other. The former do not worhsip the images while the later do. The Digambara Ter�panth�s worship the images but not with the flowers, fruits, sandal and prak��la. The worship, in this way according to them, involves Hi�s� and therefore militates against the fundamental principles of Jainism.

(c) Gum�napanthi Sect : Gum�napanth� Sect flourished in the 18th century A.D. and was so called after the name of its founder Gum�n�r�ma, the son of Pt. To�armal of Jaipur. It was also known as ï¿½uddh�mn�ya, because particular emphasis was laid on the purity of conduct of its followers by imposing certain rules of discipline on them. This sect spread in several parts of Rajasthana outside Jaipur such as M�rotha, Bh�dav� etc.

(d) B�sapanthi Sect : The B�sapanth�s are the followers of the Bha���rakas. They assumed its name because they thought that they were superior to Ter�panth�s. This sect permits idol worship and supports the cult and methods of the Bha���rakas. In this sect, the idols are worshipped with water, lamp, flowers and sandal. The followers of this sect are found in Jaipur, Ajamera, Nagaura and M�ro�ha.

(e) Tot�panthi Sect : In course of time, an attempt was made for the compromise between B�sapanth�s and Ter�panth�s. A new sect known as Tot�panth� came into existence. This sect partly consists of B�sapanth� Sect and partly Ter�panth� Sect. It is, therefore, also known as S��h� Sol�ha Panth� Sect. It remained confined only to Nagaur.

These idolatrous sects do not materially differ from each other in the Digambaras. Their founders namely Amara Canda Ba�aj�ty� and Gum�n� R�ma were anxious to maintain the individuality of their sects; and hence, the nominal differences were emphasized.


  1.       Dar�anas�ra, p.7.
  2.       ï¿½rama�a Bhagv�n Mah�v�ra, IV, P. 269
  3.       Ibid, p. 272
  4.       EI, XXI, p. 85; IHQ, 1934, p. 57.
  5.       JACOBI H : Encylopedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. VII, p. 473.
  6.       VILAS A. SANGAVE : Jaina community – A Social Survey, pp. 50-51.
  7.       Kalpas�tra, S.B.E., Vol. 22, p. 288 f.
  8.       E I, I, No. XIX, p. 391.
  9.       L�ders : EpigNotes. IA, XXXIII, p. 109
  10.       E I, II, p. 382.
  11.       BUHLER On the Indian Sect of the Jainas, p. 55.
  12.       E I, I, No. VI, pp. 385, 87, 88, 97, 96 and 289.
  13.       E.I., I, VI, pp. 385, 87, 88, 97, 96 and 289.
  14.       Kalp�s�tra, SBE, XXII, p. 293.
  15.       E I, XX, pp. 59-61
  16.       JSLS, Nos. 96, 99.
  17.       Ibid, 90, 94.
  18.       JSLS, Nos. 90, 94.
  19.       Ibid Nos. 111, 113, 114, and 149.
  20.       Ibid, No. 193
  21.       Ibid, No. 113.
  22.       Ibid, No. 114.
  23.       Ibid, No. 149.
  24.       Ibid, No. 193.
  25.       JSLS, Nos. 175, 195, 196 and 223.
  26.       Ibid, V, No. 55.
  27.       Ibid, No. 66.
  28.       Ibid, No. 130.
  29.       Ibid, No. 183.
  30.       Ibid, No. 139.
  31.       JSLS, V, No. 74.
  32.       Ibid, No. 262.
  33.       Ibid, IV, Nos. 292, 335, 416 and 538.
  34.       Ibid, Nos. 290, 310, 369, 378, 382, 606 and 642.
  35.       Ibid, No. 164.
  36.       Ibid, Nos. 180 and 222.
  37.       Ibid, No. 54.
  38.       Ibid, IV, No. 94.
  39.       JSLS, II No. 217.
  40.       Ibid, No. 372.
  41.       Ibid, IV, Nos. 83 and 169.
  42.       Ibid, Nos. 193, 229 and 256.
  43.       Ibid Nos. 126, 139 and 140.
  44.       JSLS, No. 1, 180.
  45.       Ibid, Nos. 122, 123, and 135.
  46.       Ibid, No. 123.
  47.       Ibid, No. 150.
  48.       Ibid, No. 166
  49.       JSLS, N. 55.
  50.       Ibid, No. 137.
  51.       Ibid, IV, No. 61.
  52.       Ibid, No. 134.
  53.       Ibid, III, No. 186, 217 and 511.
  54.       Ibid, No. 138.
  55.       Ibid, II, No. 165.
  56.       Ibid, No. 147.
  57.       JSLS, IVI, No. 185, 234, 269, 318, 490 and 541.
  58.       Ibid, No. 185.
  59.       Ibid, IV, No. 117.
  60.       JSLS, III, No. 153.
  61.       Ibid, No. 158.
  62.       Ibid, Nos, 237-238.
  63.       Ibid, No. 17.
  64.       Ibid Nos. 163-165.
  65.       Ibid, IV, No. 96.
  66.       JSLS, No. IV, No. 212, 291, 323, 476, 565 and 609.
  67.       Ibid, No. 476.
  68.       Ibid, No. 214.
  69.       Ibid, No. 603.
  70.       Ibid, III, Nos. 267, 277, 299 and 353.
  71.       Ibid, 209, 263, 313, 377, 389, 408, 431, 459, 582.
  72.       Ibid, IV, No. 240
  73.       Medieval Jainism, P. 327.
  74.       Ibid, IV, No. 154.
  75.       JSLS, III, No. 208.
  76.       Ibid, IV, No. 55.
  77.       Ibid, IV, No. 157.
  78.       Ibid, Nos. 342, 376.
  79.       Ibid, III, No. 569.
  80.       Ibid, No. 585.
  81.       Ibid, IV, No. 390, p. 13.
  82.       JSLS, III, No. 99.
  83.       Ibid, No. 100.
  84.       Ibid, No. 105.
  85.       Ibid, Nos. 99, 100, 105.
  86.       Ibid, I, Nos. 106, 121, 124 and 142.
  87.       Ibid, III, No. 124.
  88.       Ibid, No. 106.
  89.       Ibid, No. 121.
  90.       Ibid, No. 124.
  91.       Ibid, No. 106.
  92.       JSLS, III, No. 121.
  93.       Ibid, No. 124.
  94.       Ibid, No. 250.
  95.       Ibid, No. 143.
  96.       Ibid, No. 144.
  97.       JSLS, III, No. 130.
  98.       Ibid, No. 182.
  99.       Ibid, Nos. 160 and 205.
  100.       JSLS, IV, No. 20.
  101.       Ibid, Nos. 70, 131, 611 and 612.
  102.       Ibid, No. 70.
  103.       Ibid, No. 131.
  104.       Ibid, Nos. 611 and 612.
  105.      Ibid, Nos. 130, 259, 168, 607.
  106.       Ibid, No. 259.
  107.       Ibid, No. 168.
  108.       Ibid, No. 607.
  109.       JSLS, IV, Nos. 207, 368 and 386.
  110.       Ibid, No. 209.
  111.       Ibid, Nos. 143, 298, 300 and 384.
  112.       Ibid, V, No. 70.
  113.       Ibid, No. 86.
  114.       Ibid, No. 125.
  115.       JSLS, V, No. 117
  116.       Ibid, III, No. 103.
  117.       Ibid, No. 104.
  118.       Ibid, No. 104.
  119.       JSLS, III, No. 166.
  120.       Ibid, No. 178
  121.       Ibid, Nos. 188, 189, 190, 192, 202, 214, 215, 216 and 226.
  122.       JSLS, III, Nos. 213, 214, 215, 216.
  123.       Ibid, IV, No. 175.
  124.       Ibid, No. 282
  125.       Ibid, No. 344.
  126.       Ibid, Nos. 252, 357 and 409.
  127.       JSLS, V, Nos. 14-15.
  128.       Ibid, No. 56.
  129.       Ibid, No. 104.
  130.       Ibid, No. 111.
  131.       J.S.L.S., III, Nos. 633 and 640.
  132.       Jaina Siddh�nta Bhaskara, Vol. 2, IV, pp. 28-29.
  133.       J.S.L.S. IV, No. 22.
  134.       Ibid, No. 56.
  135.       ï¿½rama�a Bhagav�n Mah�v�ra, Vol, V, Pt. II. Sthavir�val�, p. 2.
  136.       PJS, Pt. I, No. 3.
  137.       MJI., No. 833 and 834.
  138.       APJLS.
  139.       NJI., Pt. I, II & III.
  140.       I.A., Vol. IX, p. 248.
  141.       NJI. Pt. III.
  142.       ï¿½rama�a Bhagav�n Mah�v�ra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavir�val�, p. 75.
  143.       ï¿½rama�a B.M.
  144.       APJLS.
  145.       NJI. Pt. I, II & III and PLS.
  146.       ï¿½rama�a Bhagv�n Mah�v�ra, Vol. V. Pt. II. Sthavir�val�, p. 65.
  147.       NJI. Pt. II, III, PLS. Pt. I, and APJLS.
  148.       ï¿½rama�a Bhagv�n Mah�v�ra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavir�val�, p. 65.
  149.       NJI. Pt. I, II and III & APJLS.
  150.       ï¿½rama�a Bhagv�n Mah�v�a, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavir�val�, Pt. II, p. 66.
  151.       NJI. Pt. I, II and III & APJLS.
  152.       NJI., No. 899.
  153.       APJLS.
  154.       NJI. No. 792.
  155.       NJI., Pt. I & II.
  156.       APJLS.
  157.       PLS. No. 106.
  158.       IA., V. XI, p. 250.
  159.       IA., V. XI, p. 250.
  160.       ï¿½raman Bhagav�n Mah�v�ra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavir�val�, p. 176.
  161.       ï¿½raman Bhagav�n Mah�v�ra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavir�val� p. 176.
  162.       APJLS. No. 138 & 141.
  163.       NJI., Pt II No. 1275.
  164.       Ibid. Pt. III.
  165.       NJI., Pt. I, No. 970 & 971.
  166.       APJLS.
  167.       Ibid., No. 425.
  168.       APJLS. Nos. 396, 470, 471, 472 and 473.
  169.       NJI., Pt. No. 764.
  170.       Ibid., No. 899.
  171.       NJI., Pt. I, II & III.
  172.       APJLS., No. 319.
  173.       NJI., Pt. III.
  174.       NJI., Pt. I, II and III & APJLS., Nos. 82 & 142.
  175.       NJI., Nos. 789, 1313 & 2278. APJLS., No. 348.
  176.       APJLS., No. 620.
  177.       NJI., No. 738.
  178.       Ibid., No. 1000.
  179.       NJI., No. 1236.
  180.       Ibid., Nos. 1080 & 1017.
  181.       NJI., No. 530.
  182.       APJLS., No. 66.
  183.       APJLS.
  184.       NJI., Pt. I, II & III.
  185.       APJLS.
  186.       NJI., Pt. III.
  187.       Ibid., Nos. 1111, 1143 & 1031.
  188.       APJLS., Nos. 74 and 119.
  189.       APJLS.
  190.       Ibid., No. 110.
  191.       NJI., No. 811.
  192.       NJI., Pt. I, II & III.
  193.       APJLS.
  194.       NJI., Pt. I, No. 791.
  195.       APJLS., No. 404.
  196.       NJI., Pt. II & III & APJLS.
  197.       APJLS., No. 366.
  198.       Ibid.
  199.       NJI., Pt. III.
  200.       PLS., Nos. 5 & 23.
  201.       NJI., Pt. II & III.
  202.       PLS., No. 43.
  203.       NJI., Pt. II & III.
  204.       NJI., Nos. 2478 & 577.
  205.       Ibid., Nos. 533 & 539.
  206.       Catalogue of the MSS in the Patan Bha���ras, p. 312.
  207.       NJI., No. 1295.
  208.       IA., XI, p. 249.
  209.       ARRMA. Yr. 1923 No. IX.
  210.       PLS., Nos. 49, 124 & 256.
  211.       IA., XIV, p. 8.
  212.       IA., XI, p. 248.
  213.       NJI., Nos. 734, 1267, 1315 & pt. III.
  214.       I.A., XI, 249.
  215.       NJI., No. 1059.
  216.       APJLS., No. 408.
  217.       NJI., No. 604.
  218.       NJI., Nos. 849, 850 and 851.
  219.       NJI., Pt. III.
  220.       IA., XI, pp. 248-249.
  221.       NJI., No. 597.
  222.       Ibid., No. 1288.
  223.       NJI., No. 717.
  224.       NJI., No. 616.
  225.       NJI., Nos. 2218 & 2232.
  226.       Ibid., Nos. 2220-22 & 2415.
  227.       Ibid., No. 2269.
  228.       Ibid., 1159.
  229.       NJI., No. 1174.
  230.       Ibid., No. 1194.
  231.       Ibid., 1042.
  232.       NJI., No 1998.
  233.       Ibid., 1078.
  234.       APJLS. Nos. 9, 454 & 466.
  235.       NJI., Pt. III.
  236.       NJI. No. 966.
  237.       NJI., Pt. III.
  238.       ABJLS, No. 575.
  239.       NJI, Pt. I & III.
  240.       Ibid, Nos. 1167, 1169 and 1246.
  241.       Sramana Oct. -Dec. 1995, p. 28.
  242.       Ibid, 1997, pp. 81-82.
  243.       Malav��chala Ke Jaina-lekha.
  244.       MUNI KANTISAGAR : Jaina Dh�thu Prat�ma Lekha Sa�graha, I.
  245.       M�lav�nchala Ke Jaina-Lekha. pp. 77-78.
  246.       P.C. NAHAR : Jaina Inscriptions III, Nos. 403-425.
  247.       E.I., I, P. 120.
  248.       Jaina Jorunal Mahav�ra Jayant� Special, pp. 195-196.
  249.       K.M.T.J., II, p. 410.
  250.       Bha���raka Samprad�ya, p. 239.
  251.       Bha���raka Samprad�ya,
  252.       KMTJ, p. 505.
  253.       Ibid, p. 505.
  254.       V�rav�n�, VI, p. 355.
  255.       Ibid, V, p. 41.
  256.       Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 72.
  257.       Ibid,
  258.       E.I., XXIV, p. 84.
  259.       ARRMA, 1925-26, No. 3.
  260.       M�lav��chala Ke Jaina-lekha, Nos 3, 6 and 7.
  261.       Bha���raka Samprad�ya, p. 239.
  262.       Bha���raka Samprad�ya, pp. 241-242.
  263.       Ibid, p. 211.
  264.       Ibid,
  265.       Bhandarkar List No. 161; ARADGS, 1973, No. 48.
  266.       Bha��araka Samprad�ya, p. 211.
  267.       Mal�vanchala Ke Jaina-Lekha, Nos. 217, 209, 198 and 106.
  268.       KAMTA PRASAD – P�atim� Lekha Sa�grah, Nos. 60, 56 and 20.
  269.       Udaipur R�jya K� Itih�sa, p. 41.
  270.       PRAS, WC, 1909-10, P. 52.
  271.       Malav��chala Ke Jaina-Lekha, No. 59.
  272.       M�lav��chala Ke Jaina-Lekha, No. 170.
  273.       E.I., II, pp. 232-240.
  274.       K.M.T.A., p. 505.
  275.       M�lav��chala Ke Jaina-Lekha, Nos, 7, 167, 215, 216.
  276.       Bha���raka Samprad�ya, pp. 293-294.
  277.       JSLS, V, p.No. 98.
  278.       M�lav��chala Ke Jaina-Lekha, p. 24, No. 7.
  279.       PR 1883-84; I.A., XX and IA XXI.
  280.       PRAS. WC, 1903-04, p. 46.
  281.       E.I., XXIV, p. 84.
  282.       JSLS. No. 208.
  283.       JBBRAS, No. XLIV, Vol. XVII, p. 163 and PR 1883-84.
  284.       Bha���raka Samprad�ya.
  285.       Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 74.
  286.       KMTA, p. 505.
  287.       Jainism in Rajasthan,
  288.       M�lv��chala Ke Jaina Lekha.
  289.       KAMATA PRASAD JAIN : Pratima Lekha Sa�graha.
  290.       NJI, No, 1009.
  291.       V�rav���, VII.
  292.       Anek�nta, XIII, p. 126.
  293.       Ibid.
  294.       JGPS, p. 10 (Int.)
  295.       Ibid.
  296.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1490 ���� �҇��� �Ȍ� 9 ��� �͋���ʊ ���˂��ʊ ����ݧʦU ��ʊ ��US��� ��U� ��� �ȧ��ȧ�����ʸ��� �^�UʦUݧ ��� �l���� ��^ÔŠU ��� �ݧ�ݧ��ø �U������Ø ��U���U ���� �ʢ�� �˂� ���ʸ �ʢ�� ��� ��� ��ߢ� ���ʸ ��U�� ���� �ː� ���ʸ �Uʄ�U ���� �ʟ� ���ʸ ���U�ȧ ���� �ʋ� ���ʸ ��U��� �͋���ݧ ��� ������� ����c��U ݧʦU���� ���ʊ ��� ݧ������U S�ݧ�� ����ո� 1476 ݧ� �֡ҟ ��. ��.
  297.       Anek�nta, XIII, p. 126.
  298.       In the Jaina temple at Jaipur.
  299.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1515 ���� �Ȍ� 11 ��� �͋���ʊ ����ݧʦU ��ʊ ��US��� �뿊U ��� �Ȣ���Ȣ�����ʸ��� �. ��� �ݧ�ݧ��ø ��^ÔŠU �. �ȝ�ݧ��ø ��U������Ø ��U���U������ ��� �ʦU� ���� �ʄU�� ߌ� ����� ���ʐ�Ö  (In the temple of Chaudharis, Jaipur). ���Ø 1496 �҇�ʝ �Ȍ� -11 ��� �^�UʦUݧ ��� ������� �^�UʦUݧ ��� �ݧ�ݧ��ø ݧ� �U���� – ��. ��. ݧ��ø ���
  300.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1516 ���� ���ʝ�� 5 �ȦU� ��� �͋���� �. �ȝ�ݧ��ø ������ �ȦU� ��. �ʄUʋ� ��� ��Uݧ�ʋ� �Uʋ� �Ê ��� ���� ��� ���ʐ�Ö (On the metal image in the temple of Lunakarana, Jaipur).
  301.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1528 ���� �҇��� ��� 1 �͋���ʊ ��� �ȝ�ݧ��ø �U������Ø ��. �ʬ� ���ʸ ���� ����� ���ʐ�Ö (Inscription on a Yantra in the temple of Chaudharis, Jaipur)
  302.       NJI., No. 1120.
  303.       Anek�nta, XIII, P. 126.
  304.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1570 ���� �ٷ – �Ê ��� ������� ����ʦU�� ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  305.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1595 ���� �҇��� �Ȍ� x �ِ� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� �����㺲 �U������Ø ���� ���ʸ ���ʌ� ����� ������Ö
  306.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1607 ���� �҇��� ��� �ȦU� �ʪ���U ���ʊ �ʪ�ʫ�U� ���S�ʟ� �U� ï¿½ï¿½ �Uʝ� �ʷݧ�U�� ���� �U���� ��� ������� ����ʋ�� ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� �����㺲 ��M�������Ø �U. ���Uʡ� ���� �ʝ�U ��. ���U�ͧ ��� �ʊ ��, ��. ��U��, ���. �ʊ ���, ��. ����ʂ, ��. �M���� �� ݧ����ʟ ���ʸ�� ݧ�����ݧ���� (In the temple of Laskara, Jaipur).
  307.       NJI., No. 520.
  308.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1620 ���� �҇��� �Ȍ� 9 �Ȝ� ��� �͋���ʊ ��US��� �뿊U � �. ��� �Ȑ��ݧ��ø ��L�������Ø ��U���U����� ��U�� ���ʊ �� �æUÊ©U� ��. ��Uʂ�� �ʢ �Uʐ� ��. �Uʐʌ� ��. ������� ��. ݧ���� ��. �ٟ�, ����, ��. ���U���� ��� �k��� ��� ��� ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  309.       NJI., No 1636.
  310.       Ibid., No. 631.
  311.       Anek�nta; XIII; p: 126.
  312.       ARRMA, 1919-20 Nos. 1 & 6.
  313.       Inscription in the temple of P��od� at Jaipur.

���� 1661 ���� �ʄU�Ȍ� �ِ� ��� �͋���ʊ �. ��� �����ͷ�� ��M�������Ø ��U�� ��. �U��ȧ ��. �ʦU� ��. �˦U�ʄU����� �٫�U� ݧʦU�� ���� ����� ���ʐ�Ö

  1.       Anek�nta, XIII, p. 127.
  2.       Ibid.
  3.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1751 ���c�U �Ȍ� 5 �ِ� ��ǝ��U���ʊ �ʪ�Ê� ��� �͋���ʊ ��� ������� ����ʋ�� ��US��� �뿊U ����ݧʦU ��ʊ �ȧ��ȧ����ʸ��� �. ��� �ݧ�ݧ��ø ����� �. ��� �k���� ����� �. ��� ����㺲 ݧ��ø ��^ÔŠU �. ��� �ʊ�ݧ��ø ��M�������Ø ��� �ِ� ��� ��S� ��� ���� ��U��U ݧʦU����� ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  4.       PRAS. wc., 1904-05, p. 57.
  5.       PS, p. 177.
  6.       Ibid., p. 138.
  7.       Ibid., p. 170.
  8.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1517 ���� ���� �Ȍ� 10 �U�� ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� ����㺲���� ����U��ʋ���� �ʄU �U�U�UÊ¡ ���ʸ �ʄUݧ ���� �ʌ� �ʄU��U�  (Jaina temple of Patodi, Jaipur).���� 1299 ���� �Ȍ� 9 ��� ��. ��. �U— ���
  9.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1523 ���� ��ʅ��U �Ȍ� 2 ��L� ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� �k�������� ��^ÔŠU ��� �����㺲���� ��^ÔŠU��� ����㺲���� ����U�ʋ ����� ���U�ʫ��U�� ���ʊ �ʄU ����� ���ʸ �M� ���� ���� ��U�����, �U˦U� ��U�� ����� ���ʐ�� (Jaina temple Siramauriya, Jaipur).
  10.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1532 ���� �҇��� �Ȍ� 7 ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ����㺲���� ��ʊ�U�ʋ���� �ʄU �U�ݧ� ���� ݧʟ� ���ʸ ����� �S� ���� ��� ��U�ʩU ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  11.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1518 ���� �҇��� �Ȍ� 3 ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� ����㺲���� �ʄU �˝�UÊ¡ �ʬ��U˝ʋ� ����� ���ʐ�� �Uʡ� �������U �Uʝ� �ʄU�U �Ȣ�UÊ‚Ê–
  12.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1571 ���� ���c�U �Ȍ� 2 �ِ� ��� �͋���ʊ �ȧ��ȧ����ʸ��� �. ��� ����㺲���� ����� ����U��ʋ���� ���U�ʫ�U �ي�ʊ� �� ����U ��. �ȄUʪ�� �S� ���� �Ր�, ����ʂ, ����ʂ, �Ր� ���� �ʡ�, ����� ���U�� �Ê ���ʐ�Ö

326      PS., P. 154.

  1.       Ibid., p. 98.
  2.       Ibid., p. 177.
  3.       Ibid., p. 96.
  4.       Ibid., p. 147.
  5.       Ibid., p. 167.
  6.       Ibid., p. 163
  7.       Ibid., p. 164.
  8.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1573 �������� �Ȍ� 3 ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� ����㺲���� �Ø �^�UʦUݧ ��� �����㺲���� ����U��ʋ���� �Uʒ��U� ���ʊ ��. �Uˋ� ���ʐ�Ö
  9.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1573 ��ʪ��� �Ȍ� 3 ��� �͋���ʊ ��US��� �뿊U ����ݧʦU ��ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� �ȧ��ȧ����ʸ��� �. ����㺲���� ��^ÔŠU ��� �����㺲���� ����� �����U��ʋ���� ݧʋ� ���ʊ ��� �UÙ„U� ���ʸ ݧʐ� ����� �k� ��. �k�� ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  10.       PS., p.2.
  11.       Ibid., pp. 36 & 37.
  12.       Ibid., p. 96.
  13.       Ibid., p. 131.
  14.       Ibid., p. 99.
  15.       Ibid., p. 174.
  16.       PS., p. 127.
  17.       Ibid., p. 128.
  18.       Ibid., p. 200.
  19.       Ibid., p. 149.
  20.       Ibid., p. 170.
  21.       Ibid., p. 88.
  22.       Ibid., p. 175.
  23.       Ibid., p. 55.
  24.       Ibid., p. 148.
  25.       Ibid., p. 99.
  26.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1590 ���� �Ȍ� 7 �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ �����㺲 �Ø ���c� ���U������ ����㺲 ����� �ʄU �ʊ�� ���ʸ ������ �� ����� ���ʸ ����ʌ� �Ø ���� �ʋ� ���ʐ�Ö (Temple of Lu�akaranaj�, Jaipur).
  27.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1590 ���� �ʄU �Ȍ� 4 �Ȝ�ʦ�U ��� �͋���ʊ ��l����� ����ݧʦU��ʊ ��US��� �뿊U ��� �Ȣ���Ȣ������ʸ��� �. ��� �����㌌��� �Ø ���c� �^�UʦUݧ ����㌌��� ����� ����U��ʋ���� �ȄU���U�� ���ʊ �� �ʟ� ��. ���� ����� ��. �ʜʝ� ��. ���U��� ����� �ʦUʄ�U� �ʋ����� ����� �������Ö (Temple of Lunakaranji, Jaipur).
  28.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1593 ���c�U �Ȍ� 3 ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� �����㺲���� �Ø ���c� ���U������ ����� ����� �����U��ʋ���� �ʄU ���ʊ �ʄU�� � ���ʸ �U�U���� � ���� �ʄU �ʂ� �ʄU ��U�� ���ʐ�Ö
  29.       P.S., p. 163.
  30.       Ibid., p. 77
  31.       Ibid., p. 162.
  32.       Ibid., p. 94.
  33.       Ibid., p. 169.
  34.       Ibid., p. 17.
  35.       Ibid., p. 190.
  36.       ARAMA, 1927-28, No.11.
  37.       PS., p. 125.
  38.       Ibid., p. 132.
  39.       Ibid., p. 73.
  40.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1642 ���� �����͟ ��� 7 �Ȝ�ʂ��U ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� �����㺲���, �. ����㺲���, �. ��� �㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����U��ʋ���� ��� ���ʊ ��. ��ݧ� ���ʸ ����� ���� ��Պ�� ��UÊ„U� ����U�UÊ¡ �Ê ���ʐ�� �
  41.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1641 ���� �����͟ ��� 7 �Ȝ� ��� �͋���ʊ ���U������ ������ �Ø ���U������ ��� ����� �㐢�U������ ����ݧ��ø �Ø ����ݧ��ø ����� ����U��ʋ���� ݧ�U�ݧ�U� ���� �ʄU ݧʋ� ���� ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  42.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1641 ���� �����ȟ ��� 2 ��h� ��� �͋���ʊ �. ��� �㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����U��ʋ���� �ٟ� ���ʊ ���� ��. �� ��, �� ���� ��. ������ �� �� ���� �� ��. ݧ�����, �� �UÊ¡ ����� �������
  43.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1641 ���� �����ȟ �Ȍ� 7 �Ȝ� ��� �͋���ʊ �. ��� �㺲ݧ��ø���� ����� ����U��ʋ���� �لU�U� �ي�ʊ� ��. �U� ��. �߸�� ��. ݧ�ʜ�U, �� ���U� ��U�U��U�ʂ ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  44.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1648 �҇��� �ʂ �ʝʬȦU ����U ��� �Uʡ� �ʟ����U ��� �͋���ʊ �. ��� �㺲ݧ��ø ��M�� �����Ø ����U��ʋ �ʒ��U� ���ʊ ��. ���U� ÊŠï¿½ ��. �ȄUʪ���˟� ���� �� ��ʦU� �� �� ��U��UÊ¡ �� ��. �U�U���� ��ʦU� ��. �ʳU��� �Uʐ �� ��. ����� ���� �� ��U���  ï¿½ï¿½ �ʟ����U �� �ʟ����U ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  45.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1648 �҇��� ��� 5 ��� �͋���ʊ �. ��� �㺲ݧ��ø ����U��ʋ���� ����ʋ ����ҥ �ʄU ����, ��. �˟� ����� ��ʸ Ì����ʸ ߫�U� ��� ���� �� �������� ���ʐ�Ö
  46.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1651 ���� ���� �Ȍ� 10 ��������U �͋���ʊ �㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����U��ʋ���� �ʳU�� ���ʊ �ʄU ���� �� ���� �ʄU �ʟ� �� ���� �ʄU �U�
  47.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1651 ���� ���� �Ȍ� �����ʐ �ȦU� �^�UʦUݧ ��� �㺲ݧ��ø���� �����U� ���ʊ �ʄU �͢�� ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  48.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1658 �ʷʅ�U �Ȍ� 10 �U���ʦ�U � �. ��� �㺲ݧ��ø���� ����� ����U��ʋ���� �ق� ���� �����U ��S�� �� ����U� ����� ��� ��. ��, m�. �U�U�, ��. ��. ���� �� ���� ����U� ����� ��U�� ����� ��. ��U��, �˝�, �� ����U� ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  49.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1661 ���� �����ȟ �Ȍ� 2 ��� �͋���ʊ ���U������ ��� �㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����U��ʋ���� ���� ���ʊ Ջ� ����� �ʇ�ʟ�� ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  50.       ARRMA, 1927-28, p.11.
  51.       PS. p. 76.
  52.       Ibid., p. 89.
  53.       Ibid., p. 28.
  54.       Ibid., pp. 189-90.
  55.       ARRMA., 1927-28, No. 12.
  56.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1709 �����ȟ ��� 7 ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ����㺲ݧ��ø �� ���c� ���U㺲ݧ��ø ��� ����� �U��ݧ�U�����ʢ ����U� ���U�Ø ���U�ʦU����U ����ݧ ����c�U���Ö
  57.       See above, p. 48.
  58.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1711 ���� ���� �Ȍ� 4 �ِ� ��� �͋���ʊ ��k�����…. �^�UʦUݧ ��� ���U㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����ʋ���� ��� ���ʊ ��. ����Uʐ ����� �Uٝ������ ��������U� ���ʝ��ʐ� ������������ �ʄU �USßʪ�Ȧ�U ��ʪ�� ����c�U����ʖ ������U ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  59.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1716 ���� ���� ��� 4 �ِ� ��� �͋���ʊ � ��� 108 ���U㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����ʋ���� ������� ����Uʐ ���ʊ ���������� �������U� ���ʝ��� ����c�U� ݧʦU����ʖ
  60.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1716 ���� ���� ��� 4 �ِ� ��� �͋���� � �^�UʦUݧ ��� ���U㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����ʋ���� ��� ���ʊ �� �����Uʐ ����� ���������� ��������U� ���ʝ��� ������� ���ʊ� ��U �USßʪ�Ȧ�U ��ʪ�� ����c�U���� � ������U ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  61.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1729 �����ȟ �Ȍ� 9 �͋���ʊ ����ݧʦU��ʊ ��US��˪뿊U �. ��� �Ȧ�U㺲ݧ��ø ����� ���ʄU� �ʄU ��U�U��U�ʂ ���ʄU� �ͦU�ʟ�� ����c�U��ʐ �ꐊ� ������U�
  62.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1732 ���� ���c�U �Ȍ� 2 ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� �Ȧ�U㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����U��ʋ���� �Μ��ʋ ���ʊ ���ʄU� ��� ��U�U�U�ʂ ���ʟ� ��� �ʐ��U ��S�� ��� ��ʂ˦Uʐ �S� S��� ��ٳU��� ��� ���� �� ��Ր ���� �ʌ٦U�� �S� S��� �قʌ� �m��� ���� �U��ݧ�U�� �Ê ����c�U� �ꐊ� �����U ݧ���U�ʖ
  63.       Ps. p. 4.
  64.       Ibid., 29.
  65.       Ibid. p. 174.
  66.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1743 ݧ��øݧ �Ȍ� 15 ݧ�U��U ���U ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� ���ݧ��ø �����  ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U��ʋ���� ���ʄU� �ٟ�ʋ�� ����c�U� ݧʦU����ʖ
  67.       See above, p. 36.
  68.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1766 ���� �Ȍ� 6 ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ���ݧ��ø ���ʄU� U�^�UʦUݧ ��� ��ʋ�ʂ ����c�U� ݧ�U����ʖ
  69.       Ps., p. 7.
  70.       Ibid., p. 77.
  71.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1773 �������� �ʂ ���ċ ��ʊ ������ ��Տ ��� �͋���ʊ —- ��� ����㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����U��ʋ���� �ȄU����U�� ���ʊ �ً��U ����U ���ʄU� �UË„U��U���� ����c�U� ݧ�U����� � (Temple of Chaudharis, Jaipur).
  72.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1783 ����� ��� 8 �Ȝ� �ʢ��لU ����U �^�UʦUݧ ��� ����㺲ݧ��ø ����� ���UÊ«U��� ���ʊ ���ʄU� ��� �U���Uʐ�� ����c�U� ݧ���U�ʖ �ҥ�� ��ҦUÊ¡ ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  73.       PS., pp. 48 and 56.
  74.       Ibid., p. 124.
  75.       Ibid., p. 219.
  76.       See above, p. 47.
  77.       PS., p. 48.
  78.       Ibid., p. 56.
  79.       See above p. 47.
  80.       See above p. 47.
  81.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1572 ݧ� ��ʪ��� ��� 6 �U���ʦ�U �^�UʦUݧ�� ��� �U�ݧ��ø�� ݧ� �U��˖
  82.       PS., p. 21.
  83.       Ibid., p. 108.
  84.       ARRMA, 1934-35, Non.
  85.       PS., p. 20.
  86.       ï¿½ï¿½Ëï¿½ï¿½ �^�UʦUݧ�� ��� 108 ��� ���ݧ��ø�� �S� �ʐ��� ݧ� ��� ���� ����Uʂ� ݧ�U��� ���U��� ��U�ʂ� ����U ��. 1672 ݧ� ���� �������� �Ȍ� 5�
  87.       Ajmer Historical and Descriptive, p. 123.
  88.       See above, p. 48.
  89.       See above, p. 43.
  90.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1814 ݧ� ���� �ʷʅ�U �Ȍ� 10 ���� ��ِ�� �^�UʦUݧ ��� ����ݧ��ø ��UʦUÊ¡ ��UÙ¦U��U ����U ��� ��Ȑʸ� �ݧ�ٖ
  91.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1852 �҇��� �ʄU ���ċ ��ʊ ���� ���ʟ�� ��L��ʂ��U �����U ��UʌȪ�� �˥���� ���æUʝ�� �U���� ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� �ȝ�ݧ��øS����� ����ʋ ���� ���ʄU� ����ʂ�� ߌ� ���� ݧʦU����ʖ
  92.       ï¿½ï¿½UʦU�c��U ����U ���� �U��� �����㌦�U  ï¿½ÊÊ¢ ��c�U� ����� ������æU ��. 1862 ݧ� ���� ���� �ʂʅ�U �ʂ� �Χc�� ��ʊ ����� �c�U��ʐ �����ʦ�U ��� �͋���ʊ ��l����� � �����U �^ÔŠU ������ �^�UʦUݧ�� ��� 108 ��� �ȝ�ݧ��ø��, ����U� ݧʋͦUʐ � �����c�Uݧ ���U� ��UʦU��U ��ʦU��� �ʄUÊ¢ ݧ� ��c�U� ݧ� ��S� ��� ��� ��Uʡ�� ��ʝݧ �����ݧ� ��ʸ�ȦUʪ �ʝ ���U� �U���ʖ �ʿU ���� ���� �ʦU��U���� ��� �ʢ�ݧ�U ���� �����ȟ ��� 5 �ȧ�ʐ�� �����U�ʖ (Inscription, S�ha Jaina Temple M�ro�ha).
  93.       JSAI., p. 351.
  94.       Ibid.
  95.       Sambodhaprakara�a, Verses 27, 34, 46-49, 61, 63, 68 etc.
  96.       Sa�ghapa��aka, Verses 7, 11, 12, 15, 21 etc.
  97.       APJLS, No. 119.
  98.       Ibid., No. 113.
  99.       APJLS, No. 432.
  100.       Ibid., No. 278.
  101.       Ibid., No. 246-248.
  102.       Ibid., No. 116.
  103.       Ibid., No. 249.
  104.       Ibid., No. 337.
  105.       Ibid., No. 445.
  106.       JSAI., p. 363.
  107.       I.A., XX, p. 347.
  108.       V.S. 1572.
  109.       JSAI., p. 367.