Chapter X


The Jaina religions like other religions of India has suffered from the tendency of schisms and secessions. The different sects gradually sprang from time to time on account of the different interpretations put on the canonical texts. Besides, the circumstances of the particular time also compelled them to give up old ideas and to adopt new ones. The separation between the Digambaras and the Svetambaras took place in 79 or 82 A.D. A terrible famine occurred in Magadha in 293 B.C. and 14,000 monks under the leadership of Bhadrabahu with Candragupta Maurya moved on to the South. Some monks under the leadership of Sthulabhadra stayed no gaoha.

Both the traditions do not differ as regards the twelve-year famine that took place in Magadha and as regards the consequent emigration of the Jaina Saãgha under his leadership. But while the Digambara tradition states that the Saãgha migrated to the South, Ávetämbara tradition says that Bhadrabähu went to Nepal. The origin of the great schism, which later on developed into Digambara and Ávetämbara sects, is ultimately traced to this event.

After Bhadrabähu’s departure Sthülabhadra assumed the leadership of the Saãgha in Magadha. He was a contemporary of Maurya Candragupta and Bindusära. After the famine was over he convened a council at Päûaliputra, at which the remnant of the Saãgha left behind in Magadha tried to put in order the sacred lore that had fallen into a state of decay. Sthülabhadra was succeeded by Ärya Mahägiri and then came Suhastin who was the religious preceptor of the Maurya king Samprati who is said to have been a devout Jaina and to have done much for the glory of his religion. After Suhastin came Susthita, Indradinna (Kälaka I), Priyagrantha and Vôddhavädï, one after the other. At this time lived Kälaka II of the Áaka-Vikrama fame. Then followed Dinnasüri, Siãhagiri and Vairasvämi. The last of these was the last Daáapürvï or keeper of a part of the original canon. It was in his time in M.E. 609 (or A.D. 82) that the gradually growing schism in the Jaina Saãgha was finalised and the two sects, Ávetämbara and Digambara, separated for good.

JACOBI observes that the division of the Jaina Saãgha into Svetambara-Digambara took place gradually, and that they became aware of their mutual differences about the end of the first century A.D. It is necessary to know what is the exact difference between these two sects, Literally, Digambara mean, ‘sky-clad’ and Ávetambara means ‘white-robed’ i.e. the monks of the Digambaras are naked, while those of the Svetambaras wear white clothes. In fact there is very little difference between the two branches as regards the essentials of doctrine. The most authoritative book, namely, Tattvartha Sutra by Umasvati or Umasvami has been accepted by both the sects. However, there are some major as well as minor points on which the two sections are opposed to each other. The major points of difference between the Digambaras and Svetambaras are as follows :

     (i)      While the Digambaras believe that a monk who wears clothes, can not attain salvation; the Ávetämbaras assert that the practice of complete nudity is not essential to attain liberation.

   (ii)      The Digambaras hold the view that woman, is not entitled to Mokÿa in this life. On the contrary, the Ávetämbaras believe that women can attain Moksa in this life.

(iii)      According to the Digambaras, once a saint has attained Kevala Jõäna (Omniscience) he needs no food, but can sustain life without eating. The view is not acceptable to the Ávetämbaras.

Leaving aside the trivial differences in rituals, customs and manners, the following are some of the minor points on which the two sects do not agree :

     (i)      The Digambaras maintain that the embryo of Mahävïra, the last Tïrthaõkara, was not removed from the womb of Devänadä, a Brähmin lady, to that of Triáalä or Priyakäriîi, a Kshatriya lady, as the Ávetämbaras contend.

   (ii)      The Digambaras believe in the complete disappearance of the ancient sacred literature and as such they disown the canonical books of the Ávetämbaras.

(iii)      The Digambaras assert that Mahävïra never married but according to the Ávetämbaras, Mahävïra married Yaáodä and had a daughter by name Anojjä or Priyadaráanä.

  (iv)      The Ávetämbaras consider Mallinätha, the 19th Tïrthaõkara as a female but the Digambaras state that Mallinätha was a male.

    (v)      According to Digambaras, the Tïrthaõkaras must be represented as nude and unadorned and with downcast eyes. The need not be so according to Ávetämbars.6

Saãgha, Gaîa and Gachchha

The Saãgha and Gaîa are well known political terms. The Saãgharäjya means the rule of a community and the Ganaräjya indicates the rule of many a republic. In early times, there was perhaps no distinction between political Saãgha and Gana, because Päîini equates Gaîa with Saãgha. The Saãgha and Gaîa in Jainism and Buddhism might have come into existence in imitations of the political Saãghas and Gaîas which flourished in ancient India. Both  Mahävïra and Buddha were born and brought up in the republican atmosphere. They had Saãghas arround them. It is for this reason that they adopted the name as well as the constitution of the political Saãgha in organizing their religious Saãghas. It is also possible to suggest that the political Saãghas as Gaîas might have been founded in imitation of the religious Saãghas and Gaîas which had existed since the time when the two great religions were organized. The head of the Gaîa was known as Gaîadhara. Both these terms in the political and religious spheres indicate the group of persons with the main characteristic of possessing a mind conscious of certain ideology. The existence of large number of Saãghas and Gaîas in the Jaina community in ancient times points out that it was politically and culturally Saãgha highly organized. It is due to the efficiency of the Saãgha organization that Jainism has survived through all vicissitudes. The Gaîas in course of time also began to be known as Gacchas.

Gaîa in the Kalpa-Sütra and Kushäîa Inscriptions of Mathura

The Kalpasütra tells us that there were seven schools of thought with their respective branches (Áäkhäs) each of which separated in course of time into its own family Kula. It is interesting to note that several of these Jaina orders are mentioned in Kushäîa records. The seven Gaîas are Godäsa, Uddeha, Uduväûika, Vesaväûika, Cäraîa, Mänava and Kauûika.7

The first Gaîa had four Áäkhäs and Kulas. The second Gaîa Uddeha was founded by Ärya Rohaîa and was divided into four Áakhäs and six kulas. Nägabhüta and Parihasaka Kulas of Kalpasütra may be identified with Nägabhütikïya8 and the Paridhäsikaof the Kuáäna  records. The third gaîa Uduväûika was subdivided into four Áakhäs and three kulas. None of these can be traced in any of the Kuáäîa inscriptions. The fourth Gaîa Veáavätika, founded by Kämarddhi, was subdivided into four Áakhäs and Kulas. Among these, only, the Mehika Kula10 is mentioned in a Kushaîa grant. The fifth Gaîa Caraîa identified by BUHLER with Väraîa Gaîa of the inscriptions, was subdivided into four Áakhäs and seven Kulas.11 The Kuáäîa inscriptions refer to several of them.12 The Áäkhäs may be identified with the Häritamalakari, Vajranägari and Säãkäáikä and Partidharmikä of the Kalpasütra. The sixth Gaîa Mänava was divided into four Áäkhäs and three Kulas. But only a few of these are mentioned  in Kuáäîa records. The seventh Gaîa Kauûiya Gaîa founded by Susthita was subdivided into four Kulas and seven Áakhäs. This Gaîa is well represented in the Kuáaîa inscriptions.13 The Áäkhäs must be identified with the Vajrä, Mädhyamikä, Uchhänagari and the Vätsaliya while the Kulas may be identified with the Väîiya, Brahmaliptika and the Pôishîavähanaka of the Kalpasütra. The Madhyamikä branch was named after the ancient place Madhyamikä identified with modern Nagarï in Mewar. It was founded by Priyagrantha, the second pupil of Susthita and Supratibuddha.14

Pañcastüpänyäya — There is a controversy regarding the origin of the Pañcastüpanyäya, a sect of the Digambaras. One view is that it originated from Mathura while the other view is that it was established by Arhadbali who was the native of Puîâravardhana. Puîâravardhana was a centre of Jainism. The Pahärpur copper plate grant of the year 159 (478-479 A.D.)15 records that a Brähmaîa and his wife deposited three dinärs or gold coins with the city Council and lands for the maintenance of worship of the divine Arhats at the Vihära of Vaûa-Gohäli which was presided over by the disciples and the disciples of disciples of the Nirgrantha preceptor Guhanandin, belonging to the Pañchastüpanikäya of Banaras. It seems that Guhanandina belonged to the third or fourth century A.D. Vïrasena, who wrote a commentary on the Dhavlä, was the follower of Pañchastüpanyäya. Harisheîa has mentioned it in the Kathäkosha written in 937 A.D.

Digambara Saãghas, Gaîas and Gachchhas of the South Nirgrantha Mahäáramaîa Saãgha

From the two inscriptions16 of the Kadamba ruler Môgeáa (500 A.D.), it is known that villages and lands were given to the Munis of Nirgrantha Mahäáramaîa Saãgha. What was the shape of this original Saãgha, it is not known. The term Nirgrantha or Niganûha was used for  Mahävïra, and also for his followers. It seems that Nirgrantha Mahäáramaîa Saãga was in existence during the time of Mahävïra, and it continued even afterwards. Bhadrabähu accompanied this Saãgha for going to the South. During the third or fourth century A.D., there were two main divisions of the Jaina Saãgha (1) Nirgrantha Mahäáramaîa Saãgha and (2) Ávetapata. The Digambaras and the Ávetambaras lived together at Devagiri as known from the inscription17 and probably there were no separate temples. The Nirgrantha Mahäsramaîa Saãgha was of the Digambaras.

Müla Saãgha — The earliest mention of the Mülasaãgha is in the inscription (C. 400 A.D.) of Gaõga ruler Mädhavavarma II, and in the inscription of 425 A.D. of his son Avinïta.18 In the above two inscriptions, we find the names of Äcärya Vïradeva and Candranandi. These two Äcäryas performed the consecration of the temples, and the Gaõga rulers Mädhava II and his son Avinïta granted lands and villages. It seems that in South India, Mülasãgha was used to indicate the separation of the Digambaras from the Ávetämbaras. The name Nirgrantha-Mahäsramaîa Saãgha probably ceased, and it seems to have been called the Mülasaãgha. The early great Acaryas Kundakunda, Umäsvämï and Samantabhadra belonged to the Mülasaãgha.

The Mülasaãgha has been divided into seven Gaîas – Devagaîa, Senagaîa, Deáiyagaîa, Sürasûhagaîa Käîüragaîa and Balätkäragaîa. Generally these Gaîas were called after the end names of the Munis, and after the names of the provinces and regions.

Devagana — Among the above Gaîas, Devagaîa is the oldest. The existence of this Gaîa is known from the four inscriptions19 of Lakáameávara and the eleventh century inscription20 of Kadavanti. It is not mentioned afterwards. The names of the Äcäryas of this Gaîa are — Püjyapäda, Udayadeva21, Rämadeva, Jayadeva, Vijayadeva22, Ekadeva, Jayadeva23, Aõkadeva and Mahïdeva24. Pujyapada was the founder of this Gaîa.

Deáï Gaîa and Koîâakunâänvaya

Deáigaîa is mentioned in several inscriptions as DesiyaDeáikaDesiga and Deáïya. The term Deáï originated from Deáa which meant province. Some region of Karîäûaka was known by the name of Deáa. From the inscriptions, it is known that there were several centres of this Gaîa in Karîätaka. Among them, Hanasoge (Cikahanasoge) was prominent. From the Äcäryas of this place originated the Hanasogebali or Gaccha. From the inscriptions25 of Chikahanasoge, it is learnt that there were several Vasadis (Temples) of this Gaîa here, and they received patronage from the Caõgälva rulers.

Deáïgaîa has been classified into Pustakagachchha, Äryasiãhagrahakula, Candrakaräc ärjämnäya and Maitradänvya.

Pustakagaccha — In the Puïra inscription26 dated 1087 A.D., the  donation of the land given to Padmanandi Maladharideva of the Pustakagachchha has been described. In the Halebeed inscription27 of the eleventh century, the erection of an image by the disciples of Nemichand Bhaûûäraka has been mentioned. In the Citapura inscription28 of the twelfth century A.D., the renovation of a temple by this Gaccha has been recorded. In the image inscription of Peddatuãbalam, the name of Bhaûûäraka Cändrakïrti is found. In the Stavanidhi inscription29 of 1400 A.D., the construction of the temple at the preaching of Vïranandi of this Gaccha has been mentioned. The Samädhimaraîa of the Äcärya of Gomini Änvaya of the Pustakagaccha in the Heritage inscription dated 1224 has been engraved.30

The first subdivision of Pustakagaccha was Panasoge (Hanasoge) Bali. Its first mention31 is in the early tenth century and there is a reference to Samädhimarana of Nemicandra, disciple of Sridharadeva. The second mention32 of this Bali is of 1180 A.D. Balacanda, pupil of Jayakïrti, installed an image. There are four inscriptions33 of this branch which belong from 12th to 14th century A.D. The Äcäryas Lalitakïrti, Devacandra and Nayakïrti have been mentioned.

The second sub-division of Pustakagaccha was Iõguleávara Bali. It is mentioned in the seven inscriptions34 and they belong to the          12th-13th centuries A.D. In these inscriptions, the names of the Äcäryas Haricandra, Árutakïrti, Bhanukirti, Mäghanandi, Nemideva, Chandrakïrti and Jayadeva are mentioned.

Pustakagaccha has been mentioned without any sub-division in several inscriptions. The first such inscription35 is of 1081 A.D., and Bhaûûäraka Sakalakïrti is mentioned in it. There are seventeen such inscriptions which belong to the 16th century A.D.

The Pustakagaccha of Deáigîa is found with Koîâakuîâänvaya. In some inscriptions, only Koîâakunâänvaya is mentioned. The oldest inscription regarding. Konâakunâanvaya is the Tamra idia obtained for Markaräbhip Lekh Tämrapatra. The other inscriptions37 are dated 802 A.D. and 797 A.D. It mentions Koîâakunâeye Anvaya. It indicates the place Koîâakunâa. This inscription mentions that Räÿûraküta ruler Kambharäja donated a village to the Acarya Vardhamäna.

The Second Sub-division of Deáïgaîa named Äryasaãgha Graha Kula is found only in one inscription38. It belongs to the tenth century, and it mentions Áubhacandra, disciple of Kulacandra. This inscription was discovered in the Khaîâagiri hill of Orissa, while other inscriptions of Deáigaîa belonged to Karîäûaka.

The third sub-division of Deáigaîa is Candrakarä-cäryämnäya which is mentioned in only one inscription.39 It has been discovered in Madhya Pradesh. Subhadra is known to have performed the consecration ceremony of the temple. The fourth sub-division of Mainadänvaya of Subhacandra Äcärya is mentioned in the inscription40 and it belonged to the 13th century.

The are several inscriptions of Deáigana without any sub-division. In two inscriptions41 dated 950 and 1096 A.D., there is mention respectively of the Äcäryas Guîacandra and Ravichandra. In these inscriptions, there is mention of Deáïgaîa along with Koîâa Kundänvaya. In eighteen inscriptions, there is mention of Mülasaãgha — Deáïgaîa. Among them, old inscriptions42 belong  to the twelfth century A.D. Eight inscriptions mention Deáïgaîa only. The old inscription43 among them are dated 1032 A.D. and 1054 A.D.

The ancient name in the inscription of the current name Kundakundänvaya was Koîâakundänvaya, which means it originated from Koîâakundapura. Some scholars prove on literary grounds that Mülasaãgha and Koîâakundänvaya are synonymous, and Äcärya Kondakunda is the founder of the Mülasaãgha. This is not proved from any inscription before the eleventh century A.D. Mülasaãgha and Koîâakundänvaya were together used in the inscription44 of 1044 A.D. Koîâakundänvaya has been independently used in the inscriptions45 of the eighth or ninth century A.D. In the inscription of 802 A.D., Koîâakundänvaya was regarded as Gaîa46. The earliest use of Deáïyagana with Koîâakundänvaya was used in the inscription of 931 A.D.47 From the inscriptions, it appears that the use of Koîâakundänvaya started from the later half of the seventh century A.D., and in the eighth or ninth century, efforts were made to make it powerful. Its first influence fell on the Deáastha Saints of Karîäûaka region. They began to be called Koîâakundänvaya Deáïyagîa. The Draviâa Saãgha was also slightly influenced by Koîâakundänvaya.48 It is known from the inscription but it seems that influence was not permanent. The Dräviâa Saãgha Koîâakundänvaya is not found mentioned in any other  inscription.

Nandi Gana — Seeing the similar names of the ancient Äcäryas in the inscriptions of the Mülasaãgha and the Dräviâasãgha, it appears that old Nandigaîa (Saãga) might have come from outside in these two Saãghas. These ancient Äcäryas might have belonged to Nandigana. It seems that the Draviâa-Saãgha and the Mülasaãgha might have adopted the Nandigana of the Yäpanïya Saãgha. The Nandisaãgha was on important one among the Yäpanïyas.

Senagan — The earliest mention of the Senagaîa is found in the inscription49 dated 821 A.D. It is also found in the Mulagunda inscription50 of 903 A.D. Guîabhadra, the author of the Uttarapuräna, regarded his teacher Jinasena and grand-teacher as scholars of Senänvaya. Vïrasena and Jinasena in the commentaries of Dhavala and Jayadhavala mention Pañchastüpänvaya. Gunabhadra mentions for the first time Pañchästüpänvaya as Senänvaya in the Uttarapuräîa.

Senagaîa has been sub-divided into three Gacchas — (1) Pogari or Hogiri Gaccha, (2) Pustakagaccha and (3) Chandrakapäûa. The first mention of the Pogarigaccha is found in the inscription dated 893 A.D. This inscription51 records the grant of the village to Kanakasena, disciple of Vinayasena. In this inscription, it has been called Pogariyagaîa of Mülasenänvaya. Another inscription52 is of 1047 A.D., and Pandita Nägasena has been called the Äcärya of Senagaîa-Hogari-gaccha. The Cälukya queen Akkädevï granted some donation to him. The Pogarï Gachchha is found mentioned in the inscriptions53 up to the 13th century A.D.

The first inscription54 of Chandrakaväûa Anvaya is dated 1053 A.D. wherein the lineage of Ajitasena, Kanakasena, Nayasena etc. has been described. Saradära Kancarasena of Sindakula gave some charity to Nayasena. Narendrasena II, disciple of Nayasena, has been mentioned in 1081 A.D.55 An officer named Droîa gave him some donation. Narendrasena and Nayasena were well versed in Grammar. In the inscription56 of 1066 A.D., Bhaûûäraka Áäntinandi of Candrikävaûa has been mentioned. The name Mulasamgha is given but not of Senagaîa.

The third sub-division Pustakagachchha of Senagaîa is found in the inscription of the 14th century A.D. A lineage of the eleven Äcäryas has been given in it. There is a mention of Samädhimaraîa of Laksmïsena and of Mänasena, disciple of Lakÿmisena.

Thirteen inscriptions of the Senagaîa from the eighth to seventeenth centuries are known. Five inscriptions from the 12th to the 15th century of this Gaîa were found at Hire Ävali.This proves  that Hire Ävali was a great centre of this Gaîa. In the inscription of the 13th century A.D., Kundakundanvaya was associated with Senagaîa. From the 15th century onwards, its influence gradually decreased.

Sürastha Gaîa — Gaîa named Sürastha of the Mülasaãgha was famous. This Gaîa is known from the inscriptions.57 It is mentioned as Sürastha, Surästra, and Sürastha. It appears that the monks of this Gaîa might have lived in Surasûhra from the beginning. Hence, this name was given. It is possible that there might be some region of Suräsûra in South India, from where the Munis might have derived this name. The first mention of this Gaîa is in the inscription58 of 962 A.D. in which Mülasaãgha has been associated with Draviâa Saãgha. The lineage of the saints namely Prabhäcandra, Kalneledeva, Ravicandra, Ravinadi and Eläcärya has been decribed. The Ganga ruler Marasiãha II donated a village to Eläcärya. The inscriptions of this Gaîa from the 11th to the 13th century are found. No Kundakundanvaya has been found in the inscriptions of this Gaîa.

Two sub-divisions of the Sürastha Gaîa are known Kärüra Gachchha and Chitrakuûänvaya. There is only one inscription59 dated 1007 A.D. in which Arhanandi Paîâita has been described. There are ten inscriptions of Chitraküûänvaya.

The first inscription60 is dated 1071 A.D. in which some donation given to Áishyä of Sri Nandi Pandita has been described. The thrid inscription61 is dated 1074 A.D. in which some donation given to Ärya Pandita, pupil of Arhanandi has been mentioned. The next two inscriptions62 give the lineage of this Aanvaya — Väsupüjya, Harinandi and Nägachandra. Harinandi and Nägacandra got some donation in 1148 A.D. That the Sürastha gaîa was in existence from the tenth to the twelfth century is known from fourteen inscriptions.

The donation of village to Eläcärya of this Gaîa has been mentioned in the Kädalüra Copper plate inscription.63 In this inscription dated 963, the names of early Äcäryas are given — Prabhächandra, Kalneledeva, Ravicandra, and Ravinandi. In three inscriptions64 of the 13th century Adalageri, Nägachandra, Nandibhaûûäraka and Jayakriti of this Gaîa have been mentioned. These are the memorials of the Samädhimaraîa of those Saints

Käîüra Gaîa — Käîüragaîa is similar to Kaîâura Gaîa the Yäpanïyas. Both Käîura and Kandüra reveals a particular place, from where the group of monks of this Gaîa derived this name. The earliest inscription of this Gaîa belongs to the tenth century A.D.65 It describes the teachers lineage, and mentions some donation given to the disciple of Äcärya Municandra. The inscriptions of this Gaîa up to the 14th century are available. From the inscription, it is known that in the 11th and 12th centuries, Gaõa king Bhujabala, Gaõgavarmadeva, his queen Gaõga Mahadevi and four sons were  devotees of the Äcäryas of this Gaîa and honoured them by the charities.

Three sub-divsions of Kräîüra Gaîa are known (i) Tintriîï Gachchha, (ii) Meshapäshäîa Gachchha are (iii) Pustaka Gachchha.

Tintrinï Gachchha — There are six inscriptions66 of Tintriîïgachchha. The first two belong to the twelfth century A.D. and they describe Meghacandra and Parvatamuni Äcäryas. The thrid is dated 1207 A.D. and it mentions some donation given to Bhaûûäraka Anantakïrti. The fourth inscription67 dated 1556 A.D. mentions Devakïrti, Municandra and Devacandra.

The inscription68 dated 1130 of Meáapaÿäîa gachchha describes Äcärya Kulacandra or Prabhäcandra, and another inscription69 is concerned with Vasadikä. There are inscriptions of Meshapäshäîa gachchha70 and Tintrinïka gachchha71Meáapäÿaîa means stone meant for sitting of goats. It seems to be a particular place from where the saints of this Gaîa might be somehow related. Tintriîika was a name of the tree. An inscription of the Pustaka Gachchha is dated 1150  A.D.72 The existence of this Gaîa from the tenth to the sixteenth century is known from sixteen inscriptions.

Balätkära Gaîa — Looking at the resemblance, Balätkäragaîa originated from Balihäri or Balahäragaîa of the Yäpaniya. Balihära or Balagära appears to be territorial in nature. There was a village named Balagära in South India.73 The earliest inscription74 of Balätkäragaîa is dated 1071 A.D. It mentions the names of eight Äcäryas. Another  inscription75 of 1075 mentions Anantakïrti, disciple of Municanda of Chitraküûämnäya of this gaîa. Anotherinscription76 mentions the names of three Äcäryas. There is mention of Tribhuvanacandra in the inscription77 dated 1074 A.D. Next important inscriptions of this Gaîa are of the 13th century78. In the 14th century, Balätkaragaîa is found associated with Sarasvatïgachchha. In the inscriptions of the later half of the 14th century, there was special influence of this Gaîa. The kings of the Vijayanagara kingdom honoured them. An inscription79 of the reign of Vïra Bukkyaräya mentions Äcärya Siãhanandi as  Räjaguru and Maîâaläcärya. Another inscription80 mentioning Nandisaãgha with Mülasaãgha and Särasvata gachchha with Balätkära gaîa is important. Inscriptions of Kärañja branch and its Lätüra sub-branch of Balätkarägaîa of the South were discovered at Ukhalada.

 Nigamänvaya : An inscription81 of Mülasaãgha-Nigaãänvaya is dated 1310 A.D. It records the installation of an image by Kôÿîadeva.

Yäpanïa Saãgha : According to the Daráanasära of Devasena- Süri, Yäpanïya Saãgha was established by Ávetambara Árïkalaáa in V.S. 205 at Kalyäîa town in Gulbarga District in Karîätaka. Like Ávetämbaras, it recognized the existence of sacred books and believed that women could attain salvation and saints could take food after attaining omniscience. At the same time, it was, like the Digambaras, against using clothes and it followed the rules and regulations of Digambara ascetics. They used the bunch of peacock feathers. It appears that this Saãgha was a connecting link between the Digambaras and the Ávetämbaras. This Saãgha produced several renowned scholars such as Aparäjita, Pälyakïrti Áäkaûäyana and Vimalasuri.

The Yäpanïya Saãgha received the royal patronage from the kings of Kadamba, Chälukya, Gaîga, Räshûraküta and Baûûa dynasties. These kings donated lands to this Saãgha and its saints.  The Kadamba ruler Môigeáavarä (470-490 A.D.) performed pious deed by donating land at the place Paläsikä to this Saãgha along with other Saãghas namely Nirgranthas and Kürchakas82 Ravivarmä, son of the above Kadamba king, donated the Purukheûaka village in donation to Kumäradatta, the main Äcärya of this Saãgha.83 Yuvaräja Devavarmä of the second branch of the Kadamba dynasty also granted some lands to this Saãgha84. Some Kadamba inscriptions85 inform that the influence of Yäpanïya Saãgha at the time early Kadamba kings was great.

We learn about the Gaîas and Gachchhas of Yapaniya-Saãgha from some inscriptions86. In the Sect of the Yäpanïyas, Nandi Saãgha was the main, and also the oldest. The names of the Äcäryas of this Saãgha were particularly Nandyanta and Kirtyanta.87 Nandisamgha was divided into several Ganas. Among them Kanakopala Saãbhüta Vôiksha Müla Gaîa88, Sri Mülamüla Gaîa89 and Puîîägavôiksha Mülagaîa90 were important. The names of the Gaîas were connected with some trees. The lineage of the Äcäryas of Kanakopalasambhutavôikÿa Mülagaîa, as mentioned in the inscription91 dated 488 A.D. is as follows :

Siddhanandi, Chitakäcärya (who had five hundred disciples), Nägadeva and Jinanandi. A feudatory named Sämiyära of Sendraka dynasty of Chälukya king Jayasiãha after constructing Jaina temple for Jinanandi donated a village and some land. Chandranandi, Kumäranandi, Kïrtinandi and Vimalachandrchärya are mentioned in the inscription92. This inscription refers to Eregitturagaîa and Pulikalagachchha. At the preaching of Vimaläcandräcärya, a Sämanta Nirgundaräja Paramagüla during fifty year reign of the Gaîga ruler Árï Purusha after constructing Jaina temple and freeing people from all taxes granted a village in charity. The lineage of the Äcäryas of Punnäga Vôiksha Müla Gaîa in the inscription93 is given as follows —

Árï Kityäcärya, Kaviläcärya, Vijayakïrti and Arhakïrti. At the request of his feudatory Cäkiräja, the Räshûraküûa king Prabhrita Varsha Govinda III donated a village named Jälamaõgala to Arakakïrti for the management of a Jaina temple in 812 AD. Äcärya Pälyakïrti, author of the Säkatäyana Vyäkarana of the Yäpanïya Saãgha lived during the time of Amöghavarsha. Palyakïrti was either a disciple or a religious associate of Arkakïrti. In the inscription94 of 1108 A.D., we find Puîîagavôksha Mülagaîa as branch of the Mulasaãgha which was afterwards it was absorbed by the Mülasaãgha.

Like Karîäûaka, Yäpanïya Saãgha was popular even in Tamil Province. Koûimaâuvagîa of Nandi Gacchha (Saãgha) of the Yäpanïyas is mentioned in the inscription95 and its Äcäryas were Jinanandi, Diväkara and Árï Mandiradeva (Dhïradeva). Dhïradeva was the Adhishthätä (Builder) of the Kaûakämaraîa Jinälaya. At the request of commander (Kaûakaräja) Durgaräja. Ambharäja II of the Early Cälukya Dynasty, donated a village to that temple for the Yapanïya Säãgha. In another inscription,96 the lineage of the Äcäryas of Aõkaligacchha Balaharigaîa has been given as follows — Sakalacandra, Ayyapoti and Arhanandi. Ambharäja II donated a village named Kalucumbaru on Attilinaîdu province for repairing of the kitchen of Sarvalokäáraya Jinälaya. It appears that Balahärigaîa and Aîkaligaccha belonged to the Yäpanïyas. Balahäri or Balagäragaîa is mentioned in the inscription97 of the later half of the eleventh century A.D. in the form of Balätkäragana of the Mulasaãgha.

In the inscriptions of the kings of Raûûa dynasty, we find two names of the Gaîas of the Yäpanïyas — Käreyagaîa and Kaîâüragaîa. Indrakïrti (disciple of Guîakirti), teacher of the first ruler Pôithvïräma of the Raûûa dynasty, belonged to the Yäpanïya Saãgha. In another inscritpion,98 Käreyagaîa is mentioned, and Mailäpänvaya in place of Mailäpatïrtha. The lineage of the saints of Käreyagaîa Mailäpa Anvaya is as follows — Mülabhaûûäraka Guîakïrti, Indra Kïrti, Nägachandra, Jinacandra, Áubhakïrti and Devakïrti. Gaîga feudatory of some Amoghavarÿa king after constructing Jaina temple donated a village to Muni Devakïrti. The existence of Kaîdüra Gaîa of the Yäpanïyas is known from the two inscriptions99 of Raûûa kings. The lineage of the teachers of Kaîâüragaîa of the Yäpanïyas is given as below — Devacandra, Devasiãha, Ravicandra, Arhanandi, Áubhacandra, Maunideva and Prabhäcandra Deva.

From the inscriptions of the Yäpanïyas, it is learnt, that it remained well organized from the fifth to the fifteenth century A.D. There were several influential Gaîas in it. Later on, Punnäga Vôiksha Mulagaîa, Balahärigaîa and Kaîâüra Gaîa joined the Mulasaãgha, Nandi saãgha, Draviâasaãgha first, but  were  afterwards absorbed in the Mülasaãgha.

There is a copper plate inscription100 of the early sixth century A.D. of the Yäpanïyas. It belongs to Ganga king Avinïta. It records the donation of a temple installed by Yavanika Saãgha.

There is mention of Kumili or Kumudi gaîa of Yäpanïya — Saãgha in four inscriptions101. The first inscription102 of the ninth century A.D. describes Amara Mudala Guru, disciple of the Acarya Mahävïra. He got built Deáavallabha Jinälaya in the north of the village Kïreppäkkam. In another inscription103 dated 1045 A.D., some Äcäryas of this Gaîa have been described. At this time, an official name Chävuãâa got a Jinälaya constructed. Other two inscriptions104 are of uncertain time. These are Niÿidhi inscriptions. The first inscription is the memorial of Samadhimaraîa of Áänta Vïradeva of this Gaîa.

There are four inscriptions105 of Punnägavrikshamülagaîa of the Yäpanïya Saãgha. The first inscription dated 1044 records the donation to Bälachandra Äcärya of this gaîa for the newly constructed Jinälaya in Pulinagara. It also mentions donation to Rämacandra Äcärya in 1145 A.D. The next inscription106 is dated 1165 A.D., and  the lineage of the teachers is given. The commander Kälaîa of the Áilähära king Vijayäditya after constructing a Jinälaya at Ekkasambuge city made some donation to Vijayakïrti for it. The inscription107 dated 1096 A.D. records some donation to Paîâita Cärukïrti, disciple of Munichandra Traividya of Vôiksha Mülagaîa. In an inscription108 of the time not definite, there is mention of the temple of Kusuma Jinälaya of Vôikÿamülagaîa.

The Kaîâura gaîa of the Yäpanïya Saãgha is mentioned in three inscriptions.109 The first is of the early twelfth century A.D., and it describes the four Äcäryas namely Bähubali, Áubhacandra, Maunideva and Maghanandi. There is a reference to a temple of this gaîa in the inscription of the 13th century. The third inscription   mentions a Jaina image of this time. The reference to Käreyagaîa of Yäpanïya Saãgha is in the inscription110 of the early twelfth century A.D. Müla Bhaûûäraka and Jinadevasüri were the Äcäryas of this Gaîa.

Yäpanïya saãgha has been mentioned in the five inscriptions111 without any reference to Gana or Gaccha. The first inscription is dated 1060 A.D., and it informs the lineage of teachers — Jayakïrti, Nägacandra and Kanakaáakti. The next two inscriptions belong to the twelfth century A.D., and they mention the Samädhimaraîa of  Municandra and his disciple Pälyakïrti. The last inscription of the 13th century A.D. refers to Traikïrti Äcärya.

The Dharmapurï inscription112 of the eleventh century A.D. records donation to Mahävïra Paîâita of Vandiyüra gaîa of Yäpänïya Saãgha. The Varaõgala inscription of 1132 A.D. refers to the passing away of Gunacandra of Mahämuni of this gaîa.113 In the Tengalï inscription114 of the twelfth century A.D., Vaâiyüragaîa has been mentioned. The disciple of Äcärya of Nägavïra of this gaîa installed in image115. The four inscriptions of this Gaîa belong from 980 A.D. to the 13th century.

Kürcaka Saãgha : The Kürcaka Saãgha was in existence in Karîataka during the fifth century A.D. along with the Yapaniya Saãgha as is guided from the inscriptions of the Kadamba rulers. As the Monks of this Saãgha had beard-mustache, it was called Kürchaka.

In the Kadamba inscription115, Kürcaka Saãgha is mentioned along with the Nirgranthas and the Yäpaniyas. Kadamba ruler Mrigeáavarmä granted land to the Kürcakas along with the Yäpanïyas and the Nirgranthas. In an inscription116, Vïrasneîäcärya Saãgha, a branch of the Kürcakas, has been mentioned Kadamba king Harivarmä at the preaching of Áivaratha donated a village named Vasuntavätaka for the worship of a Jaina temple built by Môigesä, son of the Senapati Siãha and for Ähära (food) or Sarvasaãgha. In the inscription117, there is mention of one more Áramana Saãgha named Aharishûi to which at the request of Sendraka feudatory Bhaîuáakti, Kadamba King Harivarmä donated a village named Marade.

Dravida Samgha : A group of Jaina Saints residing in Draviâadeáa was known as Dräviâasaãgha. In the inscriptions, it is mentioned as Draviâa, Draviâa, Draviîa, Dräviâa, Davila and Tibula. Draviâadeáa covers the modern Andhra and Madras region which is  called Tamiladeáa. According to the Daráanasära of Äcärya Devasena, Dräviâasaãgha, was established by Vajranandi disciple of Püjyapäda at Madura in the South in V.S. 526. Generally, most of the inscriptions of this Saãgha belong to the kings of Koõgälva dynasty, Áäntara dynasty and Hoysala dynasties. These inscriptions inform that Dräviâasaãgha received royal patronage from the kings of these dynasties. Most of the inscriptions of this Saãgha belong to the kings of Hoysala dynasty. It is learnt from these inscriptions that Äcärya of this Saãgha contributed to the propagation of worship of Padmävati. The monks of this Saãgha renovated the Vasadis or Jaina temples in which they were living, gave ähäradäna, and managed lands, Jägira etc.

The early inscriptions of Drävïâa Saãgha were found at Aõgadi (Solebüraan), the origin place of the Hoysalas. In one inscription119 dated 990 of this place, this Saãgha was written as Draviâasaãgha Koîâakundänvaya and in another inscription120 dated 1040 as Mülasaãgha Dravidänvaya. But in the inscriptions121 of the later half of the eleventh century A.D., it has been mentioned Draviâagaîa along with Nandisaãgha I Saõgalänvaya or Aruõgalänvaya. In the beginning, Dravida Saãgha reamined associated with Mülasaãgha or Kundakundänvaya but afterwords, it came to be related with the Nandisaãgha of the Yäpanïyas. When Draviâagaîa became influential, it became Dräviâa Saãgha. The discovery of early inscriptions of the Hoysalas at Aõgädi (Solebüra) proves that they might have contributed to strengthen the Drabida Saãgha. In some inscriptions of Nandisaãgha, Aruõgalänvaya has been mentioned. Aruñgala is the name of the place in Gudiyapattana Tälukä of Tamila Province. The combined name Draviâa Saãgha, Nandi Saãgha Aruõgalänvaya informs that it was the Nandisaãgha of Tamil province, and Nandisamgha originated from Arungala. From the Nandisaãgha of the Yäpanïyas came into existence the Nandisaãgha of Drävida Saãgha. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the seats of the Munis of this Saãgha were Mullüra of Kongälva kingdom and Hummach, capital of Áäntara Kings. The inscriptions122 found at Hummach inform about several Äcäryas of this Saãgha – Áreyäãáa Pandita, Sudharmä, Kamalabhadra, Vädhïbhasiãha and Ajitasena Pandita.

An inscription123 of Nandigaîa — Aruõgala Anvaya of Dräviâa Saãgha belongs to the eleventh century A.D. The lineage of Áäntamuni, Vädiräja and Vardhamäna has been given in it. The next inscription124 of this Anvaya is dated 1192 A.D. and it describes about Vajaranandi, disciple of Väsapüjya. In an inscription125 of the 14th century A.D., the lineage of the Anvaya-Árïpäla, Padmaprabha and Dharmasena is known. In three inscriptions126 of the Dräviâa Saãgha, Aruõgala Anvaya has not been mentioned.

The Vajïrakheâa copper plate inscriptions127 dated 915 A.D. record the donation of village to Vardhamäna guru, disciple of Lekabhadra of Vïragaîa-Vïrnäya Anvaya of Draviâ Saãgha. Amoghavasati of Chandanäpurï and Uriammavasati of Vaâanera were looked after by them. It is the oldest of all the available inscriptions so far available. Varnita Viragana Vïrîayya Anvaya is not found mentioned in any other inscription. It is the first and only inscription of the Dräviâa Saãgha found outside Mysore Pradeáa. The Pudüra inscription128 dated 1087 A.D. records the donation of land to Äcärya Kanakasena for Pallava Jinälaya. The Ujjili inscription129 dated 1167 A.D. mentions the donation of land to Indrasena Äcärya of Drävida Saãgha — Senagana Kairüra gachchha. The association of Sënagaîa with Drävïâa-Saãgha was not known earlier. Earlier Senagaîa was told related with Mülasaãgha and Kairüra gaccha with Surästha gaîa. The inscription130 dated 1194 A.D. is the last of this collection. It was discovered from Yetina hatti and it records the  death of Äcärya Ajitasena.

Käshthä Saãgha — There is a controversy among scholars about the origin of the Käshûhä Saãgha. Devasena, an author of the tenth century A.D., mentions in the Daráanasära that Kumärasena established the Käshûhä Saãgha in the south. In two inscriptions,131 its name has been mentioned Käñchï Saãgha. It has been written in the Vacanakoáa of the 17th century that Lohäcärya, Pattadhara of Umäsvämï established this Saãgha at Amarohä in North India. According to KAMTA PRASAD,132 Käshthä Saãgha originated from Käshûhä village near Mathura located on the bank of the river Yamunä. The main gacchas or branches of the Käshûhä Saãgha were Nanditala, Mäthura, Vägaâa and Läûavägaâa.

Jambükhanda, Gaîa — Jambükhaîâagaîa has been mentioned in the inscription133 of the sixth-seventh century A.D. Sentraka king Indraîanda donated something to Äcärya Äryanandi.

Siãhavüra Gaîa — There is an inscription134 dated 860 A.D. of Siãhavüra gaîa. It records some donation by king Amoghavarsha to  Äcärya Näganandi of this Gaîa.

It seems that there was not much difference in the functiong of the SaãhasGaîas and Gacchas of the South. Munis of these organizations go constructed temples and Mathas (Monasteries). They received the donation of the villages, lands, gardens, houses etc.  They participated in discussions of the royal courts. Incidentally, they helped the kings to manage the affairs of their kingdoms. They tried to increase the influence of Jainism even by Mantra Sädhanä, Astrology and Medicines.

Ávetämbara Gachchhas of North India During Medieval Period

The number of Ávetämbara Gachchhas was originally 84 but it seems to be only conventional. Neither the castes nor the Gachchhas were founded at one time. They came into existence at different times. Some names of the Gachchhas have no significance but were added simply to make their number 84. This increase in number started about the eleventh century A.D. At present, their number seems to be about one hundred fifty. Most of these Gachchhas originated in Rajasthan, but a few in Gujarat. The Äcäryas of these Gachchhas are known to have performed the consecration ceremony of images and temples at different times and places. These gachchhas originaged in different ways. Some of the gachchhas were named after certain good deeds by certain persons while others named after influential persons. Some of the ancient Kulas in course of time were also converted into the Gacchas. The Gacchas are also territorial in origin.



(1)       Bôihad Gachchha

Uddyotana Suri bestowed the designation of ‘Süri’ on the eight monks including Devasüri under the shade of a large banian tree at a village Teli situated at Mount Abu. According to the opinion of some, the designation of the (highest priest) was conferred only on Sarvadevasuri. As the designation was conferred under the banian tree, the Nirgrantha Gaccha began to be called Vaûa Gaccha. Vaûa Gachcha is known also by another name Brihad Gaccha.135 The earliest inscription of 1086 A.D. of this Gaccha in Rajasthan is found at Kotarä in Sirohi State.136 The next early inscription of 1158 A.D. is found at Nädol in Marwar.137 From the inscriptions it seems that it became popular in Sirohi138 and Marwar States in the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries. The inscriptions  of the 14th and 15th centuries of this Gaccha are also found Udaipur and Jaisalmer.139

(2) Kharatara Gaccha — Kharatara Gaccha is the most famous and influential Gaccha. Jineávarasüri by defeatng the Chaityaväsïs in the royal court of Durlabharäja got the title ‘Kharatara’ in 1017 A.D. From him started the Kharatara Gaccha.140 It arose outside Rajasthan but gathered a large number of followers here. In course of time, it was divided into many branches.The inscriptions of this Gaccha are found in the different parts of Rajasthan. But it remained dominant in Jaisalmer from the 14th century to the 19th century.141 The Ächäryas of this Gaccha installed several images and wrote many works.

(3) Tapä Gaccha : Jagacandra Süri was not only a scholar but he  was also a great ascetic practising penances. He accepted the penance  of doing ‘Äyambil‘ for the whole life and passed twelve years in this way. Seeing it, Jaitra Simha, the king of Mewar, gave him the title of Tapä (which means a real ascetic) in 1228 A.D. From this time, Nirgrantha Gaccha got another name of Tapä Gaccha.142 The saints of this Gaccha contributed considerably to the growth of Jainism. Later on, it was also divided into many branches. Vôiddha Pausälika Tapä-Gaccha started from Vijayacandra who was the pupil of Jagacandra Süri. From Devendra Suri, there started the Laghu Pausälika Tapä-Gaccha. Vijayacandra Suri was indolent in the performance of religious rites while Devendra Süri devoted himself to the performance of the purifying rites and contributed to the development of Jainism.143 The images installed by the Äcäryas of this Gaccha are found in different parts of Rajasthan. But still, it remained strong in Sirohi,144 Mewar and Jaisalmer.145

(4) Añchala Gaccha : Vijayachanda Upädhyäya was the first person to start a Gaccha called Vidhipakÿha in order to support the pure rites. Once the merchant Koûï went to Pätan. While performing the rites of paâikkamaîa, he used the edge of his cloth in bowing down instead of using the ‘mubhapaûûï‘ (a piece of cloth kept on the mouth by the Jaina ascetics). Kumärapäla asked him the reason of this. The Guru told him about Vidhipaksha (the new sect) and then Kumärapäla used the edge of his cloth (called äñchala in Gujaräti) in saluting. Thence forward, Vidhipakÿha was called Äñchala Gaccha.146

This Gaccha started in 1166 A.D. outside Rajasthan but it spread in Jaisalmer, Udaipur, Jïräualä in Sirohi State and Nagara in Marwar in the 15th century A.D. as known to us from the inscriptions. Several Äcäryas of this Gaccha composed important works and celebrated the consecration of many images.147

(5) Pürîimiyä Gaccha and Särdha Pürîimiyä Gaccha : From Pürîimä, it seems to be named Pürîimiyä Gaccha. Särdha Pürîimiyä system started in 1179 A.D. The great king Kumärapäla once asked Hemachandra to call the leader of the Pürîimiyä Gaccha in order to inquire whether its followers acted according to the Jaina holy books or not. The leader of the Gaccha was called and questioned by Kumärapäla. But he could not give satisfactory answers, so the ascetics of the Gaccha were asked to go into exile. After the death of Kumärapäla, Sumatisiãha, the Ächärya of the Gaccha, came to Pätan. On being asked by the people about his Gaccha, he said, ‘We belong to Särdha Pürîimiya Gaccha.’ The followers of this system do not worship a Jaina shrine with fruits.148 It originated outside Rajasthan but it gathered the followers here also. It remained very dominant in the 15th century in Jaisalmer and Sirohi States as it is known to us from the inscriptions. Its inscriptions are also found at Jodhpur and Nagaur in Marwar, Ajmer and Udaipur.149

(6) Ägamika Gaccha : Áïlaguîasüri and Devabhadrasüri were the two Äcäryas who belonged to Pürîimiyä Gaccha. They joined the Äñcala Gaccha, but they soon left it and started their own sect. They taught that prayers should not be offered to Kÿetra Devatä. Besides this, they propounded some new theories and gave the name of Ägamika Gaccha to their section.150 This sect either started in 1157 A.D., or 1193 A.D., but in Rajasthan it spread in the 15th century A.D. It was prevalent in Jaisalmer, Ajmer, Jaipur and Nagaur, Barmer and Osiä in Marwar State and Sirohi State.151

Kula Gacchas :

(1) Candra Gaccha : Candra Kula in course of time was converted into Candra Gaccha. Its name is also mentioned in the inscription of 1182 A.D. at Jälor in Marwar.152 It seems to have been in existence from 1125 A.D. to 1435 A.D. in Sirohi State as known to us from the inscriptions.153

(2) Nägendra Gaccha : From Nägendra Kula, it became famous as Nägendra Gaccha. The preceptor of the founder of Aîahilapura-pätan named Áïlaguîasüri also belongs to this Gaccha. The earliest inscription of 1031 A.D. of this Gaccha in Rajasthan is found at Osiä in Marwar.154 It became dominant at Jaisalmer from the 13th century to the 16th century. It was in existence at Pälï, Nagaur, Sirohi and Udaipur at this time.155

(3) Nivôtti Gaccha : Probably Nivôitti Kula in course of time began to be called Nivôitti Gaccha. In the early inscriptions discovered in Sirohi State, Nivôitti-kula is mentioned,156 but in the inscriptions of 1412 A.D. on the metal image of Sïtalanätha at Udaipur, Nivôitti Gaccha is mentioned.157

Gacchas Named after Influential Persons

(1) Kharatara Gaccha : The Kharatara Gaccha in course of time was divided into many branches which were started after the influential persons. Bhävaharÿa Kharatara Säkhä is the 7th Gacchabheda, and it was founded by Bhävaharshopädhyäya.158 In 1643 A.D., there originated the Raõgavijaya Kharatara Áäkhä from Raõgavijaya Gaîi. This is the 9th Gaccha-bheda, and from this Áäkhä sprang the Árïsärïya Kharatara Áäkhä founded by Árïsäropädhyäya as the tenth Gaccha-bheda.159 It seems to have remained in existence at Jaipur in the 19th century.

(2) Tatä Gaccha : In course of time, the Tapä Gaccha was also divided into many branches. Some of the branches were named after the great Äcäryas. After the demise of Äcärya Mahärja Vijayasena Süri, there were the five divisions in Tapä Gaccha after the names of Äcäryas. One was formed by the followers of Äcärya Mahäräja Deva Süri and known as Deva Süri Gaccha. The second formed by the followers of Äcärya Änanda Süri was known as Änanda Süri Gaccha. The third division known as Sägara Gaccha was organized in 1629 A.D. by Äcärya Räja Sägara Süri. The fourth division named Vimala Gaccha was named after Vimala Süri in 1692 A.D. The fifth division known as Saãvegï Gaccha was created by Pannyäsa Satya Vijayajï Gaîi.160

Pärávanätha Gaccha is also a branch of Tapä Gaccha. An intelligent man called Päráva Candra took initiation under Árï Sädhuratna Süri of Nägauri Tapä Gaccha in 1515 A.D. About some courses of conduct, he differed from his perceptor and aptly preached his view vigorously. His Gaccha was named after his own name.161 He too believed in image worship, and images have been consecrated by himself and other saints of the Gaccha.

The saint Kôishîarshi founded Kôishîarshi Gaccha, a branch of Tapä Gaccha. The earliest mention of it is found in the inscription of 1426 A.D. at Jïrävalä in Sirohi State.162 The next mention of it is found in the inscription of 1468 A.D. of Nagaur in Marwar.163 In the 15th century, this Gaccha was in existence at Jaisalmer.164

Kamala Kalaáa is also a branch of the Tapä Gaccha and it became separated as Kamala Kalaáa in the 16th century. It seems to have reamined popular in Sirohi State as known from the inscriptions.165

(3) Gaccha of this Type in Sirohi State : From the name of the Ächärya  Pishpälächärya, it was known Pishpälächärya Gaccha. It was in existence in Sirohi State from 1151A.D. as it is known from the inscriptions.166 Mahendra Süri Gaccha came into existence after the name of the Äcärya Mahendra Süri. It is mentioned in the inscription of the 13th century at Ajärï in Sirohi State.167 Ämradeväcärya Gaccha was named after Ämradeväcärya. It was in existence at Ajäri and Lotäîa in Sirohi State in the 11th century. From the inscriptions, it seems that it was associated with Nivôitti Kula.168

(4) Gaccha of this Type in Jodhpur State : From the Achärya Prabhäkara, it became famous as Prabhäkara Gaccha. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1515 A.D. found at Mertä in Marwar.169 The name of Kaâaumati Gaccha became famous after the name of Kaâäväáäha in 1505 A.D. The name of this Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1626 A.D. of Osia.170

(5) Common Gaccha Found in the States : Dharmaghosha Gaccha was named after Dharmaghoÿa Süri probably in the 12th or 13th century. It became dominant at places such as Jaisalmer, Udaipur and Nagaur in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries.171

From Bhävadeva Süri, Bhävadevächärya Gaccha was named. Bhävadära Gaccha and Baâähaâa Gachha also seem to be of the above type. The earliest mention of its is found in the inscription of 1157 A.D. discovered at a village Sïverä in Sirohi State.172 From the 13th century to 15th century, the existence of this Gaccha in Jaisalmer is known from the inscriptions.173

Malladhärï Gaccha was called after Malladhärï Äcärya. It remained in existence from the 13th century to the 16th century at the places such as Jaisalmer, Udaipur and Sirohi State.174

Vidyädhara Gaccha was probably named after Vidyädhara Süri. From the 14th century to the 17th century, it seems to have been in existence in Rajasthan. Its inscriptions are found at Osia and Nagaur in Marwar, Näîä in Sirohi State and Jaisalmer.175

Probably, Vijaya Gaccha was named after Vijayadeva Süri. There is an inscription of 1642 A.D. found at Bhäraja in Sirohi State.176 Another inscription of 1661 A.D. is found at Bälotarä in Marwar.177 In the 19th century, a person belonging to Alwar of this Gaccha performed the installation ceremony of the image.178

Rämaseniya Gaccha was probably named after Rämasena. The earliest inscription of 1401 A.D. of this Gaccha is found at Nagur in Marwar.179 It seems to have been in existence in Mewar in the 15th  century.180

Yaáa Süri Gaccha was established after the name of the Äcärya Yaáa Süri. The inscription of 1185 A.D. of this Gaccha was found out at Ajmer.181

Territorias Gacchas

(1) Gacchas Originated from the Places in Sirohi State : Sirohi State remained the stronghold of the Jaina religion in early Hindu period. It was, therefore, natural that the Gacchas were named after the places thereof. Madähaâa Gaccha became famous from the village Maâära in Sirohi State. The oldest inscription of 1230 A.D. of this Gaccha has been found at Maâära, the place of its origin.182 The large number of inscriptions of this Gaccha discovered in Sirohi State indicate that this area remained the stronghold of this Gaccha.183 In the 14th and 15th centuries, it was also prevalent in Jaisalmer and Udaipur.184

Nänaväla Gaccha and Jñänakïya Gaccha seem to be the one and the same Gaccha. It seems to have originated from the village named Näîä in Sirohi State. Numerous inscriptions from the 11th century to the 15th century discovered in Sirohi State indicate that it was the centre of this Gaccha.185 It was in existence at Jaisalmer from the  13th to 15th century.186 In the 15th and 16th centuries, it was found in Mewar.187

According to the Paûûävali, Jirävalï Gaccha is a branch of Bôihad Gaccha. It originated from the place named Jirävali in Sirohi State. It was even in existence in the 14th century at the very place of its origin.188

Brähamîa Gaccha among the Jainas originated from the place Varmäna the ancient name of which was Brähamaîa Mahästhäna. The centre of this Gaccha was the region of Sirohi State from the 12th century to the 16th century A.D. as it is clear from a large number inscriptions discovered in this area.189 It was found at Varmäna in the 12th century A.D. The Jaina temple of Mahävira of this place belonged to this Gacha, and it was built in 1185 A.D. or even before by the Árävakas or lay disciples. The inscription of 1185 A.D. records that Puniga and other Árävakas constructed Padmaáilä of the temple, of Mahävïra of Brähamaîa Gaccha.190 There is an inscription of 1087 A.D. with the name of this Gaccha found at Pälï in Marwar.191 This Gaccha was prevalent in Mewar in the 14th and 15th centuries and in the 15th and 16th centuries, it was in existence at Jaisalmer.192

Kächoli Gaccha seems to be connected with the place named Kächolü in Sirohi State. It was a branch of the Pürnimä-pakÿa. It was in existence in Sirohi State in the 14th and 15th centuries.193

(2) Gaccha Originated from the Places in Marwar : Upakeáa Gaccha was named after Osiä in Marwar. The inscription of 1202 A.D. with the name of this Gaccha has been also discovered at this place.194 There is also the inscription of 1137 A.D. found at the village Ajärï in Sirohi State.195 It remained popular from the 13th to the 16th century in Jaisalmer, Udaipur and Sirohi States as a very large number of the inscriptions have been discovered here.196

The name of Koraîûaka Gaccha was given after Koraîûa in Marwar. The earliest inscription of this Gaccha of 1031 A.D. has been found out at Pïîâaväâä in Sirohi State.197 From this time to the 16th century it remained in existence in this area.198 From the 14th century to the 16th century, it was also prevalent in Jaisalmer.199

Saîâerä in Marwar is supposed to be the original seat of Saîâeraka Gaccha, founded by Yaáodeva Süri who came from Kathiawar because of the fear of the Mlecchas. He settled with the people at the tank. He saw a fight between the bull and the lion in which the bull emerged victorious. The village and Gaccha were named as Saîâeraka Gaccha. This Gaccha spread much in the different parts of Rajasthan. It was in existence at Näâol in Marwar in the 12th century.200 In the 15th century, it was dominant in Jaisalmer. From the 14th century to the 16th century, it was prevalent in Mewar.5

From the place named Hatikuîdï in Marwar, Hastikuîdï Gaccha became famous. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1396 A.D. of Udaipur.202

Chaitraväla Gaccha and Chaitra Gaccha seem to be identical. They possibly originated from the place named Chaitraväla-nagara in Marwar. They prevailed in Jaisalmer and Udaipur from the 13th to the 16th century.203

Palliväla Gaccha originated from Pälï of Marwar. It is known both as Palliväla Gaccha and Pälli Gaccha. Palli Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1405 A.D. at Jaisalmer and of 1451 A.D. at Jaipur.204 Palliväla Gaccha is found in two incriptions of the 15th century found at Ajmer.205

Nägapurïya Gaccha originated from Nagaur in Marwar. The disciple of the famous Vädideva Süri named Padma Prabha Süri practised hard austerities at Nagaur in 1117 A.D. and he was therefore given the title Nägaurïya Tapa.

Harshapurïya Gaccha,  a branch of Srï Pärávanäthakula, originated probably from the place named Harsaur situated between Ajmer and Pushkar. Some of the Ächäryas of this Gaccha were very powerful and had great influence over their contemporary rulers. At the request of Abhayadeva Süri, the Cauhäna ruler Pôûhvïräja I of Áäkambharï, who lived in 1105 A.D., put the golden cupolas on the Jaina temples of Raîthambhoô.206 His pupil was Maladhärï Hemachandra who had influence over Jayasiãha Siddharäja of Gujarat. The name of this Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1498 A.D. found at Nagaur.207

Maîâovara Gaccha is a branch of the Kharatara Gaccha. In 1745 A.D., this branch became separated from Jinamahendra Süri at Maîâovara and therefore was named Maîâovara Säkhä.208

(3) Gacchas Originated from the Places in Mewar : Bhartôipurïya Gaccha orginated from the village Bhartôipura now known as Bhaûevara in Mewar. It was founded by Bhartôibhaûa, the father of the famous king Allaûa, in the 10th century A.D. This Gaccha is mentioned in an inscription of the 13th century.209 Ratnapurïya Gaccha was originally a branch of Maâähaâ Gaccha, but afterwards, it became a separate Gaccha after Ratanapura in Mewar. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1453 A.D. on the metal image found in the Jaina temple of Udaipur.210

(4) Gacchas Originated from the Other Known Places : Kämyaka Gaccha originated from Kämä in Bharatpur State. It is said that there was a Kämyaka forest in this area. It is mentioned in the Bayänä stone inscription of 1043 A.D. The names of the Jaina teachers Vishîu Süri and Maheávara Süri are mentioned.211 Rudrapalliya Gaccha is a branch of the Kharatara Gaccha. In 1147 A.D. at Rudrapalli, it was founded by Jinaáekharächärya.212 It is said to have originated from the place named Rudrapalli near Delhi. In the 15th century it spread at Nagaur and Bälotarä in Marwar and Jaisalmer.213

(5) Gacchas Originated from Unknown Places : There are some regional Gacchas but the places of their origin have not been definitely identified. Pïppälaka Gaccha is also one of the branches of the Kharatara sect. This branch became separated in 1417 A.D. from Jinavardhana Süri.214 It was connected with the place Pippälaka and therefore it was named Pïppälaka.

It seems that both Humbaâa Caste as well as Gaccha originated from the place named Humbaâa which has not been identified yet. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1396 A.D. of Udaipur,215 Jalyodhara Gaccha originated from the village named Joräudra. This name has been mentioned in an inscription of 1156 A.D. which has been discovered at Ajärï in Sirohi State.216 This Gaccha was especially connected with Moâhavaãáa from 1169 A.D., to 1366 A.D.

Bhïmapallïya Gaccha is a branch of Pürîimä Gaccha and originated from the village named Bhïmapallïya. It is, therefore, known as Bhïmapallïya Gaccha. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1541 A.D. found at Jodhpur.217 Kuûuvapurä Gaccha is one of the branches of Tapä Gaccha. It started from the place named Kuûuvapurä. It was prevalent at Näâläï in the early 16th century. Indranandi of this Gaccha installed the images in 1512 A.D., 1513 A.D. and 1514 A.D. at this place.218

Other Remaining Gaccha

(1) Sub-Branches of Kharatara Gaccha : It is mentioned in the paûûävalïs that Madhukharatara Áäkhä was the first Gaccha-bheda which started in about 1107 A.D. from Jinavallabha Süri. Laghukharatara Säkhä, the third schism, was founded by Jina Siãha Süri in 1274 A.D. In 1365 A.D., Vegaâ Áäkhä took its rise founded by Dharma – Vallabha Gani. It remained dominant from the 16th century to the 19th century in Jaisalmer.219 It was the fourth Gaccha-bheda. In 1507 A.D., Acäryïya Kharatara Säkhä arose founded by Ächärya Áäntisägära in Marudeáa. This is the sixth division. In 1629 A.D., there originated the Laghuvächäryïya Kharatara Áäkhä from Ächärya Jinasägara Süri occasioned by Harshanandana, pupil of Samaya Sundara. This is the eighth Gaccha-bheda in the Kharatara sect.220

(2) Gacchas Found in Marwar : Marwar remained the chief centre of the Jaina religion, therefore, the followers of the different Gacchas resided here. Siddhäntï Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1508 A.D. found out at Jodhpur.221 Jäpaâäîa Gaccha is mentined in the inscription of 1477 A.D. of Nagaur.222 An inscription (19th century) referring to Kavala Gaccha is engraved on the pillar of the Jaina temple at Rainapura.223 The name of Tävaâära Gaccha is found in the inscription of 1442 A.D. of the Jaina temple of Munisuvrata at Jodhpur.224

(3) Gacchas Found in Jaisalmer State : In Jaisalmer State, Jainism flourished greatly because of its situation in the heart of the desert. Väûapïya Gaccha is mentioned in the two inscriptions of 1105 A.D. and 1281 A.D. discovered at Jaisalmer.225 Saraväla Gaccha seems to be in existence the 12th and 13th centuries in the area.226 In 1364 A.D., Iávara Süri of Bähaâa Gaccha performed the installation ceremony of the image of Sumatinätha.227

(4) Gacchas Found in Jaipur State : Some Gacchas are also found to be mentioned in the inscriptions of Jaipur. In 1472 A.D., the image of Padmaprabhu was set up by Bhäkhara through Vajreávara Süri of Cäîacäla Gaccha.228 In 1452 A.D., Áivaräja celebrated the consecrations ceremony of the image of Kunthunätha through Padmananda of Räja Gaccha.229 Chahiterä Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1555 A.D., found on the Pañcatïrthï in the Jaina temple of Jaipur.230

(5) Gacchas Found in Mewar : There are some Gacchas which are not known to have been in existence at any other place except Mewar. The inscription of 1317 A.D. with the name of Präyä Gaccha is found at Udaipur.231 In 1144 A.D., Kanudeva of Deväbhidita Gaccha performed the installation ceremony of the image through Sïla Süri of Deväbhidita Gaccha.232 The inscription of 1439 A.D. with the name of Niûûhati Gaccha233 is engraved.

(6) Common Gacchas : Thäräpadrïya Gaccha and Thirädrä Gaccha seem to be the one and the same Gaccha. In the 12th century, it was in existence in Sirohi State.234 In the 15th century, it seems to be prevalent in Jaisalmer.235 The earliest mention of Pippala Gaccha is in the inscription of 1151 A.D. found at Koûarä in Sirohi State.236 It was in existence from the 14th century to the 16th century in Jaisalmer.237 Mahukara Gaccha also seems to be known by the name of Madhukara Gaccha which is mentioned in the inscription of 1436 A.D. discovered at Rohiâä in Sirohi State.238 It is also mentioned in the inscriptions of 1470 A.D. and 1506 A.D. discovered at Alwar and Jaisalmer respectively239. Bokadiyä Gaccha seems to have been prevalent in the area of Jaipur and Nagaur in the 14th and 15th centuries.240

Gujarat : That Jamaîapura Gaccha originated from Jamanapura is situated in Mahesana District. This Gaccha is mentioned in a metal icon of V.S. 1285. The Tharäpadra Gaccha, originated from the ancient name Tharäpadra, is located in Banas Kantha District. At  present, it is known as Tharäda. Harïjagaccha originated from the place Härïjagaccha originated from the place Härïja in Mehasana District241. The literary evidence for the existenve of this Gaccha is dated V.S. 1556 (1500 A.D.) while the epigraphical evidence goes from V.S. 1330 to V.S. 1577. The Aââälijiya Gaccha is connected with a place named Aâälaja, near Ahmedabad.242 Four inscriptions dated V.S. 1136, V.S. 1207, V.S. 1228 and V.S. 1273 found in the Jaina temple at Badhaväîa mention this Gaccha. The inscriptions engraved on the Jaina images found at Palithana, Áaturunjaya, Cambay, Bharu Kaccha (Gandhara). Anahilavada etc. mention different Gacchas. Some of them might have originated in Gujarat.

The followers of the different Ávetämbara Gacchas migrated from Rajasthan to the neighbouring regions of Malwa, Maharashtra and Uttara Pradesh, and settled there. They became prosperous and performed the installation ceremony of images. They also carried old images with them and placed them in the temples. Numerous images engraved with the names of the Gacchaas of the 15th and 16th centuries are noticed. The Árävakas of these Gacchas also got prepared the copies of manuscripts for presentation to the Äcäryas. It seems that there was nothing like unity in the Ávetämbara Jaina Saãgha, but on the contrary, it was divided into several Gacchas with differences. They gradually spread throughout North India. There was no personality to unite them under One Saãgha.

Malvä : Tapägaccha became very popular in Malwa during the 15th and 16th centuries. Next important Gacchas known were Khaôatara, Ägama, Äñchala and Upakeáa. The other Gacchas mentioned in the Jaina inscriptions are Näîapäla, Pali, Bhävada,  Näîakäya, Äáapallïya, Nagendra, Koraîta, Dharmaghoáa, Jïrapallïya, Rudrapalliya, Brahmaîa etc. The main centres of these Gacchas were Ujjain, Badnawar (Vardhamänapura), Mandu (Mandapadurga) and Dhar.243

Mahäraÿtra : The inscriptions are engraved on Jaina metal images place in the Jaina temples of Bombay, Nagpur, Amravati, Akola, Chandväâ near Nasik, Manamäda, Karanja, Wardha, Chälïsagäõva and Bhadravati244. Some Jaina inscriptions were found at Dhulia245. These inscriptions give information about the gacchas. The most popular, in this region, were Tapä and Kharatara Gacchas. The other Gacchas known from the inscriptions of the metal images were Kuranûa, Chitra, Bôihad, Äñchala, Jiräpali, Pali, Dharmaghosha, Sandera, Kôishnarshi, Ägama, Pippala, Nägendra, Brahmaîa, Bhïmapalli, Gyänakïya, Bhävadära etc.

Uttra Pradeáa : The inscriptions of Jaina images found at Banaras, Agra, Ayodhya etc. also give information of these Gacchas such as Kharatara, Tapä, Pürnima pakÿa, Maladhärï, Dharmaghosha, Änchala, Koranûa, Brahamaîa Ägama etc.

An important inscription from Kangra, Himachal Pradesh mentions the names of two Jaina saints belonging to Räjakula-gaccha which is probably the same as Räjagaccha. The Komalagaccha was already in existence in Multan.248

Digambara Saãghas, Ganas and Gacchas in the North during the Medieval Period

The Digambara Saãghas of the Medieval period in North-India were Mäthura, Vägaâa, Lätavägeda and Nandïtata. Besides, there were Käshûhä Saãgha and Ãülasaãgha. Later on, Mäthura, Vägada, Läûavägeâa and Nandi became the branches of the Käshthä-saãgha. The Ãülasaãgha along with the Balätkäragana became powerful from the 14th century onwards. The Äcäryas of these Saãghas performed the installation ceremony of images and got prepared the copies of the manuscripts. They led pilgrimage to the holy places along with the Árävakas. The image of Áäntinätha was consecrated by the Äcärya Subhadra who belonged to the line of Deáïgaîa in the Ämnäya of Candrakara Äcärya249. The Puîêäta-Saãgha from Badnawar is also known.

Mäthura Saãgha : Mäthura Saãgha seems to have originated from Mathura. According to the Daráanasära, Rämasena was the Äcärya of the Saãgha. He prohibited the use of Picchï (small brown peacok feather). The frist historical mention of this Saãgha is found in the works of Amitagati. His teacher’s lineage is Devasena, Amitagati, Nemiseîa and Mädhavasena. He wrote the Subhäáitaratnasaãdoha in V.S. 1050 during the reign of Paramära king Muñja, the Vardhamänanïti in V.S. 1068, the Dharmaparïkshä in V.S. 1070 and the Pañcasaãgraha in V.S. 1073250 :

Another old Äcärya of Mäthura Saãgha was Chatrasena. His Äcärya Äloka got the Ôÿabhanätha temple built in V.S. 1166. The third  known Äcärya of this Saãgha is Gunabhadra. He wrote a lengthy Praáasti of the temple of Pärávanätha in V.S. 1226. Lalitakïrti is the fourth Äcärya who installed the Devï image in V.S. 1234. The fifth Äcärya was Amarakïrti who wrote the Neminäthacarita, and Shaûakarmopadeáa in V.S. 1247251. The Mäthura Sãgha is known from the inscriptions of the twelfth century engraved on the Jaina images discovered at Badnawar252. The Mäthura Saãgha and its Äcäryas are known from the inscription of V.S. 1308.253

Mäthura Saãgha seems to have remained dominant in Rajasthan during the eleventh and the twelfth centuries. At this time, images were installed by the Äcäryas of this Saãgha at different places. There is a mention of Paîâita Mahäsena of Mäthura Saãgha in the inscription of 1158 A.D. on the stone image of Brahmäîï in the Jaina temple of Baghera.254 Yaáakïrti appears to be the influential Äcärya who performed the consecration ceremony of the white stone image now placed in the temple of Singhiji at Sanganer in 1167 A.D.255 and the white marble image of Padmaprabhu now found at Maroth in 1175 A.D.256 This function was organized by Kuladhara, son of Manoratha who seems to be a rich Árävaka. In 1175 A.D., Hetyä and his son Vilhaîa also installed the image of Märoûha through the same Yaáakïrti257. The author of the Bijaulia inscription of 1170 A.D. was Guîabhadra, a Mahämuni who belonged to the Mäthura Saãgha258. An inscription of 1176 A.D. engraved on one side of a four-sided massive Jaina pillar in the Jaina temple at Rüpähelï, near Udaipur,   records that the pillar was erected by Padmaárï, a female disciple of Ajikä belonging to the Mäthura Saãgha259. There was a hold of Mäthura Saãgha at Badnawar in Malwa. This is clear from the Jaina inscriptions of V.S. 1210, 1226 and 1236 of images260.

The medieval lineage of Mäthura Gaîa starts from Mädhavasena who had two disciples Uddharasena and Vijayasena. According to traditions, Mädhavasena lived during the reign of Alauddïn Khilji261.

After Uddharasena, Devasena, Vimalasena, Dharmasena, Sahasrakïrti and Guîakïrti gradually became Bhaûûärakas. In the Ämnäya of Guîakïrti, a copy of the Pañcästikäya was written in V.S. 1468 during the reign of Vïramadeva of Gwalior. The successor of Gunakirti was Yaáahkirti. In V.S. 1486, he got the Bhavishyadatta Pañchamï Kathä prepared at Gwalior during reign of Düõgarasiãha. Paîdita Raidhu, disciple of Yaáahkïrti, installed an image of Ädinätha in Gwalior during the reign of Âüngarasiãha. The Paûûaáishya of Yasahkïrti was Malayakïrti who installed the Yantra in 1502 and image in V.S. 1510. After Guîabhadra, Malayakïrti became Bhaûûäraka. Jinadäsa got a copy of the Samayasära written in Gwalior during the reign of Âüõgarasiãha. A copy of the Jñänärîava was prepared in Gwalior in V.S. 1521 during the reign of Kïrtisãha. The consecration of images was performed in V.S. 1529, 1531, 1547 and 1548 during the reign of Kalyäîamala. Caudharï Ûodarmala of the Ämnäya of Guîabhadra got a copy of the Mahäpuräîa written. Brahma Maîâana, grand disciple of Guîabhadra wrote a Guûakä of Stotras at Sonapata in V.S. 1576 during the reign of Ibrähim. In the Amnäya of Dharmadäsa, pupil of Guîabhadra, a copy of the Dhanadacarita was written in V.S. 1590 during the reign of Humayun. Bhänukïrti became Bhaûûäraka after Guîabhadra. Säha Rüpacanda presented a copy of the Uttarapuräîa to Bhaûûäraka, Bhänukïrti in V.S. 1606 during the reign of Áäha Salïma (ruler of the Sur dynasty V.S. 1545-1554) at Abrähmäbäâa.

A copy of the Bhavishyadatta carita was written in the Ämnäya of Kumärasena, disciple of Bhänukïrti in V.S. 1615 during the reign of Akbar. At the request of Sähu Todara, Paîâita Räjamalla wrote the Jambüsvämï Charita in V.S. 1632 during the reign of Akbar.

The second lineage of medieval period of Mäthura Gaccha started from Vijayasena, disciple of Mädhavasena. Afterwards, Mäsopaväsï Jayasena, Áreyäãsasena, Anantakïrti and Kamalakïrti respectively became the Bhaûûärakas. Kamalakïrti established an image in V.S. 1443 during the reign of Näthadeva (Local ruler). Hariräja, pupil of Padmakïrti, wrote a copy of the Pravacanasära in V.S. 1469 at Gwalior during the reign of Viramadeva.

The disciple of Hemakïrti was Kmalakïrti who erected an image of Chandraprabhu in V.S. 1506. A copy of the BhavisattaKathä was written in V.S. 1056 in his Ämnäya at Gwalior during the reign of Düñgarasiãha. Áubacandra and Kumärasena, disciples of Kamalakïrti erected an image of Mahävïra in V.S. 1510. Áubhacandra installed an image in V.S. 1530 at Gwalior during the reign of Kïrtisiãha. From the Harivaãáa Puräna of Raidhu, it is known that their monastery was at Sonagiri. His pupil Yaáahsena installed the DaáalakshaîaYantra in V.S. 1639. Another disciple of Kamalakïrti was Kumärasena. His disciple was Hemacandra whose pupil was Padmanandi. Padmanandi’s disciple was Mäîikaräja. The disciple of Padmanandi was Yaáahkïrti. Bhagavatïdäsa wrote the Mugatiáiromani Cünadï in V.S. 1680 during the reign of Jahangir and the Änckärtha Nämamäla in V.S. 1687 during the reign f Shahjahan. Another disciple of Yaáahkïrti was Kshemakïrtï. Pandit Räjamalla wrote the Läûisamhita in V.S. 1641 for Säha Fämana when Akbar was ruling. The natives of Bairäûh were the followers of Kÿemakïrti. The successor of Kÿemakïrti was Tribhuvanakïrti. His paûûa ceremony was held at Hisära. Then, Sahasrakirti became successor in V.S. 1663. The Paûûa Áiÿhya of Sahasrakïrti was Mahïcandra. Devendrakïrti, disciple of Mahicandra, renovated the Jaina temple of Fatehapur in V.S. 1770. The disciple of Devendrakïrti was Jagatkïrti.262

Käÿthä Saãgha : There is some controversy among scholars about the origin of the Käÿûhä Saãgha. One view263 is that it originated from the village Käÿûhä, near Delhi. It was the capital of the rulers of Takka dynasty in the twelfth century A.D. Devasena, author of the Daráanasära, holds a different view264 about the origin of the Käÿthä Saãgha. Kumärasena, disciple of Vinayasena, established this Saãgha at Nandiyäda (modern Nändeâa in Maharashtra). The earliest inscription265 of the Käshûhä Saãgha is engraved on a memorial of Jaina Pillar dated 1095 A.D. of the great Acarya Devasena at Dubkunda. After the 14th century A.D., this Saãgha was divided into four branches — Mäthura Gaccha, Vägaâa Gaccha, Läâavägaâa Gaccha and Nanditaûa Gaccha. Surendrakïrti who lived in V.S. 1747 and belonged to Nanditaûa-Gaccha, mentions the above four branches266.

Käÿûhä Saãgha was in existence at some places in Dhära District. It is clear from the Jaina image inspriptions dated V.S. 1328, V.S. 1408, V.S. 1470 and V.S. 1510267 discovered there. That there were followers of the Käÿûhäsaãgha at Mainapuri in Uttar Pradesh as known from the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1414, V.S. 1473 and V.S. 1515.268

Käÿûhäsaãgha seems to have flourished mostly in the Pañjäba and Mälawä, and Agravalas generally remained associated with it. Most probably, the images and the manuscripts of this Saãgha found in Rajasthan were either brought later from outside or installed by Agravälas of Rajasthan. In Rajasthan, there were still some places which somehow remained associated with this Saãgha. The work of restoration and repairs of the famous temple of Ôishabhadeva of Dhuleva near Udaipur was carried out by the followers of this Saãgha. The inscription of 1374 A.D. tells us that Hardäna, the son of Säha Vïjä, restored this temple at the instrictions of Bhaûûäraka Dharmakïrti of Käÿûhäsaãgha. From the inscription of 1515 A.D., it is clear that Kadiyäpriyä of Käcchlü gotra with his son and wife constructed a hall and a shrine in the time of Bhaûûäraka of Käÿûhä Saãgha. Bhoja, son of Sanghï Älhä of the Bagheraväla caste, celebrated the installation ceremony of the newly constructed temple, with the members of his family in the time of Bhaûûäraka Surendrakïrti. Through the influence of the same Bhaûûäraka, Bhüpatä constructed a small shrine in 1697 A.D.269 From some inscriptions and Praáastis of manuscripts, it is known that the ancient Vägaâa Province, including the area of Âüngarpur, Bänswärä and Pratapagôh, was the headquarters of this Saãgha.

Vägaâa Saãgha : Vägaâasaãgha originated from the region Vägaâa which includes Düãgarpura, Bäãsavarä and Pratäpagaâha Districtis of Rajasthan. The inscription of 994 A.D. on the image of a Jaina found at Bayänä says that it was caused to be made in accordance with the instructions of Sürasena of the Vägaâa Saãgha by three brothers Siãhaka, Yaáoräja and Nonnaika270. There is an image inscription dated V.S. 1324 of Vägaâa Saãgha Daáapuränvaye found at Ujjaina271. Another Jaina image inscription dated V.S. 1325 found at Tälanpur (Dhar District) is of Vagaâa Saãgha272.

Läûa Vägada Gaîa : The Läûa Vägada Gaîa originated from the region of Gujarat – Vägaâa, Äcärya Mahäsena, who composed the Pradyumna Carita Kävya in V.S. 1050 during the reign of Paramära ruler Mañju, belonged to Läûa Vägaâa Saãgha. From the Dubakuõda stone inscription273, it is known that encouraged by the teaching of the Jaina monk Vijayakïrti of the Läûavägaâa Gaîa, some Jaina Árävakas (Laymen) constructed Jaina temple, and the Kacchapaghäûa ruler Mahäräjädhiräja of the Dubakunda branch made some donation of land and other things in favour of this temple in 1088 A.D. The Läâa Vägaâ Gaccha is also mentioned in the Jaina image dated V.S. 1325 found at Tälanpura274. The Laâa Vägaâa Gaccha is found mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions of V.S. 1251 at Badnäwara, of V.S. 1288 at Dhära and of V.S. 1325 at Tälanpur in Dhära District.275

Nandi Tata Gaccha : Nanditata Gaccha seems to have been named after Nanditaûa village (modern Nändeda) in Mahäräshtra. Rämasena of this gaccha founded the Narasiãhapura caste and got constructed the temple of Áantinätha in Narsiãhapura. His disciple Nemisena worshipped Padmävatï and founded the Bhaûûapurä caste.

The historical period of Nanditaûa Gaccha is available from Lakshmsena, disciple of Ratnakïrt. The two disciples of Lakshmïsena were Bhïmasena and Dharmasena. From thems two lineage of Äcäryas are known. The pupil of Bhïmasena was Somakïrti. He installed an image of Áitalanätha in V.S. 1532 along with Vïrasena. He wrote the Yaáodhara carita at Godhili in V.S. 1536 and set up an image in V.S. 1540. He showed a miracle of flying in the sky at Pävägaâha by the grace of Padmävati in the reign of Firozshah.

After Somakïrti, Vijayasena, Yaáahkïrti, Udayasena, Tribhuvanakïrti and Ratnabhüshaîa became Bhaûûärakas one after another. Kôÿîadäsa, pupil of Ratnabhüÿaîa, composed the Vimalanatha puraîa in V.S. 1674 at Kalpavalli. After Ratnabhüÿaîa Jayakïrti became Bhaûûäraka. An image of Pärávanätha was set up in V.S. 1686. Then, Keáavasena became Bhaûûäraka after Jayakïrti. Keáavasena was succeeded by Viávakirti who  wrote a copy of the Harivaãáa Puräîa in V.S. 1700.

The second lineage of Acaryas of Nanditaûa Gaccha starts from Dharmasena, disciple of Lakshmïsena. He wrote the Atiáaya Jayamäla. After Dharmasena, Vimalasena and Viáälakïrti respectively became Bhaûûärakas. His disciple Viávasena installed an image in V.S. 1596. Vidyäbhüÿaîa, disciple of Viávasena, set up the image of Pärávanätha in V.S. 1604, and another image in V.S. 1636. Vidyäbhüÿaîa was succeeded by Árïbhüÿaîa. He installed the Pärávanätha image in V.S. 1636, wrote the Säntinätha Puräîa at Sojitra in V.S. 1659,  installed the image of Padmävatï in V.S. 1660, a Ratnatraya Yaõtra in V.S. 1665 and Candraprabha image in V.S. 1676.

The main disciple of Árï Bhüÿaîa was Brahma Jñänasägara who wrote several works… Ári Bhüshaîa was succeeded by Bhaûûäraka Candrakïrti who wrote the Pärávanätha Puräîa in V.S. 1654 at Devagiri, installed Padmävati image in V.S. 1681 and composed several Püjäs. Candrakïrti, while going on pilgrimage of the South, defeated Kôÿîa Bhaûûa at Narasiãha Paûûaîa on the bank of Käverï. Candrakïrti’s disciple was Bhaûûäraka Räjakïrti who gained victory in discussion at Varänasi. Räjakïrti’s pupil was Lakshmïsena who set up the image of Padmävatï image in Áaka Sämvat 1561 and Bähubali image in V.S. 1703. Indrabhüÿaîa became Bhaûûäraka after Lakshmïsena. Some of his disciples led pilgrimage to Gommateávara in V.S. 1718.

After Indrabhüÿaîa, Surendrakïrti became Bhaûûäraka. Images ad Yaõtras were installed, and copies of the manuscripts were prepared. The three disciples of Surendrasena were Lakshmïsena, Sakalakïrti and Devendrakïrti. After Lakshmisena, Vijayakïrti became Bhaûûäraka276.

Punnäta Saãgha : As Äcäryas of this Saãgha moved in Karîäûaka regioõ, it became famous by the name of Puîîaûa Saãgha. Badnävara (Vardhamänapura) in Malwa became a stronghold of Jainism. Äcärya Jinasena of this Saãgha wrote the Harivaãáapuräîa at Vardhamänapura in Áaka Samvat 705 (782 A.D.). Äcärya Häriÿeîa composed the Bôihat Kathä-Kosha in V.S. 989 at this place. Vijayakirti, disciple of Äcärya Amritacndra of this Saãgha, installed an image in V.S. 1154277. There is an image inscription of V.S. 1227 mentioning Puîîäûasaãgha at Badnavana.278

Müla Saãgha : There is a  divergence of traditions found in Paûûävalïs279 not only about succession but also about the residence or immigrations of the Pontiffs of the Mülasaãgha. The four Paûûävalïs agree on the main points but the fifth Paûûävalï presents considerably different traditions. The fifth Pattävalï closes with the name of Áubhachandra who reigned up to 1443 A.D. Hence, this is the oldest Paûûävalï and as such the information supplied by it seems to be correct. The Paûûävalïs tell us that the first 26 pontificates took place in Bhaddalapura. According to the four Paûûävalïs, Bhaddalapura is in Malwa, while the fifth Paûûävalï tells us correctly that it was in the South. After that the 27th pontiff transferred his seat from Bhaddalapura to Ujjaina according to all Paûûävalïs. From Ujjaiîa Mäghacandra II, the 53rd pontiff, shifted his seat to Bäräã in Kotä state in about 1083 A.D.  Down to No. 63 or 64, the pontificates took place in Bäräã. From here, 14 pontificates, took place in Gvaliara down to 77 according to the four Paûûävalïs — but the fifth Paûûävalï tells us correctly that ten pontificates were established at Cittora and four at Bagherä. This is further confirmed from the fact that there was the existence of a prosperous colony of Digambara Jainas on the hill at Cittora at the time of Kumärapäla280, and Bagheravälas were converted to Jainism, and Jaina temples were built at Bagherä in about eleventh century A.D.281. From the 78th Pontiff Vasantakïrti, the seat was transferred to Ajmer in about 1208 A.D. according to all the Paûûävalïs.

From the 84th Pontiff Padmanandi, the seat was transferred to Delhi in about 1328 A.D. according to the four Paûûävalïs but the fifth Paûûävali tells us correctly that it was trasnferred to Idar in ancient Vägaâa province. Padmanandi was especially associated with Vägaâa province. A certain Árävaka of Vägaâa called Prabhäcandra II of Ajmer was invited for the purpose of performing a consecration ceremony of images but he could not come. Then after giving the Sürãantra to Äcärya Padmanandi, the Árävaka conferred on him the title of Bhaûûäraka. Thus Padmanandi became the Bhaûûäraka in 1328 A.D. of Vägaâa. The term Bhaûûäraka is applied to a particular type of Jaina ascetics who unlike Munis assumed  the position of religious rulers and enjoyed supreme authority in religious matters.

After Padmanandi, separation took place among his successive Acaryas. These separations were not actually the schisms but seem to be based on temperaments. Padmanandi had two pupils namely Sakalakïrti and Áubhachandra. During his lifetime, the separation took place between his two pupils. One section under Sübhacandra moved to Cittora while the other continued to live under Sakalakïrti. Again under Jinacandra the 86th pontiff, the disagreement arose between the two disciples namely Prabhäcandra and Ratnakïrti. Prabhäcandra continued to live at Cittor, but one section under Ratnakïrti moved to Nagaura. Again, differences arose at Nägaura and one section continued to reside at Nägaura, while the other under Ratnakïrti shifted to Ajamera. From Cittora, it came to Cätasu in the time of Candrakïrti. After that, it migrated to Sanganera, Äõvä, Ämber and lastly to Jaipur.

Balätkära Gana : Mülasaãgha, in course of time, became associated with Balätkäragaîa which seems to have derived its name Balätkära Gaîa (powerful gaîa) from its ancestor Arhadbalin, who was also known as Guptigupta, the master of Mäghanandi. Its earliest mention is found in the inscription of the 11th century282 but it was in existence considerably earlier. Afterwards, this was distinguished by the term Sarasvatï. In the 14th century A.D., this name seems to have come from the miracle of the pontiff padmanandi who is said to have made a stone figure of Sarasvastï speak283.

Several branches of the Balätkäragaîa are known. The Kärañja Áäkhä started from Amarakïrti. The Lätüra Áäkha began from Ajitakirti. The Delhi-Jaipur branch began from Áubhacandra. The Nagaura branch started from Ratnakirti, the Atera branch from Siãhakïrti, Idar branch from Sakalakïrti, Bhänapurä Áäkhä from Jñanakïrti, the Sürat branch from Devendrakïrti and Jerahaûâ branch from Tribhuvanakïrti.284

No activities of the early Bhäûûärakas before Padmanandi are known in Northern India from any other source. No doubt, there is mention of Mülasaãgha in the inscription of 1170 A.D. and 1186 A.D.285 but without any reference to any Bhaûûäraka. Mülasaãgha has been mentioned in the inscirption of V.S. 1230 found at Badnawar in Malwa. The Mülasaãgha and its Äcärya Ratnakïrti has been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1323286 From Padmanandi onwards, we possess some knowledge of the Bhaûûärakas of Mülasaãgha regarding their activities. The Mülasaãgha remained dominant in North India from the fourteenth century to the eighteenth century A.D. The Äcäryas of the Mülasaãgha are noticed to have performed installation ceremony of the images and temples in Rajasthana287, Madhya Pradeáa288 and Uttara Pradeáa289. Various copies of Manuscripts were prepared. Their Pädukäs and Nishedhikas are also found.

Padmanandi : According to the Paûûävalïs, Padmanandi became Bhaûûäraka in 1325 A.D. This date seems to be doubtful as he was living in 1415 A.D. He did enjoy such a long age as known from the Paûûävalïs and he therefore, must have become Bhaûûäraka sometime after 1325 A.D. He was an influential Bhaûûäraka who is said to have caused a stone figure of Sarasvatï to speak. From this miracle, Müla Saãgha was distinguished by the term Sarasvatï. He made the installation ceremony of images from time to time. The image with the inscription of 1400 A.D. was installed at his bidding.290 He had two disciples namely Viáälakïrti and Nemicanda who also set up images in his time. From the inscription of 1413 A.D. engraved on the images discovered at Tonk, it is clear that Vïlhaîa and his sons got installed several images by his pupil Viáälakïrti.291 In 1415 A.D., Asapäla on his preaching set up the image of Pärávanätha.292 In the same year, the consecration ceremony of the image was performed by Äpä through his pupil Nemicanda.293

Sakalakïrti : After Padmanandi, Sakalakïrti became the head of the seat of Vägaâa in about 1420 A.D. He was the highly respected saint of medieval times and had also a good reputation for his scholarship. He wandered from place to place for the propagation of Jainism. In 1424 A.D., he came to Baâalï where he spent the rainy season with his Saãgha.294 Several images were installed by him from time to time. There is a mention of his name in the inscription of 1430 A.D. found on the image in the Digambara Jaina temple at Abu.295 It is known from the inscription of 1433 A.D. that as a result of his preaching, Nïsala with his wife, sons and brothers set up the Caubïsï with Ädinätha as a Mülanäyaka.296 In 1435 A.D., Campä set up the image of Áäntinätha after hearing his discourses.297 He is said to have passed away in 1442 A.D. at Mahäsana in Gujarata.

Bhuvanakïrti : After Sakalakïrti, Bhuvanakïrti became the Paûûadhara. He was also a scholar like his predecessor. The consecration function of several images was performed by him. The  installation ceremony of the Trimürti was presided over by him in 1443 A.D.298 In 1458 A.D., Nähuyä, the son of Särä, performed the Daáalakshaîa Yantra Pratiáûhä on his instructions.299 In 1459 A.D.,  Surä of his line celebrated the consecration ceremony.300 As a result of his preaching, Chäpä and his wife Gaõgä performed the installation ceremony of some yantra in 1471 A.D.301

Jñänabhüÿaîa : After Bhuvanakïrti, Jñänabhüÿaîa became the Bhaûûäraka. There is a Yantra of 1377 A.D. consecrated by him in the Jaina temple of Udaipur.302 On his advice, Räma with his wife and son set up the image of Mahävïra in 1487 A.D.303

Other Bhûûaärakas of this Seat : Jñänabüÿaîa was succeeded by Vijayakïti in about 1500 A.D. At his discourses, Áresûhï Melä with his wife, son and brothers made the Pratiÿûhä of Samavaáaraîa of Ädinätha in 1513 A.D. 304 Then Áubhacandra became the Bhaûûäraka in about 1515 A.D. He was a well known scholar who wrote a large number of works in a period between 1515 A.D. and 1556 A.D. His earliest work is Adhyätmataraõgiîï and the latest work written by him in 1556 A.D. is the Sanskrit commentary on the Svämikärttikeyänuprekÿä. On his instructions, Dhannä and his wife Dhannäde set up the metal image of Pärávanätha in 1538 A.D.305  In 1550 A.D., Áreÿûhi Sävara with his brothers, wife and son celebrated the function of Jñänanirväaîa on his preachings.306 After his discourses, Árïpäla erected the image of Áäntinätha in 1551 A.D.307 He was succeeded by Sumatikïrti. On his instructions, Säha Jayavanta with his wife and brothers set up the metal image of Padmaprabhu in 1563 A.D.308 He installed the images of Munisuvrata309 and Anantanätha310 in 1562 A.D. and 1570 A.D. respectively. After him, Guîakïrti became the Bhaûûäraka. He was succeeded by Vädibhüsaîa. On his advice, Äsä of Idar with his wife Lakshmï and daughter Jhilä installed the image of Neminätha.311 An inscription on the pedestal of a stone image of Áitalanätha in the Ávetämbara Jaina temple at Maujïpura in Alwar State records that it was set up by Humbaâa Läla and Galä resident of Hardoya in 1597 A.D. as a result of his preaching.312 After his discourÿes, Hansa with his wife and son performed the installation ceremony of Shoâaáakäraîa yantra in 1604 A.D.313

After him, Rämakïrti became  the Bhaûûäraka. He was succeeded by Padmanandi II. At his preaching, the consecration ceremony was performed by Ratnä.314 Then, Devendrakïrti became his paûûadhara. He was succeeded by Kÿemakïrti. By the influence of his discourses, Saõghï Dïgaladäsa, Mänaka, Nemidäsa, Anantadäsa, Somadäsa and Ratnä erected the image of Áäntinätha in 1639 A.D.315 Soma316 with the whole Saãgha constructed the Pürägära in the Jaina temple of Ädinätha at Sägaväâä. After him, Narëndrakïrti, Vijayakïrti II, Nemicanda, Candrakïrti, Rämakïrti, Yaáakïrti, Surendrakïrti, Vijayakïrti II, Nemichanda, Chandrakïrti, Rämakïrti, Yaáakïrti, Surendrakïrti, Ramacandrakïrti and Kanakakïrti became the Bhaûûärakas of the seat of Idar one after another in succession.

Bhaûûärakas of the Seat of Cittorr : During the lifetime of Padmanandi, Áubhacandra separated from Sakalakïrti and established  his own Paûûa at Cittora in about 1415 A.D. At this time, Mewara became a centre of Jainism under the royal patronage of Kumbhakaraîa. The famous Jaina Kïrtistambha was also built. The two Bijaulia inscriptions of 1405 A.D. and 1426 A.D. speak of a Niÿedhikä of a Jaina nun named Bäï ¨Ägamasiri and of a Niÿedhikä of Hemakïrti, pupil of Áubhacandra respectively.317 With regard to these Niÿedhikäs, a wish has been expressed that they may be endured  as long as the Sun and Moon last. On the same pillar that bears the second inscription are sculptured the foot-prints of some saints or pontiffs. On one side is engraved the name of Bhaûûäraka Árï Padmanandideva and on the other of Bhaûûäraka Ári Áubhacandra. At Äõvä near Uniara in Jaipur district, there is a Niÿedhikä of Áubhacandra.

Áubhacandra was followed by Jinacandra in about 1450 A.D. Under his inspiration many-sided activities for the propagation of Jainism received an impetus. Copies of several manuscripts such as Árïpälacaritra,318 Pradyumnacaritra319 and Varddhamänacaritra320 were prepared in his time and probably  inspired by him. A number of temples were built and images were placed in them. There is a Caubïsï consecrated by Hararäja of his line in 1460 A.D.321 In 1466 A.D., Säha Dharmasï with his wife and sons celebrated the consecration ceremony in his time.322 The installation ceremony of the metal image of Pärávanätha was also performed through him in 1485 A.D.323 Jïvaräja Päpaâivala at his instructions performed the installation ceremony of a large number of images at Muîâäsä in the reign of Rävala Álïvasiãha in 1461 A.D.324 The city Muîâäsä seems to be in Gujarat; but from there, these images were sent to the seats of Jainism in different parts of Rajasthan. He enjoyed a long life because Säha Seâa with his wife and sons performed the Yantra Praiiÿûhä in 1514 A.D. when Jinacandra was living.325 There is also a niÿedhikä of Jinacandra at Äõvä.

Prabhäcandra came after Jinacandra in about 1515 A.D. By his persuasion, a large number of manuscripts were written for presentation to the monks. His followerrs got copies of the manuscripts such as Madanaparäjaya,326 Kriyäkaläpastuti,327 Árïpälacaritra,328 Karakaîâacaritra,329 Bäbubalicaritra330 and Ratnakaraîâa331 prepared in 1519 A.D. 1522 A.D., 1524 A.D., 1527 A.D. and 1535 A.D.  respectively. In 1518 A.D. Bäi Pärvatï got the Yaáodharacaritra written and presented to him.332 Säha Dodu got the Yaáodharacaritra written and gave it to Bramha Vïâä, pupil of Bhaûûäraka Prabhäcandra.333 Images and Yantras were also installed through him in 1515 A.D. Säha Ûälä of his line performed the Cäraîayaîtra Pratiÿûhä in 1516 A.D.334 In the same year, Räho with his wife, son and daughter-in-law celebrated the installation ceremony of Samyakcäritrayantra through him.335 His Niÿedhikä also exists at Äõvä.

After Prabhäcandra, Dharmacandra became the Bhaûûäraka in about 1518 A.D. Under his patronage and inspiration, various copies of manuscripts were prepared at different places for presentation to him and his disciples. With a view to propagating Jainism, he proceeded to Nagaur where his devotees got the copies of the Uttarapuräîa saûïka,336 Pravacanasärapräbhôitavôitti,337 Karmaprakôitti338 and Pärávanäthacaritra339 written in 1520 A.D. in order to present him. In 1526 A.D., a copy of the Candraprabhacaritra was made at Cätasu as a result of his discourses.340 In 1528 A.D., Kodamade got a copy of the Ÿaûpähuâa written for offering him.341 Säha Kïlhä made a copy of the Päîâavapuräîa342 ready in 1545 A.D. to give it to his pupil Kamalakïrti. In 1554, Säha Mahäräja prepared the Pärávanäthacaritra for his presentation.343

Besides other copies of manuscripts such as the Sukumälacarita344 in 1526 A.D., Bhavishyadattacarita345 in 1532 A.D., Varddhamänacaritra346 in 1536 A.D. Ädipuräîa347 and Saûpähuâa348 in 1537 A.D.,Varäõgacaritra349 and Bhavishyadattacaritra350 in 1538 A.D. and Candraprabahcärita351 in 1546 A.D., were prepared with the object of offering them as gifts to Sädhus. Several Yantra Pratiÿûhäs are also known to have been performed in his time. Tälu352 and Välamita353 of his line performed the consecration ceremony of Samyagdaráanayantra and Soâaáakäraîayantra in 1532 A.D. Inm 1536 A.D., Säha Päsa and Hemä installed the Arham-yantra.354

Dharmacandra was followed by Lalitakïrti in about 1546 A.D. A large number of mansucripts were written in his time. In 1553 A.D., Lohara got a copy of the Yaáodharacaritra written for him.355 At the invitation of the Árävakas, he went to Todaraisingh where Säha Tehü and Säha Püjä got the copies of the Nägakumäracaritra,356 and Yaáodharacaritra357 prepared in order to offer him as present. Besides other copies of manuscripts such as the Upäsakädhyayana358 in 1566 A.D. Áreîikacaritra359 in 1570 A.D., Varddhamänacaritra360 in 1574 A.D. amd Sudaráanacaritra361 in 1575 A.D. were made ready by his followers for presenting them to monks.

Candrakïrti became Bhaûûäraka after Lalitakïrti in about 1575 A.D. He seems to have removed his seat from Cittora and established it at Cätasu as known from the inscription of 1604 A.D. that he was residing at Cätasu.362 The reason was that Mewar at this time was unsafe and insecure Ämera from the political point of view. On the other hand, Cätasu was under Ämera rulers who were on friendly relations with Mughal emperors and were patrons of Jainism. This was the time of Akbar who followed the policy of religious toleration.  It was, therefore, natural that the activities of Jainism progressed. Some of the copies of manuscripts such as Jïvandharacaritra and Päîâavapuräîa363 in 1579 A.D., Pañhästikäyapräbhôita364 in 1580 A.D. and Harivaãáapuräîä365 in 1588 A.D. were prepared by his devotees for offering them to monks of his line.

Besides, Candrakïrti is known to have performed the installation ceremony of images, Yantras and temples. In 1584 A.D., Säha Mokä,366 Säha Kälu,367 Säha Chelä368 and Säha Ratnä369 of his line with the members of their respective families separately made the pratiÿûhä of Samayagdaráana Yantra, Ôiõkära Yantra, Karakuîâa Pärávanätha Yantra and Daáalakshaîa Yantra. In 1591 A.D., Thänasiãha went on pilgrimage to Päväpuri where he celebrated the installation ceremony of Ÿoâaáakäraîa Yantra at his preaching.370 In the same year, Cokhä of his line installed the Samyak cäritra Yantra and Samyagjñäna Yantra with the members of their family.371 In 1603 A.D., Säha Jütä372 and Säha Jüõgä373 performed the consecration ceremony of the metal image and Ÿoâaáakäraîayantra through him separately. Bohitha of Ajmer with his sons and grandsons set up Caubïsï through him in 1601 A.D.374 In 1604 A.D., Äsänätha of his line made the Pratiÿûhä of Riõkära Yantra.375 An inscription of 1604 A.D. stated that the pillar of the Jaina temple was erected by him when he was residing at Campävatï (Cätasu).376

Candrakïrti was succeeded by Devendrakïrti in about 1606 A.D. Some copies of the manuscripts were written by his inspiration. In 1605 A.D., he went to Sanganer where Kalyäîa gave a copy of the Harivaãáapuräîna377 to him in present. Nänu and his wife Nikäde got a copy of the Ädipuräîa written in the temple of Ädinätha at Todaraisingh and presented to him in 1607 A.D.378 A copy of the Neminäthapuräîa was prepared in 1617 A.D.379 In 1620 A.D., when he went to Cätasu, Säha Debü offered him a welcome by presenting a mansucript of the Sudaráanacaritra.380

Narendrakïrti came after Devendrakïrti in about 1634 A.D. He is known to have performed the installation ceremony of images and Yantras. An inscription of 1649 A.D. engraved on the lower portion of a large pillar records that it was erected in the temple of Neminätha at Cätasu by Bhaûûäraka Narendrakïrti.381 He went on pilgrimage to holy places such as Girnar and Hastinäpura from time to time with the Saãgha. In 1652 A.D., Saõghï Tejasi and Udaikaraîa of Nevaûä led the Saãgha to Girnar where the Yantrapratisûhä was performed by Narendrakïrti.382 Saõghï Sambhü and Saõghï Näâä together celebrated the installation ceremony of Daáalakshaîa Yantra at his hands in 1653 A.D.383 In 1654 A.D., Jagatasiãha in the company of the CaturvidhaSaãgha went to Hastinäpura where he installed the Samyak Yantra.384 In 1659 A.D. Jagatasiãha also celebrated the installation ceremony of Riõkära Yantra through him.385 At the same time, his devotee Khemasiãha of Amber led a pilgrimage to Hastinäpura where the installation ceremony of the Ôinkära Yantra was performed by him.386

Surendrakïrti became the Paûûadhara of Narendrakïrti in about 1665 A.D. In 1672 A.D., he proceeded to Sammedaáikhara where his followers named Saõghavi Naraharidäsa and Saõghï Pürvänanda celebrated the installation ceremony of Daáalakshaîayantra as a result of his preaching.387 In 1675 A.D., Naraharidäsa and Sukhänanda of Amber and Ghäsïräma with his wife and sons celebrated the consecration ceremony of Pärávanätha Yantra through him.388

Surendrakïrti was succeeded by Jagatakïrti in about 1676 A.D. This was a terribe time and the persecutions of Aurangzeb were going on. The old temples were pulled down and the construction of the new ones was not allowed. In spite of this, the activities for the propagation of Jainism continued because some ruling chiefs of Rajasthan were on friendly terms with Aurangzeb. Some copies of the manuscripts such as Upadeáaratnamäla389 in 1688 A.D., Padmatpuräîa390 in 1694 A.D. and Saûpähuâasatïka391 in 1708 A.D. were prepared by his followers in order to present them to Bramhacärï Näthüräma, Acärya Áubhacandra and Âoâaräja, pupils of Jagatakïrti. He also celebrated the  consecration ceremony of images and Yantras. In 1684 A.D., Saõghï Sonapäla made the Yantra Pratiÿthä at Karavara through him.392 The consecration ceremony of a large number of images was organized by his devotee Saõghï Kôishîadäsa at Cändakheâï in 1689 A.D.393 In 1709 A.D, Dayäladäsa of his line set up the metal image of Pärávanätha.394

The next Bhaûûäraka after Jagatakïrti was Devendrakïrit II. Under his patronage, manuscripts were written and the consecration of the images took place. Dhanaräja wrote a copy of the Karmakäîâasatïka in 1720 A.D. at Ämber for the study of Paîâita Kiáanadäsa, pupil of Devendrakirti.395 In 1728 A.D., A specimen of Harivaãáapuräîa was prepared by his followers for the presentation.396 Chïhaâa and Sagamala performed the installation ceremony of images at Dholeûa through him in 1716 A.D.397 In 1726 A.D., the consecration ceremony of images was organized at Bansakhoha by his devotee Hôidayaräma.398

The successor of Devendrakïrti II was Mahendrakïrti who became Pontiff in 1735 A.D. He came from Sanganer and established his seat at Amber. It is for this reason Ämer Paûûa started from him. It is further confirmed by a praáasti.399 Copies of the Jambüsvämicaritra400 in 1736 A.D., and Trilokadarpaîa401 in 1741 A.D. were prepared by his devotees.

Mahendrakïrti was succeeded by Kÿemendrakïrti in about 1758 A.D. After him, Surendrakïrti became the paûûadhara in 1765 A.D. In 1769 A.D., Saõghï Nandaläla performed the installation cerermony of images on a large scale at Sawaimadhopura as a result of his preaching402 Vadhuräma prepared a copy of the Munisuvratapuräîa403 in order to offer him as a gift. Sukhendrakïrti became his successor in 1795 A.D. His followers made the specimen of Väraõgacaritra404 ready for presentation in 1816 A.D. He participated in the Saãgha led by Saîghi Räyacandra to Junagad where an Installation ceremony of some Yantra was performed by Räyacandra through him.405 In 1804 A.D., the same person celebrated the consecration ceremony of images  at Jaipur as a result of his preachng.406 After him, Narendrakïrti II,  Devendrakirti and Mahendrakïrti became the Bhaûûärakas one after another in succession.

Bhaûûärakas of Nagaura Paûûa : Jinacandra had two pupils named Prabhäcandra and Ratnakïrti. During his life time, there arose a disagreement and his second disciple Ratnakïrti established his separate seat at Nagaur. He died at Ajmer which is shown by an inscription of 1515 A.D. on the Chatrï of Bhaûûäraka Ratnakïrti.407 After him, Bhuvanakïrti became the Paûûadhara who was followed by Dharmakïrti in about 1533 A.D. In 1542 A.D., a copy of the Dharmaparïkÿä408 was prepared by this devotee. After him, Viáälakïrti became the Pontiff in about 1544 A.D. He was followed Lakshmïcandra. In 1579 A.D., Lüîä of his line got a copy of the Dhanyakumäracaritra409 written in order ot offer it to the nun Karamäi in present. Later on, Sahasrakïrti, Nemicandra and Yaáakïrti became Bhaûûärakas one after another in succession.

Yaáakïrti was the Bhaûûäraka of some importance. Under his inspiration, manuscripts were prepared and images were installed. An inscription engraved in the Jaina temple of Ädinätha at Reväsä  of 1604 A.D. records that it was constructed by Säha Jitamala and his brother Nathamala, the two sons of Devidäsa the chief minister of Räyasäla at the preaching of Bhaûûäraka Yaáakïrti.410 His followers Rüpä and his son Düãgarasï of Jobanera made the specimen of Dharmaparïkhä411 ready for presenting it to Guîacandra in 1609 A.D. The Pañcas of Reväsä presented a throne to him in 1615 A.D.412 He was followed by Bhänukïrti and Bhüÿaîakïrti. Bhüÿaîakïrti had two pupils namely Dharmacandra and Ratnakïrti. Again a trouble arose between them, and Ratnakïrti established his separate Paûûa at Ajamera. After Dharmacandra, Devendrakïrti, Amerandrakïrti and Ratnakïrti became the Bhaûûärakas one after another in succession of Nagaura Paûûa.

Bhaûûärakas of Ajamera Paûûa : Ajamera already remained a seat of the Bhaûûärakas in early times; but fot it, there is no definite epigraphical and monumental evidence. Mr. Harbiläsa Áärdä in his book413 mentioned the inscriptions of the eighth or ninth century on the Cabütaras and Chatrïs commemorating the death of the Digambara Jaina Bhaûûärakas and the Paîâitas. But in reality these inscriptions belong to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Ratnakïrti separated himself from Nagaura Paûûa and established his seat at Ajamera. In 1694 A.D., Saõghï Jesä of his line celebrated the consecration ceremony of images at Jobanera through him.414 He was followed by Vidyädhara and then, Mahendrakïrti became the Bhaûûäraka. In 1709 A.D., Vijayakïrti constructed the Cabütarä over the remains of Bhaûûäraka Ratnakïrti. Later on, Anantakïrti became the Pontiff. Rämasiãha performed the consecration of the temple of Sähas as well as of images at Märoûha in 1737 A.D. as advised by him.415 Next Bhuvanabhüÿaîa became the Paûûadhara who was followed by Vijayakïrti. In 1753 A.D., Vijayakïrti constructed the Chatrïs over the remains of Anantakïrti and Bhuvanabhüÿaîa. Äcärya Räjyakïrti constructed the Chatrï over Bhaûûäraka Vidyänanda. In 1760 A.D., Vijayakïrti spent the rainy seasons at Märoûha.416 After him, Trilokendrakïrti became the Bhaûûäraka. Bhaûûäraka Bhuvanakïrti erected the Pädukä of Trilokendrakïrti in 1781 A.D. In 1795 A.D., Dharmadäsa celebrated the installation ceremony of images on a large scale through Bhuvanakïrti.417 In 1805, he visited Maroûha from where he proceeded to Kucämaî418

In 1818 A.D., Pannäläla, pupil of Bhuvanakïrti repaired the throne brought from Reväsä for Yaáakïrti. Bhaûûäraka Ratnabhüÿaîa constructed Chatrïs over the remains of Bhaûûäraka Bhuvanakïrti in 1835 A.D. There is also the Chatrï of Bhaûûäraka Padmanandi with the inscription of 1871 A.D.

Besides, a large number of Cabütaräs and Chatrïs built over the remains of the Äcäryas and the Paîâitas are found at Ajmer. There is an inscription of 1725 A.D. on the Cabütarä built over the remains of Viáälakirti. Äcärya Bhaûûäraka Árï Vijayakriti constructed the Cabütarä and footprints of Äcärya Árï Bhänukirti in 1744 A.D. at Ajamera whereas he actually passed away at Danta in Áekhäväûï. Paîâita Basantaräma constructed the Cabütarä of the Äcärya Ratnabhüÿaîa in 1756 A.D. The Cabütarä of Äcärya Devendrakïrti was built by Gaîeáïmala in 1757 A.D. Paîâita Basantaräma also constructed the Cabütarä over the remains of Tilakabhüÿaîa in 1754 A.D.

Pt. Tulasïdäsa constructed the Chatrï over the remains of Pt. Hemaräja, a disciple of Äcärya Räjakïrti. In 1754 A.D., the Pädukä of Pt. Vakasaräma was erected. In 1760 A.D., Pt. Daulataräma constructed the Pädukä of his teacher Rämachandra who was a pupil of Hemaräja. In 1761 A.D., Pt. Saväirama constructed the Cabütaräs of Pt. Rüpachanda, Pt. Malukacanda and Pt. Abhairäma. The Pädukä of Pt. Viradhicanda was erected in 1798 A.D. The Cabütarä of Pt. Pannäläla was built in 1844 A.D. Pt. Pannäläla was a disciple of Bhaûûäraka Bhuvanakïrti who repaired the throne of his master in 1818 A.D.

It is thus clear that several Bhaûûärakas, Äcäryas and Paîâitas lived and played an important part in the history of medieval Jaina society when there was anarchy. At this time, the Muslims were carrying on persecutions and destruction, and the Maräûhäs were raiding the different parts of the country. The life and property of the people became unsafe and insecure. Even at this time, Bhaûûärakas wandered from place to place without any anxiety and fear for the  propagation of Jainism.

Bhaûûärakas rendered valuable services to Jainism in medieval times. Some of the Bhaûûärakas like Sakalakïrti and Áubhacandra were great scholars who wrote their literary works in Sanskrit, Präkrit, Apabhraãáa, Hindi, Gujaräti and Räjasthänï languages. The preservation of manuscripts was the most valuable work done by them at this time. Several copies of the works on grammar, medicine, mathematics and similar subjects were prepared. They also contributed towards art and architecture. Installation of various images was considered to be their main work. As their Maûhas were cultural centres, they patronised music, painting, sculpture, dancing and other arts. In social sphere also, their services are remarkable. They often arranged long pilgrimages with a large number of followers. They sometimes looked after the management of the holy places; for instance, Árï Mahäviraji was managed by the Bhaûûärakas of Jaipur. Some of them possessed miraculous powers gained through Mantras. To walk through air, to remove the effect of poison and to make stone image speak are some of the miracles ascribed to them. They used to visit the courts of Hindu and Muslim rulers and induced them to observe the doctrine of Ahimsä by the prohibition of the slaughter of animals in their kingdom on certain fixed days of the year.

Caityaväsï System in Räjasthäna

The system of the Caityaväsï functioned in Räjasthäna with great success and advantage. A  Jaina monk according to the rule prescribed for him does not usually stay longer than one night in a village or five nights in a town. This practice is found in Jainism as well as in Buddhism; and it is an inheritance of Áramaîa culture. At the same time, there came gradually a good deal of laxity in the conduct of the saints.

Äcärya Dharmasägara in his Paûûävalï writes that in 355 A.D., this practice of Caityaväsï started.419 But according to Muni Kalyäîa Vijaya, it had originated even earlier and in 355 A.D., it had become well established practice.420 At present, the Yatis or Árïpüjyas in the Ávetämbaras and the Bhattärakas in the Digambaras are known as Maûhaväsï. All are collectively known as Caityavasï.

The Caityaväsï system seems to have developed in Rajasthana from about the 8th century A.D. The Jaina Äcäryas of Räjasthäna such as Haribadrasüri421 and Jinavallabhasüri422 had drawn the attention of the people towards the laxity in the ways of the monks. They resided in temples and used their wealth for their personal good. They put on even coloured or scented clothes. They are food or sweets fetched by the monks. They used to hoard money and relish delicious dishes. They used Sacitta water as well as fruits and flowers. They sold idols and purchased children in order to make them their disciples.

Áïlaguîasüri, the teacher of king Vanaräja Cävadä (765-825 A.D.) asked him to issue orders forbidding the stay of other saints except  Caityaväsï  saints in the city of Aîahilaväda. In order to violate it, in 957 A.D. Jineávarasüri and Buddhisägarasüri defeated the  Caityaväsïs in the debate in the royal court of Durlabharäja and thus sought permission for the admission of the Vidhimärga in Päûaî.

That Caityavuasïs had deviated considerably from the traditional ways of Jaina Sädhus is evident from several Jaina temples and idols installed by them. This was the practice of the laity and not of the Sädhus. But the Caityaväsïs saw no harm in these deviations and argued that what was meritorious for the laity was equally creditable for the Sädhus. There are inscriptions which give us information about the practice of the Caityaväsï in Räjasthäna. In 1354  A.D., Rämacandrasüri of Jïräpallï Gaccha for self-merit constructed the Devakulikü at Jïräpallï in Sirohi State.423 Hematilakasüri for the merit of his teacher constructed the Raõgamaîâapa of the temple at the village Varmäna in Sirohi State in 1389 A.D.424 In 1397 A.D., Väcaka Somaprabhasüri of Pispaläcärya Gaccha constructed an image  of Sumatinätha at Ajärï which was consecrated by Vïraprabhasüri.425 Vïraprabhasüri constructed the Maîâapa in 1418 A.D. at the village Vïraväâä.426 In 1464 A.D. Vijayaprabhasüri of Käccholïvälä Gaccha built the Devakulikä in the temple of Ajitanätha for the merit of Guîasägarasüri at Sirohi.427 Bhadreávarasüri for the merit of Tilaka Süri made Devakulikä of Ädinätha at Jïrapallï.428 Udaivardhana of Käccholïväla Gaccha built Devakulikä at Sirohi.429 Pärávadevasüri of Näîaka Gaccha with his disciple Vïracanda constructed Lagikä at the village Velära.430 Nanna Süri of Pratimäkadhära Pratishûhä Gachcha erected the image of Ädideva in the building at Vasantagadh.431

In the Digambara Jaina literature, there is no definite and clear mention of the time when the system of Caityaväsïs started. But that it was in existence in the 8th century A.D. in the south is known from several inscriptions. In Räjasthäna, the Bhaûûärakas were also in possession of villages and gardens. They renovated temples, constructed inns and gave good to other monks. It seems that, in spite of their being Caityaväsïs, the earlier Bhaûûärakas remained naked, and this was probably necessary in order to show their separation from the saints of the Ávetämbaras. At present, there is a tendency in the Bhaûûärakas to put off their clothes while eating food but wear them at all other times. It shows that they remained naked in the past and the practice of wearing clothes started afterwards.

In the domain of religion, the Bhaûûärakas were the spiritual heads. They enjoyed comforts and received money in various ways from the Árävakas. They possessed administrative powers and used to appoint the Paîâitas at different places in order to carry on the religious affairs.

Minor Protestant and Non-Protestant Sects

The effect of the Muslim invasions of the Jaina religion is seen in two ways. It brought different Jaina sects closer together for self-defence against the iconoclasts. At the same time, it drove others away from idolatry altogether. It, therefore, naturally divided both Digambaras and Ávetämbaras each into two divisions known as idol-worshippers and non-idol-worshippers. The sect of non-idol-worshippers reminds one of the early Hindu traditions of Vedänta and Nirguîa Bhakti movement of Kabïra and Nänaka. With the impact of the Muslim culture, some sections of Jains began to denounce idol worship with great vehemence. The following sects are the opponents of the idol worship in Rajasthan.

(a) Loõkä Sect : In Ahmedabada, Loõkä earned his livelihood by copying books in the Upäsarä of a Yati called Jñänajï. While writing these books, he was struck with the fact that idol worship was not mentioned them. He pointed it out to Jñänajï and others,  and a sharp controversy arose between them as to the desirability of idolatry. At last in 1451 A.D., he organized a new sect of his own called Loõkä Sect after his own name. He declared his disbelief in such  essential rites as PaushadhaPratikramaîaPratyäkhyäna and even in charity. He did not like the rites in which even the slightest touch of violence or injury was involved. The Muslims at this time were destroying the temples and the images. This gave him the opportunity to spread his doctrine well. Great slackness had also come in the mendicants, because they possessed not only the books and clothes but even wealth. There were mutual quarrels among them. For this type of behaviour, the people began to criticize them. He took advantage of all these circumstances in propagating his doctrines  by going from place to place.

Loõkä pronounced 31 Sütras as the foundation of his tenet and gave a new interpretation of such Sütras seemed to support image worship. He made such drastic changes in the Ävaáyakasütra that they altogether assumed a new form. In 1476 A.D., he met a man named Bhäîa, a native of Äräghaûapäûaka near Sirohi who took Sanyäsa without being initiated by any Acarya. This monk assumed the false name of Dhuîâhaka. In 1511 A.D., he secured a disciple called Rüpakajï and the old Vara Siãha became his disciples in 1521 A.D. and 1530 A.D. respectively. Thus, though Loõkäáäha himself was not initiated, others were initiated by him and became saints.

(b) Sthänakavasï Sect : Some of the members of the Loõks Sect disapproved of the lines of their Sädhus declaring that they lived less strictly than Mahävïra would have wished. A Loõkä layman Vïrajï of Sürat received initiation as a Sädhu and won great admiration through the strictness of his life. Many from the Loîkä Sect joined this reformer; and they took the name of Sthänakaväsïs while their enemies  called them Dhüãdhiyä. The followerss of this sect are found in all the important cities of Räjasthäna.

(c) Teräpanthï Sect : The founder of Teräpanthï Sect was Bhïkamajï. After a critical study of the scriptures, he came to know that the Jaina Sädhus were not leading their lives according to Áästric injunctions and were not promulgating the true principles of Jainism. The Sthänakväsïs stayed in the places specially set apart for Sädhus to live in. He began to stay even in the places meant for laymen. Once, a strange coincidence took place. Some Sädhus and laymen       both numbering thirteen were staying in a shop. This led a poet of the Sevaga class to compose a short parody ridiculing the sect and nicknaming it Teräpanthï (the path of thirteen). Bhïkamajï gave a very appropriate interpretation to it. He said the number indicated five great vows (Mahävrata), five rules of conduct (Samitis), and control of body, mind and speech (three Guptis).

Teräpanthïs do not worship idols. They think that worship of idols does not lead to salvation. They meditate upon and mentally worship those highly developed souls who have attained liberation. They worship and revere those living beings who have renounced the world asbsolutely and lead the life of asceticism  strictly observing the five great vows. The followers of this sect are mostly found in Bikanera and Jodhpura States.

Like the Ávetämbaras, the Digambaras were also divided into the sects of idol-worshippers and non-idol-worshippers. In course of time, the sect of idol-worshippers was further split into several sub-sects.

(a) Täraîasvämï, who was the revolutionary saint, born in V.S. 1505 at Pushpävatï Nagarï (Bailahari), near Katni in Madhya Pradesh. He raised his voice against the rituals of the Bhaûûärakas. He was highly influenced by the works of Kundakunda. He was against the Idol worship but emphasised on the worship of manuscripts in Jaina temples. He wrote 14 works, and out of them MälärohanajïPaõdita Püjäjï and Kamala Battïsïji are important. He died in V.S. 1572.432

(b) Teräpanthi Sect : The idolatrous sect of Teräpanthïs was founded by Pt. Banarasidas, a resident of Ajgra. It became rapidly popular in Rajputana in the 17th century. Originally, it was known as Vidhimärga but its opponents nicknamed it as Teräpanthïs just to ridicule it. The Teräpanthïs protested against the elaborate ritualism of the Bhaûûärakas. During the lifetime of Banärasïdäsa, the great scholar and reformer of Agra, this sect gained great popularity. It is defined by some as a sect which emphasizes the thirteen points of self discipline for building up the character; others, however, believe that the name was given by its opponents to ridicule it.433 The Digambara Teräpanthïs are held in contempt by the Bhaûûärkas like the Ávetämbara Teräpanthïs by the Árïpüjyas. Bakhata Räma in the Buddhiviläsa says that this sect differs from the original faith in thirteen points; and hence, it is called Teräpanthï. The Teräpanthïs do not recognize the superior position of the Bhaûûärkas. The Teräpanthïs of the Ávetämbaras and the Digambaras differ from each other. The former do not worhsip the images while the later do. The Digambara Teräpanthïs worship the images but not with the flowers, fruits, sandal and prakÿäla. The worship, in this way according to them, involves Hiãsä and therefore militates against the fundamental principles of Jainism.

(c) Gumänapanthi Sect : Gumänapanthï Sect flourished in the 18th century A.D. and was so called after the name of its founder Gumänïräma, the son of Pt. Toâarmal of Jaipur. It was also known as Áuddhämnäya, because particular emphasis was laid on the purity of conduct of its followers by imposing certain rules of discipline on them. This sect spread in several parts of Rajasthana outside Jaipur such as Märotha, Bhädavä etc.

(d) Bïsapanthi Sect : The Bïsapanthïs are the followers of the Bhaûûärakas. They assumed its name because they thought that they were superior to Teräpanthïs. This sect permits idol worship and supports the cult and methods of the Bhaûûärakas. In this sect, the idols are worshipped with water, lamp, flowers and sandal. The followers of this sect are found in Jaipur, Ajamera, Nagaura and Märoûha.

(e) Totäpanthi Sect : In course of time, an attempt was made for the compromise between Bïsapanthïs and Teräpanthïs. A new sect known as Totäpanthï came into existence. This sect partly consists of Bïsapanthï Sect and partly Teräpanthï Sect. It is, therefore, also known as Säâhï Soläha Panthï Sect. It remained confined only to Nagaur.

These idolatrous sects do not materially differ from each other in the Digambaras. Their founders namely Amara Canda Baâajätyä and Gumänï Räma were anxious to maintain the individuality of their sects; and hence, the nominal differences were emphasized.

  1.       Daráanasära, p.7.
  2.       Áramaîa Bhagvän Mahävïra, IV, P. 269
  3.       Ibid, p. 272
  4.       EI, XXI, p. 85; IHQ, 1934, p. 57.
  5.       JACOBI H : Encylopedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. VII, p. 473.
  6.       VILAS A. SANGAVE : Jaina community – A Social Survey, pp. 50-51.
  7.       Kalpasütra, S.B.E., Vol. 22, p. 288 f.
  8.       E I, I, No. XIX, p. 391.
  9.       Lüders : EpigNotes. IA, XXXIII, p. 109
  10.       E I, II, p. 382.
  11.       BUHLER On the Indian Sect of the Jainas, p. 55.
  12.       E I, I, No. VI, pp. 385, 87, 88, 97, 96 and 289.
  13.       E.I., I, VI, pp. 385, 87, 88, 97, 96 and 289.
  14.       Kalpäsütra, SBE, XXII, p. 293.
  15.       E I, XX, pp. 59-61
  16.       JSLS, Nos. 96, 99.
  17.       Ibid, 90, 94.
  18.       JSLS, Nos. 90, 94.
  19.       Ibid Nos. 111, 113, 114, and 149.
  20.       Ibid, No. 193
  21.       Ibid, No. 113.
  22.       Ibid, No. 114.
  23.       Ibid, No. 149.
  24.       Ibid, No. 193.
  25.       JSLS, Nos. 175, 195, 196 and 223.
  26.       Ibid, V, No. 55.
  27.       Ibid, No. 66.
  28.       Ibid, No. 130.
  29.       Ibid, No. 183.
  30.       Ibid, No. 139.
  31.       JSLS, V, No. 74.
  32.       Ibid, No. 262.
  33.       Ibid, IV, Nos. 292, 335, 416 and 538.
  34.       Ibid, Nos. 290, 310, 369, 378, 382, 606 and 642.
  35.       Ibid, No. 164.
  36.       Ibid, Nos. 180 and 222.
  37.       Ibid, No. 54.
  38.       Ibid, IV, No. 94.
  39.       JSLS, II No. 217.
  40.       Ibid, No. 372.
  41.       Ibid, IV, Nos. 83 and 169.
  42.       Ibid, Nos. 193, 229 and 256.
  43.       Ibid Nos. 126, 139 and 140.
  44.       JSLS, No. 1, 180.
  45.       Ibid, Nos. 122, 123, and 135.
  46.       Ibid, No. 123.
  47.       Ibid, No. 150.
  48.       Ibid, No. 166
  49.       JSLS, N. 55.
  50.       Ibid, No. 137.
  51.       Ibid, IV, No. 61.
  52.       Ibid, No. 134.
  53.       Ibid, III, No. 186, 217 and 511.
  54.       Ibid, No. 138.
  55.       Ibid, II, No. 165.
  56.       Ibid, No. 147.
  57.       JSLS, IVI, No. 185, 234, 269, 318, 490 and 541.
  58.       Ibid, No. 185.
  59.       Ibid, IV, No. 117.
  60.       JSLS, III, No. 153.
  61.       Ibid, No. 158.
  62.       Ibid, Nos, 237-238.
  63.       Ibid, No. 17.
  64.       Ibid Nos. 163-165.
  65.       Ibid, IV, No. 96.
  66.       JSLS, No. IV, No. 212, 291, 323, 476, 565 and 609.
  67.       Ibid, No. 476.
  68.       Ibid, No. 214.
  69.       Ibid, No. 603.
  70.       Ibid, III, Nos. 267, 277, 299 and 353.
  71.       Ibid, 209, 263, 313, 377, 389, 408, 431, 459, 582.
  72.       Ibid, IV, No. 240
  73.       Medieval Jainism, P. 327.
  74.       Ibid, IV, No. 154.
  75.       JSLS, III, No. 208.
  76.       Ibid, IV, No. 55.
  77.       Ibid, IV, No. 157.
  78.       Ibid, Nos. 342, 376.
  79.       Ibid, III, No. 569.
  80.       Ibid, No. 585.
  81.       Ibid, IV, No. 390, p. 13.
  82.       JSLS, III, No. 99.
  83.       Ibid, No. 100.
  84.       Ibid, No. 105.
  85.       Ibid, Nos. 99, 100, 105.
  86.       Ibid, I, Nos. 106, 121, 124 and 142.
  87.       Ibid, III, No. 124.
  88.       Ibid, No. 106.
  89.       Ibid, No. 121.
  90.       Ibid, No. 124.
  91.       Ibid, No. 106.
  92.       JSLS, III, No. 121.
  93.       Ibid, No. 124.
  94.       Ibid, No. 250.
  95.       Ibid, No. 143.
  96.       Ibid, No. 144.
  97.       JSLS, III, No. 130.
  98.       Ibid, No. 182.
  99.       Ibid, Nos. 160 and 205.
  100.       JSLS, IV, No. 20.
  101.       Ibid, Nos. 70, 131, 611 and 612.
  102.       Ibid, No. 70.
  103.       Ibid, No. 131.
  104.       Ibid, Nos. 611 and 612.
  105.      Ibid, Nos. 130, 259, 168, 607.
  106.       Ibid, No. 259.
  107.       Ibid, No. 168.
  108.       Ibid, No. 607.
  109.       JSLS, IV, Nos. 207, 368 and 386.
  110.       Ibid, No. 209.
  111.       Ibid, Nos. 143, 298, 300 and 384.
  112.       Ibid, V, No. 70.
  113.       Ibid, No. 86.
  114.       Ibid, No. 125.
  115.       JSLS, V, No. 117
  116.       Ibid, III, No. 103.
  117.       Ibid, No. 104.
  118.       Ibid, No. 104.
  119.       JSLS, III, No. 166.
  120.       Ibid, No. 178
  121.       Ibid, Nos. 188, 189, 190, 192, 202, 214, 215, 216 and 226.
  122.       JSLS, III, Nos. 213, 214, 215, 216.
  123.       Ibid, IV, No. 175.
  124.       Ibid, No. 282
  125.       Ibid, No. 344.
  126.       Ibid, Nos. 252, 357 and 409.
  127.       JSLS, V, Nos. 14-15.
  128.       Ibid, No. 56.
  129.       Ibid, No. 104.
  130.       Ibid, No. 111.
  131.       J.S.L.S., III, Nos. 633 and 640.
  132.       Jaina Siddhänta Bhaskara, Vol. 2, IV, pp. 28-29.
  133.       J.S.L.S. IV, No. 22.
  134.       Ibid, No. 56.
  135.       Áramaîa Bhagavän Mahävïra, Vol, V, Pt. II. Sthavirävalï, p. 2.
  136.       PJS, Pt. I, No. 3.
  137.       MJI., No. 833 and 834.
  138.       APJLS.
  139.       NJI., Pt. I, II & III.
  140.       I.A., Vol. IX, p. 248.
  141.       NJI. Pt. III.
  142.       Áramaîa Bhagavän Mahävïra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavirävalï, p. 75.
  143.       Áramaîa B.M.
  144.       APJLS.
  145.       NJI. Pt. I, II & III and PLS.
  146.       Áramaîa Bhagvän Mahävïra, Vol. V. Pt. II. Sthavirävalï, p. 65.
  147.       NJI. Pt. II, III, PLS. Pt. I, and APJLS.
  148.       Áramaîa Bhagvän Mahävïra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavirävalï, p. 65.
  149.       NJI. Pt. I, II and III & APJLS.
  150.       Áramaîa Bhagvän Mahävïa, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavirävalï, Pt. II, p. 66.
  151.       NJI. Pt. I, II and III & APJLS.
  152.       NJI., No. 899.
  153.       APJLS.
  154.       NJI. No. 792.
  155.       NJI., Pt. I & II.
  156.       APJLS.
  157.       PLS. No. 106.
  158.       IA., V. XI, p. 250.
  159.       IA., V. XI, p. 250.
  160.       Áraman Bhagavän Mahävïra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavirävalï, p. 176.
  161.       Áraman Bhagavän Mahävïra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavirävalï p. 176.
  162.       APJLS. No. 138 & 141.
  163.       NJI., Pt II No. 1275.
  164.       Ibid. Pt. III.
  165.       NJI., Pt. I, No. 970 & 971.
  166.       APJLS.
  167.       Ibid., No. 425.
  168.       APJLS. Nos. 396, 470, 471, 472 and 473.
  169.       NJI., Pt. No. 764.
  170.       Ibid., No. 899.
  171.       NJI., Pt. I, II & III.
  172.       APJLS., No. 319.
  173.       NJI., Pt. III.
  174.       NJI., Pt. I, II and III & APJLS., Nos. 82 & 142.
  175.       NJI., Nos. 789, 1313 & 2278. APJLS., No. 348.
  176.       APJLS., No. 620.
  177.       NJI., No. 738.
  178.       Ibid., No. 1000.
  179.       NJI., No. 1236.
  180.       Ibid., Nos. 1080 & 1017.
  181.       NJI., No. 530.
  182.       APJLS., No. 66.
  183.       APJLS.
  184.       NJI., Pt. I, II & III.
  185.       APJLS.
  186.       NJI., Pt. III.
  187.       Ibid., Nos. 1111, 1143 & 1031.
  188.       APJLS., Nos. 74 and 119.
  189.       APJLS.
  190.       Ibid., No. 110.
  191.       NJI., No. 811.
  192.       NJI., Pt. I, II & III.
  193.       APJLS.
  194.       NJI., Pt. I, No. 791.
  195.       APJLS., No. 404.
  196.       NJI., Pt. II & III & APJLS.
  197.       APJLS., No. 366.
  198.       Ibid.
  199.       NJI., Pt. III.
  200.       PLS., Nos. 5 & 23.
  201.       NJI., Pt. II & III.
  202.       PLS., No. 43.
  203.       NJI., Pt. II & III.
  204.       NJI., Nos. 2478 & 577.
  205.       Ibid., Nos. 533 & 539.
  206.       Catalogue of the MSS in the Patan Bhaîâäras, p. 312.
  207.       NJI., No. 1295.
  208.       IA., XI, p. 249.
  209.       ARRMA. Yr. 1923 No. IX.
  210.       PLS., Nos. 49, 124 & 256.
  211.       IA., XIV, p. 8.
  212.       IA., XI, p. 248.
  213.       NJI., Nos. 734, 1267, 1315 & pt. III.
  214.       I.A., XI, 249.
  215.       NJI., No. 1059.
  216.       APJLS., No. 408.
  217.       NJI., No. 604.
  218.       NJI., Nos. 849, 850 and 851.
  219.       NJI., Pt. III.
  220.       IA., XI, pp. 248-249.
  221.       NJI., No. 597.
  222.       Ibid., No. 1288.
  223.       NJI., No. 717.
  224.       NJI., No. 616.
  225.       NJI., Nos. 2218 & 2232.
  226.       Ibid., Nos. 2220-22 & 2415.
  227.       Ibid., No. 2269.
  228.       Ibid., 1159.
  229.       NJI., No. 1174.
  230.       Ibid., No. 1194.
  231.       Ibid., 1042.
  232.       NJI., No 1998.
  233.       Ibid., 1078.
  234.       APJLS. Nos. 9, 454 & 466.
  235.       NJI., Pt. III.
  236.       NJI. No. 966.
  237.       NJI., Pt. III.
  238.       ABJLS, No. 575.
  239.       NJI, Pt. I & III.
  240.       Ibid, Nos. 1167, 1169 and 1246.
  241.       Sramana Oct. -Dec. 1995, p. 28.
  242.       Ibid, 1997, pp. 81-82.
  243.       Malaväñchala Ke Jaina-lekha.
  244.       MUNI KANTISAGAR : Jaina Dhäthu Pratïma Lekha Saãgraha, I.
  245.       Mälavänchala Ke Jaina-Lekha. pp. 77-78.
  246.       P.C. NAHAR : Jaina Inscriptions III, Nos. 403-425.
  247.       E.I., I, P. 120.
  248.       Jaina Jorunal Mahavïra Jayantï Special, pp. 195-196.
  249.       K.M.T.J., II, p. 410.
  250.       Bhaûûäraka Sampradäya, p. 239.
  251.       Bhaûûäraka Sampradäya,
  252.       KMTJ, p. 505.
  253.       Ibid, p. 505.
  254.       Vïravänï, VI, p. 355.
  255.       Ibid, V, p. 41.
  256.       Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 72.
  257.       Ibid,
  258.       E.I., XXIV, p. 84.
  259.       ARRMA, 1925-26, No. 3.
  260.       Mälaväñchala Ke Jaina-lekha, Nos 3, 6 and 7.
  261.       Bhaûûäraka Sampradäya, p. 239.
  262.       Bhaûûäraka Sampradäya, pp. 241-242.
  263.       Ibid, p. 211.
  264.       Ibid,
  265.       Bhandarkar List No. 161; ARADGS, 1973, No. 48.
  266.       Bhaûûaraka Sampradäya, p. 211.
  267.       Malävanchala Ke Jaina-Lekha, Nos. 217, 209, 198 and 106.
  268.       KAMTA PRASAD – Pôatimä Lekha Saãgrah, Nos. 60, 56 and 20.
  269.       Udaipur Räjya Kä Itihäsa, p. 41.
  270.       PRAS, WC, 1909-10, P. 52.
  271.       Malaväñchala Ke Jaina-Lekha, No. 59.
  272.       Mälaväñchala Ke Jaina-Lekha, No. 170.
  273.       E.I., II, pp. 232-240.
  274.       K.M.T.A., p. 505.
  275.       Mälaväñchala Ke Jaina-Lekha, Nos, 7, 167, 215, 216.
  276.       Bhaûûäraka Sampradäya, pp. 293-294.
  277.       JSLS, V, p.No. 98.
  278.       Mälaväñchala Ke Jaina-Lekha, p. 24, No. 7.
  279.       PR 1883-84; I.A., XX and IA XXI.
  280.       PRAS. WC, 1903-04, p. 46.
  281.       E.I., XXIV, p. 84.
  282.       JSLS. No. 208.
  283.       JBBRAS, No. XLIV, Vol. XVII, p. 163 and PR 1883-84.
  284.       Bhaûûäraka Sampradäya.
  285.       Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 74.
  286.       KMTA, p. 505.
  287.       Jainism in Rajasthan,
  288.       Mälväñchala Ke Jaina Lekha.
  289.       KAMATA PRASAD JAIN : Pratima Lekha Saãgraha.
  290.       NJI, No, 1009.
  291.       Vïraväîï, VII.
  292.       Anekänta, XIII, p. 126.
  293.       Ibid.
  294.       JGPS, p. 10 (Int.)
  295.       Ibid.
  296.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1490 ���� �҇��� �Ȍ� 9 ��� �͋���ʊ ���˂��ʊ ����ݧʦU ��ʊ ��US��� ��U� ��� �ȧ��ȧ�����ʸ��� �^�UʦUݧ ��� �l���� ��^ÔŠU ��� �ݧ�ݧ��ø �U������Ø ��U���U ���� �ʢ�� �˂� ���ʸ �ʢ�� ��� ��� ��ߢ� ���ʸ ��U�� ���� �ː� ���ʸ �Uʄ�U ���� �ʟ� ���ʸ ���U�ȧ ���� �ʋ� ���ʸ ��U��� �͋���ݧ ��� ������� ����c��U ݧʦU���� ���ʊ ��� ݧ������U S�ݧ�� ����ո� 1476 ݧ� �֡ҟ ��. ��.
  297.       Anek�nta, XIII, p. 126.
  298.       In the Jaina temple at Jaipur.
  299.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1515 ���� �Ȍ� 11 ��� �͋���ʊ ����ݧʦU ��ʊ ��US��� �뿊U ��� �Ȣ���Ȣ�����ʸ��� �. ��� �ݧ�ݧ��ø ��^ÔŠU �. �ȝ�ݧ��ø ��U������Ø ��U���U������ ��� �ʦU� ���� �ʄU�� ߌ� ����� ���ʐ�Ö  (In the temple of Chaudharis, Jaipur). ���Ø 1496 �҇�ʝ �Ȍ� -11 ��� �^�UʦUݧ ��� ������� �^�UʦUݧ ��� �ݧ�ݧ��ø ݧ� �U���� – ��. ��. ݧ��ø ���
  300.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1516 ���� ���ʝ�� 5 �ȦU� ��� �͋���� �. �ȝ�ݧ��ø ������ �ȦU� ��. �ʄUʋ� ��� ��Uݧ�ʋ� �Uʋ� �Ê ��� ���� ��� ���ʐ�Ö (On the metal image in the temple of Lunakarana, Jaipur).
  301.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1528 ���� �҇��� ��� 1 �͋���ʊ ��� �ȝ�ݧ��ø �U������Ø ��. �ʬ� ���ʸ ���� ����� ���ʐ�Ö (Inscription on a Yantra in the temple of Chaudharis, Jaipur)
  302.       NJI., No. 1120.
  303.       Anek�nta, XIII, P. 126.
  304.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1570 ���� �ٷ – �Ê ��� ������� ����ʦU�� ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  305.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1595 ���� �҇��� �Ȍ� x �ِ� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� �����㺲 �U������Ø ���� ���ʸ ���ʌ� ����� ������Ö
  306.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1607 ���� �҇��� ��� �ȦU� �ʪ���U ���ʊ �ʪ�ʫ�U� ���S�ʟ� �U� ï¿½ï¿½ �Uʝ� �ʷݧ�U�� ���� �U���� ��� ������� ����ʋ�� ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� �����㺲 ��M�������Ø �U. ���Uʡ� ���� �ʝ�U ��. ���U�ͧ ��� �ʊ ��, ��. ��U��, ���. �ʊ ���, ��. ����ʂ, ��. �M���� �� ݧ����ʟ ���ʸ�� ݧ�����ݧ���� (In the temple of Laskara, Jaipur).
  307.       NJI., No. 520.
  308.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1620 ���� �҇��� �Ȍ� 9 �Ȝ� ��� �͋���ʊ ��US��� �뿊U � �. ��� �Ȑ��ݧ��ø ��L�������Ø ��U���U����� ��U�� ���ʊ �� �æUÊ©U� ��. ��Uʂ�� �ʢ �Uʐ� ��. �Uʐʌ� ��. ������� ��. ݧ���� ��. �ٟ�, ����, ��. ���U���� ��� �k��� ��� ��� ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  309.       NJI., No 1636.
  310.       Ibid., No. 631.
  311.       Anek�nta; XIII; p: 126.
  312.       ARRMA, 1919-20 Nos. 1 & 6.
  313.       Inscription in the temple of P��od� at Jaipur.
  314. ���� 1661 ���� �ʄU�Ȍ� �ِ� ��� �͋���ʊ �. ��� �����ͷ�� ��M�������Ø ��U�� ��. �U��ȧ ��. �ʦU� ��. �˦U�ʄU����� �٫�U� ݧʦU�� ���� ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  315.       Anek�nta, XIII, p. 127.
  316.       Ibid.
  317.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1751 ���c�U �Ȍ� 5 �ِ� ��ǝ��U���ʊ �ʪ�Ê� ��� �͋���ʊ ��� ������� ����ʋ�� ��US��� �뿊U ����ݧʦU ��ʊ �ȧ��ȧ����ʸ��� �. ��� �ݧ�ݧ��ø ����� �. ��� �k���� ����� �. ��� ����㺲 ݧ��ø ��^ÔŠU �. ��� �ʊ�ݧ��ø ��M�������Ø ��� �ِ� ��� ��S� ��� ���� ��U��U ݧʦU����� ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  318.       PRAS. wc., 1904-05, p. 57.
  319.       PS, p. 177.
  320.       Ibid., p. 138.
  321.       Ibid., p. 170.
  322.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1517 ���� ���� �Ȍ� 10 �U�� ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� ����㺲���� ����U��ʋ���� �ʄU �U�U�UÊ¡ ���ʸ �ʄUݧ ���� �ʌ� �ʄU��U�  (Jaina temple of Patodi, Jaipur).���� 1299 ���� �Ȍ� 9 ��� ��. ��. �U— ���
  323.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1523 ���� ��ʅ��U �Ȍ� 2 ��L� ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� �k�������� ��^ÔŠU ��� �����㺲���� ��^ÔŠU��� ����㺲���� ����U�ʋ ����� ���U�ʫ��U�� ���ʊ �ʄU ����� ���ʸ �M� ���� ���� ��U�����, �U˦U� ��U�� ����� ���ʐ�� (Jaina temple Siramauriya, Jaipur).
  324.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1532 ���� �҇��� �Ȍ� 7 ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ����㺲���� ��ʊ�U�ʋ���� �ʄU �U�ݧ� ���� ݧʟ� ���ʸ ����� �S� ���� ��� ��U�ʩU ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  325.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1518 ���� �҇��� �Ȍ� 3 ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� ����㺲���� �ʄU �˝�UÊ¡ �ʬ��U˝ʋ� ����� ���ʐ�� �Uʡ� �������U �Uʝ� �ʄU�U �Ȣ�UÊ‚Ê–
  326.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1571 ���� ���c�U �Ȍ� 2 �ِ� ��� �͋���ʊ �ȧ��ȧ����ʸ��� �. ��� ����㺲���� ����� ����U��ʋ���� ���U�ʫ�U �ي�ʊ� �� ����U ��. �ȄUʪ�� �S� ���� �Ր�, ����ʂ, ����ʂ, �Ր� ���� �ʡ�, ����� ���U�� �Ê ���ʐ�Ö
  327. 326      PS., P. 154.
  328.       Ibid., p. 98.
  329.       Ibid., p. 177.
  330.       Ibid., p. 96.
  331.       Ibid., p. 147.
  332.       Ibid., p. 167.
  333.       Ibid., p. 163
  334.       Ibid., p. 164.
  335.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1573 �������� �Ȍ� 3 ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� ����㺲���� �Ø �^�UʦUݧ ��� �����㺲���� ����U��ʋ���� �Uʒ��U� ���ʊ ��. �Uˋ� ���ʐ�Ö
  336.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1573 ��ʪ��� �Ȍ� 3 ��� �͋���ʊ ��US��� �뿊U ����ݧʦU ��ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� �ȧ��ȧ����ʸ��� �. ����㺲���� ��^ÔŠU ��� �����㺲���� ����� �����U��ʋ���� ݧʋ� ���ʊ ��� �UÙ„U� ���ʸ ݧʐ� ����� �k� ��. �k�� ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  337.       PS., p.2.
  338.       Ibid., pp. 36 & 37.
  339.       Ibid., p. 96.
  340.       Ibid., p. 131.
  341.       Ibid., p. 99.
  342.       Ibid., p. 174.
  343.       PS., p. 127.
  344.       Ibid., p. 128.
  345.       Ibid., p. 200.
  346.       Ibid., p. 149.
  347.       Ibid., p. 170.
  348.       Ibid., p. 88.
  349.       Ibid., p. 175.
  350.       Ibid., p. 55.
  351.       Ibid., p. 148.
  352.       Ibid., p. 99.
  353.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1590 ���� �Ȍ� 7 �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ �����㺲 �Ø ���c� ���U������ ����㺲 ����� �ʄU �ʊ�� ���ʸ ������ �� ����� ���ʸ ����ʌ� �Ø ���� �ʋ� ���ʐ�Ö (Temple of Lu�akaranaj�, Jaipur).
  354.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1590 ���� �ʄU �Ȍ� 4 �Ȝ�ʦ�U ��� �͋���ʊ ��l����� ����ݧʦU��ʊ ��US��� �뿊U ��� �Ȣ���Ȣ������ʸ��� �. ��� �����㌌��� �Ø ���c� �^�UʦUݧ ����㌌��� ����� ����U��ʋ���� �ȄU���U�� ���ʊ �� �ʟ� ��. ���� ����� ��. �ʜʝ� ��. ���U��� ����� �ʦUʄ�U� �ʋ����� ����� �������Ö (Temple of Lunakaranji, Jaipur).
  355.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1593 ���c�U �Ȍ� 3 ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� �����㺲���� �Ø ���c� ���U������ ����� ����� �����U��ʋ���� �ʄU ���ʊ �ʄU�� � ���ʸ �U�U���� � ���� �ʄU �ʂ� �ʄU ��U�� ���ʐ�Ö
  356.       P.S., p. 163.
  357.       Ibid., p. 77
  358.       Ibid., p. 162.
  359.       Ibid., p. 94.
  360.       Ibid., p. 169.
  361.       Ibid., p. 17.
  362.       Ibid., p. 190.
  363.       ARAMA, 1927-28, No.11.
  364.       PS., p. 125.
  365.       Ibid., p. 132.
  366.       Ibid., p. 73.
  367.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1642 ���� �����͟ ��� 7 �Ȝ�ʂ��U ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� �����㺲���, �. ����㺲���, �. ��� �㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����U��ʋ���� ��� ���ʊ ��. ��ݧ� ���ʸ ����� ���� ��Պ�� ��UÊ„U� ����U�UÊ¡ �Ê ���ʐ�� �
  368.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1641 ���� �����͟ ��� 7 �Ȝ� ��� �͋���ʊ ���U������ ������ �Ø ���U������ ��� ����� �㐢�U������ ����ݧ��ø �Ø ����ݧ��ø ����� ����U��ʋ���� ݧ�U�ݧ�U� ���� �ʄU ݧʋ� ���� ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  369.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1641 ���� �����ȟ ��� 2 ��h� ��� �͋���ʊ �. ��� �㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����U��ʋ���� �ٟ� ���ʊ ���� ��. �� ��, �� ���� ��. ������ �� �� ���� �� ��. ݧ�����, �� �UÊ¡ ����� �������
  370.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1641 ���� �����ȟ �Ȍ� 7 �Ȝ� ��� �͋���ʊ �. ��� �㺲ݧ��ø���� ����� ����U��ʋ���� �لU�U� �ي�ʊ� ��. �U� ��. �߸�� ��. ݧ�ʜ�U, �� ���U� ��U�U��U�ʂ ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  371.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1648 �҇��� �ʂ �ʝʬȦU ����U ��� �Uʡ� �ʟ����U ��� �͋���ʊ �. ��� �㺲ݧ��ø ��M�� �����Ø ����U��ʋ �ʒ��U� ���ʊ ��. ���U� ÊŠï¿½ ��. �ȄUʪ���˟� ���� �� ��ʦU� �� �� ��U��UÊ¡ �� ��. �U�U���� ��ʦU� ��. �ʳU��� �Uʐ �� ��. ����� ���� �� ��U���  ï¿½ï¿½ �ʟ����U �� �ʟ����U ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  372.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1648 �҇��� ��� 5 ��� �͋���ʊ �. ��� �㺲ݧ��ø ����U��ʋ���� ����ʋ ����ҥ �ʄU ����, ��. �˟� ����� ��ʸ Ì����ʸ ߫�U� ��� ���� �� �������� ���ʐ�Ö
  373.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1651 ���� ���� �Ȍ� 10 ��������U �͋���ʊ �㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����U��ʋ���� �ʳU�� ���ʊ �ʄU ���� �� ���� �ʄU �ʟ� �� ���� �ʄU �U�
  374.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1651 ���� ���� �Ȍ� �����ʐ �ȦU� �^�UʦUݧ ��� �㺲ݧ��ø���� �����U� ���ʊ �ʄU �͢�� ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  375.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1658 �ʷʅ�U �Ȍ� 10 �U���ʦ�U � �. ��� �㺲ݧ��ø���� ����� ����U��ʋ���� �ق� ���� �����U ��S�� �� ����U� ����� ��� ��. ��, m�. �U�U�, ��. ��. ���� �� ���� ����U� ����� ��U�� ����� ��. ��U��, �˝�, �� ����U� ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  376.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1661 ���� �����ȟ �Ȍ� 2 ��� �͋���ʊ ���U������ ��� �㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����U��ʋ���� ���� ���ʊ Ջ� ����� �ʇ�ʟ�� ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  377.       ARRMA, 1927-28, p.11.
  378.       PS. p. 76.
  379.       Ibid., p. 89.
  380.       Ibid., p. 28.
  381.       Ibid., pp. 189-90.
  382.       ARRMA., 1927-28, No. 12.
  383.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1709 �����ȟ ��� 7 ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ����㺲ݧ��ø �� ���c� ���U㺲ݧ��ø ��� ����� �U��ݧ�U�����ʢ ����U� ���U�Ø ���U�ʦU����U ����ݧ ����c�U���Ö
  384.       See above, p. 48.
  385.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1711 ���� ���� �Ȍ� 4 �ِ� ��� �͋���ʊ ��k�����…. �^�UʦUݧ ��� ���U㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����ʋ���� ��� ���ʊ ��. ����Uʐ ����� �Uٝ������ ��������U� ���ʝ��ʐ� ������������ �ʄU �USßʪ�Ȧ�U ��ʪ�� ����c�U����ʖ ������U ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  386.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1716 ���� ���� ��� 4 �ِ� ��� �͋���ʊ � ��� 108 ���U㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����ʋ���� ������� ����Uʐ ���ʊ ���������� �������U� ���ʝ��� ����c�U� ݧʦU����ʖ
  387.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1716 ���� ���� ��� 4 �ِ� ��� �͋���� � �^�UʦUݧ ��� ���U㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����ʋ���� ��� ���ʊ �� �����Uʐ ����� ���������� ��������U� ���ʝ��� ������� ���ʊ� ��U �USßʪ�Ȧ�U ��ʪ�� ����c�U���� � ������U ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  388.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1729 �����ȟ �Ȍ� 9 �͋���ʊ ����ݧʦU��ʊ ��US��˪뿊U �. ��� �Ȧ�U㺲ݧ��ø ����� ���ʄU� �ʄU ��U�U��U�ʂ ���ʄU� �ͦU�ʟ�� ����c�U��ʐ �ꐊ� ������U�
  389.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1732 ���� ���c�U �Ȍ� 2 ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� �Ȧ�U㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����U��ʋ���� �Μ��ʋ ���ʊ ���ʄU� ��� ��U�U�U�ʂ ���ʟ� ��� �ʐ��U ��S�� ��� ��ʂ˦Uʐ �S� S��� ��ٳU��� ��� ���� �� ��Ր ���� �ʌ٦U�� �S� S��� �قʌ� �m��� ���� �U��ݧ�U�� �Ê ����c�U� �ꐊ� �����U ݧ���U�ʖ
  390.       Ps. p. 4.
  391.       Ibid., 29.
  392.       Ibid. p. 174.
  393.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1743 ݧ��øݧ �Ȍ� 15 ݧ�U��U ���U ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� ���ݧ��ø �����  ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½U��ʋ���� ���ʄU� �ٟ�ʋ�� ����c�U� ݧʦU����ʖ
  394.       See above, p. 36.
  395.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1766 ���� �Ȍ� 6 ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ���ݧ��ø ���ʄU� U�^�UʦUݧ ��� ��ʋ�ʂ ����c�U� ݧ�U����ʖ
  396.       Ps., p. 7.
  397.       Ibid., p. 77.
  398.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1773 �������� �ʂ ���ċ ��ʊ ������ ��Տ ��� �͋���ʊ —- ��� ����㺲ݧ��ø ����� ����U��ʋ���� �ȄU����U�� ���ʊ �ً��U ����U ���ʄU� �UË„U��U���� ����c�U� ݧ�U����� � (Temple of Chaudharis, Jaipur).
  399.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1783 ����� ��� 8 �Ȝ� �ʢ��لU ����U �^�UʦUݧ ��� ����㺲ݧ��ø ����� ���UÊ«U��� ���ʊ ���ʄU� ��� �U���Uʐ�� ����c�U� ݧ���U�ʖ �ҥ�� ��ҦUÊ¡ ����� ���ʐ�Ö
  400.       PS., pp. 48 and 56.
  401.       Ibid., p. 124.
  402.       Ibid., p. 219.
  403.       See above, p. 47.
  404.       PS., p. 48.
  405.       Ibid., p. 56.
  406.       See above p. 47.
  407.       See above p. 47.
  408.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1572 ݧ� ��ʪ��� ��� 6 �U���ʦ�U �^�UʦUݧ�� ��� �U�ݧ��ø�� ݧ� �U��˖
  409.       PS., p. 21.
  410.       Ibid., p. 108.
  411.       ARRMA, 1934-35, Non.
  412.       PS., p. 20.
  413.       ï¿½ï¿½Ëï¿½ï¿½ �^�UʦUݧ�� ��� 108 ��� ���ݧ��ø�� �S� �ʐ��� ݧ� ��� ���� ����Uʂ� ݧ�U��� ���U��� ��U�ʂ� ����U ��. 1672 ݧ� ���� �������� �Ȍ� 5�
  414.       Ajmer Historical and Descriptive, p. 123.
  415.       See above, p. 48.
  416.       See above, p. 43.
  417.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1814 ݧ� ���� �ʷʅ�U �Ȍ� 10 ���� ��ِ�� �^�UʦUݧ ��� ����ݧ��ø ��UʦUÊ¡ ��UÙ¦U��U ����U ��� ��Ȑʸ� �ݧ�ٖ
  418.       ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 1852 �҇��� �ʄU ���ċ ��ʊ ���� ���ʟ�� ��L��ʂ��U �����U ��UʌȪ�� �˥���� ���æUʝ�� �U���� ��� �͋���ʊ �^�UʦUݧ ��� �ȝ�ݧ��øS����� ����ʋ ���� ���ʄU� ����ʂ�� ߌ� ���� ݧʦU����ʖ
  419.       ï¿½ï¿½UʦU�c��U ����U ���� �U��� �����㌦�U  ï¿½ÊÊ¢ ��c�U� ����� ������æU ��. 1862 ݧ� ���� ���� �ʂʅ�U �ʂ� �Χc�� ��ʊ ����� �c�U��ʐ �����ʦ�U ��� �͋���ʊ ��l����� � �����U �^ÔŠU ������ �^�UʦUݧ�� ��� 108 ��� �ȝ�ݧ��ø��, ����U� ݧʋͦUʐ � �����c�Uݧ ���U� ��UʦU��U ��ʦU��� �ʄUÊ¢ ݧ� ��c�U� ݧ� ��S� ��� ��� ��Uʡ�� ��ʝݧ �����ݧ� ��ʸ�ȦUʪ �ʝ ���U� �U���ʖ �ʿU ���� ���� �ʦU��U���� ��� �ʢ�ݧ�U ���� �����ȟ ��� 5 �ȧ�ʐ�� �����U�ʖ (Inscription, S�ha Jaina Temple M�ro�ha).
  420.       JSAI., p. 351.
  421.       Ibid.
  422.       Sambodhaprakara�a, Verses 27, 34, 46-49, 61, 63, 68 etc.
  423.       Sa�ghapa��aka, Verses 7, 11, 12, 15, 21 etc.
  424.       APJLS, No. 119.
  425.       Ibid., No. 113.
  426.       APJLS, No. 432.
  427.       Ibid., No. 278.
  428.       Ibid., No. 246-248.
  429.       Ibid., No. 116.
  430.       Ibid., No. 249.
  431.       Ibid., No. 337.
  432.       Ibid., No. 445.
  433.       JSAI., p. 363.
  434.       I.A., XX, p. 347.
  435.       V.S. 1572.
  436.       JSAI., p. 367.