Jainism Before Mahivira
The history of Jainism before Mahivira and Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha is shrouded in considerable obscurity. Material which can reconstruct it is scanty, dubious and capable of different interpretations. Scholars have, therefore, come to widely divergent conclusions. The Jainas themselves believe that their religion is eternal and that before Mahivira (C.600 B.C.), there lived twentythree Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas who appeared at certain intervals to propagate true religion for the salvation of the world. Some scholars1 hold that there are traces of the existence of ï¿½ramaï¿½a culture even in pre-Vedic times. H. JACOBI2 has proved both from the Buddhist and the Jaina records that Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha, the immediate predecessor of Mahivira, who is said to have flourished some 250 years before him, is an historical personality.
According to the tradition preserved in the scriptures, Jaina religion is eternal, and it has been revealed again and again in every cyclic period of the world by innumerable Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas. The whole span of time is divided into two equal cycles, Utsarpiï¿½ï¿½ (ascending) Kï¿½la and Avasarpiï¿½ï¿½ (descending) Kï¿½la. Each Utsarpiï¿½ï¿½ and Avasarpiï¿½ï¿½ Kï¿½la is subdivided into six parts. The six divisions of Avasarpiï¿½ï¿½ are known as Suï¿½amï¿½ – Suï¿½amï¿½ (Happy-Happy), Suï¿½amï¿½ (Happy), Suï¿½amï¿½ – Duï¿½amï¿½ (Happy-Unhappy), Duï¿½amï¿½-Suï¿½amï¿½ (Unhappy-Happy), Duï¿½amï¿½ (Unhappy) and Duï¿½amï¿½-Duï¿½amï¿½ (Unhappy-Unhappy). The six divisions of Utsarpiï¿½ï¿½ are Duï¿½amï¿½-Duï¿½amï¿½ (Unhappy-Unhappy), Duï¿½amï¿½ (Unhappy), Duï¿½amï¿½-Suï¿½amï¿½ (Unhappy-Happy), Suï¿½amï¿½-Duï¿½amï¿½ (Happy-Unhappy), Suï¿½amï¿½ (Happy) and Suï¿½amï¿½-Suï¿½amï¿½ (Happy-Happy). The Utsarpiï¿½ï¿½, therefore, marks a period of gradual evolution and the Avasarpiï¿½ï¿½ that of gradual devolution or decline in human innocence and happiness, bodily strength and stature, span of life, and the length of the age itself, the First age being the longest and the Sixth the shortest. Conditions in the First, Second and Third ages of Avasarpiï¿½ï¿½ are those of Bhogabhï¿½miï¿½happy and contented, enjoyment based, entirely dependent on nature, without any law or societyï¿½while life in the other three ages is described as being that of a Karmabhï¿½mi, since it is based on and revolves round individual as well as collective effort. The fourth age of either cycle is supposed to be the best from the point of view of human civilization and culture, and it is this age that produces a number of Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas and other great personages. We are now living in the Fifth age of the Avasarpiï¿½ï¿½ (descending half-circle) of the current cycle of time, which commenced a few years (3 years and 31/2 months) after Mahivira’s nirvï¿½na (527 B.C.) and is of 21000 years duration.”3
Twentyfour Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas appeared at certain intervals and preached the true religion for the salvation of the world. Their names are : (1) ï¿½ï¿½abha, (2) Ajita, (3) Saï¿½bhava, (4) Abhinandana, (5) Sumati, (6) Padmaprabha, (7) Supï¿½rï¿½va, (8) Candraprabha, (9) Suvidhi or Puï¿½hpadanta, (10) ï¿½ï¿½tala, (11) ï¿½reyï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a, (12) Vï¿½sapï¿½jya, (13) Vimala, (14) Ananta, (15) Dharma, (16) ï¿½ï¿½nti, (17) Kunthu, (18) Ara, (19) Malli, (20) Munisuvrata, (21) Nami, (22) Nemi, (23) Pï¿½rï¿½va, and (24) Vardhamï¿½na or Mahivira.
All the Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas were Kï¿½atrï¿½yas; Munisuvrata and Nami belonged to Harivaï¿½ï¿½a, and the remaining twentytwo to the Ikï¿½avï¿½ku race. Malli, according to the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras, was a woman, but this the Digambaras deny, for according to them no female can attain liberation.
Ï¿½Ï¿½ABHA AS FOUNDER OF JAINISM
According to the Jaina tradition, Ï¿½ï¿½abha, who belonged to the Ikï¿½vï¿½ku family of Ayodhyï¿½, was the founder of Jainism. His parents were Nï¿½bhï¿½rï¿½ja and Marudevï¿½. His son’s name was Bharata after whom India is said to be named. He was the first Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara who was born in an age when people, primitive and illiterate, did not know any art. He is said to have taught the arts of agriculture, cooking, writing, pottery, painting and sculpture for the first time. It was during his time that the institution of marriage, the ceremony of cremating the dead, building of the mounds and the festivals in honour of Indra and the Nï¿½gas came into existence. We may, thus, look upon him as a great pioneer in the history of human progress.
It is often said that there is a reference to Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara ï¿½ï¿½abha in the Vedic literature. Some Vedic preceptors paid reverence to Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara ï¿½ï¿½abha, and regarded him as the Mahï¿½deva. In the ï¿½gveda,4 and the Taittirï¿½ya ï¿½raï¿½yaka,5 Vï¿½taraï¿½anas have been mentioned, and in the same context an excellent tribute has been paid to Keï¿½ï¿½.6 This Keï¿½ï¿½ alludes to ï¿½ï¿½abha because in Jaina literature, there is a tradition that Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara ï¿½ï¿½abha was called Keï¿½ï¿½. Even on the ancient images of Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara ï¿½ï¿½abha, locks of hair are noticed. In the ï¿½gveda,7 Keï¿½ï¿½ has been mentioned along with Vï¿½ï¿½abha. From this it is argued that Vï¿½ï¿½abha lived before the Vedic times and was the first fountain-head of ï¿½ramaï¿½a culture. It is from the context of the ï¿½gveda that Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara ï¿½ï¿½abha has been depicted as one who sponsored Vï¿½taraï¿½ana ï¿½ramaï¿½as in the Bhï¿½gavata Purï¿½ï¿½a8 of the eighth century A.D. From about the fourth or third century B.C., it seems that ï¿½ï¿½abha became popular as the first Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara, and the founder of Jainism.
ARIÏ¿½Ï¿½ANEMI OR NEMINÏ¿½THA AS TÏ¿½RTHAÏ¿½KARA
Besides ï¿½ï¿½abhadeva, Ariï¿½tanemi or Neminï¿½tha has also been mentioned as the Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara of the Jainas. He is said to be the twenty-second Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara. He was the son of a king named Samudravijaya of ï¿½aurï¿½pura, a big town on the bank of the Yamunï¿½. His mother’s name was ï¿½ivï¿½devï¿½. He was named Ariï¿½tanemi because his mother saw in a dream a Nemi, the outer rim of a wheel, which consisted of Riï¿½ï¿½a stones flying up to the sky. Giranï¿½ra or Raivataka hill is considered to be his Nirvï¿½ï¿½a place.
Neminï¿½tha is connected with the legend of Sri Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a as his relative. According to the Triï¿½aï¿½ï¿½iï¿½alï¿½kï¿½puruï¿½acarita, he was a cousin of Lord Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a who negotiated his marriage with Rï¿½jamatï¿½, daughter of Ugrasena, ruler of Dvï¿½rikï¿½, but Neminï¿½tha, taking compassion on the animals which were to be slaughtered in connection with the marriage feast, left the marriage procession suddenly and renounced the world. He then left Dvï¿½rikï¿½ and proceeded to a garden called Sahasramarvana on the mount Raivataka, where he practised asceticism and attained salvation. According to the Kalpasï¿½tra, he lived up to the age of 1,000 years.
The Chï¿½ndogya Upaniï¿½ad9 refers to Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a, son of Devakï¿½, as a disciple of Ghora Aï¿½girasa who instructed him about Tapas (austerity), Dï¿½na (charity), ï¿½rjava (simplicity or piety), Ahiï¿½sï¿½ (non-injury) and Satyavï¿½cana (truthfulness) ï¿½ virtues which are extolled by Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a in the Gï¿½tï¿½. As Jaina tradition makes Vï¿½sï¿½deva-Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a a contemporary of Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Ariï¿½ï¿½anemi who preceded Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha, some scholars identify Ghora ï¿½ï¿½girasa with Neminï¿½tha. Neminï¿½tha is also known to have instructed ï¿½rï¿½kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a.
The age when Vï¿½sudeva-Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a flourished cannot be determined with certainty. The Chï¿½ndogya Upaniï¿½ad (the sixth or seventh century B.C.) refers to Vasudeva Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a. The Mahï¿½bhï¿½rata war, in which Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a is known to have participated, was, according to H.C. RAY CHAUDHURI, fought either in the 14th century B.C. or in the 9th century B.C.10
JAINISM AS A PRE-VEDIC RELIGION
It has been pointed out by some scholars that Jainism is a pre-Vedic religion. G.C. PANDEY11 has tried to show that the anti-ritualistic tendency, within the Vedic fold, is itself due to the impact of an asceticism which antedates the Vedï¿½s. Jainism represents a continuation of this pre-Vedic stream. Some of the relics,12 recovered from the excavations at Mohenjo-dï¿½ro and Harappï¿½, are related to ï¿½ramaï¿½a or Jaina tradition. The nude images in Kï¿½yotsarga i.e., the standing posture lost in meditation, closely resemble the Jaina images of the Kuï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a period. Kï¿½yotsarga is generally supposed to belong to the Jaina tradition. There are some idols even in Padmï¿½sana pose. A few others, found at Mohenjo-dï¿½ro, have hoods of serpents. They probably belonged to pre-Vedic Nï¿½ga tribe. The image of the seventh Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara, Supï¿½rï¿½va, has a canopy of serpent-hoods.
Even after the destruction of the Indus civilization, the straggling culture of the ï¿½ramaï¿½as, most probably going back to pre-Vedic and pre-Aryan times, continued even during the Vedic period as is indicated by some such terms as Vï¿½taraï¿½ana, Muni, Yati, ï¿½ramaï¿½a, Keï¿½ï¿½, Vrï¿½tya, Arhan and ï¿½iï¿½nadeva. The Keï¿½ï¿½ Sï¿½kta of the ï¿½gveda delineates the strange figure of the Muni who is described as long-haired, clad in dirty, tawny-coloured garments, walking in the air, drinking poison, delirious with Mauneya and inspired. There can hardly be any doubt that the Muni was to the ï¿½gvedic Culture an alien figure. The Taittiriyaï¿½ï¿½raï¿½yaka13 speaks of ï¿½ramaï¿½as who were called Vï¿½traï¿½anï¿½ï¿½. They led a celibate life and teach Brï¿½hmaï¿½as the way beyond sin.
The word ï¿½ramaï¿½a occurs in the Upaniï¿½ads,14 although the Muï¿½ï¿½akopaniï¿½ad has various references to the shaven-headed ascetics who revile the Vedas. All the passages of Vedic literature,15 taken together, suggest that the Yatï¿½s were the people who had incurred the hostility of Indra, the patron of the ï¿½ryas, and whose bodies were, therefore, thrown to the wolves.
The Paï¿½caviï¿½ï¿½a Brï¿½hmaï¿½a16 describes some peculiarities of the Vrï¿½tyas. They did not study the Vedas; they did not observe the rules regulating the Brï¿½hmanical order of life. They called an expression difficult to pronounce when it was not difficult to pronounce at all and spoke the tongue of the consecrated though they themselves were not consecrated. This proves that they had some Prï¿½kï¿½tik form of speech. The Prï¿½kï¿½ta language is especially the language of the canonical works of the Jainas. K.P. JAYASWAL17 states that they had traditions of the Jainas current among them.
In the ï¿½gveda,18 Arhan has been used for a ï¿½ramaï¿½a leader : ï¿½Oh Arhaï¿½, you fed compassion for this useless world.ï¿½ The mention of ï¿½iï¿½nadevas (naked gods) in the ï¿½gveda19 is also noteworthy.
PÏ¿½RÏ¿½VANÏ¿½THA AS AN HISTORICAL FIGURE
- JACOBI20and others have proved on the authority of both the Jaina and the Buddhist records that Pï¿½rï¿½va was an historical personage. Their arguments are as follows :ï¿½
- In the Buddhist scriptures, there is a reference to the four vows(Cï¿½turyï¿½ma Dharma)of Pï¿½rï¿½va in contra-distinction to the five vows of Mahivira. The Buddhists could not have used the term Cï¿½turyï¿½ma Dharma for the Nirgranthas unless they had heard it from the followers of Pï¿½rï¿½va. This proves the correctness of the Jaina tradition that the followers of Pï¿½rï¿½va, in fact, existed at the time of Mahï¿½vira.
- The Nirgranthas were an important sect at the time of the rise of Buddhism, as may be inferred from the fact that they are frequently mentioned in thePiï¿½akasas opponents of Buddha and his disciples. This is further supported by another fact. Maï¿½khali Goï¿½ï¿½la, a contemporary of Buddha and Mahivira, divided mankind into six classes, and of these, the third class contained the Nirgranthas.Goï¿½ï¿½la, probably, would not have ranked them as a separate class of mankind if they had recently come into existence. He must have regarded them as members of a very important and at the same time an old sect.
- The Majjhima Nikï¿½ya records a dispute between Buddha and Sakdï¿½l, the son of a Nirgrantha. Sakdï¿½l was not himself a Nirgrantha. Now, when a famous controversialist, whose father was a Nirgrantha, was a contemporary of Buddha, the Nirgrantha sect could scarcely have been founded during Buddha’s life-time.
- The existence of Pï¿½rï¿½va’s Order in Mahivira’s time is proved by the reported disputes between the followers of Pï¿½rï¿½va and those of Mahï¿½vira. The followers of Pï¿½rï¿½va, who did not fully recognize Mahivira as their spiritual guide, existed during Mahivira’s life-time. A sort of compromise has been effected between the two sections of the Jaina Saï¿½gha.
These arguments clearly show that Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha was a real historical figure. Very few facts of his life are, however, known. The Kalpasï¿½tra informs us that Pï¿½rï¿½va was the son of king Aï¿½vasena of Vï¿½rï¿½ï¿½asï¿½ (Banaras) and queen Vï¿½mï¿½, belonging to the Ikï¿½vï¿½kï¿½ race of the Kï¿½atriyas.
Many legends have gathered round Pï¿½rï¿½va. Throughout his life, he was connected with ï¿½snakesï¿½ in one way or the other. In his childhood, for instance, while he lay by the side of his mother, a serpent was seen crawling about. When he grew up, he saved a serpent from the grave danger it was in. He also saved a poor terrified snake which had taken shelter in a log of wood to which a Brï¿½hmaï¿½a ascetic, Kamaï¿½ha, had set fire. After its death, the snake became God Dharaï¿½endra who spread a serpent’s hood over Pï¿½rï¿½va.
According to Svetambaras, Pï¿½rï¿½va was married to Prabhï¿½vatï¿½, the daughter of Prasenajit the king of Kuï¿½asthala. But according to Digambaras, Pï¿½rï¿½va was unmarried. He must have been a man of genial nature, as he is always given the epithet Puriï¿½ï¿½dï¿½nï¿½ya,21 ‘beloved of men’. He lived for thirty years in great splendour and happiness as a householder, and then, forsaking all his wealth, became an ascetic. After 84 days of intense meditation, he attained the perfect knowledge of a Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara, and from that time, he lived for about seventy years in the state of most exalted perfection and sainthood. At last, he attained Nirvï¿½ï¿½a22 (liberation) in 777 B.C. on the summit of Mount Sammedaï¿½ikhara, now named Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha hill after him.
A man of practical nature, Pï¿½rï¿½va was remarkable for his organizing capacity. He organized the Saï¿½gha (Organization) efficiently for the propagation of Jainism. He had eight Gaï¿½as and eight Gaï¿½adharas, namely, Subha and ï¿½ryaghoï¿½a, Vaï¿½iï¿½ï¿½ha and Brahmacï¿½rin, Saumya and ï¿½ridhara, Vï¿½rabhadra and Yaï¿½as. He had an excellent community of 16,000 ï¿½ramaï¿½as with ï¿½ryadatta at their head; 38,000 nuns with Puï¿½pacï¿½lï¿½ at their head; 1,64,000 lay votaries with Sunandï¿½ at their head;23 350 sages who knew the four Pï¿½rvas; 1,400 sages who were possessed of the Avadhi knowledge; 1,000 male and 2,000 female disciples who had reached perfection; 750 sages, each gifted with mighty intellect; 600 professors and 1,200 sages in their last birth.24 Here the Digambara texts differ. According to them, there were ten Gaï¿½as and ten Gaï¿½adharas among whom Svayambhï¿½ was the chief disciple. They also differ in giving the number of nuns, laymen and female lay votaries which, acording to them, was twentysix thousand, one lac and three lacs respectively. He is said to have visited many cities for the dissemination of Jainism, the most important of which are Ahichatra, Amalakappï¿½, ï¿½ï¿½vatthi, Kampillapura, Sï¿½geya, Rï¿½yagiha, and Kosambï¿½.
According to the Jaina tradition, the sacred literature descending from the time of Pï¿½rï¿½va was known as Puvvas (Pï¿½rvas). These ‘Earlier’ compositions were called Puvvas (Pï¿½rvas) evidently because they existed prior to the Aï¿½gas. They are said to have formed a common basis of Jaina & ï¿½jivika canon. It is from these Pï¿½rvas that Goï¿½ï¿½la Maï¿½khaliputta, the leader of the ï¿½jivikas drew inspiration. It is said that ï¿½jivika canon, consisting of eight Mahï¿½nimittas and two Mï¿½rgas, was atleast partially based upon thesePï¿½rvas.25
The fourteen Pï¿½rvas were recognized as constituting a twelfth Aï¿½ga called Dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ivï¿½da. The knowledge of the fourteen Pï¿½rvas remained up to Sthï¿½labhadra, the eighth patriarch after Mahivira. For some time, only ten Pï¿½rvas were known and then the remaining Pï¿½rvas were gradually lost. Dr. H.L. JAIN thinks that in the ï¿½aï¿½khaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½gama of Puï¿½padanta and Bhï¿½tabali, we have not only an important canonical book of the Digambaras but also a later representation of the Dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ivï¿½da which contained some portion of the original fourteen Pï¿½rvas.26
The Jainï¿½ Sï¿½tras and the early Buddhist texts enlighten us about the doctrines and followers of Pï¿½rï¿½va. The religious order founded by him was reputed for a high and rigid standard of conduct. He made four moral precepts binding upon his followers, precepts which were later enforced by Mahivira and Buddha upon their followers. His rules were not confined only to these four precepts but they embraced many other rules laid down for the practical guidance of the fraternity and laity. All the fundamental rules of the Nigaï¿½ï¿½ha community were due to Pï¿½rï¿½va and his followers. B.M. BARUA27 points out that Pï¿½rï¿½va, the philosophic predecessor of Mahivira, had rules of conduct which demanded a philosophic justification in order that they might not appear arbitrary or be confused with social conventions.
The Uttarï¿½dhyayana Sï¿½tra fï¿½rnishes a dialogue which sheds abundant light on this obscure point. The interlocutors are the two leading representatives of the Nigaï¿½ï¿½ha Order of the time. Keï¿½ï¿½, a follower of Pï¿½rï¿½va’s rule, asks Gautama, who was one of the chief disciples of Mahivira: “When the four precepts promulgated by the great sage Pï¿½rï¿½va are equally binding upon the two orders, what is the cause of difference between us?” “Wisdom” replies Gautama, “recoginzes the truth of the law and the ascertainment of true things. The earlier saints were simple but slow of understanding, the last saints, prevaricating and slow of understanding, those between the two, simple and wise; hence there are two forms of the Law. The first could only with difficulty understand the precepts of the Law, and the last could only with difficulty observe them, but those between them easily understood and observed them,”28
About the teachings of Pï¿½rï¿½va, it must be admitted, we have no exact knowledge. His religion was, however, meant for one and all without any distinction of caste or creed. He allowed women to enter his Order. He laid stress on the doctrine of Ahiï¿½sï¿½. According to him, strict asceticism was the only way to attain salvation. Fundamentally, the doctrines of Pï¿½rï¿½va and Mahivira were the same. Pï¿½rï¿½va preached four vows instead of five. According to H. JACOBI, the Order of Pï¿½rï¿½va seems to have undergone some changes in the period between the Nirvï¿½na of Pï¿½rï¿½va and the advent of Mahivira.
Pï¿½rï¿½va enjoined on his followers four great vows : (1) Abstinence from killing living beings; (2) Avoidance of falsehood; (3) Avoidance of theft, and (4) Freedom from possessions. H. JACOBI29 has clearly perceived that a doctrine attributed to Mahivira in the Buddhist Sï¿½maï¿½ï¿½aphala Sutta properly belonged to his predecessor, Pï¿½rï¿½va, insofar as the expression Cï¿½turyï¿½ma Saï¿½varais concerned. The doctrine is that, according to Mahivira, the way to self-possession, self-command, and imperturbability consists of ‘a four-fold self-restraint’, such as restraint in regard to all things, restraint in regard to all evil, and restraints imposed for the purification of sin and feeling a sense of ease on that account.30
The Jaina writers tell us that Nagnajit, king of Gandhï¿½ra, Nami, king of Videha, Durmukha, King of Paï¿½cï¿½la, Bhï¿½ma, king of Vidarbha, and Karakaï¿½ï¿½u, king of Kaliï¿½ga adopted the faith of the Jainas.31 As Pï¿½rï¿½va (877-777 B.C.) was probably the first historical Jina, these rulers, (if they really became converts to his doctrines), have to be placed between 842 B.C. and 600 B.C.. They are known to have ruled over their respective kingdoms before the sixth century B.C.
Pï¿½rï¿½va had a large number of followers around Magadha even in the days of Mahivira. Mahivira’s parents, who belonged to the Jï¿½ï¿½trï¿½-Kshatriyas, were worshippers of Pï¿½rï¿½va.32 Following the teachings of Pï¿½rï¿½va, they peacefully died practising slow starvation Sallekhanï¿½. The Uttarï¿½dhyayana Sï¿½tra33 relates a meeting between Keï¿½ï¿½ and Gautama as representatives of the two Jaina Orders, the old and the new. The Bhagavatï¿½ Sï¿½tra34 refers to a dispute between Kï¿½lï¿½savesiyaputta, a follower of Pï¿½rï¿½va, and a disciple of Mahivira. The Nï¿½yï¿½ddhammakahï¿½o35 says that Kï¿½li, an old maiden joined Pï¿½rï¿½va’s order and was entrusted to Pupphacï¿½lï¿½, the head of the nuns.The two sisters of Uppalï¿½ joined the order of Pï¿½rï¿½va, but being unable to lead the rigid life of the order, they became Brï¿½hmin Parivrï¿½jikï¿½s (female wanderers). Municanda, a follower of Pï¿½rï¿½va, lived in a potter’s shop in Kumï¿½rï¿½ya-Sanniveï¿½a in the company of his disciples. Vijayï¿½ and Pagabbhï¿½, two female disciples of Pï¿½rï¿½va, served Mahivira and Goï¿½ï¿½la in Kï¿½viya-Sanniveï¿½a.36 The Bhagavatï¿½ Sï¿½tra37 refers to Gï¿½ï¿½geya, a follower of Pï¿½rï¿½va in Vï¿½ï¿½iyagï¿½ma. He gave up the four vows of Pï¿½rï¿½va and adopted the five Mahï¿½vratas of Mahivira. TheNï¿½yï¿½dhammakahï¿½o38 mentions Puï¿½ï¿½ariya who accepted the four vows of Pï¿½rï¿½va. The followers of Pï¿½rï¿½va moved in the company of five hundred monks into the city of Tuï¿½giya.39 A number of laywomen joined Pï¿½rï¿½va’s Order.40 TheRï¿½yapaseï¿½aiyasï¿½ya41 refers to a follower of Pï¿½rï¿½va named Keï¿½ï¿½ who visited Seyaviyï¿½ where a discussion between him and Paesï¿½ took place regarding the identity of the soul and body. A follower of Pï¿½rï¿½va named Udaka met Gautama, the first Gaï¿½adhara of Mahivira. Gautama was successful in winning over Udaka to his side.42 From the dialogue between Udaka and Gautama, it appears that the followers of Pï¿½rï¿½va and the disciples of Mahivira were respectively known as the Nigaï¿½ï¿½ha Kumï¿½raputtas and the Nigaï¿½ï¿½ha Nï¿½thaputtas.
- H. ZIMMER : Philosophies of India, pp. 217-227;
J.G.R. FORLONG : Short Studies in the Science of Comparative Religions, pp. 243-244;
PSOB : p. 260;
TULSI : Pre-Vedic Existence of ï¿½ramaï¿½a Tradition.
- SBE, XLV, pp. xx-xxiii.
- JYOTI PRASAD JAIN : Religion and Culture of the Jainas.
- RV, X, 11.139.2-3.
- Taitt. Ar, 2.7.1, p. 137.
- RV, X, 11, 136-1.
- Ibid., X, 9, 102-6.
- Bhï¿½gavata, V, 3, 20.
- Chï¿½nd, III, 17, 6
- PHAL, pp. 31-36.
- PSOB, pp. 317, 258
- Moh. Ind, plate xii, Figs. 13, 14, 15, 19, 22.
- Taitt. ï¿½r, I. pp. 87, 137-8.
- Bï¿½. Up. 4. 3. 22.
- Taitt. Sam, VI, 2, 75; Kï¿½ï¿½haka Saï¿½hitï¿½, VIII, 5; Ait. Br. 35. 2; Kau Up, III. 1; AV, II, 53, Tï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ya Mahï¿½-Brï¿½hmaï¿½a, VIII, 1-4.
- Paï¿½ca. Br, XVII, 4, 1-9.
- JBORS, XIV, p. 26.
- RV, II, 33, 10.
- Ibid., VII, 21, 5; x, 99, 3.
- SBE, XLV, pp. xx-xxiii.
- Kalpa, 149, 155.
- Kalpa, 168-169.
- Ibid., 160-164.
- Ibid., 166.
- B.M. BARUA interprets the word Puvva in the text not in the specialised Jaina sense, but merely as “past traditions”. (See JDL, II, p. 41). His view is perhaps strengthened by the fact that the eightfold Mahï¿½ï¿½imitta of the ï¿½jivikas bears no resemblance to the titles of the fourteen lost Purvas of the Jaina tradition.
- Sama, 147 fol. 128. Utpï¿½da-pï¿½rva, ï¿½grï¿½yaï¿½ï¿½ya-pï¿½rva, Viryï¿½nuvï¿½da-pï¿½rva, Astinasti-pravï¿½da-pï¿½rva, Jï¿½ï¿½na-pravï¿½da-pï¿½rva, Satya-pravï¿½da-pï¿½rva, ï¿½tmapravï¿½da-pï¿½rva, Karma-pravï¿½da-pï¿½rva, Pratyï¿½-khyï¿½nanï¿½madheya-pï¿½rva, Vidyï¿½nuvï¿½da-pï¿½rva, Kalyï¿½ï¿½anï¿½madheya-pï¿½rva, Prï¿½ï¿½ï¿½vï¿½ya-pï¿½rva, Kriyï¿½viï¿½ï¿½la-pï¿½rva, and Lokabindusï¿½ra-pï¿½rva.
- BHPIP, p. 380.
- SBE, XLV, pp. 122-123.
- SBE, XLV, pp. xix-xxii.
- Dia, II, pp. 74-75.
- SBE, XLV. p. 87.
- ï¿½cï¿½, II, 15-16.
- Uttarï¿½, 23, pp. 119-129.
- Bhag, I, 76.
- Nï¿½yï¿½, II. i; p. 222 ff.
- ï¿½va, cï¿½, p. 291.
- Bhag, IX. 32
- Nï¿½yï¿½, 19, p. 218.
- Bhag, 2-5.
- Nï¿½yï¿½, II, 10.
- Rï¿½ya, 147 ff.
- Sï¿½tra, II 7.