Chapter VI


Jainism was dominant in Magadha during the reign of the Nandas (364-324 B.C.) and the Mauryas (324-300 B.C.). Afterwards, it migrated to the different regions of the North, South and West, and flourished there. In the Gupta period, Jainism received no royal patronage, and therefore declined. In the South, Jainism continued to develop because of the encouragement given by the rulers. The period from the eighth to the twelfth century A.D. is regarded as the golden period in the history of Jainism because the Jaina monks, statesmen and merchants contributed to its development. A large number of people accepted Jainism, and they formed castes. Numerous temples were built, and images were installed in them. Jaina scholars enriched the different languages by their works. Afterwards, Jainism had setbacks during the medieval period, under the Muslims, but it could not be extinct completely because of devotion of the ï¿½r�vakas and saints to Jainism.

  1. Jainism Under The Nandas (364-324 B.C.)

The Nandas were the most powerful rulers of Magadha. So great was their power that Alexander, who invaded Punjab at that time, did not dare to move towards the east. The Nanda ruler Mah�padma claimed the sole sovereign who destroyed all the other ruling princes. It seems that he acquired Kali�ga and annexed Kosala to his kingdom.

Jainism appears to have been followed during the reign of the Nandas in Magadha. From the Udayagiri cave inscription1 of Kh�ravela, it is known that Nanda king removed the Jaina image from Kali�ga to P��aliputra. This throws light on the antiquity of the Jaina sculptural art as well as the fact that Nanda was the follower of Jainism.

According to Jaina tradition, the Nanda dynasty as such had a line of Jaina ministers beginning with Kalpaka2. It was with the help of this minister that king Nanda uprooted all the reigning Kshatriya dynasties3, and as the Jaina tell us, all the ministers of the Nandas were his descendants4. The minister of the ninth Nanda was �akat�la, who had two sons. The elder was Sth�labhadra and the younger son was called �r�yaka. After the death of �akat�la, Nanda offered the minisership to his elder son Sth�labhadra, but the latter refused and, perceiving the vanity of the world, took Diksh� or joined the order under Sambh�tavijaya5, the sixth pontiff of the Jaina church. The ministership was finally given to his brother �r�yaka who was in the king’s office6.

That the Jainas were powerful in the days of the Nandas is also clear from the Sanskrit play Mudr� R�kshasa, which dramatises the story of Chandragupta’s accession and tells us that the Jainas held a prominent position at that time, and that Ch��akya who was the prime agent in the revolution, employs a Jaina as one of the Chief emissaries7

The Ba�ali inscription, which G.H. OJHA, records as of the year 84 of Mah�v�ra Nirv��a Sa�vat, proves the existence of the Jainism at Nagri even in the fifth century B.C. during the reign of the Nandas8. K.P. JAYASWAL agrees with G.H. OJHA in the reading, but he refers the year 84 to the Nanda era, which was counted from 458 B.C. and thus the instance inscription seems to be of the fourth century B.C.9D.C. SIRCAR takes this Ba�ali inscription to be of the Second or First century B.C. According to him, this inscription, incised during the reign of king Bh�gavata of the �u�ga dynasty10, seems to be a record of the pious working of an inhabitant of M�dhyamik�.

  1. Account of the Greek Writers of Western India

The Greek writers supply very valuable information about the Indian philosophers whom Alexander met. SIRABO mentions two sects of philosophers � one called the Brachma�es and the other Germanes.11 Brachmanes represent the Br�hma�as and the Germanes, evidently a corruption of Sarmanes, which represents the Sanskrit �rama�a (a Jaina ascetic). But the question is who these people were. Some say that these are Buddhist saints, but they seem to be Jaina sanits because they have been described as naked, and they are called by the name Gymnosophists. Nakedness is a special characteristic of the Jaina monks. PALINY says that their philosophers whom they call Gymnosophists, are accustomed to remain in one posture with their eyes immovably fixed on the Sun from dawn to dusk and to stand on the burning sands all day long now on one foot and now on the other.1 One ONESLCRITUS says that these sages went about naked, inflicted hardships on themselves and were held in highest honour and when invited, they did not visit any-body but requested the persons concerned to come to them if they wanted to participate in their conversation.12 This description applies to Digambara Jaina monks.

The Greek observers found women studying philosophy along with men. But they all led a life of extreme austerity.2 And as the Br�hma�as did not generally admit their women to their philosophy, these women must have been, therefore, probably, the S�dhvis of the Jaina church.

Among these sages, one K�lnos who accompanied Alexander probably to instruct him in the matters of religion. His real name, according to PLUTARCH, was Sphines; and he received the name K�lnos among the Greeks because in saluting the persons, he used the word ‘K�le‘. It is probably the Sanskrit from Kaly��a which is commonly used in addressing a person and signifies good, just or distinguished. When he became ill at Pasargadi, this being the first sickness he ever had, he put an end to his life in his seventy third year without heeding the entreaties of the king.13 This type of voluntary death is specially found among the Jainas. The Ratnakara�da ï¿½r�vak�ch�ra (Chap. 5) of Samantabhadra (about second century A.D.) dilates on sallekhan� which consists in abandoning the body for the accumulation of merit in calamities, famines, extreme old age and incurable diseases.

The Indian sages, according to the Greek writers, have been divided into two categories (1) the Br�hma�as and (2) �rama�as. The Br�hma�as succeeded by right of birth to this kind of divine wisdom as to a priesthood. They are one family, the descendents of one father and mother. The �rama�as, on the other hand, are taken from all Indian castes differently from all who wish to give themselves to the study of divine beings.14 These saints were probably Jaina saints, because there was no question of caste restriction in Jainism.

These naked Samnoi practise truth, make predictions about futurity and worship a kind of pyramid beneath which they think the bones of some divinity lie buried.15 This practice is also noticed among the Jainas who used to construct the St�pas, specimens of which are found at Mathura.

According to the Greek writers, the society was divided into the five classes in accordance with the occupations. Some cultivate the soil; very many follow war and other trades. The noblest and richest manage public affairs, administer justice and sit in the council with the kings. A fifth class devotes itself to the philosophy prevalent in the country which almost assumes the form of religion and the members always put an end to their lives by burning themselves on funeral pile.16

The characteristics and practices of these saints indicate that they were Jaina saints. Jainism was prevalent in western India on the eve of the coming of the Greeks in India. The Jaina monks and nuns were found in such a large number that they caught the attention of the foreigners. If it is in the border provinces, it may have been in existence even in the adjacent region like Rajasthan.

  1. Jainism Under The Mauryas (324-187 B.C.)

         Chandragupta (324-300 B.C.)

The Maurya was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, who seems to have belonged to some ordinary family. He is one of the greatest emperors of India. He is first Indian ruler to bring about the unification of Northern India by his conquests and to rule over such a vast empire. From him actually, a continuous as well as unified history starts and he is, therefore, regarded as the first historical emperor. He is the earliest emperor in Indian history whose historicity can be established on the solid ground of ascertained chronology.We can locate him accurately in both time and space. With the help of Ch��akya known as Kau�ilya, he overthrew the Nandas and established the rule of the Mauryas. He liberated North-Western India from the rule of Selecus, the Greek Viceroy of Alexander. He extended his empire by further conquests of Saurarh�ra and some regions of South India.

There are Jaina traditions regarding Chandragupta’s association with the South. His conquest of some regions of the South India is also attested by the inscriptions of A�oka found at some sites. He established an efficient administration as known from the Artha��tra of Kau�ilya and the Megasthaness Indica edited by Mcerindle.

Jain tradition avers that Chandragupat Maurya was a Jain. Both Tiloyapa��ati (600 A.D.) and R�javal�kath� claim him to be Jain. Jainism was prevalent in his reign. The Jaina monks were frequently seen and mentioned within the empire of Chandragupta not only by Indians, but by Greek historians as well, Megasthenese, the Greek envoy to Chandragupta’s court, mentions of ï¿½rama�as in his empire. He also says that Chandragupta submitted to devotional teaching of the ï¿½rama�as as opposed to the doctrines of the Br�hma�as.17

It seems that Chandragupta was quite young and experienced when ascended the throne in or about 324 B.C. He must have been under fifty when his reign terminated twenty-four years later. When king Chandragupta Maurya was ruling over North India (either from Ujjain or from P��aliputra), a great twelve years’ famine was foretold in Northern India by the �rutakevalin Bhadrab�hu. He was at this time a great sanit of Jainism. When this prophecy began to be fulfilled, the saint led twelve thousand Jainas to the South and settled at �rava�a Belagol�. At this time, Chandragupta abdicated the throne and accompanied his teacher Bhadrab�hu. Bhadrab�u soon died, and Chandragupta survived after him for twelve years, and died in Sallekhan�.

Such famines are possible during this period as known from some very early inscriptions.The Mahasth�na stone plaque inscription18found in the Bogra District of Bengal records an endowment to the Pa�chavarg�ya Buddhist monks. The Sohgaura copper-plate inscription19 found in the Gorakhpur District of U.P. records a provision of grains and fodders during famines.

The tradition of migration of the great �rutakeval in Bhadrab�hu and his disciple, the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta due to famine in the South is corroborated by the late literary and epigraphic evidences. Besides, there are the names of monuments at �rava�abelagola in the memory of Bhadrab�hu and Chandragupta Maurya. The B�ihatkath�ko�a of Harisena dated 931 A.D. Ratnanandi’s Bhadrab�hu Charita of about 1450 A.D., the Kanna�a works Muniva���bhudaya of C. 1680 A.D. and the R�javal�yakath� mention this incident. Several inscriptions20 of �rava�abelagol� refer to this tradition also. The oldest of these inscriptions is of about 600 A.D. Two inscriptions of about 900 A.D. describe the hill at �rava�abelagol� as having its summit marked by the impress of the feet of Bhandrab�hu and Munipati Chandragupta. Two inscripations of the year 1128 and 1169 A.D. are engraved with the names of Bhadrab�hu �rutakevalin and Chandragupta. Another inscription of the year 1433 A.D. speaks of Yatindra Bhadrab�hu and his disciple Chandragupta. All these agree to the main facts of breaking out famine in Bihar and migration of Jainas towards the South after the death of Bhadrab�hu and Chandragupta at Chandragiri hill in the fourth Century B.C. The smaller hill Chandragiri is said to have derived its affiliation from the fact that Chandragupta was the first of the saints who lived and performed penance there. On the same hill is a cave named after Bhadrab�hu and also a shrine called Chandragupta Basti, as it was erected by Chandragupta.

Both RICE LEWIS21 NARASIMHACHAR22 who have studied the Jaina inscriptions of �rava�a Belagol� thoroughly, give a verdict in favour of Jaina tradition. According to both these scholars, credence may be given to the late traditions of migration of the Jainas to the South under the leadership of ï¿½rutakeval� Bhadrab�hu and his royal disciple Chandragupta Maurya. This tradition also forms one of the links connected with the Digambara��vetambara Schism in the Jainas Sa�gha. This tradition also shows that Chandragupta Maurya was a Jaina. EDWARD THOMAS23, who has taken into consideration, the Greek accounts comes to the same opinion. HOERNLE24 also accepts the immigration of ï¿½rutakeval� Bhadrab�hu to the South.

On the other hand, J.F. FLEET25 AND J. CHARAPENTIER26 tried to maintain that this Jaina tradition had no historical basis. According toJ.F. FLEET, the name Bhadrab�hu of the two ï¿½ch�ryas is found mentioned in the Digambara Pa���val�s�one the last ï¿½rutakeval� Bhadrab�hu and the other Bhadrab�hu from which the Pa���val� of Nandi �mn�ya of the Sarasvat� Gachchha. His disciple was Guptigupta. According to J.F. FLEET’s view, the saint who migrated to the South was Bhadrab�hu, and Chandragupta was another name of Guptigupta. J.F. FLEET’s contention is wrong. There is no evidence to assume Guptigupta and Chandragupta as one. There is no reference to famine of twelve years during this time. He is not known to be initiated to monkhood after abdication of the throne.

  1. CHARPENTIERdiscredits the account of the Digambaras and asserts that Bhadrab�hu retired to Nepal in order to pass the reminder of his life in penance, leaving the succession to Sth�labhadra, a disciple of Bhadrab�hu’s own contemporary monk, Sambh�tavijaya.

Some of the modern Scholars of great reputes and authority have come to the conclusion that Chandragupta can safely be called a Jaina on the Authority of this tradition. The Jaina books (fifth century A.D.) and later Jaina inscriptions, observe K.P. JAYASWAL27, “claim Chandragupta as a Jaina imperial ascetic. My studies have compelled me to respect the historical data of the Jaina writings, and I see no reason why we should not accept the Jaina claim that Chandragupta at the end of his reign accepted Jainism and abdicated and died as a Jaina ascetic.”

To quote V.A. SMITH28, who has ultimately leaned towards Jainism. “The only direct evidence throwing light on the manner in which the eventful reign of chandragupat Maurya came to an end is that of Jaina tradition.  The Jainas always treat that great emperor as having been a Jaina, and no adequate reason seems to discredit their belief.” Besides this, H. JACOBI29 tells us, ‘The date of Bhadrab�hu’s death is placed indentically by all Jaina authors from Hemachandra down to the most modern Scholiast in the year 170 A.V. And this, according to our caluclation, falls in about 291 B.C. This date of the great pontiff’s Nirv��a exactly coincides with that of Chandragupta, who reigned from 321-297 B.C. Early evidence or evidences for Chandragupta Maurya being a Jaina might have disappeared, but still there are persistent late literary as well epigraphical traditions to prove him Jaina.

Chandragupta Maurya is known to have performed the consecration ceremony of the images and temples. In a village of Gh�ngh���, at a distance of twenty seven Km. frm Jodhpur in Rajasthan, there is an old temple of P�r�van�tha. In V.S. 1662, many images were discovered in the tank of this place. By chance, the poet Sundaraga�i went on pilgrimage to this place and saw the inscription on the image and examined it. He is said to have read the inscription by the miraculous power given to him by the goddess Ambik�. He immediately composed the poem on it. According to it, Samr�� Chandragupta made the golden image of P�r�van�tha and its pratishth� was probably performed through �ruti-Keval� Bhadrab�hu.30 This evidence is of a very late period and so there is much doubt about its correctness.

The Jainas legends tell that all the monks did not migrate from Magadha to the South and some preferred to remain in their old land. Apprehending the danger that could threaten the loss and distortion of the original teachings of Mah�v�ra Sth�labhadra, who according to �vetambara tradition, assumed the leadership of the Sa�gha in Magadha, summoned a council of Jaina Munis in 307 B.C. for the compilation of the teachings of Mah�v�ra which were preserved in the P�rvas. Thus, the sacred lore which was in a state of decay, was put in order. The P��aliputra Council is referred to in the ï¿½va�yakach�r�i of Jinad�saga�i who flourished in the Second half of the seventh century A.D., and by Haribhadra who lived in the middle of the eight century A.D.

BINDUSÏ¿½RA (C. 300-273 B.C.)

Chandragupta Maurya was succeeded by Bindus�ra, whose reign is important for continued links with the Greek princes. Bindus�ra followed the faith of his parents. The Jaina tents style him as a Jaina and entitle him as ‘Si�hasena’.

AÏ¿½OKA (C.273-236 B.C.)

Bindus�ra was succeeded by his son A�oka. After his accession to the throne, A�oka fought only one major war called the Kali�ga-War. Seeing the cruelty of the war, he adopted Buddhism. Though he professed Buddhism he preached ‘Dhamma‘ based on ehthics but not religious dogmas. He is regarded as one of the greatest figures in history. H.G. WELLS in the Outline of History describes him as ‘the greatest of Kings’ because he tried not only for the material but also spiritual welfare of the people.

It seems that in the beginning, A�oka followed Jainism, the religion of his ancestors. The Si�halese tradition says that during the life time of his father, when A�oka was Viceroy of Ujjain, he developed affairs with a girl of a ï¿½resh�hin named Dev� who resided at Vidi�� and whom he married. It is possible that Devi belonged to some Jaina family.

It seems that even after A�oka became Buddhist, he was more or less inclined towards Jainism. The use of the term ‘�sinava‘, distinction between it and P�pa and the inclusion of the passions of the Jaina lists�violence, cruelty, anger, conceit and envy are enough to convince any body that in all likelihood, A�oka has adopted and assimilated some psychological concepts of Jainism.

There are several definite evidences to prove that A�oka was influenced by Jainism. He emphasised on ‘non-slaughter of animate beings and non-injury to creatures in Pillar Edict-V. In Rock Edict-I, he mentions that many hundred of living beings were formerly slaughtered every day in the kitchen of Priyadar��, but now only three living creatures were killed daily for the sake of curry. Even this animal is not slaughtered regularly. These three living beings shall not be killed in future. The Pillar Edict VII mentions Nirgran�has known as Jaina ï¿½r�vakasDharmamah�m�tras appointed for the propagation of Dhamma by A�oka were also recruited from the Nirgranthas and the �rama�as.


When Ku��la lost his claim to the throne of Magadha on account of his blindness, his son Samprati was declared as the rightful successor by A�oka. Recently, the historicity of Samprati has been proved because Samprati Vih�ra after the name of Samprati was existing at Vadam�nu in the Krishna-Valley during the second century A.D.31 Under the influence of Suhastin, the leading saint of the Jaina Commuinty under Mah�giri, Smprati was converted to Jainism. He tried to spread Jainism by every means in his power, working as hard for Jainism as A�hoka had done for Buddhism. He is therefore regarded as a Jaina A�oka. According to Jaina scriptures, he had decided to rinse his mouth in the moring, only after hearing the news of a new temple having been built. Besides, he got all the old and existing temples repaired and set up into all of them the idols mode of gold, stone, silver, brass and of a mixture of fine metals and performed their ‘A�jana�al�k� Ceremony i.e. declared them fit for worship. Within three years and a half, he got one hundred and twenty-five thousand new temples built, thirty-six thousand repaired, twelve and a half millions of idols consecrated and ninety-five thousand metal idols prepared.32

Samprati is said to have erected Jaina temples throughout within his empire. He founded Jaina monasteries even in the non-Aryan countries, and almost all ancient Jaina temples or monuments of unknown origin are ascribed by the popular voice to Samprati. It may also be noted that all the Jaina monuments of Rajasthan and Gujrat, whose builder is not known, are attributed to Samprati33. TOD34 attributes an old temple at Kumbhalmera to Samprati. At Nadlai, there is a Jaina temple dedicated to �din�tha. On the seat of the image is engraved an inscription dated V.S. 1686 which speaks of its being rebuilt by the whole Jaina Community of Nadalai. The temple was originally erected by Samprati35. In the Seventeenth century A.D., Jainas at Nadalai believed that the temple was built by Samprati; so there was an old tradition to this effect. He is said to have celebrated the installation ceremony of the image of Padmaprabha at a place named Gharigh���, through �rya Suhasti in V.N.S.-20336.

Samprati is known to have propagated Jainism not only in his kingdom but also in adjacent countries. He sent out missionaries as far as South India to preach Jainism in peninsula where his creed secured widespread popularity and made the regions of Andhra, Dravida, Mah�r�sh�ra and Coorg safe for Jaina monks. According to literary tradition, Salisuka, brother of Samprati Maurya, contributed to the spread of Jainism in Kathiawad. Besides this, Samprati took other steps for the propagation of Jainism. From the Jaina books, it is known that he started Sa�gha from Ujjain to �atru�jaya in the company of Suhasti with five thousand ï¿½rama�as. He is also said to have convoked a council for the propagation of Jaina religion under Suhasti.

This account for the propagation of Jainism by Samprati seems to be hyperbolic but there seems to be some truth in it. The recent excavations37 in the Krishna valley conducted at a Vaddamanu identified with the ancient Place Vardham�na named after the last Jaina T�rtha�kara yielded the Jaina remains such as St�pas, ellipsoidal structures, stone sculptures on pillars, slabs and tora�as confirm the activities of Samprati for the propagation of Jainism. The inscriptions inscribed on potsherds reveal the names of T�rtha�karas V�ishabhan�tha, Vardham�na, Aran�tha etc. These remains seem to have belonged to the Su�ga-S�tav�hana period. The names of important Jaina preceptors and their disciples with the details of Ga�asGotras and ï¿½ï¿½kh�s are found engraved on pottery pieces. The names such as Samprativih�ra and Jinonavih�ra are found inscribed. These inscriptions give reference to female devotees. The pillara, S�ch�s (cross slabs), Usha�ishas (coping slabs) and the Tora�a contained a variety of religions symbols like St�pasAharmachakraRatnatriyaNandipadaKevalav�ikshaSvastika and so on.

The remains of the foundation of the oldest Jaina temple have been discovered at Loh�nipura, near Patha. Two torsos of the Jaina image were also found at Patna. This proves that Jaina temple and images were worshipped during the Maurya period, in Magadha.

‘Niga�asa Vih�ra Dipa’ inscribed on one of the pot sherds found at Kasrawad38 proves the existence of the Jaina monastery. It means that the lamp from Niga�a’s monastery was used for lighting the rooms. This monastery may be attributed to the Maurya period.

When �rya Suhastin visited Ujjain in order to worship the image of J�vanta Sv�m�, Avanti Sukum�la took the vocation of monkhood from him39. After the death of Avanti Sukum�la, a St�pa was erected in order to commemorate him and the image of P�r�van�tha was installed in it. After some time, the St�pa became barren, and it was known by the name of Ku�uge�vara (God of the Great Forest).

Being a holy place, Ujjain was frequently visited by Jaina saints such as Cha��arudra, Bhadrakagupta, �ryarakshita and �rya �sh��ha40. Vajra dwelt at Tumba-vanagr�ma (Tumain).

After Si�hagiri had taught him the even A�gas, Vajrasv�mi went from Da�apara to Bhadragupta at Avanti (Ujjayini) to learn the twelfth viz. the D�ish�iv�da�ga. He was the last who knew the complete ten P�rvas, and from him arose the Vajra��kh�41. Da�apura (Mandsor) is the birth place of the Jaina Saint �ryarkshit who learned from Vajra Sv�mi nine P�rvas, and a fragment of the tenth, and taught them to his pupil Durbalik�pushpamitra42. The seventh schism in Jainism occurred at this place. Jaina traditions aver that Vajr Sv�m� and other Jaina pontiffs, obtained liberation in the hills Kunjar�varta and Rath�varta in the neighbourhood of Vidi��, now known as Bhilsa43.

  1. JAINISM UNDER THE Ï¿½UÏ¿½GAS (187-75 B.C)

         PUSHYAMITRA (C. 187-151 B.C.)

B�ihadratha, the last Maurya Emperor, was murdered in the presence of the army by the Br�hma�a Commander-in-Chief Pushyamitra who became the founder of the �u�ga dynasty. The first event of his reign was his confilict with Vidarbha. He had also to face the Greek invasion of Indo-Bactrian rulers Demetrious and Menander. He performed two horse sacrifices. According to the Divy�vad�na he was a persecutor of Buddhism. Pushyamitra was succeeded by his son Agnimitra who had the exprience of governing Vidi�� as Viceroy under his father. Agnimitra’s son Vasumitra in his earlier days defeated the Yavanas. The Indo-Greek king Antialkidas of Taxila sent his ambassador Heliodorus, son of Dion (Diya) to the court of the �u�ga ruler Bh�gavata or K���putra Bh�gabhedra. The K��vas, also Br�hma�as seized power about seventy-two B.C.

Generally, a very common charge has been levelled against the �u�ga king Pushyamitra that he was a staunch Br�hma�a and caused the death of Buddhist and Jaina monks. This assumption is based on the version of the Buddhist text Divy�vad�na44 which says that he put the price of one hundred din�ras for the head of single monk. This account of Pushyamitra’s vendetta against the monks seems to be exaggerated because a similar vengeance against the �jivikas and Nirgranthas is attributed to Pushyamitra in the same tent, where it is stated that he put the price of one din�r for the head of Nirgrantha. He is said to be responsible for destroying monasteries and monks from Magadha to Jullandhara area in the modern Punjab. T�r�n�tha also affirms that Pushyamitra was the ally of unbelievers and himself burnt monasteries and slew monks.

But the above charges for the prosecution of the Buddhists and the Jainas against Pushyamitra �u�ga do not seem to be correct. In fact, the Br�hma�as did not interfere with the �rama�a religions�Buddhism and Jainism. Neither Buddhism nor Jainism had eclipsed, for some magnificent Buddhist and Jaina monuments were erected in the kingdom of the �u�gas. Therefore it can be concluded that the Divy�vad�na, no doubt, gives a shortsighted view. The Buddhist monuments of Bharhut and Sanchi erected during the sovereignty of the �u�gas do not bear out the theory that �u�gas were the leaders of a militant Br�hmanism. The causes of persecutions against Buddhism and Jainism by Pushyamitra may be owing to the personal and potitical reasons.

That the Jainas were holding good position in Uttar-Pradesh is also evident from two inscriptions45 of the second century B.C. recovered from Pabhos� near Kau��mb� which are of much historical importance.

No.1 By �s��hasena, the son of Gop�l� Vaihidar� (i.e. Vaihidara-princess, and maternal uncle of king Bahasatimitra), son of Gop�l�, a cave was caused to be made in the tenth year of—- of the Ka��ap�ya Arhats.

No.2. Caused to be made by �sh��hasena, son of the Vaihidara (Vaihidara-princess, and) son of king Bh�gavata, son of the Tevani (i.e. Traivar�a-Princess, and) son of king Va�gap�la, son of �onak�yana (Saunak�yana of Adhichchhatra).

These two inscriptions of the second or first century B.C. are of historical value because they give the pedigree of the early kings of Adhichchhatra, the capital of the once mighty kingdom of Northern Pa�ch�la. These inscriptions record their dedication by Ash��hasena from Ahichchhatra for the use of Kasyap�ya Arhats. On the basis of these inscriptions, it can be said that the Jaina monks enjoyed royal patronage during the �u�ga period.

Spread of Jainism

Starting from its original home in Magadha, Jainism had slowly spread to different countries like Kali�ga to the South-east, Mathura and Malva to the West and Deccan and the Tamil lands to South. At the same time, it appears to have lost its hold over Magadha, the land of its origin and grew powerful in the West and the South. After some initial success in winning over royal patronage, which was, in part the cause of its rapid growth and expansion, it soon lost its hold in the North, but retained the support of the middle classes, like merchants and bankers, for a long time. This loss of kingly support in the North, was, however, made good by the favour shown to the religion by some ruling families of the Deccan. By the end of the third century A.D., Jainism had taken firm roots throughout India.


The realy migration of the Jainas to the country of Kali�ga can be seen from the famous Kh�ravela inscription of Udayagiri dated second or first century B.C. As this inscription refers this to the removal of a Jaina image from kali�ga to P��aliputra by the Magadhan king Nanda, it is proved that Jainism was followed in the fourth century B.C. Here the faith took firm root and flourished for a long period.

The Udayagiri cave inscription of Kh�ravela may be regarded as the ‘Kh�ravela Charita’ because it gives information about the events of his life. He belonged to the third generation of the Mah�meghav�hana dynasty, and he was an offshoot of the Chedi royal family. He is also knwon to be a descendant of the Aila line. Mah�r�ja Kh�ravela is one of the most remarkable figures of ancient Indian History. As this inscription starts with the invocation (Mangal� Chara�aNamo Arahant�nam and Namo-Sava Siddh�nam, Kh�ravela, the Chedi ruler, is proved to be the follower of Jainism.

It is possible to determine the date of Kh�ravela by properly identifying the contemporary rulers of Kh�ravela mentioned46 in this inscription. K.P. JAYASWAL and R.D. BANERJI are inclined to assign him to the first half of the second century B.C. while other scholars like D.C. SIRCAR47 place him in the first century B.C. or first century A.D. His title Mah�r�ja, later script of the inscription, developed K�vya style and sculptures of Ma�chapuri prove the late date. The Nanda king is known to have excavated the canal three centuries earlier than Kh�ravela. As the Nandas held sway over the Magadhan empire in the fourth century B.C., Kh�ravela, who flourished more than 300 years after Nandar�ja, should be assigned to the first century B.C.

Kh�ravela, while a prince, played different games befitting the young age of the prince with a lovely body and fair brown complexion. He bore the noble and auspicious bodily marks. As to prince Kh�ravela’s education ability, he became an expert in matters relating to writing, coinage, accounting, administration and procedures.

That Kh�ravela did marry is beyond any dispute. The very fact that the Ma�chapuri cave on the Udayagiri Kha��agiri was dedicated by the chief queen (Agra-Mah�shi) of Kh�ravela for the use of Jaina monks in Kali�ga, goes to prove that Kh�ravela had more than one queen. Again in the seventh year record in the Hathigumpha text, there appears a fragmentary reference to Kh�ravela’s wife. In the seventh year of his reign, Kh�ravela’s famous wife of the Vajiraghara obtained the dignity of auspicious motherhood48.

He married a daughter of the greatgrandson of King Hastisi�ha, probably of the Lal�ka lineage.49

Immediately after his accession to the throne, Kh�ravela launched on a career of a dia-vijaya (conqueror)50. In the second year of his reign, he is said to have sent a large army to the Western countries without even thinking of S�takra�i who apparently ruled the country to the West of Kali�ga. In the course of his expedition, the Kali�ga army is further said to have reached the banks of the K�ish�� bena (K�ish��) where the city called Rishika-nagara was threatened. As there is no indication that Kh�ravela’s army came into conflict with S�takar�i or that Rishika-nagara formed a part of the latter’s dominions, the Kali�ga king’s calim seems to suggest that friendly relations existed between the two kings and that the Kali�ga army passed to the �ishika country on the Krish�� through S�takar�i’s territories without difficulty. But a suggestion that Kh�ravela’s army attacked a city on the Krishn� in the Southern part of S�takar�i’s kingdom cannot also be regarded as altogether impossible. King S�takar�i seems to be no other than an early S�tav�hana ruler of that name, very probably S�takar�i I who is known from the N�n�gh��a inscription of N�ganik�. In the fourth year of his reign, Kh�ravela seems to have occupied the capital of a prince named Vidy�dhara. In the Jaina literature, the Vidy�dharas are known as a tribal people residing in the Vindhya mountain51.

In the same year, Kh�ravela also subdued the R�sh�rikas and Bhojakas. The R�sh�rikas stand for the Mar��h� region, and the Bhojakas probably for the Berar (M.P.) region. In the eighth year, Kh�ravela destroyed Goradhagiri, a hill fortress in Bar�bar hills and attacked the city of Rajag�iha (modern Rajgir in the Gaya District, Bihar)52. The news of these exploits of Kh�ravela caused so much terror in the heart of Yavana king that he fled away to Mathura. The Yavana ruler whose name is sometimes doubtfully read as Dimitra or Dimata (Demetrius), was probably a later Indo-Greek ruler of the eastern Punjab. It is possible that this contemporary ruler of Mathura of Kh�ravela was not Yavana ruler Demetrius but a ruler of the Mitra dynasty.

In his eleventh year, Kh�ravela destroyed the city of Pithu�a, the capital of a king of the Masulipatam region in the Tamilanadu area. Pithu�a53 is probably a coastal city situated somewhere in the South of the Kali�ga country. He threatened the rulers of Uttarap�tha (probably North-Western India) in the next year, and also defeated the king of the Magadha people, probably on the banks of the Gang�. The name of the Magadha king is given in Prakrit as Bahasatimita which seems to stand for Sanskrit B�ihatsv�timitra rather than for B�ihaspatimitra as is usually supposed B�ihatsv�timitra, a contempory of Kh�ravela, seems to be the king of that name mentioned as the sister’s son of �sh��hasena of the Pabhos� inscriptions54 and as the father of the queen of a Mathura king referred to the Mora inscription. He seems to have been related to the Mitra kings of Magadha whose records and  coins have been found in the Gaya District. To avenge the humiliation of Kali�ga during the time of the Nandas and the Mauryas, Kh�ravela carried away much booty from A�ga and Magadha together with certain Jaina images originally taken away by a Nanda king from Kali�ga. In the same year, Kh�ravela also defeated the P���ya king of the Far South.

As regards the extent of Kh�ravela’s empire, it included Udra, Utkala and Kali�ga. These regions were under his suzerainty, and were directly ruled. His capital was Kali�ganagara which may be identified with Mukhali�gam or Tosali or Sisup�garh.55

As a ruler, Kh�ravela thought of the welfare of the subjects and spent large sums of money on their account. Himself a Past-master of music, he often entertained the people by arranging dancing and musical performances as well as festivities and many gatherings. He enlarged an irrigation canal originally excavated by a Nanda king three centuries ago. He ws also a great builder. On one occasion, the capital city of Kali�ga was devastated by stormy wind and the king had to rebuild numerous gates, walls and houses that had been damaged and to restore all the gardens. He built a magnificent place called called the Mah�vijaya Pras�da.

Kh�ravela was a zealous patron of Jainism and he sent missionaries for its propagation. He convened a conference of learned Jainas on the Kum�i� Hill and consolidated the A�gas or sacred tents of Jainism. As a devout Jaina, he excavated a number of caves in Kum�r� hill to provide resident Arhats with accommodation and shelters for resting their bodies. He also constructed caves for the honoured recluses of established reputation as well as for Yatis, hermits and sages, hailing from a hundred directions. He also set up many pillars and shrine posts. Besides, the inscription of the chief wife of Kh�ravela records a dedication of cave in honour of Arahanta for the use of Jaina monks56.

Though Kh�ravela was a Jaina, he was like A�oka tolerant in the matters of religion. The royal epithet Savap�sa��a P�jaka’ (worshipper of all religious) attests beyond doubt that Kh�ravela observed the principle of religious, toleration. Similarly, the epithet ‘Savadev�yatana Sa�k�ra K�raka’ (the repairer of all temples of the deities) has no meaning, if there were no worshippers among the people of Kali�ga of those deities at the temples dedicated to them.

Besides the H�th�gumph� inscription, Kh�ravela’s another inscription at Gu��upalli57 records the construction of steps by a lady disciple S�yanan�tha, who was residing in the caves58. The Jaina caves of the second century B.C. at Gu��upalli in the East God�var� District prove that Jainism was very popular during the reign of the Chedis.

Besides there are other inscriptions which prove the popularity of Jainism in Orissa. One inscription59 discloses the name of either a predecessor or successor of kh�ravela viz. Vakadeva and like the former he is called the king of kali�ga and is represented as belonging to the Meghav�hana family. This inscription shows that he too was a Jaina.

A few other inscriptions60 disclose the existence of a few Jaina devotees. One inscription61 yields the name of a prince called Vadhuka who too, was a Jaina votary. Some inscriptions62 probably represent the gifts of common people.

One inscription63 is the gift of the town-judge. Two inscriptions64 are also probably the gifts of important persons. Another inscription records the donation of a servant called Kusuma65.

Jainism also made considerable headway in Kali�ga under Mah�r�ja Kudepasi and Kum�ra Vadukha who as successors of Kh�ravela constructed the main wing of the lower storey and a side chamber of Ma�chapuri cave respectively66.

  1. MURUÏ¿½Ï¿½AS

After Kh�ravela, the history of Orissa enters into obscure phase for some centuries, and it is difficult to determine the condition of Jainism during that period. The same is the condition of Jainism in P��aliputra. It seems that the Muru��as were ruling over Orissa and P��aliputra, and they were attracted by Jainism. A gold coin of the Mah�r�ja R�j�dhir�ja Dharmadhara of the third century A.D. has been found at Sisup�lagarh in course of the excavation, and according to A.S. ALTEKAR67, he was probably a king of Muru��a family who controlled Orissa in the post-Kh�ravela period. The Muru��as were said to have been the followers of Jainism. But gradually after Kh�ravela, Buddhism became popular among the people over there. We know from the D�th� Va��a that Guha�iva (C.400A.D.), the king of Kali�ga, was converted to Buddhism from Jainism and all the Nirgrantha Jainas, being driven out from Kali�ga took shelter in the court of P���u of P��aliputra.

The Muru��as of P��aliputra were also influenced by Jainism during this period68. The Jaina tradition B�ihatkalpav�itti refers to a Maru��a king of P��aliputra who was a pious Jaina whose widowed sister had also embraced the same faith. The P�dalipta Prabandha relates the story as to how P�dalipta cured king Muru��a of P��aliputra of his terrible attack.


Vi��kha Muni, the immediate disciple of Bhadrab�hu, travelled  further in the South in the Chola and the P���ya lands and propagated Jainism. The existence of Jainism in the region of Tamilade�a is attested by the existence of ancient relics such as Jaina rock-cut caves and cavern and lithic records of the third century B.C. found here69. One of the rock-shelters at Pugalur (Kar�r in District Tiruchchirapali in Keral) has two inscriptions of the Second Century A.D. The Jaina sages may have commenced their preaching of the Jaina doctrine in Tamil land in the remote age.

The influence of Jainism is earlier than the infiltration of the Vedic or Brahmanical from the North India. This is suggested by the references to Jainism in the famous Tamil works which belong to the so called Sa�-gham Age (500 B.C. – 500 A.D.), viz Volk�ppiyamKural Ma�imekhali and ï¿½ilappadik�ram. According to some scholars, the author of Tolk�ppiyam was himself a Jaina; that Valluvar, the author of Kural, was likewise a follower of Arhat; that Ilangova�igal, the author of Ma�imekhala� and the author of N�ladiyar were both Jainas. The Kural contains wonderful references to Jainism.

The Jaina teachers like Ku��aku��a and Samantabhadra were responsible for the diffusion of Jainism in the South. It seems that the original name of Ku��aku��a was Padmanandi, but in course of time this name was pushed into the background and came to be distinguished more prominently on account of his unique personality by characterstic name of the place Ku��ku��a which was his domicile.  Ku��aku�de, identified with Kunako��la, is in the Gooty Taluk of the Anandpur District now in Andhra state. Ku��aku��a lived in the beginning of the Christian era. He became famous as the founder of the M�lasa�gha.

Samantabhadra, who is known to be the great leader of Jaina religion and thought through his works, lived in the second century A.D. He is known to have gone from place to place for the propagation of Jainism and attracted masses. According to the �rava�a Belagol� inscription70 dated 1050 �aka era, he beat the drum (literally invited the opponents to refute him) in P��aliputra, Malwa, Sindh and �hakka country (in Punjab), and came to K��ch� in the South and thence to Ka����aka. This statement seems to be based on old traditions.


From the Jaina traditions, it is known that Jainism was prevalent at Mathura, capital of ancient S�rasena-Janapada from very early times. In the beginning, Mathura was governed by the Mitra rulers during the second century B.C. as known from the coins. Afterwards it was  ruled over by the Scythian Chiefs, and then supplanted by the Kush�nas. Kanishka was undoubtedly the greatest among the Kush��a rulers. He came to power in 78 A.D. He ruled over a farflung empire with his capital at Peshawar. His vast empire stretched across the Hindu Kush from Bihar to Khurasan in the West and from Khotan in the Terim valley in the North to Konkan in the South. He was a great patron of art and literature. His rule ended about 101 A.D. He was succeeded by Vasishka who possibly ruled jointly with Huvishka.

Though the latter ruled from his capital Mathura, his rule extended in the North-West over Afghanistan. The last great king of the time in India was V�sudeva. The Kush��a age is regarded as the golden period in Indian history. The Jaina art specimens are found in larger number in Mathura than Buddhist and Brahmanical. It seems that the Jainas contributed to the prosperity of the Mathura region.

According to ASIM KUMAR CHATTERJI, the Ther�val� of the Kalpas�tra mentioning ï¿½akh�s belong to the third century B.C. but, it seems that they originated much later. They were redacted in cononical literature. The names of these ï¿½ak�s are found mentioned in some Jaina inscriptions discovered at Mathura, Ahich-Chhatra etc. in Uttar Pradesh.

The story of P�r�vas visit to Mathura is recorded in the M�y�dhammakah�o71, and that of Mah�v�ra in the Vip�ka S�tra72. Regarding the actual introduction of Jainism in the Mthura region, we have a story told in the Paumachariyam of Vimalas�ri, a verse text composed about 530  years after the Nirvana of Mah�v�ra. According to this poem, Jaina religion was introduced in Mathura by the following seven Jaina saints73 Suramantra, �r�tilaka, �r�tilaka, Sarvasundara, Jayamantra, Anilalalita and Jayamitra. The above mentioned seven Jaina saints, we are told, were responsible for the introduction of Jainism not only in Mathura but also in S�keta.74 We are informed by Vimala Suri that there was a temple dedicated to Munisuvrata, the 20th T�rthan�kara at the town of S�keta75. Apparently, this temple was built a few centuries before Vimala Suri. It is one of the earliest Jaina tmples of Northern India. The Jaina Rishis went to Mathura from Saketa76. Jainism travelled to Mathura from Ayodhy�.

The earliest Jaina inscription from Mathura is of 150 B.C. Jainism got a foothold there by the beginning of the second century B.C. if not earlier. The Jaina canonical writers believe Kosala to be homeland of most of their earlier Jaina T�rtha�karas. Some of the seven monks were the teachers of a few Jaina monks mentioned in the inscriptions.

The earliest Jaina inscription77 from Mathura has been assigned to the middle of the second century B.C. by BUHLER. The same inscription78 records dedication of an arch for the temple (P�s�do tora�a) by S�vaka Uttarad�saka, son of Vach� and disciple of the ascetic Mah�rakhita. Chronologically, the next Jaina inscription from Mathura is that which mentions a person calle Gopiputra and his wife Simitr� who belonged to Kau�ika gotra79. The important expression of this inscription is the epithet ‘Pothaya�akak�lav�la given to her husband Gopiputra ‘black’ serpent to the Po�hayas and �akas. Po�hayas are mentioned along with the �akas.

Some other Pre-Kush��a Jaina inscriptions were discovered in Mathura but majority of them are undated. The most important is the  inscription which mentions the �aka Mah�kshatrapa �o��sa80, son of Mah�kshatrapa Ra�juvula. Both Ra�juvula and �o��sa are mentioned in the well known Mathura Lion capital inscription, and also the Mora well inscription81 which refers to the V�ish�i heores. Another inscription from Mathura82 records the setting up of a shrine (devikula) of the Arhat, a ï¿½y�go �abh�, a reservoir (Prap�) and stone slabs (�il�pa�a in the Arhat temple (Arahat�yatana) of the Nigathas (Nirgranthas) by a few courtesans (Ga�ik�s). Another pre-Kush��a inscription83 records the setting up of a tablet of homage by �ivaya�a who has been described as the wife of a dancer called Phaguya�a. Another inscription84 refers to Sihan�diaka, son of Va�ika and Ko�ik�, set up a tablet of homage (�y�gapa�a) for the worship of Arhats.

Pre-Kush��a record85 mentiones a Jaina monk called Jayasena and his female disciple Dharmaghosha. It further records the gift of a temple (P�s�da) by that lady. An inscription86 mention a ï¿½r�vik� called Lahastin�. It records the dedication of an arch. It refers to the setting up of a tablet of homage (�y�gapa�a) by one Arhat, the daughter-in-law of Bhadraya�as and wife of Bhadranandi87. The another gift of another ï¿½y�gap�a recorded in an inscription88 by a woman, the wife of one M�thuraka (inhabitent of Mathura).

The Pre-Kush��a record mentions Bhagavat Nemesa.89 The god nemesa who is sculptured as a goat-headed deity here is Hari�egames� of the Jaina cononical texts. This god as we learn from the Kalpa S�tra transferred the embryo of Mah�v�ra from the womb of Dev�nad� to that of Tri�al�.

A good number of dated Jaina inscriptions of the Kush��a period are found from Mathura. The earliest of such inscriptions is that which is dated in the year four corresponding to 82 A.D. which falls within the reign of the great Kushua�a king Kanishka. It mentions a monk called Pushyamitra90 and for the first time in the Jaina records of Mathura, the Ga�a, Kula and ï¿½ï¿½kh� of a particular monk are mentioned. These Ga�as, Kulas and ï¿½ï¿½kh�s originated after Bhadrab�hu, who was a contemporary of Chandragupta Maurya. According to the present inscription, the monk Pushyamitra belonged to the V�ra�a Ga�a, H�lakiya Kula and Vajanagar�-��kh�. The particular ï¿½ï¿½kh� should be connected with the V�iji country.

A number of Jaina image inscriptions bearing the date of the year 5 of the reign of Kanishka have been found. There are references to the Ga�a Ko�iya and a preacher (V�chaka). It is the most popular Ga�a of Mathura. Majority of the inscriptions found from this region mention this particular Ga�a.

The second inscription91 of year 5 mentioning Devaputra Kanishka, records the gift of an image of Vardham�na by a woman, female companion of Sethiniha. The particular monk belonged to Ko�iya Ga�a, Bhamad�sika Kula and Uchen�gar� ï¿½ï¿½kh�. Uchen�gar� ï¿½ï¿½kh� was named after the fort of Unchanagar (Buland Shahr). The two other inscriptions92 of the same date refer to the same Ga�a, Kula and ï¿½ï¿½kh�. The next inscription93 is dated in the year 7 and mentions Mah�r�j�dhir�ja Devap�la ��h� Kanishka. The Ga�a also like Koliya and V�ra�a originated in the second half of the third century B.C.

One inscription94 of the year 9 mentions ‘Mah�r�ja Kanishka. It records the dedication of an image by Vika��, Koliya Ga�a, Sthaniya Kula and Vair� ï¿½ï¿½kh�. Another image inscription95 of the year 12 mentions that how carpenters jointly make a gift of an image. The next Jaina inscription96 dated 15 records the dedication of a four-fold (Sarvatobhadrik�) image of Bhagvat by Kum�ramit�, wife of �resh�hin Veni. The inscription97 of the 18 year refers to a Sarvatobhadrik� image and also mentions the Koliya Ga�a and Vaachchaliya Kula. Another inscription98 yields the name of Arish�anemi, the 22nd T�rtha�kara. The image inscription99 of the year 19 refers to t T�rtha�kara ï¿½ï¿½ntin�tha. The Koliya Ga�a, Th��iya Kula and Ver� ��kh� are also mentioned. The two inscriptions100 of the year 20, first dedicated of an image of Vardham�na – Koliya Ga�a, Sth�niya Kula, the Ver� ï¿½akh� – the second inscription101 Koliya Ga�a, Brahmadasiya Kula and Uchenagar� ï¿½ï¿½kh�.

There are two inscriptions of the date 22. The first102 records the dedication by Dharmasom�, the wife of caravan leader. The second inscription records the dedication of an image of Vardham�na.103 There is an inscription of the year 25.104 The inscription of the year 28 mentions the king V�sishka, the successor of Kanishka.105 There are two inscriptions of the year 29. In the first inscription106, the name of the king Huvishka has been mentioned. Another refers to Mah�r�ja Devaputra Huvishka.107

There is an inscription108 of the year 30. The inscription109 of the year 32 refers to an unnamed perfumer. The inscription of the year 35 records the dedication of an image of Vardham�na by the perfumer.

The Jaina elephant inscription110 of the year 38 is of great interest. It mentions Mah�r�ja Devaputra Huvishka and also records the setting up of elephant Na�divi��la by the ï¿½resh�hin Rudrad�sa for the Worship of Arhats. The Jaina inscriptions111 of the years 40, 44112, 45113, 47114, 49115, 50116 and 52117, are also concerned with donations.

The image inscription of the year 54 records the dedication of an image of Sarasvat� by the worker in metal118. The next inscription dated 60 mentions Mah�r�j�, R�j�tir�ja Devaputra Huvishka. It records the dedication of an image or �ishabha119. Two inscriptions120 are dated year 62, and the next is dated 74121. An interesting inscription122 of the year 77 records the dedication by one Devila at the temple of Dadhikar�a. The next inscription123 dated 80 mentions Mah�r�ja V�sudeva.

There are two inscriptions of the year 84. The first inscription124 mentions Mah�r�ja R�j�tir�ja Devaputra ��h�V�sudeva. It records the setting up of an image of �ishabha by several women. The second inscription125 of the year 84 records the gift of an image of Vardham�na. There are inscriptions of the years 86126, 87127, 90128 and 93129 respectively.

The inscription130 of the year 98 refers to raj�a V�sudevasya and two monks Kshema and Devadatta who belonged to Udehikiya Ga�a, the Paridh�sika Kula and Petaputrik� ï¿½ï¿½kh�.

A certain perfumer (Gandhika) called Varu�a is mentioned. A few inscriptions of the post-Kush��a period have also been found from the Mathura region.

The Mathura inscriptions of the early period abundantly prove the tremendous popularity of Jainism from the second century B.C. onwards. From the Paumachariyam of Vimalasur�, it is known that Jaina saints preached Jainism both at S�keta and Mathura. These inscriptions of Mathura show that very few among Jaina devotees came from the so-called aristocratic families. No inscription from Mathura yields the name of any Br�ma�a patron of Jainism. From the study of the Jaina inscription of Mathura, it is clear that the followers of Jainism were common people. They belonged to the business community.

R.D. BANERJI edited an interesting image � inscription131 which mentions a monk of Adhichchhatra (i.e. Ahich-chhatra) belonging to Petav�mika Kula and V�janagari ï¿½ï¿½kh�. It is was taken by him to be an inscription from R�mnagar, ancient Ahich-chhatra. In any case, this inscription certainly proves that Ahichchhatra was not immune from Jaina influence in the Kush��a period.

A council was summoned at Mathura under the presidentship of ï¿½rya Skandila between the year 827 and 840 after the death of Mah�v�ra (i.e. 300-313 A.D. and the scriptural texts were brought into order. This is known as the Mathura version (V�chan�) of the Canons. The Jaina canonical writers believe Ko�ala to be the homeland seuerd of their earlier T�rtha�karas.

It seems that the cult of the sculpture of Jaina T�rtha�karas originated a century or two after the Nirv�va of Mah�v�ra. However the traditional belief is that images of Tritha�kara Mahavir were made during his own liketime, which are known as Jeevitswam.The Jaina sculptures of these Jaina T�rtha�karas in large number were made from the second century B.C. The Nirv��a sites of most of the Jaina T�rtha�karas was in Magadha (Bihar) and of birth in Uttar Pradesh because Jainism was prosperous in these two regions during the second and the third century A.D.

Besides Mathura, Ahichchhatra in Pa�ch�la Janapada, Kau��mb� in Vatsa and Ayodhy� in Ko�ala became the Centres of Jainism. Not only traditions but even archaeological and epigraphical sources given some idea about the state of Jainism. Jainism made striking progress in Uttar Pradesh during the first and second century A.D.

From the Paumachariyam, it is known that there was a temple of Muni Suvratasv�min at S�keta. That S�keta was connected with Muni suvrata is proved by the evidence of Vividhat�rthakalpa132. This temple was probably built much earlier here.

That Pabhos� cave was sacred to the Jaina is proved by the discovery of Jaina images, and carvings from there133. Three standing Jaina images cut in rocks, are also to be found there134. There is little doubt that a number of Jaina monks lived in this cave, and most of them were residents of Kau��mb�. This city also yielded a number of Jaina antiquities of the Kush��a period135. It was the birth place of Padamprabha, the sixth T�rtha�kar. An inscription136 of the year 12 of king �ivamitra, which mentions three monks Balad�sa, �ivamitra and �ivap�lita. The reference to the Kau��mbik� ï¿½ï¿½kh� which has been mentioned in the Ther�val� also directly proves the early popularity of Jainism in that region.

�r�vast� remained associated with Jainism in very early times. It is said to be the birth place of the third Jaina T�rtha�kara namely Sa�ibhavan�tha. The Ther�val� refers to the �r�vastik� ï¿½ï¿½kh� which originated during this period. The original temple of Sambhavan�tha was probably built probably a few centuries before the birth of Christ. It was in ruins when Fahien visited this city. The ruined temple has yielded a good number of Jaina images including those of �ishabhanatha, and Mah�v�ra137. The temple of Sambhavaratha at �r�vast� was rebuilt several times, and finally it was destroyed during the reign of Alaudd�n as we learn from Jinaprabha. That �r�vast� afterwards became a famous centre of Digambara religion is evident from the B�ihatkath�ko�a of Harishe�a composed in 791 A.D.

Ahichchhatra (now known as R�mnagar in Bareli District, Uttar  Pradesh), Capital of North Pa�ch�la, was an important seat of early Jaina religion. A number of Jaina images were unearthed at this site. Ahichchhatra remained sacred to P�r�van�tha and there was a shrine dedicated to this T�rtha�kara at this town. S�la�ka, who flourished in the second half of the ninth century A.D. in the�ch�ra�gavritti138, distinctly refers to this shrine. Jinaprabha S�ri in his Vividhat�rthakalpa139 gives a graphic and beautiful description of the shrine dedicated to P�r�van�tha. ��la�ka informs that P���va was worshipped here as Dhara��ndra. But according to Jinaprabha140, the shrine of Dhara���dra was near the original shrine of P�r�va. The epigraphic evidence fully supports the Jaina tradition regarding the existence of a shrine dedicated to P�r�va at Ahichchhatra. A Kush��a inscription141 found engraved at the pedestal of an image of Nemin�tha, bearing the date 50, refers to the shrine of divine P�r�van�tha.

A number of Jaina inscriptions of the Kush��a period have been discovered from this place and at least one of them refers to the city of Ahichchhatra142. The Kush��a inscriptions from this city contain the following dates – 9, 18, 31, 44 and 74. Most of the Jaina sculptures from Ahichchhatra belong to the Mathura School of Art. The names of Ga�aKula and ï¿½ï¿½kh� are usually like those of Mathura. The most common Ga�a is Koliya. The image discovered here are generally nude and they belonged to the Digambara temple of Ahichchhatra.

The Jaina inscriptions from Ahichchhatra disclose the names of the ï¿½r�vakas and monks. The inscriptions with the years 9 (87 A.D.), 12 (90 A.D.) etc. mention carpenters by caste. All these evidences go far to prove the popularity of Jainism at Ahichchhatra in early days.

Another city K�mpilya was intimately connected with Jainism in pre-Gupta period. This place has been indentified by A. CUNNINGHAM143with Kampil in Farukhabad District, Uttar-Pradesh. As known from the traditions contianed in Jaina canonical texts144, this place was visited by P�r�va and Mah�v�ra. It is believed to be the birth place of the 13th Jaina T�rth�nkara Vimalan�tha. It has been mentioned in the Bhagavat�145 and Aupap�tikas�tra146. The fourth Ni�hava �samitra who flourished 220 years after Mah�v�ra’s death, i.e. in the third century B.C. was associated with this town. The Uttar�dhyana147, old Jaina canonical text, refers to a certain king Sa�jaya, who was a Jaina devotee. This place has yielded a few Jaina inscriptions.

S��k�sya is identiied by A. CUNNINGHAM with Sa�kissa in Farrukhabad District of Uttara Pradesh. The Ther�val� of the Kalpas�tra refers to the Sa�kh�siya ï¿½ï¿½kh� under Ch�ra�a Ga�a i.e. V�r�a Ga�a established during this period. This definitely proves S�nk��ya early association with Nirgrantha religion.


After the downfall of the Mauryas, India fell a victim to foreign invasions. The early advent of the �akas into Western Malwa from Seistan Via Sind and Kathiawad, in the second century B.C is known from the Kal�k�ch�rya Kath�naka. After establishing their hegemony in Saur�sh�ra Kathiawad, they may have penetrated into Malwa. On the basis of traditions, RAJBAI PANDEY148 suggests that there was a ruler named Vikram�ditya in Avanti during the first century B.C.  He defeated the �akas who invaded India for the first time in the first century B.C. In order to commemorate this event, he inaugurated a new ear in 57 B.C. called Vikrama Sa�vata. He was a great conqueror as well as a patron of art and literature. On the other hand, D.C. SIRCAR149 does not regard Vikram�ditya as a historical figure because there is no contemporary evidence for his existence.

It seems that two families Kshatar�ta and K�rdamakas of the Western Kshatrapas ruled over Western-India as Kshatrapas of Kanishka-I and his successors. Afterwards, they became independent. Nahap�na of the Kshahar�ta family became independent, and also conquered some territories. In about 124-125 A.D., he seems to have been defeated by the S�tav�hana ruler Gautam�putra S�takar�i. Chas�ana, founder of the K�rdamaka family, established his capital at Ujjain. Chas�ana under his grandson Rudrad�man defeated the S�tav�hana ruler Gautam�putra S�takar�i and conquered several territories. Sometimes after 130-131 A.D., Rudrad�man succeeded to Chas�ana as Mah�kshatrapa. From the Junagarh inscription dated 150 A.D., he seems to be a powerful ruler and he claims to have extended his empire by his conquests. These Western Kshatrapa rulers ruled for about three hundred years, till their power was finally crushed by Chandragupta-II.

From the traditions recorded in the Jaina Nibandhas, we know that Jainism was associated with Saur�sh�ra and Avanti in the first century B.C. The great Jaina saints and scholars like K�lak�ch�rya, lived and propagated Jainism in this area. At this time, it was a living and active religion, and it influenced the life of the people. Some of the Jaina sources150 claim Vikram�ditya as a convert to Jainism. It is claimed that Siddhasena Div�kara, having caused the breaking of the phallic symbol Mah�k�la in Ujjayin�, and the appearance of the image of P�r�van�tha, enlightened Vikram�ditya. According to the Digambara Jaina Pa���vali151, Vikram�ditya played as a child for eight years, for sixteen years, he performed sacrifices following a false doctrine; or forty years, he was devoted to the religion of the Jaina, and then reached heaven. It seems that the ancestral and personal religion of Vikram�ditya was �aivism, but he was also under the influence of Jainism and patronised it. The temple of Avanti Sukum�la was probably in existence at Ujjain during this period.

A short Br�hm� inscription found in a cave near Pale in Poona District, Mah�r�shtra may be assigned to the first century B.C.152This inscription records that a certain Bhada�ta Idarakhita (Indrarakshita), probably together with some others, caused the cave and a cistern to be excavated. The expression ï¿½ï¿½h� K�hi Saha occurring towards the end of the record is difficult to interpret. The importance of the record lies in the expression ‘Namoaraha�t�na�‘ which commences the writing. It means obeisance to araha�tas, and it may therefore be taken as Ma�gal�chara�a. In no other record of the numerous inscriptions belonging to pre-Christian period from the caves of Western Mah�r�sh�ra, does this expression find a place. This invocation occurs in a definitely Jaina context in this expression. This inscription proves the existence of Jainism in Maharashtra during the first century B.C.

According to Jaina traditions, Nahap�na, after his defeat at the hands of Gautam�putra S�takar�i at Bh�igukachchha in 66 A.D., became a Jaina monk known as Bh�tabali (C. 66-90 A.D.) after abdicating the throne. Though newly initiated, he might have been considered quite capable for the important task of reducting the canon. He was taught by an eminent Guru Dhara-Sena and was guided in his work by his  senior colleague Pushapadanta. He completed the work of Sha�akha���gama in C. 75 A.D.153

The Junagarh inscription154 of the grandson of Jayad�mana (either D�mayagada or Rudrasi�ha-I) belonging to the second century A.D., makes a mention of men who had attained perfect knowledge (Keval�j��na), and were free from old age and death (Jar�mara�a). This inscription contains the earliest reference to Jaina monks claiming the attainment of perfect knowledge. This inscription is found in a cave which appears to have been used by the Jaina monks as is indicated by the peculiar Jaina symbols like the SvastikaBhadr�sanaM�nayugala and others. Of nearly the same date may be the caves found at Dhank in which the sculptures of the Jaina Tirtha�karas �ishabha, P�r�va, Mah�v�ra and others have been definitely identified. The Giranar inscription actually refers to theSam�dhimara�a of the Digambara Jaina saint Dharasena, the original author of the Digambara canon, who according to the tradition, resided at Chandragupt� of Girnar-whence the inscription was discovered155.

The Ther�val� refers to a ï¿½ï¿½kh� called Saur�sh�r�ya which originated from �ishigupta, a disciple of Suhastin during this period. A small inscription156 from Giranar in Gujarat bearing the date 58 refers to Pa�ch�nachandra M�rti. The Jaina antiquities discovered from Dhank and Bawa Pyara caves in Gujarat prove that these places were under the influence of Jainism in the early centuries of the Christian era157. The image of �ishabha, ��nti and P�r�va from Dhanka can easily be recognised. The typical Jain symbols from Bawa Pyara caves of Junagarh are generally assigned to the early centuries of the Christian era158.

Bh�igukachchha, one of the oldest parts of India, identified with modern Bharuch in Gujarat, was a popular Jaina centre in the early centuries of the Christian era. The ï¿½va�yakaniryukti composed in 200 A.D. refers to the defeat inflicted by �vet�mbara Jaina monk Jinadeva on the two Buddhist monks Bhadanta Mitra and Ku��la at Bh�igukachchha. It is repeated in the ï¿½va�yaka Niryukti159. Two Jaina Vih�ras namely ï¿½akunik� Vih�ra and M�avasat� existed at Bh�igukachchha.


According to the Puranic traditions, as well as the coins, the �ndhra S�tav�hana dynasty began with Simuka who destroyed the remains of the �u�ga power and killed the K��va king Susarman in 27 B.C. Simuka S�tav�hana is also known from the coins. Several S�tav�hana rulers are known from the Pur��as but it is only the last nine rulers of the Puranic list whose historicity is supported from coins. It appears from the coins that the S�tavahanas came into prominence as independent rulers only after the fall of �u�gas and K��vas. Their capital was Pratish�h�na (Pai�h�na). It is known from the Nasik inscription that Gautam�putra S�takar�i, one of the later S�tavuahana kings, defeated Mahap�na of the Kshahar�ta dynasty and annexed his territory to his kingdom in 124 A.D. Vasish�hiputra �r� Pulum�v�, successor of Gautam�putra S�takar�i, married the daughter of Western Kshatrapa Rudrad�man of the K�rdamaka family. Another notable S�tav�hana ruler after Vasish�hiputra Pulum�v� was Gautam�putra Yaj�a �r� S�takar�i (C. 173-202 A.D.) who seems to have conquered back some of the lost territories from the Western Kshatrapas. The S�tavahana dynasty came to an end about 225 A.D.

The Jaina literature contains may references to the S�tav�hana kings and to their partonage of Jainism.160 The first S�tav�hana ruler S�ta or Simuka also known from his coins became a convert to Jainism and built many temples at the capital. The fifty-two stalwart warriors, who were in the court of this king, built Jaina temples in the city after their respective names. The Jaina ï¿½va�yakas�tra refers to ��liv�hana of Pai�h�na as a devotee of Jinadeva161. The ï¿½va�yaka Ch�r�i of Haribhadra S�ri describes how king ��liv�hana conquered Barukachchha from Narav�hana by inducing him to spend away his treasury on religious activities.162According to the Prabh�vakacharita, �r� ��tav�hana built a Jaina T�rtha where P�daliptas�ri set up his dhvaja163. Another tradition mentions that a certain S�tav�hana whose capital was Pratish�h�na requested the Jaina pontiff, to postpone his discourse so that he also could attend it. This may be the same as the tradition that �ch�rya K�laka shifted the day of observance of Pary��a�a festival at the request of the S�tav�hanas.164

The K�lak�ch�rya Kath�naka165 also contains traditions regarding the S�tav�hanas. Pratish�h�na was ruled by the S�tav�hanas, and Saint named K�laka was their preceptor. Some Jaina works mention �aktikum�ra, son of ��liv�hana. This prince is identified with �akti�r�, son of S�takar�i and N�ganik�, who is mentioned in the N�n�gh�� inscription166. It is interesting to note that even later writers like Jinaprabhas�r167 of the fourteenth century A.D. spoke about the S�tav�hanas in appreciative terms which is only remniscent of the S�tav�hanas patronage offered to Jainism.


The early Indo-Bactrian rulers first ruled over Bactria, but gradually, they extended their dominions in the East including Indian territory. The �ak�s occupied Bactria in about 135 B.C. by seizing power from Indo-Bactrians. Then, they gradually extended their supremacy over the Northern and the Western regions of Ancient India by ending Indo-Bactrian rule. After the Indo-Scythians and the Indo-Parthians, the Kush��as established their supremacy in India. After the disintegration of the Mauryan empire, most of the tribes settled in Punjab, but others moved to Rajasthan and elsewhere, probably under the pressure of foreign invaders.

Jainism penetrated in Gandh�ra (North-West India) in the early centuries of the Christian era. The Jaina literary tradition168 associates Tamila with B�hubali, a son fo �ishabha who was believed to be a Jaina S�dhu. We further learn from the ï¿½va�yakaniryukti169, and the ï¿½va�yakach�r�i170 that B�hubali had installed a Jewelled Dharmachakra at Taxila. The association of Buahubali with Taxila is also mentioned in the Vividhat�rthankalpa171 of jinaprabha.

Taksha�il� was associated with Jainism from early times. JOHN MARSHALL, who first carried out systematic excavation at Taksha�lil�, observes Taxila must have been adorned by a vast number of Jaina edifices, some of which were no doubt of considerable magnificence172. According to JOHN MARSHALL, the  shrines of blocks F and G in the excavated area of Sirkap were probably Jaina. Since Taksha�il� was one of the greatest cities of ancient India, it is but natural that the Jaina should endeavour to extend the sphere of their indluence in that city. Manadeva, an author of mird century A.D., is reputed to have composed a �antistava for the resporation of peace and prosperity in the city of Tanila afflicted by the cruel onslaughts of the Turushkars. This fact is also curroborated by archacological discirerias173.

The ancient city of Kapisi identified with Opian in Afghanistan by A. CUNNINCHAM174 had a sizeable Jaina population. Si�hapura was another Jaina centre from early times. It is identified by STEIN175 and A. CUNNINGHAM176 with modern ketas in the S�t Range (Punjab, Pakistan). According to the traditions contained in Jaina canonical texts, S�hapura (i.e. Si�hapura) was the birth place of �rey��sa, the eleventh T�rtha�kara.

STEIN was successful in discovering a great number of Jaina antiquities from Si�hapura. This scholar opines that the Jaina sculptures of Si�hapura are of better execution than those of Ellora and Ankai. He further informs that even at the time of his visit, this place was looked upon as a sacred by the Jainas177. The Var��gacharita178 (ed. by A.N. UPADHYE), a work of the seventh century A.D. refers to Si�hapura as sacred to �rey���a.

That Jainism reached Punjab during this period is indirectly proved by the fact that the Ther�val refers to the Audambarik� ï¿½ï¿½kh� which originated from Roha�a during this period. This Audambara ï¿½ï¿½kh� is linked with the Audambaras, a well-known Punjab tribe.

The Majhamik� branch of the Jaina Sa�gha, as mentioned in the Sthiv�l� of the Kalpas�tra179, became famous after the name of this place. Priyagrantha, the second pupil of Susthita Supratibudhe, founded this branch probably in the second century B.C. A Kush��a inscription in the second century A.D. mentioning M�dhyamik� ��kh� has been found at Mathura180. This indicates that the ï¿½r�vakas of Madhyamik� might have migrated to Mathura for their settlement. An inscription of the third or second century B.C., which states that some thing was constructed for the welfare of all living beings, has been discovered at this place181. It may be either of the Jainas or the Buddhists.

  1. THE GUPTAS (C. 300-C.500)

Among the early Gupta rulers, Chandragupta (C. 311 A.D. – 50) was the powerful ruler because he assumed imperial title of Mah�r�j�dhir�ja, and it seems that he started the golden coinage. He also owed his imperial status by matrimonial alliance with the Lichchhav�s. Chandraguptas-I’s son Samudragupta (C. 350-70 A.D.), an extensive conquerov, made his influence felt over the rulers of the South-eastern coast as well as over the rulers beyond his frontiers in the North-West. Samudragupta’s son Chandragupta-II (C.376-414 A.D.) extended still further the boundaries of his empire, by annexing Gujrat and Kathiawad to his empire by defeating the �akas. Chandragupta II’s son Kum�ragupta-I (C.415-50 A.D.), who is known to have performed the A�vamedha sacrifice, must have extended the empire by his new conquests.

Skandagupta (455-67 A.D.), son of Kum�ragupta-I, was also engaged in military affairs. There was a serious invasion of the H��as during his time and a deadly conflict took place. He was,  however, able to drive back the invasion. Soon after Skandagupta, the empire began to decline. By the time of Buddhagupta (C.495-500), the Western part of the empire was lost, and after him, it remained confined to Bihar, Bengal and some parts of Orissa, and ultimately it went into oblivion by 543 A.D. The H��as became very powerful, and they invaded India under Toram��a and Mihirakula. The Later Guptas (C.500-C.605 A.D.) ruled over after the Imperial Guptas. R�magupta is known to have issued local coins, and an inscription with the title Mah�r�j�dhir�ja was discovered at Vidisa. Some scholars regard him as the ruler of the Imperial Gupta dynasty while others a local ruler of the fifth century A.D. governing Vidi��.

Jainism was not prosperous during the Gupta period in the North for want of kingly support. It is further confirmed by absence of any reference to it in the description of the Chinese traveller Fahien. But there are indications that it continued as indicated by a couple of inscriptions of the Gupta period. Literary evidences also prove the existence of Jainism.

Though Gupta rulers were followers of Vaishnavism, they were tolerant towards Jainism. The Udayagiri cave182 inscription of 425-26 A.D. corresponding to the reign of Kum�ragupta records the installation of an image of the T�rtha�kara P�r�van�tha by �ankara, the disciple of saint Go�arman, who was the ornament of the image of ï¿½ch�rya Bhadra. This inscription was found inside the cave which may have been a Jaina temple during the Gupta period. It seems that the region round Vidi�� was a stronghold of Jainism. Some remains of the Gupta period have been discovered at some sites in Madhya Pradesh. At Sirpahari, a hill near Nachna, is found a group of Jaina sculptures of the Gupta age. Two rock-cut reliefs at Gwalior, one showing T�rtha�kara standing in meditation (K�yotasargamudr�) and the other representing a Jina meditating in the Padm�sana posture, also seem to be of the Gupta period183.

An inscription184 of 433 A.D. of Mathura during the reign of Kum�rap�la I, records that an image was set up by S�m��hy�, the daughter of Bha��ibhava and the house-wife of the ferryman, Grahamitrapilat at command of Dattil�ch�rya, of the Koliya Ga�aand the Vidy�dhar� ï¿½ï¿½kh�. A disciple of this monk named S�m��hya built an image (Pratim�) under the command of the said Guru. The Vidy�dhar� ï¿½ï¿½kh� referred to here, is found mentioned in the Therav�l� of the Kalpas�tra as Vijj�har�. Another inscription185 from Mathura dated in the year 299 of an unknown era refers to the erection of an image of Mah�v�ra and a temple (devakula) by Okh�, Sarika and �ivadin�.

The next important inscription deted 461 A.D. belonging to the tranquil reign of Skandagupta was discovered at Kahum 69 km. from Gorakhpur. This place was known as Kakubha. From this inscription, it is known that a person named Madra, who traced his descent from one Somila and who had equal respect for dvijaguru and Yati, established the stone pillar of five Adik�itris T�rtha�karas, (probably �din�tha, ��ntin�tha, Nemin�tha, P�r�van�tha and Mah�v�ra)186. This inscription appears to be a Digambara Jaina record. Besides, there are remains of the Jaina temples and shrines in the neighbourhood of this inscription.

A copper plate inscription187 of the Gupta year 159 (478 A.D.) from Paharpur, Bangladesh is one of the most interesting Jaina records of the Gupta period. This inscription records an endowment for the worship of Arhats to a Vih�ra in Va�agoh�l� which was presided over by the disciples of Nirgrantha preceptor Guhanandin, belonging to the Pa�chast�pa Section (Nik�ya) of Benaras. Va�a-Goh�l� may be the Go�lbhi��. This grant records that a Br�hma�a and his wife deposited three din�ras with the city council to secure one Kulav�pa and four Dro�av�pas of land situated at four different villages all lying in the Dakshi����aka V�thi and N�giratta Ma��ala for the maintenance of worship with sandal, incense, flowers, lamps etc. The Jaina Vih�ra at Va�a-Goh�l� mentioned in this inscription must have stood at the original site of the present temple at Pah�rpur. The donation of a Br�hma�a couple for the worship of Jinas, as recorded here, is noteworthy for it bespeaks of the religious toleration of the people. The unspecified reigning sovereign with the titleParamabha���raka mentioned in the inscription dated 478 A.D. was Buddhagupta.

An inscription181 of early Gupta character, near Son Bhandar cave at R�jg�iha, refers to a Jaina Muni called Va�radeva who is given the epithet ï¿½ch�ryaratna. The lower half of a small naked Jaina image still can be seen cut-out of the rock close to the inscription. Another small mutilated inscription189 on a Nemin�tha figure in the early Gupta script has been found from Rajgir. This inscription refers to Mah�r�j�dhiraja Chandra who may be either Chandragupta-I or Chandragupt-II. This image of Nemin�tha in black basalt is one of the earliest Jaina images of the Gupta period. The Gupta inscription190 engraved on the pillar at Ahichchhatra mentions �ch�rya Indranandin and also refers to the temple of P�r�va.

Three stone images of Jaina T�rtha�karas of the fourth of fifth century A.D. were discovered at Vidi��. From the inscriptions191 of these imgaes, it is clear that they were made by Mah�r�j�dhir�ja R�magupta at the preaching of Chelukshama�a, son of Goky�nt�, and pupil of ï¿½ch�rya Sarppasena Kshama�a, who was the grand pupil of the Jaina teacher Ksham�ch�rya. It seems that R�magupta, a local ruler of Vidi�� region, a follower of Jainism installed Jaina images.

The evidence192 of the Kuvalayam�l� composed by Uddyotanas�ri in 778 A.D. shows that King Toram��a, who ruled at the town of Pavvaiy� situated on the bank of Chandrabh�g� (Chenab) in the Uttar�patha, was a disciple of Harigupta, born in the Gupta family. We are further told that the city could boast of a great number of scholars, apparently Jaina S�dhus. This city cannot be properly identified but it was certainly in Punjab. Harigupta is described as a scion of the Gupta family. This Harigupta is further described as the Guru ofMah�kavi Devagupta who is apparently mentioned also in the Mahani��tha193. The Mah�ni��tha194 refers to one Ravi Gupta who should be placed in the fifth century. The Guru of Agastyasi�ha, the  author of the  Da�avaik�likach�r�i was �ishi Gupta195who belonged to Koliya Ga�a and Veras�mi ï¿½ï¿½kh�196. Pavvaiya, the capital of Torm��a, was a great centre of Jainism in the Gupta period. The Kuvalayam�l� mentions that the grand-disciple of Devagupta namely Yaj�adatta, who evidently flourished around 600 A.D., adorned the Gurjarade�a with Jaina temples.

In the Gupta period. Gujarat was an important centre of Jainism. An earlier council was summoned under N�g�rjuna at Valabhi in the fourth century A.D. in order to bring the scriptures in order. Lastly, the council of Valabh� met under Devardhi Ga�in Ksham��rama�a (V�ra 980-513 A.D.) and the Jaina canon was written down in book form.  This is known as Valabh� version (V�chan�) of the canons. In spite of the absence of royal patronage, Jainism continued to prosper in Gujarat. An old manuscript of theVi�esh�va�yakabh�shya197 of Jinabhadraga�i discovered in the Jaisalmer Bha���ra informs that this work was conposed at Valabh� in 609 A.D. during the reign of �il�ditya.

There are other evidences to show that Jainism was in a flourishing condition during the reign of the Maitraka-Valabh� kings. A few images198 have recently been discovered from the ruins of Valabh� which have been assigned to the sixth century A.D. It has also been suggested199 that Jinabhardra V�chan�ch�rya mentioned in the sixth century image inscription from Akota (Gujarat) is to be identified with Jinabhadraga�i, the famous Jaina Scholar, who was probably a native of Valabh�.

The Vividhat�rthankalpa200 refers to the fact that there was a shrine dedicated to Chandraprabha at Valabh� before the destruction by the Muslims in 787 A.D.

In the non-Jaina texts of the Gupta period, there are frequent references to the Jainas. Bh�sa201, Subandhu202, and B��a203frequently refer to the Jainas. It appears from Subandhu’s V�savadatt� that the Digambara Jainas were looked upon as the bitterest rivals of Hindu philosophers. In the K�dambar�, B��a openly praises the Jainas for their magnanimity. There are references to the Jainas in theBh�gavata204 Braham���a205 etc. Var�hamihira refers to the mode of fashioning of Jaina image in the B�ihat Sa�hit�206. The Vasudevahi��� is surely a product of the Gupta period207. Da��in in the Da�akum�racharita also refers to Jainism.


There is a paucity of Jaina records of the post-Gupta period. It seems that Jainism continued to exist without any further progress. The Chinese pilgrim Yuan Chwang, who came to India in the second quarter of the seventh century A.D., gives an account of Buddhism along with that Jainism. Jainism was prevalent in pockets in different parts of the country. Some ruling chiefs of Gujarat were followers of Jainism.


From the account of Yuan Chwang’s visit in the second quarter of the seventy century A.D., it is clear that Jainism was prevalent at the different sites such as K�pi��208, Si�hapura209 R�jag�iha210, Pu��ravardhana211 and Samata�a212. It appears from the account of the Chinese pilgrim that the Digambara Jainas were more popular in India than the �vet�mbaras in his days. The only reference to the �vet�mbaras that we get in his narrative is in connection with the description of Si�hapura. It appears that during the time of Yuan Chawang’s visit, there was large Jaina centre during his visit. He saw many Digamaras on the Vipula mountain practising austerities incessantly. The account of Yuan Chwang shows that great popularity of Jainism in Pu��ravardhana and Samata�a, the two provinces of ancient Bengal. At both those places, the pilgrim noticed numerous Digambaras. The Pabhas� cave, near Kau��mb� was visited by Yuan Chwang213 in the seventh century A.D.214. Yuan Chwang215 noticed numerous Digambaras and shrines in the three Southern States of India, namely Chola, Dravi�a and Mo-lo-ku-ta (Malaku�a). At the time of Yuan Chwang’s visit (629-645 A.D.), the cities of P��al�putra and Vai��li were in ruins. The followers of the Nirgranthas were numerous216. Masarh, a village near Arah was visited by Yuan Chwang, who has refered to the place as Mahasolo and mentions in his account that he found there a temple of P�r�van�tha with eight Jaina images217.

From the well known Jaina temple-complex at Sonagiri (Datia District, Madhya Pradesh) has been discovered an epigraph of the seventh century A.D. which directly proves the great antiquity of the Jaina centre. It refers to a Jaina devotee called Vad�ka who was the son of Singhadeva.

Jainism began to develop round about the region of Ujjain during this period. The Pa���val�s218 of the M�lasa�gha tell that the first twenty-six pontificates took place in Bhedalapura. According to the four Pattavalis219, Bhadalapura is in Malwa, while the fifth Pa���val� tells us more corrcetly, that it was in the South. After that, the twenty-seventh pontiff transferred his seat from Bhadalapura to Ujjain, as is evident from all the Pa���val�s. From Ujjain, Maghachandra II, the fifty-third pontiff, shifted his seat to Baran in Kotah District in 1083 A.D. From Sarasvat� Gachchha and Bal�tk�ra Ga�a originated, and they were mentioned along with M�lasa�gha220. Thus, it is clear that Jainism must have prospered by the efforts of those Jaina saints. Si�hanandi is also known as the Bha���raka of Malwa221.

The region of Ujjain at this time became such a great centre of Jainism that people took it Vai��l� from its ancient name Vi��l�. Jaina authors began to associate the incidents of the life of Mah�v�ra with Ujjain. Vardham�napura now known as Badnawar was founded after the name of Vardham�na.

In the temple of Vasantagadh, in Sirohi District, a pair of brass images of �ishabhadeva has been found underground on which is incised an inscription222 of 687 A.D. This inscription mentions that one Dro�oraka Ya�odeva had the Jaina image built by the architect �ivan�ga. This is the earliest Jaina image so far discovered in Rajasthan.

From Orissa, a number of Jaina inscriptions, belonging to this period have been found. The earliest of such inscriptions is that of a Sailodbhava grant, belonging to the seventh century A.D. This inscription223 mentions one Jaina Muni called Prabhuddhachandra and his Guru Arahad�ch�rya N�sichandra. This proves the existence of Jainism in Orissa in the seventh century A.D. There is another seventh century inscription224 found from Ratnagiri hills (Cuttack-District) which is a Jaina record. It refers to the installation of Jaina images and points to the existence of the early Jaina establishment on these hills.

Jainism developed in Gujarat during the post-Gupta period. The great city of Valabh� was an important centre of Jainism. The city was well known for its celebrated shrine of Chandraprabha. There was also a famous temple at this great twon, dedicated to Mah�v�ra. Another town of Gujarat which was associated with Jainism was Bh�igukachchha. The great �akunika Vih�ra of this town was one of the greatest and most celebrated Jaina shrines of Western-India. Several Jaina texts225 refer to this Vih�ra which was apparently built in the Gupta period. The Vyavah�rabh�sya226 describes Bh�igukachchha as a place sacred to the Jainas.

The Ch�pas of Gujarat were sincere patrons of Jainism. According to the Jaina writers, Vanar�ja of Pa�ch�sara, who later founded the city of A�ahilapura, was the earliest prince of this dynasty. One Ch�pa king Vy�ghramukha was another prince of this dynasty ruled around 628 A.D. Vanar�ja was helped by his Jaina Guru ��lagu�a-S�ri in his attempt to carve out an independent kingdom in 746 A.D. Vanar�ja became a patron of Jainism, and a number of Jaina shrines were founded during his reign in his kingdom. On the suggestion of ��laga�a S�ri, he constructed the temple of Pa�ch�sara in which he helped the image of P�r�van�th227. He also invited the Jaina merchants from �r�m�la and other places of Marudharade�a to settle in P���ana, by affording to them many facilities.228

Jainism spread in Rajasthan during the eighth century A.D. by the efforts of the great scholar named Haribhadra S�ri who was the Guru of king Jitari of Chitor. In his work, Samaraich Chakah�,229 he throws some light on the condition of Jainism. We are told how was the minister caused presents to be distributed and a festival to be celebrated in the Jaina temple in honour of the forthcoming ordination of his son, Sikhin. When the day fixed for it came round, he was carried in a palanquin with great pomp. The rivalry between Jainism and Buddhism was very keen in his time. Haribhadra S�ri wrote the Dhurt�khy�na230, in the eighth century. V�rasena learnt the Sha�kha���gama and the Kashay�pr�bh�ita from El�ch�rya at Chitor, and after that he wrote the Dhavl� and a protion of the Jayadhaval� in the ninth century in the South231. The caves on Patharaghati hill were the abodes of the Jaina ascetics in the sixth and the seventh centuries. There are paintings of the seventh and eighth centuries.232 There are rock-cut sculptures on the Kuluha hill and pair of foot-prints cut into the rock of the Jaina T�rtha�karas on the top of Akaslochana hill in Hazaribagh District. The inscriptions found on the hill, however show that some of the ruins would date about seventh or eighth century A.D.233. There are evidences to prove that Jinasena, author of the Padmapur��a, lived in Bhadripura (Bhandil), P��aliputra and Champ�234.

A number of ancient antiquities identified to be of the sixth century to ninth century A.D. have been excavated from Chausa in Buxar Sub-division. These antiquities include about twenty images of Jaina T�rtha�karas � Nemin�tha, �ishabhan�tha and others, and a Dharma Chakra. These relics are now preserved in the Museum of Patna235.


Some information about Jainism is available in the writings of the Muslim travellers who visited Western India in about the eighth or ninth century A.D. Unfortunately, they were not enlightened observers and suffered from a confusion and ascribed evey image, temple and sage to Buddhism which is not necessarily correct. The image of Buddha became so popular with them that even the temple of the Sun was believed to be that of Buddha by Biladuri236. Even the European scholars who translated their works, could not distinguish between Jainism and Buddhism.

Abu Zaidul writes : “In India, there are persons who in accordance with their professions wander in the woods and mountains and rarely communicated with the rest of mankind. Sometimes, they have nothing to eat but herbs and fruits of the forest. Some of them go about naked, others stand naked with the face turned to the Sun, having nothing on but panther’s skin. In my travels, I was a man in the position I have described, sixteen years afterwards, I turned to that country and found him in the same posture. What astonished me was that he was not melted by the heat of the Sun237. Nakedness is the creed found among the Jainas though it was not unknown among the Hindus. Most probably, some of them were Jaina saints.

Asaral Bilad, an author of the 13th century, was not a traveller but he compiled his work from the writings of the earlier travellers. He on the information derived from Misorbin Muhalhil, author of Ajaibuldan, writes that in the city named Saimur, near Sindhu, there lived infidels who do not slaughter animals nor do they eat flesh, fish or eggs, but there are persons who eat animals that have fallen precipices or that been gored to death but they do not eat at once that have died a natural death.238 This type of information indicates that there were two kinds of people namely Buddhists and Jainas.

DECCAN (C. 300-600 A.D.)

Jainism received great royal support in the South from the various ruling dynasties of the Deccan during this period. At this time, Jainism was more popular in the Southern states than in those of the North. Many royal families of the Deccan, their ministers and small chieftains showed decided inclination towards Jainism. Although in some cases, it is difficult to prove that the rulers were actual converts to this faith, there is ample evidence to show that they were quite liberal in their help and patronage, which accounts for much of the prosperity of Jainism in this part of the country.


The Ga�gas established their rule in Southern Kar���aka around the fourth century A.D. They are called Western Ga�gas or Gangas of Mysore. Their earliest capital was located at Kolar, but later on it was transferred to Talk�d. One of the notable early Ganga kings was  Durvinita. Another great Ga�ga monarch was �r�purusa (C. 726-76 A.D.). During the eighth and ninth centuries A.D., the Ga�gas were greatly harassed by the aggressive activities of the Eastern Ch�lukyas of Ve�gi, the Rash�rak�tas of Malkhed and other neighbours.

The Ga�ga kings of Mysore were intimately associatded with Jainism239. A later tradition makes Kongu�ivarma, (C. 350-400 A.D.) the founder of the Ga�ga family, a disciple of a Jaina teacher, called Si�hanandina, and suggests that all his successors were followers of the faith. A later ruler, Annita (C. 500-540 A.D.) is said to have been brought up by a Jaina sage called Vijayak�rti. At the preaching of Param�harta Vijayak�rti240, he donated a village to the Jaina temple of Uran�ra, and to the another temple one-fourth of the government custom. Another inscription241 records the endowment of land to the Jaina temple of Y�vanika Sa�gha by the king Avinita. The famour Digambara author P�jyap�da is associated with another king of this family, called Durvinita (C. 570-600 A.D.) The inscriptions of such Ga�ga kings as Avinita, �ivam�ra (670-713 A.D.) and �r�purusha (C. 725-788 A.D.) record gifts to Jaina monks and building of Jaina temples, along with other giving donations to Brahmanic temples whatever be the personal religion of these rulers, their patronage to Jainism is quite apparent. An inscription242 of the seventh century A.D. of the time �ivam�ra records the endowment of land by the king and others. The inscription243 of the eighth century A.D. mentions donation of two villages to a temple by some officials.

  1. THE KADAMBAS (C. 340-600 A.D.)

The Kadambas established their kingdom in Northern Kar��taka in the fourth century A.D. after defeating the early Pallavas. May�ra�arman founded this kingdom with Vaijayant� or Banav�s� as the capital. Among the successors of May�ra�arman K�kustha-Varman was important. During his reign, the Kadamba dominion and influence grew considerably. The next noteworthy Kadamba king was Ravi Varman, who made Hals� (Belgaum District) his capital, and successfully fought against the Ga�gas and the Pallavas. The rise of the Ch�lukyas of V�t�pi, then, dealt a severe blow to the ambitions of the Kadambas.

The Kadamba rulers of Vijayanti or Banav�s� are often regarded as of Jaina persuasion. They showed unusual favour towards Jainism, probably the religion of a large section of their subjects. There are several records of these rulers giving donations to Jaina monks, erecting Jaina temples and giving other help to the different sections of the Jaina community. These records of the Kadamba rulers show that the Jaina community was flourishing under their benevolent patronage and that many high officials and rich land-lords of the country were devout followers of this religion. Building temples, feeding groups of monks, worship of the Jaina images and celebration of festivals formed the time-honoured mode of showing religious zeal.

The first king of this dynasty, who definitely showed special favour for the Jainas, was K�kusthavarman whose Halsigrant (Belgaum District, Karnataka) is dated in the 80th year (G.E., 400 A.D.) of the Pa��abndha of his successor May�ra�arman244. Some grant was issued from Pal�sik� (Halsi) by K�kusthavarman who is represented as the Yuvar�ja of the Kadambas. By this grant, a field in the village called Khe�agr�ma,which belonged to the holy Arhats, was given to the general �rutak�rti as a reward for saving the prince.245K�kusthavarman’s son was ��ntivarma whose son was Mrige�va Varma. Several grants of Mrige�va Varm� are connected with the Jaina religion. It the third year of his reign, he donated the land for Abhisheka and worship.246 In the fourth year of his reign, he made a gift of a village named K�lava�ga.247 It was divided in three equal portions; the first was meant for the temple of Jinendra. The second portion was concerned with the Sa�gha of the �vet�mbaras and the third for the use of the Nirgrantha-Mah�srama�as. It is evident from this inscription that the Jinendra temple mentioned here, was the joint property of the monks of both the sections. In the eighth year of his reign, he gave to the holy Arhats, thirty-three nivartanas of land for the Y�pan�yas, Nirgranthas and K�rchakas.248

Mrige�vavarma had three sons namely Ravivarma, Bh�nuvarm� and �ivaratha. His successor Ravivarm� ruled from 478 to 513 A.D., According to the inscription249, Jayak�rti, grandson of Sen�pati ï¿½rutak�rti by the order of Ravivarm� donated ancestral Khe�aka village to Kum�radatta and other main �ch�ryas of the Y�pan�ya Sa�gha for the welfare of his parents. According to the second inscription250, Damakirti, son of �rutakirti, donated four Nivartanal and after taking it from his master Ravivarm� for the welfare of his mother. As known from the third inscription251, in the eleventh year of Ravivarm�’s reign, his younger brother Bh�nuvarm� after acquiring fifteen Nivartana land from Pa��ara Bhojaka, donated it to Jinendra. The reigning period of Ravivarm� is from 418 to 513 A.D.

The successor of Ravivarm� was his son Harivarm�. Two inscriptions of his reign are available. The first inscription records the grant of the village of Vasuntav��aka, in the District of Suddikund�ra, to a Jaina Sect, by Harivarm� in the fourth year of his reign252. Harivarma, in the fourth year of his reign at the preaching of �ivaratha donated the village Vasantuv��aka for the worship and alms to the Sa�gha in the temple built by Mrige�a, son of Sen�p�ti Si�ha. Chandraksh�nta was made head of the Varishe��ch�rya Sa�gha by the K�rchakes253. As known from another inscription254 at the request of Sendraka king Bhanuvarm�, that ruler donated the village Bharade for the second �rama�a Sa�gha named Ahirish�ha,  Harivarm� ruled over 513 A.D. to 534 A.D.

There is one more branch of the Kadambas who revolted against the main branch255. One inscription belonged to the time of Kris�avarm�256. There is mention of Yuvar�ja (prince) named Prita�gaya Devar�ja mentioned in the inscription. He was the ruler of Triparvata, and was follower of Jainism. He donated some land to the Y�pan�ya Sa�gha for the worship, repairs etc. of the temple. The second inscription records the grant of a village Harivarm�, in the fifth year of his reign, at the request of king Bh�nu�akti of the family of the Sendrakas257.


The Ch�lukya power had a modest beginning under Jayasi�ha and his son Ra�ar�ga. The latter’s successor, Pulake�in I, who came to the throne about the middle of the sixth century A.D. was, however, a figure of some note. He made V�t�pi his capital. The next member of the dynasty was K�rtivarman. He defeated the Mauryas of North Konkan as well as the Kadambas of Banav�s� (North Kan�ra) and the Nalas. When K�rtivarman died, his younger brother Ma�galar�ja or Ma�galeeaa is said to have taken Revat�dv�pa (Modern Re�i, Ratnagiri District) and subjugated the Kalchuris of Northern Dekkan. Pulak�in II (620-642 A.D.) found himself in possession of a big kingdom. After restoring order in his territories, he launched conquests which brought the Kadambas, the Ga�gas of South Mysore, the Mauryas of Konkan, the L��as, the M�lavas and the Gurjaras under his control.  He also defeated the Pallava ruler, Mahendravarman, in the South and entered into friendly relations with the kingdom of the far Southern Kingdoms for a whole century. Though they established their authority over them in the end, they had to bow before the rising power of the R�sh�rak�tas by the middle of the eighth century A.D.

The followers of Jainism enjoyed the respectable position under the the Western Ch�lukyas who were of generous outlook. During the reign of Ra�ar�ga, his Sa��raka feudatory named Durga�akti donated the land to the famous Ï¿½ankh� Jinalaya of Puligere258. The grant259 dated 489-90 A.D. of the reign of Pulake�in I mentions a feudatory of his S�miy�ra of the Rundranila-Saindraka family who was his Governor for the Kuhu��i, District. It then purports to record that S�miy�ra built a Jaina temple at the city of Alaktakanagars, which was the chief town of a circle of seven hundred villages in that District, and, with the permission of the king, made grants of certain lands and villages to the temple on the occasion of an eclipse of moon.

The inscription260 of the early Ch�lukya king K�rttivarm�-I engraved on a stone tablet at the village of ��ur records the grant of a field for the d�na��l� or hall for the distribution of charity and other puroses, of a Jin�laya or Jaina tempe which had been built by one of the Guamu��as or village headman. This inscription also records that, while Kirttivarm� was reigning as supreme sovereign, and while a certain king Sind was governing the city of P���ipura, Do�ag�mu��a and Elag�mu��a and others, with the permission of king M�dhavatti, gave to the temple of Jinendra, for the purpose of providing the oblation, unbroken rice, perfumes, flowers etc., eight mattals of rice land, by the royal measure, to the west of the village of Karmagal�r. The inscription is not dated but the style of characters leaves no doubt that it belonged to the early Ch�lukya king K�rttivarm� I.

Kirttivarman I who ruled up to 597 A.D. was succeeded by his brother Ma�gale�a Recently, a new inscription261 of his reign has been discovered which proves the popularity of the Jaina religion during his time. The inscription is undated but refers to Ma�galaraja, who is no other than Ma�gale�a of the Badami branch and it should therefore be assigned to C. 600 A.D. It records a grant of land to a Jaina monastery by the Sendraka chief Ravi�akti of Kanna�akti. From the Aihole inscription262 dated 634 A.D. written by Ravik�rtti, it is known that with the generous support of his patron Pulike�in-II of Badami, Ravik�rtti founded a Jaina shrine. The poet Ravik�rtti was  not only a sincere and dedicated Jaina, but also one of the celebrated men of letters of his time. A Jaina cave at Badami and another at Ahihole belong to the early Ch�lukya period. Aya�a Mah�dev�, the queen of Kubja Vish�u Vardhana, junior brother of Pulike�in-II, made the gift of the village for the benefit of a Jaina tample. King S�hasatu�ga, the patron of Akala�ka, appears to have been identified with the Western Ch�lukya emperor Vikram�ditya-I (642-81 A.D.), and successor of Pulake�in-II.

There are also a number of grants professing to be from Ch�lukya kings like Vinay�ditya, Vijay�ditya and Vikram�ditya giving gifts to Jaina teachers and for the building of temples. A long stone tablet from Lakshme�vara has several interesting inscriptions.263 The inscription dated 686 A.D. of the reign of Vinay�ditya264 records a grant to an ï¿½ch�rya of M�lasa�gha ï¿½nvaya and Devaga�a sect. Another part of the same stone tablet dated in the 34th year of Vijay�ditya265 mentions that the grant was made for the benefit of the temple of �ankha Jinendra at the city of Pulikara, the present Lakshme�vara. Another inscription dated 734 A.D. of the time of Vikram�dityaII266 records that �ankhat�rtha of the city of Pulikara and the temple called white Jin�laya (Dhavala Jin�laya) were embellished and repaired and that certain land was given for maintaining the worship of Jina.

The stone inscription267 dated 751-52 A.D. of K�rttivarman II Saty��raya discovered at the village A��igeri in Navalgunda Taluka of Dharwar District records the construction of a Jaina temple by Kaliyamma who was holding the office of the headman of Jebulageri and the erection in fornt of a sculpture by a certain Ko��i�ulara-Kuppa whose name was K�rttivarman Gos�i.

There are some epigraphs of Tamil Nadu, Kerala etc. which are not connected with any ruling dynasty. One inscription dated about sixth century A.D., has been discovered from Tirun�tharkunru268 in Ginger T�luk of South Arcot. It records the fast unto death (ni�idik�) in fifty seven days by Chandranandi �siriyar. A great Jaina saint named Ajanandi did every thing to make Jainism popular in the States Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala in South India during the eighth century A.D. He was responsible for fashioning a number of images in different parts of the Southern states of India. His name is mentioned in short epigraphs found from Vallimalai in Chitoor District of Andhra Pradesh and from Anaimala, Aivarmalai, Alagaramalai, Karu�g�lkku�i and Uttampaliyam in Madurai District. His name is also found in the natural cavern at Eruv��i in Tinnevelly District near Chitral in Keral.

NORTH INDIA (C. 800 – 1200 A.D.)

After the fall of the Guptas and the death of Harsha, there was political vacuum. The Rajputs seem to have appeared in the eighth century A.D. The period from eighth to the twelfth century A.D. in North and Western India, is called the Rajput period. Old Kshatriya dynasties disappeared and new ones with uncertain origin came into existence. The theory of  Agnikula story of the Rajputs mentions the Prat�h�ras, the Chauh�nas, the Parm�ras and the Ch�lukyas. The Gurjara Prat�haras, were chronologically the earliest and historically the most important of the Rajput dynasties. Besides there were other Rajput dynasties such as the Chandellas, Kalachuris, Tomaras, Kachchhapagh��as, Guhilas and R�sh�rak�tas. It seems that these Rajput dynasties might have descended from the foreigners, Br�hma�as, tribal people etc. One common factor among these Rajput dynasties is that they belonged to the ruling clans. Though these Rauputs were followers of Brahmanical religion, they patronized Jainism. As a result, Jainism made striking progress in their respective kingdoms.


The earliest settlement of the Imperial Prat�h�ras like the other Rajput clans was Rajasthan. The first important ruler of this dynasty was N�gabha�a I (C. 730-756 A.D.) who defeated the Arabs. Vatsar�ja who ascended the throne about 778 A.D. was the first to attempt the building of an empire in North India. Vatsar�ja was succeeded by his son N�gabha�a-II who retrieved the fortunes of the family. The rulers of �ndhra, Saindhava, Vidarbha and Kali�ga succumbed to him, and he defeated Chakr�yudha, the lord of Va�ga. He forcibly seized the forts of the kings of �narta, M�lava, Kir��a, Turuska, Vatsa and Matsya. He shifted his capital from his homeland Kanauj in 815 A.D. Mihira Bhoja gradually rebuilt the empire by his conquests of the territories in Rajasthan, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. Mihira Bhoja was succeeded by his son Mahendrapal�-I who ruled till about 909 A.D. He extended the empire over Magadha and North Bengal. His records have also been found in Kathiawar, East Punjab and Awadh.

Jainism flourised in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat under the Imperial Prat�h�ras. There is a temple of Mah�v�ra at Osia, constructed in the time of Vatsar�j�269. Uddyotana S�ri informs that he completed the Kuvalayam�l� in 778 A.D. in the �shabhadeva temple of Jalor which was adorned with a large number of Jaina shrines. Another place called Ag�savana, which was probably situated not far from Jalor, was adorned with a large number of Jaina temples. That Jainism was in a flourishing conditions is further proved by an inscription discovered from Osia and is dated 956 A.D. Kakkuka was the Prat�h�ra ruler of Mandor near Jodhpur. He was a Sanskrit scholar and patron of Jainism. From the Gha�iy�l� inscription of 861 A.D., it is clear that he constructed a Jaina temple.270

Under the advice of Bappabha��is�ri, N�gabha�a-II also known as �na spent much money on setting up Jaina temples and images. He built a Jaina temple at Kanauj, 100 cubits high, and erected a golden image of Mah�v�ra. He also set up an image of Mah�v�ra at Gwalior, 23 cubits and is further said to have built Jaina temples at Mathura, A�ahilav��a, Modhera etc.271 It is known that various Gachchhas originated in the North with the disciples of Uddyotana S�ri who remained attached with this area because he died in about 937 A.D on a pilgrimage which he had undertaken from M�lavade�a to �atru�jaya to worship �shabha. Mihira Bhoja also patronized Jainism under the influence of Nennas�ri and Govindas�ri, the disciples of Bappas�ri.

Ujjain remained the seat of the Bha���rakas of the M�lasa�gha during this period as known from the Pa���val�s272. It was during the time of the Prat�h�ra ruler Vatsaraja that Jinasena-II composed the Harivar��nsapur��a in 783 A.D. at Vardha��napura identified with modern Badnawar in Ujjain District. �ch�rya Harishe�a,273 who belonged to the Pu����a Sa�gha, composed the Kathako�a in 931 A.D. at Vardham�napura now identified with Badnawar. Devasena274 wrote the Dar�anas�ra at Dh�ra.

Davagarh, Gyaraspur, Ba�oh-Pathari, Ahar and Indor (District Guna) became great centres of Jainism where Jaina temples were built and images were installed in them.275 From the inscription of 982 A.D. engraved in the ï¿½ï¿½hakhambh� at Gyaraspur, it is known that some pilgrims visited this place.

Several places of Uttar Pradesh were connected with the Jaina religion during this period. There is a celebrated group of Devgarh temples276 in Jhansi District. Majority of them came into existence in this period. The important inscription of Devgarh dated 862 A.D. of the time of Prat�h�ra Bhoja277 has been found in the temple ��ntin�tha. The inscription proves that the shrine of ��ntin�tha existed before 862 A.D.  Devagarh was known formerly as Luachchh�gira. In further mentions that Mah�s�manta Vish�ur�ma who had the tittle Pa�chamah��abda given to him by Paramabha��raka Mah�r�j�dhir�ja Parame�vara �r� Bhojadeva. The inscription which is incised on a pillar of the temple further refers to one �r�deva who was the disciple of ï¿½ch�rya Kamaladeva. Another inscription278 deated V.S. 1016 mentions Tribhuvanak�rti, a disciple of Devendrak�rti who was a disciple of Ratnak�rti of the Sarasvat� gachchha of M�lasa�gha. A third inscription279 of the ninth century A.D. from this place refers to a Jaina Muni called N�gasen�ch�rya.

In the literary texts composed during this period, Mathura is repeatedly mentioned as a celebrated Jaina centre. The B�ihatakalpabh�shya280, composed in the eighth century A.D. refers to the Jaina shrines in residential areas of Mathura. The B�ihat Kath� Ko�a281 of Harise�a describes Mathura as Jinayatanama��it� i.e. abounding in Jaina temples. This text was composed in 931 A.D. Jinaprabha282 informs that in 768 A.D., the great �vet�mbara Savant Bappabha��i established an image of Mah�v�ra at Mathura. This is also confirmed by the evidence of the Prabandha Ko�a.283 According to Devasena (895 A.D.), R�masena established Mathura Sa�gha at Mathura.284 This shows that Mathura continued as a favourite resort for both the �vet�mbaras and the Digambaras. A few Jaina inscriptions of this period have been discovered at Mathura. Several old cities of Uttar Pradesh like Ahichchhatra, K�mpliya, K���, S��k��ya, �r�vast�, Kau��mb� etc. remained centres of Jainism, and Jaina images of this period have been discovered from these sites. These ancient remains point out that Jainism was popular in this region during this Prat�h�ra period.


Jainism made marked progress during the reign of the Ba�a-G�rjara Prat�h�ras Rajorgarh, situated forty-five km. to the South-West of Alwar in Rajasthan. Jaina saints performed penances in some caves the traces of which are visible in the hills. By their inspiration, their followers constructed maginificent temples and placed images in them. An inscription dated V.S. 979 (923 A.D.) of the reign of king S�va�a records the construction of the temple as well as the installation of images of ��ntin�tha therein at R�jyapura by Sarvadeva, son of Dedullaka, and grandson of Arbha�a (of caste) of Dharka�a family.285 Three life-size Jaina figures are all standing upright.286 There are also two highly ornamented gaps besides numerous broken figures all apparently Jaina. In one of the ruined temples, there is a colossal Jaina figure thirteen feet nine inches with a canopy of two feet six inches over head which is supported by two elephants.287 The whole height of the sculpture is 16, 3, and its breadth six feet. It is known as Nowgaz�, and it is said to have been by Bhai�s� Mah�jana during the reign of some Ba�a Gurjara ruler.


The Chaham�nas, claiming descent from the Agnikula Rajputs, became independent in Ajmer towards the end of the ninth century A.D. Different branches of the Chaham�nas ruled over different parts of Rajasthan such as ��kambhar�, Ranthambhor, N��ol, J�lor and Chandr�vat� of the several branches of the clan, the most important was that of ��kambhar� or Sambhar. Ajayar�ja founded the city of Ajayameru or Ajmer. Another famous member of the dynasty was Vigrahar�ja IV V�saladeva (1153-1164 A.D.). He conquered Gujarat, and captured Delhi from the Tomaras. The greatest monarch of this dynasty was P�ithv�raja III ( 1179 A.D.). He was the lord of territories of Sambhar and Delhi. He asserted his superiority over R�j� Jayachandra with Kanauj as his capital. Both P�ithv�r�ja and Jayachandra were defeated towards the close of the twelfth century A.D. by Muhammed Ghori.


By the influence of the Jaina ï¿½ch�ryas, the Chauh�na rulers also patronized Jainism. P�ithv�r�ja I is known have been ruling in 1105 A.D.288 He had golden cupolas put on the Jaina temples of Ra�thambhor.289 This besides proving his mastery of Ra�thambhor testifies to his liberal views in matters of religion. His son and successor was Ajayar�ja. Though he was a devotee of �iva, he paid due respect also to the followers of Jaina sects. He permitted the Jainas to build temples in the newly founded city of Ajmer, presented a golden Kala�a to the temple of P�r�van�tha290 and acted as a judge in the religious discussion between the �vet�mbara teacher Dharmaghoshas�ri and his Digambara opponent Gu�achandra. He was succeeded by his son Ar�or�ja, also known as �nnaladeva, before 1133 A.D. He was a contemporary of Jinadattas�ri whom he held in great respect. He visited him at his seat and granted a suitable site to his followers for the construction of a big Jaina temple291. Jinadattas�ri died and was also cremated Ajmer in 1154 A.D. After D�d� Jinadattas�ri, the place came to be known as D�d�b�r� or the garden of D�d�. After that, in a number of towns in Rajasthan, the Jaina merchants renamed their gradens as D�d�b�r�s in respectful memory of the great saint.

After Ar�or�ja, V�saladeva Vigrahar�ja ascended the throne in about 1152 A.D. In religious matters, he followed the foot-steps of his forefathers. For Jainas, he built Vih�ras, participated in their religious ceremonies and on the representation of one of their religious teachers, Dharmaghoshas�ri, prohibited the slaughter of animals on the Ek�da�� day.292 After him, P�ithv�r�ja II became the ruler. It is known from the Bijolia inscription of 1169 A.D. that P�ithv�r�ja II endowed the temple of P�r�van�tha at Bijoli� with a village called Morakuri to meet its recurring expenses. P�ithv�r�ja II was succeeded by his uncle Some�vara, son of Ar�or�ja. He earned through his personal valour the biruda of Prat�pala�ke�vara and with a desire to gain heaven endowed P�r�van�tha on the bank of the Rev� wih a village named Rev�n� in absolute charity.293 After the Tomaras, the Chauh�nas occupied Delhi. The Chauh�na ruler Some�vara was patron of Jainism. When he came to Delhi from Ajmer, a rich Jaina named Devap�la accompanied him.  Both made pilgrimage to the holy place Hastin�pura. Devap�la installed the standing image in 1176 A.D.294 After Some�vafa, his son P�ithv�r�ja III became the emperor who ruled from 1179 A.D. He liked religious discussions and therefore, in his royal court, a debate was held in 1182 A.D. between Jinapatis�ri and Pa��ita Padmaprabha, Chaityav�s� to Upake�agachchha in which Jinapatis�ri emerged victorious.295

A branch of Chauh�nas ruled from N��ol in Marwar from 960 A.D. till 1252 A.D. A�var�ja of this dynasty was a feudatory of the Sol�nk� emperor Kum�rap�la. He accepted Jainism and patronized it. He gave commands for the strict observance of ahi�s� in his kingdom on certain days. He made over to his son Ka�ukar�ja the villlage of Sev��� as J�g�ra which was famous for the temple of V�ran�tha, the 24th T�rtha�kara. The inscription of Sev��� of 1110 A.D. of the time of A�var�ja records a grant of barley equal to one h�raka from every one of the wells araha�a belonging to the villages of Padr���, Medra�ch�, Chhechha�iy� and Medda�� for the daily worship of Dharman�thadeva in the temple of Sam�p��� by the Mah�s�ha��ya Uppalar�ka (the great master of stables). The second stone inscription of Sev��� of 1115 A.D. records that Ka�ukar�ja made an annual grant of 8 drammas to Thallaka, the son of B�ha�a, on the ï¿½ivar�tr� day for the worship of ��ntinatha in the Khattaka (niche) of Ya�odeva, the grandfather of the donee.296

Mah�r�ja R�yapala also patronized Jainism. The N��al�� stone inscription of 1132 A.D. records a grant made by Rudrap�la and Am�itap�la, sons of Mah�r�ja R�yapala along with their mother, R�j�� M�naladev�. The gift consists of two palik�s of oil out of the share due to the royal family from each oil mill. The recipients were the Jaina ascetics in the outside of N���la��gika297. The N��al�� stone inscription of 1138 A.D. refers to the reign of Mah�r�ja R�yap�la over Na��la��gika and then records the gift of one twentieth part of the income derived from the loads leaving or entering N���la��gika by the Guhila �h�kura R�jadeva for the the worship of Nemin�tha298. The third N��al�� stone inscription of 1143 A.D. is of the reign of Mah�r�ja R�yap�la when R�ula R�jadeva was the �h�kura of Na��la��gika. It records some benefaction of the temple of Mah�v�ra.299 The fourth inscription of 1143 A.D. of his place of the reign of Mah�r�ja R�yap�la records that R�ula R�jadeva made a grant of one Vi��opaka from the Pailas (coin) according to him and two palik�s from the bales of oil due to him from every gh��aka to this temple300.

Mah�r�ja �lha�adeva, feudatory of Kum�rap�la, obtained Kir��ak�pa, L��arha�a and �iv� in 1152 A.D. through the favour of his master. He also extended patronage to Jainism. He on the ï¿½ivar�tr� day in 1152 A.D. thinking the granting of security to animals to be the highest gift issued injunctions for the increase of his spiritual merit and fame to the Mah�janast�mb�likasand other subjects, forbidding the slaughter of living beings on the 8th, 11th and 14th days of both the fortnights of every month in the three towns named above and threatening with capital punishment those who killed or caused others to kill living beings.301 The Br�hma�as, priests, ministers and others were also ordered to respect this edict of non-slaughter. And amongst these, he who commits the sin of taking life should be fined five drammas, but if the sinner be one attached the king, he should be fined one dramma only. We know from the N��ol grant that �lha�a and Kelha�a were pleased to give to the R�japurta K�rtip�la 12 villages, appertaining to N��al��. In 1160 A.D. after bathing at N��al�� and worshipping the Sun and Mahe�vara, K�rtip�la granted a yearly sum of two drammas from each of his twelve villages to Jina Mah�v�ra at N��al��.302 This he had done either voluntarily or on the request of the Jainas. The N��ol grant of 1171 A.D. registers that Mah�r�ja ï¿½lha�deva of N���la worshipping the Sun and I��na and making gifts to Br�hma�as and Gurus, granted to the Jaina temple of Mah�v�ra in the Sanderaka Gachchha at the holy place (Mahasth�na) of N���la a  monthly sum of 5 drammas to be paid from the custom house (Sulkama��apik�) in the N��ulatalapada.303

Kelha�adeva, the son of �lha�adeva, also contributed to the progress of Jainism. The Sa��er�va stone inscription of 1164 A.D. in the reign of Kelha�adeva records that A�halladev�, the queen mother, granted one plough of land to the T�rtha�kara Mah�v�ra, M�lan�yaka of the Sa��eraka Gachchha.304 The L�lr�i stone inscription of 1176 A.D. of the reign of Kelha�adeva states that the R�japutras L�kha�ap�la and Abhayap�la, the owners of Si���ava and sons of K�rtip�la, made grant conjointly with the queen Mahibaladev� in the presence of the village Pa�chakula for celebrating the festival of the god ��ntin�tha. The grant consisted of barely weighing one B�raka as used as the country of Gurjar�tra from the well of the village Bha�iy�uva.305 The second L�lr�� stone inscription of the same time speaks of the R�japutras L�kha�ap�la and Abhayap�la as the owners of Sa�n��aka. It then records that the cultivators Bh�va��, �sadhara and others granted for their spiritual merit four seers of barely from the (field) called Kh��is�ra to the T�rtha�kara ��ntin�tha in connection with the festivals of the Gurjaras.306 The second Sa��er�va stone inscription of 1179 A.D. of the reign of Kelha�adeva of N���la records the gift of a column and house to the T�rtha�kara P�r�van�tha, worshipped at Sa��eraka (Sander�va) in the Bhuktiof the queen J�lha�a by R�lh� and P�lh�. Those residing in the house must pay four ‘draelas‘ to the God.307

K�rtip�la removed the Chaham�na capital from N��ol to Jab�lipura. Jainism made much headway even under the reign of Chaham�nas of Jab�lipura. The J�lore stone inscription 1182 A.D. of the reign of Mah�r�ja Samarasi�hadeva, son of Mah�r�ja K�rtip�ladeva and grandson of Mah�r�ja ï¿½lha�a records that Ma��apa was constructed by the se�haYa�ov�ra of �r�m�la family who was joined in this work by his brother and all the members of the Gosh�h�.308 Ya�ov�ra became the minister of Udayasi�ha, the successor Samarasi�ha. Another inscription of J�lore records that the temple of P�r�van�tha built by Kum�rap�la was rebuilt in 1185 A.D. by the Bha���r� Ya�ov�ra in accordance with the orders of Mah�r�ja Samarasi�hadeva of the Chaham�na family.309 The inscription of 1245 A.D. referring itself to the reign of Chaham�na king Ch�chigadeva specified the contribution of 50 drammas to the Bha���ra of Mah�v�ra of the Chandanavih�ra by a Teli� Osav�la called Narapati.310 Another inscription of 1275 A.D. records the gift of one Narapati to the temple of P�r�van�tha in the reign of S�mantasi�ha.311

We thus see that under the liberal patronage of the Chauh�na rulers, Jainism acquired a hold in the Marwar, Ajmer, Bijoli� and S�mbhar regions of Rajasthan. Both Jainism and Hinduism continued to flourish side by side. There was no spirit of rivalry on intolerance. The kings used to worship both Hindu gods and Jaina T�rtha�karas at the same time and used to participate in the affairs and functions of both the religions.


The Chauh�na ruler Chandrap�la established a principality outside Rajasthan at Chandrav��a, modern Firozabad, Uttar Pradesh in the last quarter of the tenth century A.D. His Diw�n R�masi�ha and king himself were followers of Jainism. After constructing Jaina fort at Chandrav��a, thy built the Jaina temple in 996-999 A.D., and installed the image of Chandraprabhu in it. The Chauh�na rulers of this dynasty namely Chandrap�la, Bharatap�la, J�ha�a and Ball�la were either Jainas or partons of Jainism. Their ministers were followers of Jainism. Am�itap�la, a Ministers of Abhayap�la constructed the Jaina image at Chandrav��a. So��s�hu Minister of Jaha�a, got the Bhavishyadattakath� written in Apabhra��a in 1173 A.D. There was another branch of this Chauh�na dynasty at As�likhe�a in Etawa District of Uttar Pradesh. Several images of this period were discovered at this site. Even Jaina images of this period were found at Kau��mbhi and Jalso in Allahabad District were discovered.312


Although Malwa was the centre of Param�ra power, minor branches of the clan ruled over Chandr�vati and Abu, Banswara, Jaor and Kir��u. V�lkapati Muja (973 A.D.) is known to be the well known ruler of the Para��ra dynasty of Malwa. He combined the rare combination of military ability and constructive statesmanship. He is said to have vanquished the Kalachuri ruler of Tripuri. Besides, he made the L��as, Kar���as, Cholas and the Kerals bow to his head. He was badly defeated by the Ch�lukya Tailapa II. In about 1000 A.D., Bhoja became the ruler, and ruled up to 1055 A.D. He is the most famous and greatest Param�ra ruler of Malwa. Under him, Param�ra imperialism reached its zenith, and Malwa rose to its greatest glory and renown. This dynasty continued in the hands of undistinguished rulers until Ala-ud-d�n-Khalj� conquered Malwa in the beginning of the fourteeth century A.D.

Jainism :

That Jainism made considerable progress in Malwa during this period is clear from literary and archaeological evidence. Though the ruling chiefs were followers of Brahmanical religion, they took an active interest in the development of Jainism. They patronized Jaina scholars, and promoted Jainism in their kingdom. Jaina saints converted a large number of people. Jaina temples were built, and images were placed in them. There were also the Jaina holy places of pilgrimage.

The Jaina �ch�ryas Amitagati, Mah�sena, Dhanap�la and Dhane�vara, were patronized by V�kpati Mu�ja. Amitagati, who belonged to M�thura Sa�gha, was the disciple of M�dhavasena S�ri and grand-disciple of Nemishe�a. Mah�sena was of the L��a B�ga�a Sa�gha, and he was the pupil of Gu�akarasena, who was the pupil of Jayasena. Mah�sena was the Guru of Parpa�a who was the Mahattama of Sindhur�ja. M��ikyanandi, the author of  Par�ksh�mukha, probably lived during his reign at Dh�ra. His predecessors are Padmanandi, Vi�hnunandi, Vi�vanandi, V�ishabhanandi, Ramanandi and Trailokyanandi. They might have been living in the area of Malwa.

The great Jaina writer Prabh�chandra was honoured by Bhojadeva. Dhanap�la wrote his Tilakama�jar� at the request of Bhoja who conferred on the author the title of Sarasvat�. Under his influence, Bhoja is said to have inclined towards Jainism. From the Dubkunda inscription of V.S. 1145 (1088 A.D.), it is known that ��ntishe�a defeated the learned scholars in discussions in the court of Bhoja. Sur�ch�rya also adorned his court. Devabhadra also perhaps received the favour and patronage of Bhoja.

The famous Jaina ï¿½ch�ryas, Jine�varas�ri and Buddhis�gara of Dh�ranagar�, must have lived during Bhoja’s time. Another contemporary Jaina poet was Nayanandi, who composed his Sudar�ana Charita in 1043 A.D., while staying in the Jinavaravih�raof Dh�ra. �r�chandra, pupil of �r�nandi, who under Bhojadeva of Dh�ra, wrote the Pur�nas�ra, and commentaries on thePadmacharita of Ravishe�a, and the Mah�pur��a of Pushpadanta. Nemichandra Saidh�nika wrote the Laghudravya Sa�graha at ��ramanagara (Keshor�ip�tan) during the reign of Bhoja, when �r�ap�la was M���alika.

The inscription engraved on the pedestal of a colossal image of a Jaina T�rtha�kara in the old Jaina temple at Bhojapura, refers to Chandr�rdhamauli (i.e. the God �iva), and its consecration by the Jaina householder S�garnandin, through the Jaina monk Nemichandra S�ri, in the reign of Bhojadeva. While installing the Jaina image, it invokes the god �iva in its beginning and thus it goes to show that the person who installed the image was equally devoted to both these faiths. Bhoja was succeeded by Jayasi�hadeva, who was also patron of Prabh�chandra.

The Jaina temples at unascribed to the eleventh and twelfth centuries, appear to have been built during the reign of the later Param�ra kings of Malwa. This is confirmed by the two inscriptions of Uday�ditya, and a Sarpabandha inscription of Naravarman.

The inscription of V.S. 1157 on the pedestal of an image of the Jaina T�rtha�kara P�r�van�tha at Bhojapura records that it was installed by Chillna of the Vemaka family during the reign of Naravarman. An inscription of 1134 A.D., in the Jaina temple of Sheragarh, records how a great festival of the Jaina T�rth�nkara of Nemin�tha was celebrated at the new Chaitya during the reign of Naravarman. Devap�la ordered the ratnatraya (images of three T�rtha�karas – ��ntin�tha, Kuntan�tha, and Arahan�tha), and performed their installation ceremony in association with his son, parents, relatives and gosh�h�s at Ko�avardhana. His ancestor M�hilla had migrated to Malava from S�ry��rama.

Jainism gradually became a powerful force because of the literary, missionary and reformist activities of the Jaina scholars and saints in the Param�ra dominions. Dharasena lived in Dh�ra, and his disciple was Mah�v�ra, a learned �ch�rya, well-versed in different branches of Jainism, and who received the patronage of king Vindhyavarman. When ���dhara migrated to Dh�ra from M���algarh in about 1192 A.D., he was taught by Mah�v�ra. ���dhara, was a profound scholar of Jainism. He lived for a long time, to the middle of the thirtheenth century A.D., and wrote a number of books on Jainism. He mentions five kings during his lifetime viz., Vindhavarma, Subha�avarma, Arjunavarma, Devap�la and Jaitugideva. Probably, his father Salakha�a, was Sandhivigrahika (Minister of peace and war) of Arjunavarman, and ���dhara’s son also served the same ruler in some capacity. ���dhara has been highly praised by the great poet Bilha�a, who was also the Sa�dhivigrahika of Vindhyavarmadeva, and B�la Sarasvat� Mah�kavi Madana learnt K�vya��stra under his guidance. ���dhara left a number of Jaina disciples, such as Vi��lak�rtti, Arhad�sa and Devachandra, who advanced the cause of Jainism by their literary contributions.

In 1197 A.D., (V.S. 1264), Jinapati S�ri visited Dh�ra and propagated Vidhim�rga in the temple of ��ntin�tha. In the middle of the thirteenth century, Devadhara seems to have been the head of a Jaina monastery at Ujjain. He died in V.S. 1327 (1270 A.D.) in Malwa, and thirteen days later, his appointed successor, Vidy�nandas�ri, also passed away at Vidy�pur�. After that, the brother of the latter, Dharmak�rtti Up�dhy�ya, received the S�ripada under the name of Dharmaghosha. He died in V.S. 1357 (1300 A.D.).

The considerable progress and growing popularity of Jainism is reflected in the remains of numerous images found at Gandhawal, Badnawar, �n, Ujjain etc. The holy places of Jainism existing before the fourteenth century A.D. are known from the Vividha-t�rth of Jinaprabhas�ri, who mentions Ku�u�ge�wara of Ujjain, Abhinandanadeva at Ma�galapura, Sup�r�va at Da�apura and Mah�v�ra of Bh�ilasv��i Ga�ha. The ï¿½ï¿½sanachatustri��atik� of Madanak�riti also refers to Abhinandana Jina of Ma�galpura and the image of B�vangaj� of Badwani as B�ihaddeva. Jay�nanda, in the Prav�sag�tik� mentions Lakshm�, which is situated in the forest near Nimb�ra. There is a holy place named T�lanpur in Dh�ra District. Once inscription dated V.S. 1022 on an image bears the name Tu�gipattan. The Pr�krit Nirv��a K��da, which seems to be wrongly attributed to Kundakunda, refers to Ch�lagiri, P�v�giri and Siddhavarak��a. Ch�lagiri is identified with Bav�nagaj� of Badwani and P�v�giri with ��. The remains of Jaina temples and images of the eleventh and twelfth centuries have been discovered both at B�vanagaj� and ��.

Some inscriptions engraved on the images throw light upon the Jaina Sa�ghas and their ï¿½ch�ryas, who performed the installation ceremony of images. The Mulasa�gha and its ï¿½ch�rya Ratnak�rtti has been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1323. This Sa�ghahas also been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1230 found at Badnawar. The M�thura Sa�gha is known from the inscriptions of the twelfth century engraved on the Jaina images discovered here. Kaly��ak�rtti of the V�ga�a Sa�gha is known to have installed images at Vardhan�pura now known as Badnawar, in V.S. 1308. The L��a V�ga�a Gachchha (K�sh�h� Samgha) is also mentioned in the Jaina image dated V.S. 1325 found at T�lanpur. The temple of ��ntin�tha existed at Badnawar, as is known from the inscription of V.S. 1229. Kha��ela gachchha, which originated from Khandela in Rajasthan, has been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1325. The M�thura Sa�gha and its ï¿½ch�ryas, are known from the inscription of V.S. 1308. There is an image at Badnawar installed by the teachers of the Punn��a Sa�gha.313

Jainism : The Parmara rulers of �b� also patronized Jainism like other R�japuta rulers. An inscription of 967 A.D. in the Jaina temple at a village named Diy��� in Sirohi state records that during the reign of K�ish�ar�ja, the image of V�ran�tha was set up by Vardham�na belonging to the Vish�ita family314. This inscription is very important as it determines the date of K�ish�ar�ja also. He was the Param�ra ruler of �b�, son of Ara�yar�ja and grandson of Utpalar�ja. This is the oldest in cription of the Param�ra rulers of �b�.

There is an inscription in the temple of Mah�v�ra at Jh��oli which records that the wife of Param�ra king Dh�r�varsha named �rig�radev� gave land to the temple in 1197 A.D.315 An inscription of 1243 A.D. records a grant to the temple of P�r�van�tha during the reign of �lha�asi�ha, king of Chandr�vat�316. In 1288 A.D., during the reign of Mah�r�ja V�saladeva, S�ra�gadeva of Chandr�vat�, the Param�ra Th�kuras namely �r� Prat�pa and �r� Hemadeva of the village Datt��� gave two pieces of land to meet the expenses of the temple of P�r�van�tha.317 Suhha�asi�ha, the son of R�vala Mah�p�ladeva, gave 400 drammas to this temple for performing some religious function. From the inscription of 1334 A.D. at Diy���, we know that the king Tejap�la and his minister K�pa constructed a cistern and gave it to the temple of Mah�v�ra.318


As the Ch�ulukyas conquered �b�, this dyansty became associated with the Agnikula story. The Ch�ulukya dynasty of A�ahilap��aka identified with modern P��an in Gujarat was founded by M�lar�ja. The next important figure was Bh�ma-I, nephew of M�lar�ja’s grandson Durlabhar�ja who ruled for about forty-two years from C. 1021 A.D. to 1063 A.D. When Sult�n Mahm�d Ghaz�i withdrew, he recovered his capital and revived the Chaulukya power. Bh�ma-I was followed by his son Kar�a, who could not achieve anything substantial despite a long reign about thirty years (C. 1063-93 A.D.). Kar�a’s successor was Jayasi�ha Siddhar�ja. He was the most striking personality among the rulers of A�ahilaw��a, and he ruled from 1093-1145 A.D. After the death of Jayasi�ha, the throne was seized by his distant relative Kum�rap�la. He was an energetic man, he pursued a policy of active militarism. The later Chaulukya monarchs were not important.


Gujarat was a flourishing centre of Jainism throughout the Chaulukya. The Jaina influence at the court of the Chaulukya kings of Gujarat may be traced from the time of the very founder of the dynasty. A Jaina temple, known as M�labastik�, is said to have been constructed by M�lar�ja himself at his capital A�ahilap��aka or A�ahilav��a. According to the Kathakosha of �r�chandra, M�lar�ja had for his legal adviser (dharma-st�nasya Gosh�hikah) one Sajjana of the Pr�gv��a family of A�ahilav��a and �r�chandra, the disciple of Sahasrak�rti, whose spiritual predecessors were �rutak�rti and �r�k�rti in the line of Kundakunda, composed the work for the instruction of the family of Sajjana’s son Krish�a. The prestige that this line of spiritual teachers enjoyed in the political world of the period is indicated incidentally in the pra�asti, where Sahasrak�rti is described as “the sinless teacher whose supreme lotus feet were worshipped by eminent kings like G��geya, Bhojadeva and others.” The reference is presumably to the Kalachuri king of Chedi and the Param�ra king of Malwa.

During the reign of Bhima-I, his minister Vimala of the Pr�gv�ta family built, at abu the most magnificent Jain temple of �din�tha. Indian craftsmanship of the age has found its best expression here, and the temple, for its rich delicate carving, grace, and beauty, is considered to be unique in the world. The temple was completed in A.D. 1031, i.e. within seven years of the demolition of Soman�tha by Mahm�d of Ghazni. The Kharatara gachchha-pa���vali records that minister Vimala of the Porw�� caste captured the parasols of thirteen Sult�ns, founded the town of Chandr�vat�, and built the temple of �ishabhadeva on the Arbud�chala. These activities of Vimala which, of course, had the approval of his royal master, Bh�ma, were probably a reaction to the Muslim vandalism exhibited at Soman�tha and other places.

Jainism became more dominant at the Chaulukya court during the reigns of Siddhar�ja and his successor Kum�rapala. The latter actually accepted Jainism under the influence of “the most learned man of his time,” the celebrated Hemachandra (A.D. 1088-1172), and under his inspiration and guidance enriched Gujarat with Jain shrines to an enormous extent. During his reign, Gujarat became a stronghold of Jainism, in respect of followers as well as institutions, for all time to come. The secret of this success was not any fanatic zeal, but the promotion of understanding between different faiths, which is the corner-stone of Jainism and was particularly emphasised by Hemachandra in word as well as in deed. The continuity of the faith and the prosperity of the followers are attested by the temple of Nemin�tha built in the vicinity of �din�tha temple at �bu, mentioned above, by Tejap�la of the Porw�� family, who was a minister of the chaulukya king Somasi�hadeva. It was completed in A.D. 1230. In its beauty of sculptural decoration, it is only comparable to the �din�tha temple. To these were added numerous Jaina shrines and other structures during the twelfth and the thirteenth century, the fame of which gave the place its new name Devala-v�da or Delw���. Besides �bu, �atrunjaya and Girn�r in Kathiawad received particular attention of the rulers and merchants, whose bounty is reflected in the huge and beautiful temples which have since been adorning their peaks. The Chint�ma�i P�r�van�tha temple at Khambh�ta was built about A.D. 1108 and repaired in A.D. 1295. It records names of several devotees from Malwa, Sap�dalaksha, and Chitrak��a, who endowed the temple from time to time.319

The successor of Jayasi�ha was Kum�rap�la who gradually came under the influence of Hemachandra and at last, embraced Jainism. He took various steps for the propagation of Jainism; and in certain respects, he made his state a model Jaina state. He not only himself renounced the joys and pleasures prohibited by the Jaina scriptures but also induced his subject to follow his path. He issued an ordinance for the protection of animal life; and it was applied most strictly throughout his empire. The Dvy��raya-K�vya says that in P�lide�a in Rajasthan the Br�hma�as were forced to use corn instead of flesh in sacrifice and the ascetics who used to wear antelope skin found it hard to procure it. Merut�ga in the Y�k�vih�raprabandha also mentions that a simple minded merchant of Sap�dalaksha was given the punishment of building the Y�k�vih�ra at his cost for committing the offence of crushing a mouse.320


Ha�h�nd� (Hastikundi) is a place near Bijapur in Marwar. The R�thoras ruled here during the tenth century A.D. Generally, they were the followers of Jainism. Vidagdhar�ja, son of Harivarman, at the preaching of V�sudev�ch�rya, built a temple of Rishabhdeva here and also made a gift of land to it. His son Mamma�a made a grant for this temple. His son was Dhavala who also renovated the Jaina temple built by his grandfather and helped in every way to glorify Jainism. He in conjuction with his son made a gift of a well called P�ppala.Dhavala renounced the world in his old age after having placed his son Balapras�da on the throne. The gosh�h� of Hastiku��� also renovated this temple. After its restoration, the installation ceremony of the image was performed ��ntibhadra, the pupil of V�sudev�ch�rya, in 1053 A.D.; and several ï¿½r�vakas participated in it. These Rash�rak��as weighed themselves in gold and distributed it among the poor as charity.321


The kingdom of Yaduva��� or �urasena dynasty comprised the old Bharatpur state and the Mathura District. The king Jaitap�la as known from the traditions may be placed in the first half as known from the traditions may be placed in the first half of the eleventh century. His successor was Viajayap�la mentioned in the Bayana inscription dated 1044 A.D. His successor was Tahanap�la who was followed in succession by Dharmap�la, Ku�varap�la and Ajayap�la (1150 A.D.) Harip�la was successor of Ajayap�la. Harip�la was succeeded by Sahanap�ladeva (1192 A.D.). Sahanap�la’s successor seems to have been Ku�varap�la. Ana�gap�la ascended the throne after Ku�varp�la. Ana�gap�la was followed in succession by P�ithv�p�la, R�jyap�la and Trilokap�la, the last of whom may be placed at the end of the thirteenth century A.D.


S�rasenas ruled over the region now included in Bharatpur state from the 6th century to the 12th century A.D. Jainism developed much here at this time. Some of the S�rasena rulers accepted and patronized it. Several images are known to have been installed here. The Jaina �ch�ryas visited it and some of them also had their Chaturmasa here. They cannot have their residence anywhere. They stay for some time.

As Jainism was prevalent in Mathura in early times, it may have been in existence here also. But old monuments were destroyed by the Muslims. The earliest trace of Jainism here is known from the tenth century A.D. Pradyumnas�ri who was the contemporary of king Alla�a of Mewar was honoured in the courts of Sap�dalaksha and Tribhuvanagriil322. Ghanesvaras�ri was initiated to Jaina monkhood by Abhayadevas�ri, pupil of Pradyumnas�ri. Ghane�varas�ri was famous as Kardamabh�pati of Tribhuvanagiri. Whether Kardama was his name or title, it is not known. He founded R�jagachchha. He founded R�jagachchha. He is said to be a contemporary of the king mu�ja of Malwa who died in 997 A.D.323 This Kardamabh�pati may be identified with the ruler p�ithv�p�ladeva alias Bharat�ipa��a mentioned in the Th�kard� (Dungarapur) inscription of Ana�gap�ladeva of 1155 A.D.324 This inscription mentions the four princes, namely, p�ithv�p�ladeva alias Bharat�ipa��a, his son Tribhuvanap�ladeva, his son Vijayap�la and his son S�rap�ladeva. The family to which they belonged is not mentioned but they seem to be the S�rasena rulers. The inscription of 994 A.D. on the image of a Jina found at Bay�n� says that it was caused to be made in accordance with the instructions of S�rasena of apparently the V�ga�a Sa�gha by three brothers Si�haka, Ya�or�ja and Nonnaika.325 The pedestal of a Jaina image with the inscriptions of 994 A.D. and one Digambara Jaina image of Mah�v�ra with head missing bearing an inscription of 1004 A.D. have been discovered at Ka�ar�.326

Durgadeva, the Digambara Jaina poet, finished the Ris�asamuchchaya at Kumbhanagara ruled over by Lakshm�niv�sa in the fine temple of ��ntin�tha in 1032 A.D.327 Kumbhanagara may be identified with K�m� near Bharatpur. As regards the king named Lakshm�niv�sa, he may be identified with Lakshma�ar�ja, the son of Chitralekh�, mentioned in the Bay�n� inscription of V.S. 1012.328 The Bay�n� stone inscription of 1043 A.D. contains the name of Vish�us�ri and Mahe�varas�ri, the Jaina teachers of the K�myakagachchha of the �vet�mbaras, and records the death of Mahe�veras�ri during the reign of prince Vijayap�la.329Vijayap�la is said to have rebuilt and added to the fort and to have named it after himself as Vijayamandiraga�ha. The K�myakagachchha originated from K�m� in  Bharatpur state and remained confined only to this area. The mention of the city of �r�path� in the inscription clearly points out that the ancient Sanskrit name of Bayana was �r�path�. Jaina images with the inscription of 1136 A.D. have been discovered at Narol� in Bayana Tehsil.330 These images prove that they were consecrated at the same time.

The last �urasena ruler of Bay�n� was Kum�rap�la who came to the throne in about 1154 A.D. He was preached by the Jaina monk Jinadattas�ri. The ceremony of placing the golden Kala�a and flag on the temple of ��ntin�tha was performed here by Jinadattas�ri with great rejoicings.331

The two disciples of Jinapatis�ri, namely, Jinap�laga�i and Dharma��la-ga�i, used to study with Ya�obhadr�ch�rya of this place. After getting information from Jinapatis�ri, they went on pilgrimage along with the Sa�gha of Tribhuvanagiri and met their teacher along with the other Sa�gha in 1188 A.D.332 V�didevas�ri who lived in the latter half of the 12th century defeated some learned scholar in the fort of Tribhuvanagiri.333 An old temple of Upake�agachchha was also there.334 All these facts indicate that Jainism was flourishing under the S�rasenas in this area at this time.


The Tomaras ruled the Haryana country from their capital Delhi. About this time, the Tomaras of Delhi must have acknowledged the supremacy of the Prat�hara Bhoja. Vajra�a, Jajjuka and Goga were probably connected with Delhi. In the tenth century A.D., the Tomaras came into conflict with the Chaham�nas of ��kambhari. The Tomaras continued to rule from Delhi till the middle of the twelfth century A.D. when they were overthrown by the Chaham�na Vigrahar�ja V�saladeva-III.

The Tomara rulers were liberal towards Jainism. Na��halas�hu, a minister of Ana�gap�la III (1132 A.D.), was rich, and a pious Jaina ï¿½r�vaka. He built several Jaina temples in Delhi and other places. He gave patronage to poets and scholars, and got many Jaina K�vyas written in Apabhra��a.335


The Kalachuris rose into prominence under Kokalla I who founded a kingdom at Tripuri in D�hala i.e. Jabalpur region. The next important ruler has been described as conqueror and assumed the title of Vikram�ditya. Lakshm�kar�a, son and successor of G��geyadeva, was the most powerful personality among the Kalachuri rulers. He dominated Northern India during the greater part of his long reign from 1041 to 1072 A.D. His successors were weak, and therefore, they were dislodged from their position.

Jainism : That Jainism flourished during the Kalachuri period is shown by the Bahuriband stone inscription of Gay�kar�a and other archaeological remains. This inscription records that one Mah�bhoja, son of S�dhu Sarvadhara, eracted a temple of ��ntin�tha. The inscription further notes that the white canopy over it was built by S�tradh�ra. The image of ��ntin�tha was consecrated by the�ch�rya Subhadra who belonged to the line of De��g�na in the k�mn�ya of Chandrakara ï¿½ch�rya. A large number of Jaina sculptural remains of this period have been found at Tripuri, Bilhari and Karitalai. Another important stronghold of Jainism was Sohagpur. At Jura too, fragments of Jaina images have been located. Images of the Jaina T�rtha�karas have been discovered at Arang, Sirpur, Malhar, Dhanpur, Ratanpur and Padmpur, those at Malhar are colossal.336


According to traditions, the Chandellas attribute their descent to the union of the moon (Chandra) with a Br�hma�a damsel. It seems that the Chandellas sprang from the aboriginal stock of the Bhars or the Gonds. They rose from the position of feudatories of the Gurjara-Prat�h�ras under the leadership of their ruler Dha�ga (954-1008 A.D.) Becoming independent, he carried on war against his eastern and western neighbours. He successor Vidy�dhara (1017-29 A.D.) fought against Mohammad Ghazn�. Before their decline, they were considered to be the paramount power over the Param�ras of Malwa and the Kalachuris of the Narmada region.

Jainism flourished greatly under the patronage of the Chandella rulers by the efforts of merchants who constructed Jaina temples and installed images in them. The Khajuraho inscription dated 953-954 A.D. in the temple of P�r�van�tha records a number of gifts and endowments of gardens by one P�hila who claims to have been held in esteem by king Dha�ga. The devotion of the Grahapati family to which P�hila belonged is also evidenced by ��ntin�tha image inscription of V.S. 1132 in which it is found that during the reign of K�rttivarman, the image of ��ntin�tha was installed by a group of his hereditary Ministers viz., P�hilla and Jiju. They were disciples of V�savachandra. One image inscription dated 1147-48 A.D. refers to Pa�idhara, his sons ï¿½resh�hin Trivikrama, �lha�a and Lakshm�dhara of G�ihapati family. Another idol or image was installed by S�lhe, the son of P�hilla in 1157-58 A.D. during the prosperous reign of Madanavarman, and sons of S�lhe were Maheg�a, Mahichandra, �r�chandra, Jinachandra and Udayachandra. Khajuraho has a few Jaina shrines and a large number of Jaina image of the tenth to the twelfth century A.D.

The site of Mahob� has so many Jaina shrines; some of them are dated in the reign of the Chandella kings Jayavarman (1117 A.D.), Madanavarman and Paramardin (C. 1163). The inscription dated 1180 A.D. of the reign of Parmardin records the construction of a Chaitya of �antin�tha at Madane�a-S�garapura (i.e. Ahar) by Jahad and Udayachandra, the sons of �res�hin, Galha�a, the son of Ralha�a, the son of Ratnap�la, the son of Devap�la of Grahapati family and resident of Vanapura. P�����ha is known to have performed the installation cermony of the three Jaina images �antin�tha, Kunthun�tha and Arahan�tha in V.S. 1236 at Thubona, Aharaj�, Bajarangagarh, and Manahardeva. Dudhai has yielded half-a-dozen foundation inscriptions referring to prince Devalabdhi, grandson of the famous Chandel king Ya�ovarman. Remains of several Jaina images and temples were unearthed at Deogarh also known as K�rttigiri after king K�rttivarman (C. 1070-1090 A.D.). Sonagiri, Aharj�, Dro�agiri and Nain�giri (Re�and�giri) were Jaina pilgrim places as known from the Pr�k�it Nirv�nak��da, and several Jaina images of the Chandella period were also discovered at these places.337

Mahoba, K�la�jara, Devagarh, Karagata, B�napura, Chandapur�, Dudhai and Sairona were great dwellings of wealthy Jainas in Uttara Pradesh during the reign of the Chandellas. Several Jaina temples and images were built here. The Digambara Jaina saints and scholars such as Kamaladeva, �r�deva, V�savachandra, �ubhachandra, Gu�abhadra visited this region for the propagation of Jainism. In 1063 A.D., Saha�rak��a Caity�laya was built during the reign of Chandella ruler K�rttivarman. In 1907, a Jaina temple was constructed at Devagadh. Several Jaina images were installed in 1112 at Mahoba during the rule of Jayavarm�. The image of Nemin�tha in 1154 and of Sumatin�tha in 1156 were constructed by R�pakara Lakhana. The famous wealthy �r�vaka Ratanap�la and his sons built the temple and performed the installation ceremony in 1163 A.D. �resh�h� Mahipati of Grahapati caste constructed Nemin�tha Jin�laya and performed its installation ceremony. During the time of Chandella Param�la (1165-1203 A.D.), several Jaina temples and images were built. A Jaina temple was built at Mahoba in 1167 A.D. by the king himself. Jaina images of the time of Chandella V�raverman (1274-1278 A.D.) were discovered. P�����ha (Bha�s���ha), famous trader of this time, built several Jaina temples338 in this region.


There were three branches of the Kachchhapagh��a family ruling from Gwalior, Dubkund and Marwar respectively. The earliest known chief of Gwalior branch is Lakshama�a. In or before 977 A.D., Mah�r�j�dhir�ja Vajrad�m, son of Lakshama�a established his supremacy over Gwalior by defeating the prat�h�ra ruler of Gwalior. The earliest known ruler of the second branch is Arjuna with his capital at Chandobha (Dubkund). Three generations of the kings of the third branch are known. In the first half of the thirteenth century A.D., the Vajrap�la or Jajepalla dynasty established its supremacy over Marwar. Ch�ha�adeva was the greatest of the kings in the region of Gwalior, Chanderi, Marwar and N�lava during this period.

Jainism : Jainism made striking progress during this period under the Kachchhapagh��as, the Prat�h�ras and the Yajvap�las. The rulers of these dynasties were followers of Brahmanical religion, but they took interest even in the progress of Jainism. The inscription of 1077 A.D. on the pedestal of Jaina image records the installation of Jaina image in the time of the Kachchhapagh��a ruler Mah�r�j�dhir�ja Vajrad�man of the Gwalior branch. From the Dubkund stone inscription, it is known that encouraged by the teaching of the Jaina monk Vijayak�rti of the L��av�ga�a Ga�a, some Jaina �r�vakas (Laymen) constructed Jaina temple, and the Kachchhapagh�ta ruler Mah�r�j�dhir�ja of the Dubkund branch made some donation of land and others in favour of this temple in 1088 A.D. There is a memorial of Jaina pillar dated 1095 A.D. of the Great Devasena of the K�sh�h� Sa�gha at Dubkund. The sites such as Sihonia, Manaharadeva and Sonagiri, became centres of Jainism during the rule of the Kachchhapagh��as because remains of several Jaina temples and images have been discovered.

There is mention of the name of pilgrim in the inscription dated 1056 A.D. and the name of pilgrim Devachandra in the inscription dated 1077 A.D. of the Jaina temple at Badoh in Vidisha District.

Chanderi, B��h�chanderi, Thubon, Bhamon, Devagarh etc. developed as great centres of Jainism under the Prat�h�ras of Chanderi, and later on under the Yajvap�las of Marwar. Some images installed by Ane��ha in 1226 A.D. have been found at Kha���ragiri. The Narwar inscription of 1262 A.D., records the construction of Jaina temple by Jaitrasimha, officer of the Yajvap�la ruler �saladeva. N�gadeva is known to have installed the image in the Jaina temple.339


After the death of �a��rika, there prevailed an anarchy for about a hundred years in Bengal. In order to remove anarchy, the notable men of the region elected Gop�la as their ruler who founded the P�la empire in 750 A.D. The greatest king of the P�la dynasty was Gop�la’s son Dharmap�la who ruled from about 770 to 810 A.D. The tripartite struggle for the mstery of Kanauj among the Prat�h�ras, the Rash�rak��as and the P�las started at this time. At first, the Prat�h�ra ruler Vatsar�ja defeated Dharmap�la. After his departure, Dharmap�la made himself the master of Northern India and held a Darbar at Kanauj after placing another king on the throne. Son, the Prat�h�ra ruler N�gabha�a II defeated Dharmap�la. Dharmap�la’s son Devap�la excelled his father in his military expolits. During the reign of forty years, he occupied the position of paramaount ruler in North India. His direct rule may not have extended beyond Bengal and Bihar. It did not take long for the P�las to decline after Devap�la in the twelfth century A.D. Before the advent of the Muslims, the Senas of Bengal built up their power in the twelfth century A.D., and finally destroyed the power of the P�las.

Jainism began to decline gradually under the P�las and the Senas in Bengal and Bihar. The Jaina record of the P�la period has been discovered from Baragaon. The inscription belongs to the 24th year of the reign of R�jyap�la who ruled in the first half of the tenth century A.D. The object of the inscription is to record the visit of Vaidan�tha, son of Manoratha of the merchant family to the temple.  Besides, there are some Jaina idols of this period found at Nalanda.340

Two idols of Jaina T�rtha�karas have been discovered at Baniya. An image of Mah�v�ra (in black Basalt stone) of the P�la period was discovered at Vai��l�. Several images relating to Jaina cult have been discovered from R�jg�iha.

Twenty-nine bronzes were discovered at Alaura in District Dhanbad of the period ranging from ninth to eleventh century A.D. The Shahbad District has several images of Jaina T�rtha�karas. The Chausa hoard also contains the statues not latter than tenth-eleventh century A.D. There are several Jaina idols at National Museum, New Delhi of the tenth or eleventh century A.D.341

One big and beautiful Jaina image was discovered at the village named Surahara in Din�jpur District (Bengal). A few other Jaina images were also found from this site. Jaina were also known from M�lad�h District, Bengal. These images prove that there was some influence of Jainism in North Bengal during this period.342

The name of famous Somadeva, author of the Y��asatilakashamp�, is mentioned in an inscription dated �aka year 888. As he has been described as belonging to the Gau�a Sa�gha, he seems to be originally a Jaina saint from Bengal. Jainism was known at this time and Jaina monks were held in esteem. Somadeva in his work refers to a Jaina shrine of T�mralipta, the ancient port of Southern Bengal. With the decline of Jainism in Bengal in the tenth century A.D., the monks of this state naturally sought asylum in other parts of the country.343


Two Digambara Jaina inscriptions have been discovered from Udayagiri-Kha��agiri caves. They belong to the tenth century A.D. and were inscribed during the reign of Udyotake�ar� of the Ke�ar� dynasty of Orissa. The first inscription344 discovered in the cave called Lalitendu Ke�ari’s cave was incised in the fifth year of the reign of Udyot Ke�ar� and refers to the repair of the old Jain temples. It also preserves the name of a Digambara saint called Ya�anandi. This inscription refers to the Udayagiri-Kha��agiri hills as Kum�r� Parvata which reminds us of the Kum�r� Parvata of Kh�ravela’s record. There is also a literary reference to this hill. In the B�ihat Kath� Ko�a345 of Harishe�a, composed in 931 A.D., there is mention of Kum�ragiri of O�ravishaya. It is the same as Kum�ragiri or Kum�r�giri.

The second inscription346 of the eighteenth year of Udyota Ke�ari’s reign mentions �ubhachandra, the disciple of Kulachandra belonging to the De��ga�a and �ryasanghagraha Kula. The De�� Ga�a is also known from inscriptions found from different places in Kar��taka and Madhya Pradesh347. Another inscription found from the same hill refers to the above mentioned Munis.348 These inscriptions prove that Jainism continued to survive in Orissa up to the tenth century A.D. Afterwards, it gradually almost disappeared.


Only a few evidences regarding the existence of Jainism in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana are known. An important inscription349from Kangra, Himachal Pradesh mentions the names of two Jaina saints, belonging to R�jakula Gachchha, which is probably the same as R�jagachchha. A certain Siddhar�ja is described as a disciple of S�ri Amalachandra, a pupil of Abhayachandra S�ri. Siddhar�ja’s son was Dh��ga and Dh��ga’s son Chash�aka. The wife of Chash�aka was Ralh� and the two sons were born of her and both of them were devoted to the law of Jaina. The elder was called Ku��alaka and the younger Kum�ra. We are told that they were responsible for the construction of the image of P�r�van�tha. This inscription seems to be dated 854 A.D.350

One ï¿½r�vaka Ratna (Rayana) from Kashmir founded a Ma�ibimba of Nemin�tha351 in 932 A.D. on the sacred hill of Raivataka. This shows that there were a few Jainas in Kashmir in the tenth century A.D. Archaeological evidences352 prove that Jainism was not entirely known in some places of Kashmir. Recently, a few Jaina images belonging to the eighth and ninth century A.D. have been discovered from Punjab353. We have later Jaina inscriptions from the Himalayan areas which show that Jainism somehow lingered in those areas till a very late period.

Sindhude�a included roughly the present District of Multan, Muzaffargarh and Montogomery. One of the chief centres of Jainism in the region was Multan. In V.S. 1169, Jinadattas�ri of the Kharataragachchha spent rainy season (Chaturm�sa) here. The Komala Gachchha was already in existence in Multan. The relations between the followers of the Kharataragachchha and those of the Komala Gachchha were not cordial.354


The term ‘R�shtrak��as’ means designated officers in charge of divisions called ‘R�sh�ras’. The kingdom of the R�sh�rak�tas was founded by Dantidurga who overthrew the Ch�lukyas in 750 A.D. and fixed his capital at M��yakhe�a or Malkhe� near modern Sholapur. The R�shtrak�tas soon dominated the entire area of Northern Mah�r�sh�ra. They also engaged with the Prat�h�ras for the overlordship of Gujrat and Malwa. Although their raids did not result in the extension of the R�sh�rak��a empire to the Ganga valley, they brought rich plunder, and added to the fame of the R�shtrak��as. The R�sh�rak��as also fought constantly against the Eastern Ch�lukyas of Ve�g� (modern Andhra Pradesh) and in the South against the Pallavas of the K��ch� and the P���yas of Madurai. Probably, the greatest rulers were India III (914-922 A.D.) and K�ish�a III (934-965 A.D.). After the defeat of Mahip�la and the Sack of Kanauj in 915 A.D., Indra III was the most powerful ruler of his times. He was engaged in a struggle against the Param�ras of Malwa and the Eastern Ch�lukyas of Ve�g�. He also launched a campaign against the Chola rulers of Tanjore. After the death of K�ish�a III, the other R�sh�rak�ta feudatories rose up and made themselves independent. This marked the end of the R�sh�rak��a empire.

The R�sh�rak��a period seems to be the most flourishing period in the history of Jainism in the Deccan. This period produced a galaxy of Jaina authors and preachers. They took active part in the education of the masses. Several Ma�h�s were established by the Jainas to the dwellers of which food and medicines were provided, and provision was also made for the Jainas. Many of the R�sh�rak��a rulers were not only great patrons of but even showed distinct inclinations towards Jainism. Many of the feudatories and officers of the Rash�rak�tas were Jainas. According to A.S. ALTEKAR355, it is very probable that at least one third population of the Deccan of this period was following the gospel of Jainism.

It has been suggested on the basis of a �rava�a Belagola inscription dated 1229 A.D. that Akala�ka, the great Jaina philosopher, was patronized by Danti durga356. The earliest R�sh�rak��a Jaina inscription comes from �rava�abelagola.357 It refers to the reign of Ra��valoka Kambayya, son of Dhruva and elder brother of Govinda III. This prince was the eldest son of Dhruva and was the governor of Gangv��� under his illustrious father. The inscription records a grant and proves Kambayya’s (Stambha) affection for the Jaina religion. The Mana plates358 dated �aka 724 also shows that the prince had a soft corner for the Jaina religion.

Govinda III, the younger brother of Stambha and the successor of Dhruva, was probably an admirer of the Jaina religion. The Kadamba plates359 dated 814 A.D. refer to the regin of Prabh�tavarsha who is no other than Govinda III. Arhak�riti was successful in removing an evil influence of Saturn on Vimal�ditya, who was the sister’s on of Ch�kir�ja, the ruler of the entire province of the Ganges. It is clear from the inscription that Vimal�ditya was Ch�lukya chief under Ch�kir�ja, the supreme R�sh�rak�ta Governer of Ga�g�v���. The grateful Viml�ditya and his uncle Ch�kir�ja were pleased to give an entire village called J�kama�gala for a Jaina temple at �i�gr�ma which was in the western side of M�nyapura.

The success or of Govinda III viz. Amoghavarsha I, who ascended the throne in 814 A.D., was one of the greatest patrons of the Jaina religion in the ninth century. There existed a Jaina shrine in Nasik District which was named after him. A broken slab inscription dated 859 A.D. of the reign of Amoghavarsha refers to a Jaina shrine constructed by one N�gal�ra pollabe and therefore it was known as N�gula Vasedi. This inscription records the gift of land made as a lifetime document for the temple by several villagers. The gift was received on behalf of the temple by N�ganandin ï¿½ch�rya of the Singhavura ga�a. According to the Konnur stone inscription360 dated 860 A.D. of the reign of the same king in Nawalgund Taluk in Dharwar District, emperor Amoghavarsha I while residing at M�nyakhe�a, at the request of his subordinate Ba�ke�a (Ba�keya) in recognition of the important services, rendered by him granted the village of Teleyur and some land of other villages for the benefit of a Jaina sanctuary founded by Ba�keya at Kolanara to the sage Devendra, who was disciple of Tr�k�layog��a, belonging to the Pustaka Gachchha, De��ya Ga�a and M�la Sa�gha. It is interesting to note that the opening verse of the inscription invokes the blessing of both Vish�u and Jinendra. This reveals the spirit of Jainism.

A number of literary works very clearly prove that Amoghavarsha was a converted Jaina. Gu�abhadra, the author of the Uttarapur��a and a contemporary of Amoghaversha I asserts that his preceptor Jinesena was a Guru of that celebrated R�sh�rak��a monarch361. That Amoghavarsha was believer in the doctrine of Sy�dv�da is also repeated in the Ga�ita-s�ra362Sa�graha of Mah�v�r�ch�rya, who was an exact contemporary of that monarch. Amoghavarsha himself in his Pra�notararatnam�la363 pays homage to Vardham�na.

A few contemporary Jaina writers have clearly shown their pious Zeal for this great R�sh�rak��a King. ��ka��yana, a contemporary Jaina grammaniam wrote a commentary on his own grammatical work and named it as Amoghav�itt. This shows his respect for that R�sh�rak��a monarch. Jinasena himself is full of praise for this great R�sh�rak��a monarch. Another contemporary Jaina writer viz Ugraditya, the author of the medical treatise Kaly��ak�raka364 which was composed on Mt. R�magiri refers to the fact that he delivered a discourse on the uselessness of meat diet in the court of ï¿½r�tu�ga-Vallabha Mah�r�j�dhir�ja who is no other than Amoghavarsha-I. A few verses of the Kavir�jam�rga are in praise of Jine365. Two famous Digambara commentaries namely Dhaval� and Jayadhevat� were named after Amoghvarsha I who was also as Dhavala and Ati�aya Dhavala. So much was the influence of Jainism on him that he had abdicated his thine more than once.

King Amoghavarsha’s son and successor was K�ish�a II. He appointed Gu�abhadra as the preceptor of his son K�ishna II; so if not a full-fledged Jaina, he was at least a patron of Jainism. In the Mulagu��a inscription366 dated 902 A.D., we are told during the time of K�ish�a II, his governor Chik�rya, son of Chandr�rya, the Governor of Dhavala-Vishaya of Varavai�ya caste constructed a lofty temple of Jina at the town of Mulagu�da. His younger brother Ars�rya, described as proficient in a few ï¿½gama made an endowment for the maintenance of the Jin�laya built hy his father.

Krish�a II was probably the patron of Gu�abhadra, the author of the Uttarapur��a. This work was completed by Gu�abhadra’s disciple Lokasena in the reign of K�ish�a II. Lokasena’s patron was Lok�ditya who was Governor of B�nk�pura in Vanar�s� under that R�sh�rak�ta king. This Lok�ditya was a patron of Jainism as we learn from the pra�asti of the Uttarapur��a367. Gu�abhadra himself claims that K�ish�a II was his disciple368. An inscription from �rava�abelagola369 connects a Jaina Saint called Parav�dimalla with one K�ish�ar�ja identified with the R�sh�rak��a monarch. There is another Jaina inscription370 dated 902 A.D. mentioning Lok�ditya and his overlord K�ish�a II.

The next king Indra III also had some fascination for the Jaina religion. From the D�havulap�du pillar inscription371 it is known that �r�vijaya, general of king Indra III, voluntarily resigned this world and became a Jaina-ascetic. From the same place, another Jaina inscription372 of Indra III has been discovered. One more Jaina inscription373 of the reign of Indra III dated 916 A.D. discovered from Karajgi T�luk of Dharwar District, Karnataka, records the grant of a village called Vutavura by the Mah�s�manta Le��eyarasa. An important Jaina inscription of Indra III was found from Nasik District. An inscription of C.900 A.D. from Belgaum District Kar��taka States that a Jaina Saint called Nemin�tha, the preceptor of Ma�ichandra, was like a moon in the Ocean, which was the dynasty of the R�sh�rak�ta’s374 kings of his times. Evidently, this Jaina monk was held in highest esteem by the R�sh�rak��a kings of his time.

For the reign of Govinda IV, there are two Jaina inscriptions375 dated 925 A.D. and 932 A.D. both discovered from the modern Kar��taka state. The first dated 925 A.D. refers to a Jin�laya built by one N�gayya376. It also refers to another Jin�laya called DhoraJin�laya at Ba�k�pura with the preceptor Chandra-Prabha Bha��ra as its head. This Jaina priest is described as administering a village called Pasundi (modern Asu��i), which probably shows that the village was an endowment for this Jaina temple377. The second inscription dated 932 A.D. discovered from Adoni Taluk of Bellary district, refers to a Jaina temple, built by queen Chandi Yabbe, wife of Kanhara, the Governor (mah�s�manta) of Sindav�di, 1000. We are told that this queen constructed a Jaina temple at Nandavara and made suitable provision for its maintenance. This inscription also refers to a Jaina Guru called Padmanandin. This Kanhara is the prince Krish�a III who at this time, was a Governor under his cousin Govinda IV.378

Krish�a III was one of the greatest members of the R�sh�rak��a dynasty. Two inscriptions of his reign have been discovered from the holy Kopbal area in Raichur District of his reign. The earlier one379 dated 940 A.D. refers to Ak�lavarsha Kannardeva and he was no other than K�ish�a III. The second inscription380 dated 964 A.D. found near Kopbal is an important Jaina record. It reveals the existence of a feudatory king of R�sh�rak��a called �a�karaga��a II who erected a Jaina shrine called Jayadh�ra Jin�laya which was apparently named after him, Jayadh�ra being one of his titles. This chief is mentioned in the Ajitat�rtha�kara pur��atilakam381of the Kanarese poet Ranna, who wrote this work in 993 A.D. According to that poet, �a�karaga��a was a great Jaina patron. From the combined testimony of epigraphy and literature, it appears that this R�sh�rak��a Governor was a great promoter of Jainism in Kar���aka during the tenth century. It appears from the title Rattarameru given to him in this inscription that �a�karaga��a was of the R�sh�rak��a extraction. We further learn from this epigraph that another R�sh�rak��a feudatory namely Ra��aya, of Ch�lukya lineage, donated some land for the temple erected by �a�karaga��a II, and N�gana�di Pa��ita Bha��ra received the endowment on behalf of the temple.

A few other Jain inscriptions of the reign of K�ish�a III are known. One such inscription382 has been discovered from Tirumalai hill near Pol�r (N. Arcot) in Tamil Nadu, which records the gift of a lamp made to the Yaksha on the sacred Tirumalai hill by a servant of the queen of K�ish�a III. More than a dozen Jaina epigraphs and a number of Rock-cut Jaina figures have been discovered from the same hill. There is another Jaina inscription383 of the time of K�ish�a III found from Naregal in the Ro� T�luk of Dharwal District. According to this, the wife of Ga�ga B�tuga II called Padmabbaresi,  constructed a Jaina temple at Naregal, and in 950 A.D., the grant of a tank to the charity house, attached to the temple, was made by a subordinate chief called Namayara M�rasimghayya.

The celebrated Jaina poet Somadeva wrote the Ya�astilakachampu during the reign of this great R�sh�rak��a monarch in the �aka era year 881. Another Jaina literary figure namely Indranandi Yogindra composed his Jv�l�m�lin�kalpa384 at Malkhe� in �aka era year 861 during the reign of K�ish�a III.

There are a few Jaina inscriptions of the reign of Kho��iga, the brother and successor of K�ish�a III. An inscription from Chitaldurg District 908 A.D. mentions the fact that Jakki Sundar�, the wife of Pandayya, a Ch�lukyan feudatory of Kho��iga built a Jaina temple, for which her husband gave a grant.385 Another inscription, praising, the Jaina religion, of his reign has been discovered from Dharwar District386.

The last prominent name in the R�sh�rak��a dynasty is that of king Indra IV. An inscription from �rava�a Belgola387 dated 982 A.D. shows that he died like a true Jaina. It also bestows lavish praise on him, and we are told that as a believer in the doctrine of Mah�v�ra, he never spoke a lie.


The Pallavas seem to be descended from the N�ga chieftains who were the vassals of S�tav�hana chieftains. The rise of the Pallavas in the Deccan is connected with the breck of S�tav�hana empire, and very soom, they occupied Kanchi. A new Pallava dynasty was then founded by Si�havish�u. He extended his sway up to the K�ver� at the cost of the Cholas, and is further said to have defeated the P���yas, Kalabhras and the M�lavas. Si�havish�u was succeeded by his son Mahendravarman I. A few years after his accession, there began a deadly and long drawn struggle between the Pallavas and the Ch�lukyas for supermacy in the South. After the death of Mahendravarman I, his son Narasi�havarman I ascended the throne about the beginning of the second quarter of the seventh century A.D. He is one of the most striking personalities among the Pallava potentiates. He successfully repulsed the onslaughts of Pulake�in II. He also sent two naval expeditions to Ceylon in support of M�navarma, a claimant to the throne. In about 655 A.D., Parame�vara Varman I ascended to the throne. During his time, the old enmity between the Pallavas and the Ch�lukyas revived, and as usual both sides claim victories for themselves. Then, Narasi�havarman II succeeded in about the last decade of the Seventh century A.D. His reign was marked by peacs and prosperity. Narasi�havarman was succeeded by Parame�varavarman II. When Parame�varvarman II died, his kingdom was involved in civil war. People eventually chose as king a popular prince named Nandivardhana who ruled for sixty-five years. During the reign of Nandivarman, there was a renewal of the Pallava-Ch�lukya animosity. The last important sovereign was Aparajitavarman ( 876-895 A.D.).

Jainism was in flourishing conditions in Tamil N��u during the Pallava period. Si�havish�u was a patron of the Jainas. There is also reason to believe that Pallava Mahendravarman I himself was a Jaina in his early life388. However, it is evident from the Mattavil�sa-prahasana that Mahendravarman I became a �aiva under the influence of Appar, the noted South Indian �aiva philosopher. After his conversion, this king became a persecutor of the Jaina. The earliest Pallava inscription connected with Jainism probably belongs to the reign of Parame�varavarman I (670-695 A.D.) and it was found at Nalajanampadu389 in Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh. The Parame�vara Pallav�ditya of this record is identical with Parame�vara I and he is described here as meditating on the feet of the supreme master, the Lord Arhat.

A few Jaina Pallava inscriptions of the reign of Nandivarman II Pallavamalla (730-800 A.D.) are known. A rock inscription390 from Kil-Sattamangalam dated in the 14th year of that king in Wandiwash Taluk of North Arcot District in Tamil-Nandu records an endowment of seven Kala�ju of Gold by Andai Ilaiyar Pava�andi of the village for feeding ascetics excluding the manager of the monastery. From the same site, two more Jaina inscriptions of the reign of the same  king have been discovered. Both the epigraphs are dated in the 56th year of Nandivarman II. One of them391 records an endowment of seventeen Kalanju of gold to a palli called Pavanandivar (named after the ascetic) for the merit of P���it Muppavai. The Jaina saint Pavanandi may be identified with the person of the same name the author of the Na��ul, a Tamil grammatical text392.

Another Jaina shrine is mentioned in an inscription found from Agalur, Gi�gee T�luk of South Arcot District. This is dated in the 50th year of Nandivarman II393. An undated inscription394 which has been assigned to this king was discovered from Kanchi in Chingleput District and records the gift to an Arhat temple. This epigraph, it is interesting to note, mentions an ï¿½ch�rya ï¿½jivikadar�ana, who probably cured Lokamah�dev�, the queen of Narasimhavarman II.

The next Jaina Pallava inscription395 belongs to the reign of Kampavarman, who is identified with Dantivarman, son of Nandivarman II who ruled in the last half of the ninth century A.D. This inscription is dated in the sixth year of Kampavarman’s reign. This record gives a very clear idea regarding a Jaina complex of the Pallava period. The inscription records the renovation of the temple, addition of mukhama��apa and the gift of a big bell to the Palli by Madevi, the wife of K��agadiyariyar396. It appears that this entire temple-complex was possibly called Palli. It had a main shrine, dedicated to Jina, with a ma��apa in front, a subsidiary shrine of Yaksh� and the monastery (P�li) where the Jaina monks lived. This Palli is there called the temple of T�rtha�kara Vimala. This epigraph records the sale of land by one Baladevapid�ran, a disciple of �r� Nandidevar for the maintenance of a perpetual lamp in the temple.

The Nulamba Pallavas, who came into the limelight during the ninth and tenth centuries A.D., ruled in parts of modern Kar���aka and were feudatories of the Western Ga�gas. Three inscriptions of the time of Nolamba Mahendra are connected with the Jaina religion. The earliest epigraph dated 878 A.D. discovered from the fort at Dharampuri in Tamil Nadu records a grant397 to a Jaina temple. The second Jaina inscription398 of his reign bears the date �aka 815 corresponding to 893 A.D. It records that two citizens called Cha��iya��a and Nandiya��a after receiving the gift of the village of M�llapalli from the king donated it to Kanakasena Siddh�nta, the pupil of Vinayasena Siddh�nta of the Pogar�ya Ga�a, Sen�nvaya and M�lasa�gha for the repirs of the basadi at Dharmapuri. The inscription further informs that the basadi was originally built by the two above mentioned citizens who are described as sons of the Setti of �rima�gala. Dharamapuri was known in ancient times as Taga��ru399.

The third Jaina inscription of Mahendra’s reign has been found from Hem�vat� in Anantapur District of Andhra Pradesh. This damaged stone inscription400 records some donations to a local Jaina temple by Mahendra and his son Ayyapa. Another Jaina inscription401 of this Ayyapa has been found from the same site which contains the second inscription of his father Mahendra. It records the fact that Ayyapadeva, presented the village called Budug�ru to Lok�yya, who was the younger brother of Dasayya and who is described as the illuminator of the doctrine of the Arhats. And this Lok�yya presented it to the Jaina basadi built by Nidhiya��a, apparently the same temple, mentioned in Mahendra’s inscription of �aka 815. This stone epigraph proves that Mehendra and his son were patrons of Jainism. The undated inscription of Ayyapa is assigned402 to the early tenth century A.D. It should also be pointed that Mahendra’s epigraph of �aka 815 begins with an invocation to Jinendra403.

A B��a records of about the ninth century A.D. found from Vallamalai (North Arcot) which records the setting-up of an image of Devasena, the pupil of Bhavanandin and the spiritual preceptor of the king404.


The Chola empire, which arose in the ninth century, covered a large part of the Peninsulars. The Chola rulers overran and conquered �r� Lanka and the Moldiva Islands as well. For some time, their rule also extended over Kali�ga and Tungabhadr� doab. They had a powerful navy, and made their influence felt in the country of South-East Asia. The Chola empire undoubtedly marks a climax in the history of South-India.

The founder of the Chola empire was Vijayalaya who was at first a Pallava feudatory. He captured Tanjore in 850 A.D. and fought the Pandyan kings. By 897 A.D., the Cholas were strong enough to defeat and kill the Pallava king and conquered the entire To��ama��ala. The Cholas had to struggle hard against the R�sh�rak��as. In 949 A.D., the R�sh�rak��a king, K�ish�a III defeated the Chola king, Par��taka – I and annexed the northern part of the Chola empire. This was a serious setback to the Cholas, but they rapidly recovered after the downfall of the R�sh�rak�ta empire.

The greatest Chola rulers were R�j�r�ja (985-104 A.D.) and his son R�jendra I (1012-1044 A.D.). R�j�r�ja I turned his attention towards the P���yas, the Cheras and their ally, the ruler of �r� La�k�. He destroyed the Chera navy at Trivandrum, and attacked Quilon. He, then, conquered Madurai and captured the P���yan king. He also invaded �r� La�k� and annexed its Northern-part to his empire. R�jendra-I carried forward the annexationist policy of R�j�r�ja by completely over running the P���ya and Chera countries, and including them in his empire. The conquest of �r� L�nk� was completed. The Chola power began to decline after R�jendra Chola. At the beginning of the eleventh century and the beginning of the twelfth century A.D., the P���yas recovered their lost territory from the Cholas and at the same time, new powers like the Hoysalas and K�katiy�s established their independant kingdoms.

A good number of inscriptions, connected with Jainism belonging to the Chola period show that the Jainas were present almost everywhere in the vast Chola empire. The imperial Cholas were followers of Brahmanical religion, they were somhow tolerant in the matters of religion. The earliest Jaina-inscription of the time of the Imperial Cholas belonging to the reign of �ditya I (871-207 A.D.) was discovered from Ve�al in Arkonam T�luk of North Arcot District405. This epigraph records an undertaking given by the lay disciples at Vi�al alias M�devi-Arandaima�galam in Singapura N��u to protect and feed along with her lady pupils Kanakv�ra Kurattiy�r, a woman ascetic and disciple of the teacher Gu�ak�rttibha���raka. This epigraph, dated in the 14th regal year of �ditya (R�jake�ar�varman) further refers to the dispute between 500 male pupils and 400 female ascetics. It was evidently a very big Jaina establishment. It further appears that the female ascetic, mentioned in this epigraph, was the daughter of an influential person. An earlier epigraph from the same site belongs to the reign of Nandivarman II406, where the Jaina temple complex is called Vid�r-Palli-M�devi Arandaimangalam, mentioned in the epigraph of the time of �ditya was another name of Vi��l. An earlier Jaina inscription407 dated in the second year of R�ja�ekharavarman probably also belongs to the reign of �ditya I. It was found from Tirunagesvarman on the Southern bank of the K�ver�. It registers gifts made by merchants in Kum�rmarata��apuram to meet the cost of reparis to the enclosure called Manukum�ram�rta��an and the Gopura of Mil��iyarpalli. From another epigraph, it appears408 that Kum�ram�rta��an was a surname of the Pallava king Nandivarman II.

Of the reign of Par�ntaka I (907-955 A.D.), there are several inscriptions. The first epigraph409 is dated in the third year of Par�ntaka I was found from To��ur in Gingee T�luk of South Arcot District. It records the endowment of a village with two gardens and wells as Pallichchandam to the Jaina teacher Vachchirsi�ga IIamperum�na�igal at paramb�r and his disciple by the Chief Vinnakovaraiyan Vayiri Malaiyan. There is another Jaina epigraph410 of the same year from Tirakkot in Wandiwash T�luk in North Arcot District. It records a gift of 200 sheep for the Jaina temple called Maisitta Perumballi at �rida��apuram in Ponnur N��u by one Era Nandi alias Narato�ga Pallavariyam of Nelveli, which is probably situated in Tanjore District411. The same Jaina shrine is also mentioned in another Tamil record of the tenth century.

There is an epigraph412 of the fourth year of Par�ntaka found from Polur T�luk of North Arcot District. This inscription records a gift to the Jaina temple of this place by two persons recruited from Kar��ta country. The gift was made for feeding a devotee and for daily offering to Palliy�lv�r i.e. Jaina T�rtha�kara. A somewhat later Chola inscription413 (dated in the 12th year of Rajendra I) refers to the fact that in the earlier time a Pallava queen had made provision for the burning of a perpetual lamp in the Jaina shrine of this hill.

An inscription414 of about 945 A.D. of the reign of Par�ntaka I found from Vill�pakkam in North Arcot District refers to the sinking of a well by one nun called Pa��ini Kuratti A�igal. As the very name signifies, she was an eminent lady teacher. According to the same source, she was a disciple of a saint called Arish�anem� Bha��rar of the Jaina establishment of Tirupp�nmalai. It is known from the inscription that the Jaina residents of the place had organised themselves and constituted a representative council of twenty-four members to look after their interest.

A number of Jaina inscriptions belonging to the immediate successors of Par�ntaka I are known. The most important of such inscriptions is the copper plate record415 from Pallankovil situated in Tirutturaipundi T�luk of Tanjor District. The inscription discloses the existence of a Jaina temple (Palli) founded by �aletti Ku�iyan. The name of the shrine is given as Sundara�olapperumballi, apparently named after Sundara Chola, the grandson of Par�antaka I. The gift provided for the maintenance of Chandranandi Bha��ro alias Mundidevar of Nandisa�gha who most probably presided over the Jaina establishment to which male and female ascetics were attached. Since the temple was named after Sundara Chola (956-973 A.D.), it seems to have been built in the third quarter of the tenth century A.D. In this connection, we should also refer to the Udayendiram plates of Hastiamlla416, according to which the Digambara Jainas had an ancient Pallichchandamcomprising two pa��is of land which were specially excluded from the gift of the village of Kadaikkott�r made in the reign of Par�ntaka I.

At Sirr�mur in South Arcot District, an inscription of the seventeenth year of a R�jake�ari (probably Sundara Chola 956-973 A.D.) records the provision of a lamp in the Ma��apa of the temple of P�r�van�tha in which the scripture was expounded417. So far as the reign of R�jar�ja I (985-1014 A.D.) is concerned, we have already referred to a Jaina inscription of his time. There is another Jaina inscription418 of the eighth year of his reign which mentions one L��ar�ja V�ra Chola, who was a tributary of the Chola king. At the request of his wife, he assigned to the god Tiruppanmalai certain income derived from the village Kuraganap��i (modern Kurambadi, near Arcot town). The Chola feudatory is described as a worshipper at the holy feet of the god Tiruppamalai. Kundavai, the elder sister of R�jar�ja I had strong afffection for the Jaina religion.


The P���yas ruled the Southern extremity of the Indian peninsula along the east-west. Its capital was Madur�. Ku�u�gon or his son M�ravarman Ayanisul�ma�i came into conflict with the Pallava ruler Si�avish�u. The next notable P��dya king was Arike�ar� M�ravarman (C. 650 A.D.) identified with Ne�umaran. During the reign of Arike�ar� M�ravarman and his successors, Kuchchadayan, Ra�adhira (C. 800 A.D.), M�ravarman R�jasi�ha I and Nedunja�ayan Varagu�a I (C. 765-815 A.D.), the Pandya suzerainty continued to expand on all sides at the expense of the Cholas, Keralas and other neighbours. His son and successor �r� Mara-�r� Vallabha (C. 815-62 A.D.) distinguished himself by defeating the king of Ceylon as well as a combination of the Pallavas, Gahcas and the Cholas, etc. at ku�omukku. The Cholas, the Pallavas and the Ga�gas together gained a decisive victory over the P��dya monarch Varagu�avarman or Varagu�a II about 880 A.D. Besides this heavy blow, the P�n�yas had to face another serious complication owing to the rise of the Cholas. Thus, the P���ya kingdom lost its independence, and it had to suffer the Chola yoke from about 920 A.D. to the commencement of the thirteenth century.

Of course, the ruling family was not extirpated, and from time to time, it made serious attempts to throw off the Chola suzerainty. The uprising headed by V�ra P���ya was putdown. The P���ya territories thus became a mere province of the Chola empire. But despite this control, the P���vas continued to revolt. Soon the Cholas sank fast into insignificance, and the P���yas gradually regained much of their lost glory and importance. The accession of Ja�avarman and Kula�ekhara in 1190 A.D. may be regarded as a turning point in the fortunes of the P��dyas. From now on, their recovery began and for a century or more they dominated the political stage in Southern India. During the reign of Ja��varman, Kula�ekhara’s successor, M�ravarman Sundara P���yal (C. 1216-38 A.D.), the Cholas had to recede further into the background. In the time of M�ravarman, Sundara P��dya II (C. 1238-51 A.D.), the Chola-P���ya-Hoysala relations remained almost unchanged. The next ruler, Ja��varman Sundara P���ya (C. 1251-72 A.D.) was however, a vigorous personality, and he raised the P��dyas to the pinnacle of their power. He finally crushed Chola authority in the South, occupied K��ch� and subdued the Chera country, Kongude�a and Ceylon. There was a fratricidal struggle between his illegitimate son, Vira P���ya and the legitimate Sundara. Taking advantage of this situation, their territories were conquered by the Kholjis.

Jainism was prevalent during the rule of the Pandyas. The earliest Jaina inscription419 of this dynasty comes from Chitaral in the former Travancore State. The record in Tamil language and Va��eluttu characters, belongs to the 28th year of the reign of Varagu�a I         (C. 765-815 A.D.)420 alias Ne�u�jadayan. The epigraph belongs to the last quarter of the eighth century A.D. It records a gift of golden ornaments known as the holy hill of the Ch�ra�as, made by the lady teacher Gu�and�ngi Kurattigal, disciple of Arish�anemi Bha��ra of Perayakku�i. Two more inscriptions of the reign of this king are known and both come from Ramanathapuram District. They make mention421 of Trukk����mpalli which seems to have been a Jaina temple at Kurandai, an important Jaina centre422 at Venbun��u.

There is a historically important Jaina inscription of the reign of Veragu�a II. This is the Aivarmalai stone inscription423 found from Palni T�luk of Madural District. The epigraph is incised above the natural cave on the Aivarmalai hill, so well known for its Jaina relics. Unlike most of the P���yan epigraphs, it yields a definite date, viz., �aka 792 corresponding to 870 A.D. which according to the epigraph, was the eighth regnal year of Varaguna II. It registers a gift of 500 K��am of gold by ��ntiv�ro Kkuravar of K�lam, the disciple of Gu�av�rakkura Va�igal for offering to the images of P�r�va Bha��ra (i.e. P�r�van�tha) and of the attendant Yaksh�s and for the feeding of one ascetic. The inscription, therefore, indirectly proves that the temple complex of this hill, dedicated to P�r�va, existed before the date of this inscription. Another important P���yan Jaina inscription is dated in the 20th year of Sa�ayan M�ran424 identified by some with R�jasi�ha II (C. 900-920 A.D.), although Sastri, it appears, believes that he was a different person425. The inscription was discovered from Uttamapaliyam in Periyakulam T�luk of Madurai District. The epigraph is much damaged but definitely refers to a Jaina shrine of this hill, known for its Jaina antiquities. The P���yan king R�jasi�ha II is said to have endowed several Jaina temples426 which proves that he was a Jaina patron.


The Western Ga�ga rulers were great patrons of Jainism. N�timarga I (853-870 A.D.) and his second son B�tuga were devout Jainas. Marasi�ha (880-900 A.D.) was a disciple of Ajitasena, and was a staunch Jaina. He actively supported the renowned Jaina scholars, m�intained the Jaina doctrine, caused basadis and m�nastambhas to be erected at several places, and, after abdication, ended his life by Sallekhan�. His minister Ch�mu��ar�ya, one of the triumvirate of the special promoters of Jainism, was a brave general and possessed several exceptional virtues including liberality. Nemichandra and Ajitasena were his preceptors. He gave many endowments for the love of Jainism; caused the collosal image of Gomma�a to be set up at �rava�abelagola; constructed a basadi on Chikkabetta at �rava�a Belagola and patronized the Kanna�a author Ranna. His example was followed by his successors and feudatories.


The age of the R�sh�rak�tas (754-974 A.D.) was immediately followed by that of the later Ch�lukyas. It is alleged that they persecutted the Jainas but there are instances to prove that they also patronized Jainism. We read that Jailapa II had strong weakness for Jainism, and patronized Ranna Kaviratna, the author of Ajita-pur��a, who received the title ‘Kavichakravartin’ from the king. Tailapa’s son Saty��raya constructed a monument (nisidhi) in honour of his Jaina guru. One of his successors Jayasi�ha III, caused a basadi to be constructed at Balipura. Members of the royal family, high State officials, vassal Kings and feudal lords, sometimes, followed Jaina faith, and were either ï¿½r�vakas or ï¿½r�vikas. Some of the Eastern Ch�lukyas were Jainas of patrons of that religion and made pious endowments to that faith. Three records of Ammar�ja II speak of Jainism as a very popular religion in the tenth century. A Kanna�a inscription at R�mat�rtham, near Vizianagram of the reign of king Vimal�ditya (1022 A.D.) states that Trik�layogin Siddh�ntadeva Muni, �ch�rya of De��ga�a, who was a guru of the king, paid respects to the R�matirtham hill which was regarded as the place of pilgrimage by the Jainas.


Tailapa, the founder of the Western Ch�lukya dynasty, was the patron of the great Kanna�a poet Ra��a. The next king Saty��raya received spiritual guidance from a Jaina teacher named Vimala Chandra Pa��itadeva of the Dr�vi�a Sa�gha. Many other kings of this dynasty such as Jayasi�ha II, Some�vara I and II, and Vikram�ditya IV, showed favour to the Jaina faith by patronizing Jaina writers and giving lands to Jaina teachers and Jaina temples.427


There are three branches of the �il�h�ra family known to history. The oldest �il�h�ra house ruled over South Konkan from the last quarter of the eighth century A.D. The second family held sway over Northern Konkan for roughly four centuries. The  third �il�h�ra branch established its authority about the commencement of the eleventh century A.D. in Kolahapur and the Districts of Sat�r� and Belgaum. This family enjoyed more independence and one of its kings, Vijay�rka or Vijay�ditya, is said to have helped Vijjana or Bijjala in bringing about the downfall of the last Ch�lukya sovereign. The most notable monarch of the line was, however, Bhoja (C. 1175-1210 A.D.) after whom the kingdom was conquered by Singha�a, the Y�dava prince.

The tutelary deity of the �il�h�ras was Mah�lakshm�, but they also extended patronage to Jainism as known from the literary and inscriptional records of the age. There is a shrine of Arhat at Iruku�� by Ga��ar�ditya. He built another temple of the Jaina T�rtha�kara Nemin�tha at Ajurik� (modern �jre in Kolhapur District) and named it Tribhuvanatilaka which was one of his ownbirudas.

Several other Jaina temples erected at different places in the �il�h�ra Kingdom find mention in the records of the age. Thus, there was a temple of P�r�van�tha at the village Havina Herelige (modern Herla), which was built by one V�sudeva, the Ha�apavala (betel-box carrier) of �amanta K�m�deva, who owed allegiance to the �il�h�ra king Vijay�ditya.428 Another temple of P�r�van�tha was at Ma�dalur (modern Madur, Kolhapur District). At the request of maternal uncle S�manta Lakshma�a, king Vijay�ditya granted some land to the disciple Arhannadi Siddh�ntadeva of M�ghanandi Saiddh�ntika, who officiated as the pontiff of the temple429. A third temple of P�r�van�tha was built at Kava�egolla by Nimbadevarasa, a S�manta of Ga��ar�ditya. It received several donations of rates and taxes from the famous merchant guild of the age, viz., the V�ra-Ba�a�jas of Ayy�vole (modern Ahihola in the Bijapur District).

Nimbadevarasa was a brave S�manta of the �il�h�ra king Ga��ar�ditya. He was as devout as he was brave. His construction of a temple of P�r�van�tha at Kavu�egolla has been mentioned. He erected two more Jaina temples in Kolhapur. Nimbadeva, a S�manta of Ga��ar�jaditya, built the Chaityalaya.430 Nimbaradeva was a lay disciple of the Jaina Muni M�ghanandi of Kund�nvaya. Nimbadeva claims that he had obtained the boon of the Jaina goddess Padm�vat�. He erected another temple at Kolhapur and named it R�pan�r�ya�a which was a Biruda of his suzerain Ga��ar�ditya. This is explicitly stated in an inscription, at the Jaina Vasati at Terad�l in the former S�ngli State.431 Nimbaradeva belonged to the Sarasvat�gachchha, the De��yaga�a and the M�lasa�gha, and was of the ï¿½mnaya (line) of Kundakundach�rya. He placed his Guru M�ghanandi Saiddh�ntika in charge of the temple of R�pan�r�ya�a, a famous centre of Jainism. It is mentioned in several records of the age. It is now called the temple of M�nastambha.

M�ghanandi Siddh�ntika was a great ascetic, highly venerated for his learning and piety. According to the Ter�d�l inscription432, he preached the principles of Jainism to all people and was saluted by the ï¿½amanta Nimba.

M�ghanandi is also greatly extolled in an inscription at �rava�a Belagola.433 He was the prince of ascetics. He had several powerful lay disciples as well as the ï¿½amantas Ked�ran�karasa, Nimbaradeva and K�madeva.434 Several of his religious disciples are mentioned in inscriptions of the period such as �rutak�rti, Traividya, Ga��avimuktadeva435, M��ikyanandi, Pandita436 and Arhanandi Siddh�ntadeva.437

M�ghanandi is said to have founded a tirth (holy-place) in Kolhapur. He was evidently the founder of the Ma�ha at Kolhapur which became a powerful centre of Jainism in that period. When Nimbadeva erected the temple of P�r�van�tha, he placed M�ghanandi hisGuru in charge of it. The temple was known as R�pan�r�yana, a biruda of S�manta Nimbadeva’s suzerain Ga��ar�ditya. Later M�ghanandi appointed �rutak�rti-Traividya as the priest of R�pan�r�ya�a.438 The latter also was a learned man.

The temple of R�pan�r�ya�a became the centre of Jaina religious activities in that period. �rutak�rti-Traividya, though the priest of the R�pan�r�ya�a temple in Kolhapur, received gifts of rates and taxes levied on commodities sold in the market of Kava�egolla for the benefit of the temple of P�r�van�tha at that place.439 This shows that the affairs of the temple were controlled from the centre at the R�pan�r�ya�a temple in Kolhapur.

Another disciple of this M�ghanandi Saiddh�ntika viz. M��ikyanandi Pandita is mentioned in another stone inscription placed in the courtyard of the R�pan�rya�a temple at Kolhapur.440 He was the priest of the Chaity�laya of P�r�van�tha erected probably at H�vina-Harilige (modern Herle in Kolhapur District) by one V�rideva, the betel-box carrier of S�manta K�madeva. The inscription records the gifts of a field and a house in favour of the temple.

Another disciple of M�ghanandi Saiddh�ntika, viz. Arhanand� Saiddh�ntadeva is known from the stone inscription originally belonging to the Jaina Vasati of P�r�van�tha at Bamani,441 a village near K�gal in the Kolhapur District. The temple had been erected by one Chaudhore-K�mag�vu��a, and the gift of a field together with a flower-garden was made in its favour by king Vijay�ditya at the request of his maternal uncle S�manta Lakshma�a for the spiritual benefit of the latter’s family.

Another temple dedicated to the T�rtha�kara Chandraprabha was built by Nemag�vu��a at the instance of N�galadev�, who was probably the mother of Ga��ar�ditya. It was at H�vina-Herilige, modern Herle in the Kolhapur District. Like the R�pan�r�ya�a temple of Kolhapur, it was named after a biruda of Ga��ar�ditya, viz. Tribhuvanatilaka, Its priest �antiv�ra-Siddh�ntadeva, was a disciple of B�lachandra-Vrati who is glorified in the Nemin�thapur��a of Kar�ap�rya, and who was patronized by Lakshm�dhara, a minister of the �il�h�ra king Vijay�ditya. The inscription at Herle records the grant of one Mattara of land and a garden for the worship of the T�rtha�kara Chandraprabha. It is dated in 1118 A.D. The gifts made to the Jaina priests who were disciples of the Jaina Muni M�ghanandi Saiddh�ntika will show what influence the centre of Jainism exerted on the religious life of the adherents of that religion in the territory of the Kolhapur �il�h�ras.

M�ghanand� Saiddh�ntika was venerated beyond the dominion of the �il�h�ras of Kolhapur. Go�ka, who was a feudatory of the Ch�lukya Emperor Vikram�ditya VI, erected a temple of Nemin�tha, called Go�ka Jin�laya after him at Terid�la, modern Terd�l in the former S�ngli state.442 The inscription set up near the temple states that Go�ka invited the venerable M�ghanand� Saiddh�ntika of Kolhapur, the preceptor of �amanta Nembhadeva evidently for the consecration of the temple. The Terd�l inscription mentions several disciples of the M�ghanandi Saiddh�ntika. The last mentioned Vardham�na received the grant made to the Go�ka Jin�laya.

Not only kings and S�mantas but ordinary people also erected Jaina temples, some of them are whom from inscriptional records. An inscription of the image of P�r�van�tha at Honnur near K�gal in Kolhapur District records certain gifts made by �il�h�ra brothers Ball�la and Ga��ar�ditya for the temple erected by Bamma-g�v���a, the chief of a District.443 At Shedhal in Belgaon District, there was a Jaina temple erected by the Ko��aligas of the place. A stone inscription discovered at the place records certain rates and taxes voluntarily granted to the temple by the local guilds and also some more levied on the marriage performed locally.444

Some of the Munis connected with those Jaina Vasatis were engaged in literary activities.445 There is a controversy among scholars about authorship of some works by �rutak�rti-Travidya, the disciple of M�ghanand� Saiddh�ntika. There is however incontrovertible evidence about the literary activities of two other Jaina authors who flourished in the �il�h�ra dominion in that age. One of them was Kar�ap�rya, the author of the Kanna�a work Nemin�thapur��a. The other Jain author who flourished in this period was Somadeva, the author of the ï¿½abd�r�avachandrik�, a commentary on the Jaina Vy�kara�a-�abd�r�ava. He completed his work at �jurika (modern �jare, Kolhapur District) in the Jin�laya called Tribhuvanatilaka built by the �il�h�ra king Ga��ar�ditya in 1205 A.D. He flourished in the reign of the last �il�h�ra king Bhoja II who he glorifies at the end of his work.446


The Hoys�las emerge into prominence about the beginning of the eleventh century A.D. During the reign of Bittiga Vish�uvardhana (C. 1110-1140 A.D.) the Hoys�las attained a position of some importance in the politics of Southern India. He transferred the capital from Vel�pura (modern Bel�r, Hasan District) to Dv�rasamundra (Halebid), and made himself independent of the Ch�lukyas. He established his authority over an extensive territory. The next noteworthy ruler of this dynasty was Vish�uvardhana’s grandson, V�ra-Ball�la I (C. 1172-1215 A.D.) who was the first to style himself Mah�r�j�dhir�ja. Vira-Ball�la I’s son and successor, V�ra-Ball�la-II or Narasi�ha II, however met with some reverses at the hands of the Y�dava Singha�a. The last Hoys�la monarch was V�ra-Ball�la-III. About 1310 A.D., his kingdom was ravaged by the Muslem hosts under Mal-ik K�f�r, who after plundering Devagiri, advanced against the Hoysala capital. It was sacked and king made a prisoner.

The founder of the Hoys�la dynasty owed his greatness to the benedictions of a Jaina saint. A Jaina saint Vardham�andeva is said to have been foremost in the management of the affairs of the Hoys�las, probably during the reign of Vinay�ditya. The next two kings had Jaina saints as their spiritual teachers. All these kings made grants to Jaina temples and settlements. Though Vish�uvardhana, the most celebrated glorious Hoys�la ruler later on became Vaish�ava, he continued to benevolent and generous even towards Jainism. In 1125 A.D., he paid his devotions to the Jaina saint �r�p�la Traividyadeva, built a Jaina Chaitya, and made suitable grants for repairs of the Jaina temples as well as for the maintenance of Jaina saints. According to another stone inscription at Belur 1129 A.D., he made a gift to the Malli Jin�laya. In 1133 A.D., he granted a village to the P�r�van�tha temple in the capital itself, Dv�rasamudra, and to commemorate his recent victories, he named the god as Vijaya P�r�van�tha and his own son as Vijaya Narasi�ha. His queen S�ntaladev�, a great dancer in the temple, continued to be a staunch devotee of Jainism all through her life, and made several donations to the Jaina temples. Her spiritual guide was Prabh�chandra Siddh�ntadeva the disciple of Meghachandra Traividyadeva. She died by the Jaina form of renunciation called Sallekhan� in 1131 A.D.447

Some of the most outstanding ministers and commanders of the Hoysalas were also staunch devotees of the Jaina faith. Amongst them was Ga�gar�ja, who built several Jaina temples, repaired many more and generously endowed numerous Jaina institutions. His wife Lakshm�mat� died in accordance with the rules of Jaina Sallekha�a, and her noble husband commemorated her by an epitaph at �rava�a Belgola. Other commanders of Vish�uvardhana, who subscribed to the Jaina faith and served it properly, were Boppa, Punisa, Maniyana and Bharate�vara whose devotion to Jaina teachers and acts of piety were recorded several inscriptions at �rava�a Belagola and other places. Vish�uvardhana’s successor Narasi�ha I paid a visit to �rava�a-Belagola and endowed the Chaturvi��ati bagadi built by his illustrious general Hulla, by the grant of a village. The later Hoys�la kings were also patrons of Jainism. Two of them, V�ra Ball�la II and Narasi�ha III, had Jaina saints as their spiritual ancestors, and these and others erected Jaina temples and made rich endowments to them.


It was not only these predominant royal houses that patronised Jainism, but the faith was adopted by several feudatory chiefs and small rulers in the land as well. For example, the S�ntaras, who ruled over that part of Kar���aka which roughly corresponds with the modern T�rthahalli Taluk and its surrounding country, where the followers of Jainism from the very beginning. Bhujabala S�ntara erected a Jain temple in his capital Pomburcha and granted to his guru, Kanakanandideva, a village for its maintenance. In A.D. 1081 Nagularasa, the minister of V�ra S�ntara, is described as ‘a fortress to the Jain Dharma’. The later chiefs also built numerous Jain temples and shrines and endowed them suitably with lands and tolls. In A.D. 1173, V�ra S�ntara is described as ‘a bee at the lotus feet of Jaina’. Later on, however, the S�ntaras adopted the creed of V�ra�aivism, and this affected the progress of Jainism in that region to some extent. During the thirteenth century the capital of the S�ntaras was shifted to Kalasa, and later to Karkala in Tuluva. Where they, in spite of their new faith, continued to be benevolent towards Jainism.

The K��galvas, who ruled over north Coorg and the Arkalgud T�luk in the south of the Hassan District of Mysore, and emerged into prominence during the eleventh century, were great patrons of Jainism. The K�ngalva rulers constructed Jain temples and made grants for their maintenance till the beginning of the twelfth century, when their fortunes declined consequent upon the expulsion of the Cholas by the Hoys�las from the land.

Similarly, the Ch�ngalvas of the Changan�� (roughly corresponding with the Hansur T�luk in Mysore State), although �aivite by profession, were benevolent towards Jainism, as is clearly proved by epigraphic records of A.D. 1091 and 1100 which make mention of the construction of Jain temples and donations for the same, particularly to some of the “sixty-four basadis in the city of Hanasoge or Panasoge (in the Yedatore T�luk of Mysore), reputed to have been built by R�ma the son of Da�aratha.” We possess numerous records, both dated and undated, and ranging between A.D. 1000 and 1300, of solitary rulers and noblemen, in addition to those of persons of the merchant class and others, who built temples, installed images, performed worship and made endowments for perpetual service of divinity and piety, and who even ended their lives by the renunciation of all worldly attachments and by observing fasts in strict accordance with the Jain faith. Jain temples, shrines, images, Samadhis and epitaphs, strewn all over the South, amply testify to the fact that during this period the Jain religion was extremely popular and constituted a living faith of all classes of people from royalty to peasantry, inspiring them to deeds of piety and philanthropy during life, and affording them solace and hope in death.


The K�kat�yas were at first feudatories of the Later Ch�lukyas, after whose decline, they rose to power in Telingana and exercised authority there. The earlier seat of K�kat�ya government was Anmako��a or Hanum�nku�d, but subsequently Warangal became the capital. The first prince to bring the family into prominence was Prolar�ja, one of whose records is dated 1117-18 A.D. He distinguished himself in warfare against the Western Ch�lukyas and ruled for a long time. After the reign of Rudra (C. 1160 A.D.) and his younger brother, Mah�deva, the latter’s son, Ga�apati, ascended the K�kat�ya throne in 1199 A.D. He was the most powerful monarch, and he continued to rule for sixty-two years. He is represented to have successfully measured swords with the kings of Chola, Kali�ga, Seu�a (i. e. Y�dava ruler) Kar���a, L��a and Valan��u. Ga�apati was able to win these achievements owing perhaps, to the weakness of the Chola sovereign and the confused political situation in the Southern India in the second quarter of the 13th century. Being without an issue, Ganapati was succeeded by his daughter Rud�a�b� in C. 1261 A.D. After a reign of nearly thirty years, Rudr��b�, was followed by her grandson, Prat�parudradeva. Prat�parudradeva was the last great king of the K�kat�ya dynasty, and he had to submit to the yoke of the Moslems during the Southern raid of Malik K�fur. Thenceforward, the K�kat�yas began to sink into insignificance and eventually their kingdom passed into the hands of the Bahmani Sultans of the Dekkan.


The K�kat�yas started their career in the Telugu country when Jainism enjoyed royal patronaga under the R�s�rak��as. In Teli�g��a particularly, the Ch�lukyas of Memulave�a extended full patronage to that religion as evidenced by their monuments and literary works like Ya�asatilaka and ï¿½dipur��a which were written by their court poets Somadeva and Pampa. The early K�kat�yas were not far removed from that period. Their association with the myth of M�dhava-varman stated in the Siddhe�vara-Charitra indicates their affiliation to Jainism in the early days. Beta I is stated in his Sanigram inscription to have made a gift to the Yaddhamalla Jin�laya. The Banajipet inscription of Me�arasa I records a gift to a Jaina basadi by K�kat�ya Beta II. The Padm�kshi temple inscription of Prola II dated A.D. 1117 records the construction of Kadalal�ya basadi and endowments to the same by his minister’s wife Mailama and Medar�ja II.

The Garu�a symbol, which adorned their banner till the time of Prat�parudra, alluded to in Prat�parudr�ya of Vidy�n�tha does not indicate their strong attachment to Vaish�avism, as there is little evidence in that regard. It is quite possible that it may indicate some Jaina symbol like the Garu�a of �antin�tha, the sixteenth T�rtha�kara.

It may not be out of place in this connection to co-relate two identical statements occurring in the Govindapuram epigraph and the Telugu Chronical Siddhe�vara-Charita. According to the former, certain M�dhava-Chakravartin who is stated to be the founder of the Polavasa family of chiefs, acquired his military strength consisting of eight thousand elephants, ten crores of horses and innumerable soldiers by the grace of Yakshe�var� at the command of Jina. The same in Siddhe�vara-Charitra, is stated that M�dhavavarman, the founder of the K�kat�ya family. acquired an army comprising thousands of elephants and lakhs of horses and foot soldiers by the grace of the Goddess Padm�ksh�. The D�ksh�rama inscription of Durga, son of Prola II mentions M�dhavavarman as the founder of the K�kat�ya family. The goddess Padm�ksh� on the hill near Anumako��a is beyond all doubt a Jaina deity although it is present worshipped as a �aiva goddess. The image of this goddess situated amidst the images of Jaina T�rtha�karas can not be believed to be a �aiva goddess. The original Jaina deity was gradually transformed into a �aiva goddess to suit the �aiva leanings of the latter K�kat�yas. The said Jaina myth itself is recast into a �aiva one. The goddess might have been originally Padm�vat�, the Yakshe�var� or ��sanadev� of P�r�van�tha, the twenty-third T�rtha�kara. While editing the inscription of Prola II set up before this temple, H. KRISHNA SASTRI expressed the view that the Kadalal�ya basadi mentioned in it must have been dedicated to Kadalal�ya, the Ka�a��a name for the goddess Ambik� or Padm�vat�. All this leads us to the conclusion that the early members of the K�kat�yas were the followers of Jainism. It is not unreasonable to believe that the Jaina goddess on the Anumako��a hill was set up by Garu�a-Beta or Beta I and called it K�kat� as stated in the Gudur-epigraph that K�mavas�ni by reinstating Garu�a Beta established K�kati.

That Jainism was patronized even by the later K�kat�ya members is evidenced by the renovation work conducted by Rudra’s minister Ga�g�dhara to the Jaina Vasati on the Padm�ksh� hill as stated in his epigraph at Hammakonda.

A Jaina poet named Appay�rya states in his Jinendra-Kaly��� bhyudaya that he completed his work during the reign of K�kat�ya Kum�ra Rudradeva, that is Prat�parudra. This is also an indication that Jainism flourished in Andhra till the end of the K�kat�ya period.

To illustrate the general tendency of the society towards Jainism during this period, we have an inscription at Bekkallu, Jangaon t�luk,datable to Rudra’s reign. Certain Mallire��i is stated to have constructed twenty-one temples for �iva, although Jainism was his family religion. It is interesting to note in the record a specific statement in Telugu prose as well as verse that the four Samayas ï¿½aiva, Vaish�ava, his own Jaina and Buddha were mere causes for disbelief (Sa�saya-hetu), but the god in all faiths or Samayas was only one and that with such strong belief he constructed all those temples for the god �iva.

It is evident that the people at large in those days were following the four religions without prejudice to each other.448


Among the Kalachuris of the South, Bijjala was important. Bijjala and his sons held the Ch�lukya crown for some years and Bijjala was forced to addicate in 1167 A.D. His brief tenure of rule was marked by the rise of the li�g�yat or V�ra-�aiva Sect. Bijjala is said to have persecuted the Li�g�yats which ultimately led to the loss of his life. Thereafter all his sons ruled in quick succession till 1183 A.D., But none of them had the ability to take full advantage of their father’s usurpation. However, they succeeded in keeping up the hostilities against Hoysala Ball�la II (1173-1220 A.D.). In 1183 A.D., the Kalachuri power was swept away by the Ch�lukya Some�vara IV, son of Taila III.

Seven Jaina inscriptions of the Kalachuri period are known. The earliest inscription449 is dated 1159 A.D., and it records the donation to some Jaina ï¿½ch�rya by the Sen�pati. This inscription is of the time of Bijjala. The name of this ruler has been mentioned in the four inscriptions450, ranging from 1161 to 1168 A.D., and they describe the charities by local officials to the Jaina ï¿½ch�ryas. The last two inscriptions451 dated 1173 A.D. and 1175 A.D. respectively belong to Sovideva and they mention donation by local persons. Though Bijjala was the persecutor of the Li�g�yats, he was tolerant towards Jainism as known from Charities during his reign.


The Y�davas were a feudatory family when the R�sh�rak�tas and the Ch�lukyas held sway in the South. The first noteworthy figure in the dynasty was Bhillam V who taking advantage of the confusion, fixed his capital at Devagiri, modern Daulatabad. Bhillan’s successor was his son Jaitugi (1191-1210 A.D.). The Y�davas gradually extended their power among their contemporaries. Singhana, son of Jaitugi, was the most energetic personality and during his rule C. 1210 to 1247 A.D., he is represented to have conquered many lands. Singhana was succeeded by his grandson K�ish�a (C. 1247-60 A.D.). K�ish�a was followed by his brother Mah�deva (C. 1260-71 A.D.) who conquered some conutries. It was during the reign of R�machandra that the Muslem army led by Alauddin Khilji, the then Governor, marched towards the South and suddenly invaded Devagiri in 1294 A.D. R�machandra had to conclude a humiliating treaty with Alauddin Khilji.

There are fifteen Jaina inscriptions of the Y�davas of Devagiri. Among them, the earliest inscription452 is dated 1230 A.D. of the time of Singha�a. It describes some charities to the Jaina temple. There are three Jaina inscriptions453 which describe charities to Jaina temples by three Mah�pradh�nas Prabh�karadeva, Malla and B�chir�ja. These inscriptions range from 1245 to 1247 A.D. There are four Jaina inscriptions454 of the reign of Kanharadeva, of which three are concerned with charities and one with Sam�dhilekha (Cenotaph-Inscription). Three Jaina inscriptions455 belong to king Mah�deva, and those are dated 1265 and 1269 A.D. There are monuments of Sam�dhimarana. There are four inscriptions of the king R�machandra which belong from 1285 to 1297 A.D.456 The first inscription describes the construction of Jaina temple by Sarv�dhikar� named M�yadeva. The second is a cenotaph inscription, and the third one mentions charities to the temple. The fourth inscription refers to the repair of one temple by the  son of the minister of Mah�ma��ale�vara T�kamadeva. These inscriptions reveal the activities of Jainism in the Y�dava kingdom of Devagiri.

There was colonial and cultural expansion in South-East Asia because of the encouragement of sea voyage by the traders of the South during the Early Medieval period. The cult of �aivism was dominant during this period, and next came Vaish�avism. Buddhism was also popular. Even there were some traces of Jainism in Kamboj. Jayavarman VII, who ruled over Kamboj in the twelfth century A.D., was first Buddhist but afterwards, he became a follower of Jainism.457 It indicates that there were some followers of even Jainism here during this period.457

  1. CHATTERJI, B.R. :        Indian Cultural Influence in Kambodia, P. 125.
  2. JINESHWAR DAS :        Angokora Ke Pa�chameru Mandira.

JINESHWAR DAS is of the view that Panchameru and Nand��varadv�pa described in the Jaina, P�j�s (Jinabh�rat�-Sa�graha, pp. 340-343) were Jaina temples of Angaveru and Nand��varadv�pa of Angakorov��a. A few inscriptions out of 900 in the French Library of Pandecheri may be related to Jainism in Indonesia. Half Padm�sana and N�ga images of these temples might be related to the Jaina T�rtha�karas. The places in the neighbourhood of Angakora might be the birth-places of the Jaina T�rtha�karas. In the National Central Museum of the capital of Kambodia, there are Jaina images. These views do not seem to be correct. These temples and images were not actually concerned with Jainism but Buddhism.



Mahmud Ghazni ascended the throne at Ghazni. In India, his image is only that of a plunderer and a destroyer of temples. He is said to have made seventeen raids into India. The raids of Mahmud into India were aimed at plundering the rich temples and cities of Northern India. From the Punjab, Mahmud raided Nagarkot hills and Thanesar near Delhi. His most daring raids, however, were against Kanauj in 1018 A.D. and against Soman�tha in Gujarat in 1025 A.D. In the campaign against Kanauj, he sacked and plundered both Mathura and Kanauj and returned via Kalinjar in Bundelkhand loaded with fabulous riches. Mahmud marched from Multan across without entering any serious resistance on the way, in order to raid the fabulously rich temple of Soman�tha. This was his last campaign in India outside Punjab. He died at Ghazni in 1030 A.D.

These raids of Mahm�d Ghazni brought great destruction to Jainism. While invading India, Mahm�d Ghazni also passed through Rajasthan and destroyed the cities on the way. In 1009 A.D., Mahmud Ghazni led an army against N�r�ya�a situated in the heart of Hind. The king of this place fought bravely in defence of his country, but was defeated. The Sultan ruthlessly broke the idols and returned to Ghazni with large booty including the elephants and horses. This place had great commercial importance, and had become the emporium of foreign articles of central Asia as well as that of the indigenous ones. This place has been identified by A. CUNNINGHAM with Narayanapura near Alwar, and other scholars also followed him.459 This identification appears to be doubtful because Narayanpura is not known to be N�r�ya�a in the tenth or eleventh century A.D. At this time, it was a prosperous town, inhabited by rich merchants. The discovery of early medieval Jaina images (of the tenth and eleventh centuries) from under the ground of this place proves that it was invaded by Muslim forces. The ruler, who seems to have come into clash with Muhm�d, was Chauh�na ruler Govindar�ja II, son of Durlabhar�ja of ��kambhar� which is only at a distance of 13 km. from Naraina. Firishta also states that Mahm�d also came to Soman�tha via Sambhar.460

In his invasion in 1024 A.D., he decided to advance along the Rajasthan desert route to reach his destination. In course of his journey, he destroyed the cities en route. He first reached Lodorva. At the time of the Muslim invasion of Mahm�d Ghazni, the temple of Chint�ma�i P�r�van�tha of Lodorva was probably destroyed. Afterwards, it was repaired by Kh�mas� and his son P�nasi as known from aPra�asti of the ï¿½atadala P�r�van�tha Yantra written by Sahajak�rti in 1618 A.D.461 Sanchor and Chandr�vat� were also plundered by his forces on his way to Soman�tha. Mahmud also destroyed the Jaina temples and images of these places. Some of the Jaina temples of these two places were renovated. While invading Mathura and Kanauj, Mahm�d destroyed the Jaina temples of these cities also.

We learn from the Tabqat-i-N�siri and T�rikhi-Firishta that Muhammad Bahlin whom Bahram Shah of Ghazni had appointed the Governor of his dominions in Hindustan in 1112 A.D., captured and fortified the town of Nagaur. A Muslim Sufi Saint named Hamiduddani Raihani settled at Nagaur either earlier or later than 1112 A.D. He was highly influenced by Jainism and became its follower. The remains of his tomb and his residence are still found at Nagaur.462


In 1173 A.D., Shahabuddin Mohammad (1172-1206 A.D.) also known as Muizzuddin Mohammad ascended the throne of Ghor. Muizzuddin, proceeding by way of Gomal pass, conquered Multan and Uchch. In 1178 A.D., he attempted to penetrate into Gujarat marching across Rajasthan. But the Gujarat ruler completely routed him in a battle near Mount �b�, and Muizuddin. Muhammad was lucky enough in escaping alive. A battle between the two ambitious ruler Muizzuddin and Muhammad and Prithv�r�ja was inevitable. The conflict started with rival claims for Tabarhinda (Bhatinda). In the battle which was fought at Taram in 1191 A.D., the Ghori forces were completely routed and Muizzuddin Muhammad’s life was saved. The second battle of Tarain in 1192 A.D. is regarded as one of the turning points in Indian history. The Turkish armies captured the fortress of Hansi, Saraswati, Samana and Ajmer. The Tomara ruler of Delhi was ousted and Delhi was made a base for further Turkish advance into the Ganga valley. Delhi area and eastern Rajasthan passed under the Turkish rule. Aibak defeated Bhima II, the ruler of Gujarat and Anhilwara, ravaged and plundered and a number of other towns. Thus the battles of Tarain and Chandawar laid the foundation of Turkish rule in North India. He occupied the powerful forts of Bayana, Gwalior, and conquered Kalinjar, Mahoba and Khajuraho from the Chandella rulers.

As a result of the invasions of Muhammad Ghori from time to time, Jainism suffered greatly. The Muslims destroyed Jaina temples and images. People left their cities and towns, and went to the safer places for security. From the Upake�agachchha-Prabandha463it is known that the Muslim army of Muhammad Ghori destroyed Osia in 1195 A.D. This Muslim invasion compelled the people to leave their homes and hearths in panic to other places for safety. From a Pra�asti of the Dharm�m�ita t�k� of ���dhara, it is known that he left Mandalgarh for Dh�r�nagar� because of the Muslim invasion.464 Sambhar, N��ol, Narhad etc. were also affected badly as a result of the defeat of the Chauh�nas.

In 1196 A.D., Muhammad Ghori defeated the S�rasena ruler named Kunwarap�la of Bayana and placed it under the command of Bh�udd�n Tughril. K�yn� and Tahangarh also suffered greatly by this invasion. The Muslims destroyed Hindu and Jaina temples and on their ruins erected a large number of mosques. He invited the Muslims for settlement by providing all kinds of facilities at these places and the Jainas were forced to migrate. From a Pra�asti of Jinadatta Charita465 written in 1218 A.D., it is known that the poet Lakshma�a left Tribhuvanagiri (Tahangarh) for Krish�avi�sa. The Dhaidin K� Jho�par�, originally a Jaina temple and Sanskrit College was converted into mosque.466

The �iva shrine of Hanum�na temple at Jambholi in Jaipur District was originally, a Jaina temple of Chandra Prabha. One inscription467engraved on the stone beam of this temple contains five verses composed by Pandita Nishkalankasena, the brother of Akla�kasena in praise of Chandraprabha Jina, and some pontiffs whose names are given – Am�itasena, Samyamasenas�ri, Brahmasena and Yogasena. The last pontiff is described as one whose feet were worshipped by the Turushkas.

A Khalji officer Bakhtiar Khalji was appointed in charge of some of the areas beyond Benaras. Taking advantage of confusion, he made frequent raids into Bihar. He had attacked and destroyed the famous Nalanda University and the Vikrama�il� University. Then he marched with an army towards Nadia, the capital of the Sena kings of Bengal which was rich owing to internal resources and flourshing foreign trade.

Jainism suffered a great setback from the invasion of Muhammad-bin-Bakhtiar, who captured Bihar and Bengal. He razed many Jaina temples to ground, massacred their communities and burnt their manuscripts. Owing to these attacks, Jainism generally suffered in number of its adherents. Many of the beautiful Mohammaden mosques in India have woven into their fabric stones from Jaina shrines which the ruthless conquerers had destroyed. All that the victorious Muhammedans had to do was to make slight structural alterations in the temples and buildings.468

  1. THE DELHI SULTANATE (1200-1400 A.D.)

Muizddin Muhammad Ghort was succeeded by Qutbuddin Aibak, a Turkish slave who played an important part in expansion of the Turkish Sultanate in India after the battle of Tarain. It also enabled the Delhi Sultanate to develop on its own. In 1210 A.D., Iltutmish (1210-36) succeeded Aibak. He must be regarded as the real consolidator of the Turkish conquets in north India. The most serious threat to Iltutmish came from Chingiz Khan, the great Khan of the Mangols but he returned. Iltutmish led an expedition to Bengal in 1225 A.D. and defeated its ruler. In 1232-34 A.D. he conquered Gwalior and Malwa.

Iltutmish nominated his daughter Raziya to the throne in 1236 A.D. In order to assert her claim, Raziya had to contend against her brother as well as against powerful Turkish nobles, and could rule only for three years. Her rule marked the beginning of struggle for power between the monarchy and the Turkish chiefs sometimes called the ‘forty’, Nasiruddin Mahmud, a younger son of Iltutmish, secured the throne in 1246 A.D. with the help of Balban who was made Naib (Deputy). After getting rid of many of his rivals gradually, he ascended the throne in 1266 A.D. He established the centralized government and tried to increase the prestige and power of monarchy. To deal with the elements of lawlessness in the neighbourhood, he adopted a policy of blood and iron. Balban died in 1286 A.D. He was undoubtedly one of the main architects of the Sultanate of Delhi. By raishing the power of the monarchy, Balban strengthened to Delhi Sultanate. But even he could not fully defend northern India against the inroads of the Mangols.

The Delhi Sultanate Muslim rulers adopted a certain religious policy against the non-Muslims. They used to collect a special tax, Jizy�from the non-Muslims. Most of the Muslim rulers collected a pilgrimage tax at holy places of religious faiths. Old temples were not to be repaired nor new temples built. Public worship of idols was forbidden. It is difficult to say definitely how for this injunction was enforced and obeyed by the non-Muslims including even the Jainas. During the Delhi Sultanate period, several Jaina temples were built, and numerous images were installed in them. There were Jaina scholars who pursued their literary activities. Several copies of Jaina manuscripts were written for presenting them to the Jaina Bha���ras. A few Jaina officers were employed on high posts by the Sultanas.


The Muslims under Sultan Iltutmish brought great destruction to Jainism in the regions of Rajasthan and Malwa. This fact is known to us from the Nemi Jina Charita of the poet D�modara written in V.S. 1287 at Salaksh�apura during the reign of the Param�ra ruler Devap�la.469At this time, Iltutmish was the emperor of Delhi. D�modara left Gurjarade�a (Rajasthan) and settled in M�lavade�a. Madanak�rti, author of the 13th century A.D., in his work ï¿½ï¿½sanachatustri��atik�.470 informs us how the invasion of Iltutmish brought destruction to the holy place of Abhinandana of Ma�galapura in M�lavede�a.

After the Bharas, the Chauh�na ruler Chandrap�la founded his kingdom at Chandrawad (Firozabad). He himself, his ministers, and successors became the followers of Jainism. At the time of Chauh�na ruler Ball�la of Chandrawada, his successor was �havamalla (1257 A.D.). His father’s minister So��s, elder son of Ratnap�la (Kalha) was the Nagarase�ha, and his younger brother K�ish��ditya (Kanha) was the Chief Minister and Sen�pati. This warrior fought several successful battles against the Sultans of the Slave Dynasty. He got several Jaina temples constructed in the Chandrav��a Kingdom. A Jaisav�la Jaina poet named Lakshma�a, from Tribhuvanagiri wrote the A�uvrataratanaprad�pa in 1256 A.D. �ivadeva, nephew of K�ishn�ditya became Nagarase�ha after his father Ratnap�la. This Jaina family of many generations consisting of rich-millionaires and high officials was the pillar of the Chandravada kingdom of the Chauh�nas. It is said that fifty-one ceremonies of installation of images were performed in this Chandrav��a kingdom of the Chauh�nas.471

THE KHALJIS (1290-1320 A.D.)

Jalaluddin Khalji (1290-96 A.D.) ruled only for a brief period of six years. He was the first Khalji ruler of the Delhi Sultnate who clearly put forward the view that the state should be based on the willing support of the government.

Alauddin Khalji (1296-1314 A.D.) came to the throne by treacherously murdering his uncle and father-in-law, Jalaluddin Khalji. To overawe his opponents, he adopted methods of utmost severity and ruthlessness. He tried to extend his empire by conquests. Gujarat passed under his control. Then, he turned his attention to the consolidation of his rule over Rajasthan. The first to invite his attention was Ranthambhor of Hamm�radeva Chauh�na. He is credited with having won victories against R�j� Bhoja of Dhar and the R��� of Mewar between 1309-11 A.D. His general Malik K�fur led two campaigns in South India against Warangal and Dwarsamundra respectively. His ablest general Zafar Khan defeated the Mangols and dispersed them. The most important experiment undertaken by Alauddin Khalji was his attempt to control the markets.

During the reign of Alauddin Khalji, the multimillionaire of Delhi was P�r�a Chandra Agrawal. At the advice of the emperor, he requested the Digambara M�dhavasena to visit Delhi from the south and established the seat of the K�sh�h� Sa�gha in Delhi472. This line of the Sa�gha continued among the Agrawals of India. The Pa��a of Nandi Sa�gha was established in Delhi, and the seat of Sena Sa�gha by Prabhakara. Allaudd�n was greatly influenced by the Digambar saint Madhavasena473.

Lalitak�rti, author of the Sanskrit commentary of the Mah�pur�na, was the Pa��adhara of the K�sh�h� Sa�gha, M�thura Gachchha and Pushkaraga�a. He was expert in several Mantras and Tantras. Being pleased with Lalitak�rti, Alauddin gave him thirty-two firmans.474 Copies of these firmans are found in the Granthbha���ras of Kolhapur and Nagaur. Alauddin Khalji is known to have been influenced by the teachings of Jainaprabhas�ri. The well known �hakurra Feru who was the mint master of Alauddin Khalji and wrote the Dravyapar�ksh�, belonged to Delhi. He accepted the teachings, propounded by the monks of the Kharatara Gachcha.

THE TUGHLAQS (1320-1412 A.D.)

Ghiy�suddin established a new dynasty called Tughlaq which remained in prominence till 1412 A.D. The Tughlags provided three competent rulers – Ghiyasuddin, his son, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1324-51 A.D.) and his nephew Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-87 A.D.). the first two of these rulers ruled over an empire which comprised almost the entire country. The empire of Firoz was smaller but even it was almost as large as that ruled over by Alauddin Khalji. After the death of Firoz, the Delhi Sultnate disintegrated, and north India was divided into a series of small states. Although the Tughlaqs continued to rule till 1412 A.D., the invasion of Delhi by Timur in 1398 A.D. may be said to mark the end of the Tughlaq empire, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1324-51 A.D.) is best remembered as a ruler who undertook a number of bold experiments and showed a keen interest in agriculture. The most controversial step which Muhammad-Bin Tughlaq undertook after his accession was so called transfer of the capital from Delhi to Deogiri. His another step at this time was the introduction of the token currency.

Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was deeply read in religion and philosophy, and had a critical and an open mind. He conversed not only with the Muslim mysties, but also with Brahmanical yogis and Jaina saints. He honoured the Digambara Jaina saint Prabh�chandra. From the B�hubali Charita Pra�asti475 written in 1397 A.D. by Dhanap�la, it is known that Prabh�chandra defeated his opponents in discussion, and pleased the heart of Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaq. This poet was the disciple of the Bha���raka Prabh�chandra, and accompanied his master to Chandrav��a for pilgrimage. Vas�dhara got composed the work ï¿½r�vak�ch�ra-S�roddh�ra476 from the Bha���raka Padmanandi of Delhi, Pa��ahara of Prabh�chandra. V�sadhara has been mentioned as Lambaka�chuka (Lamechu) in this work. From a Pra�asti of the work Purush�rth�nu��sana written by the poet Govinda, it is known that one of his concestors named Amarasi�ha was the officer of the emperor Muhammad, and earned name and fame.

Muhammed bin Tughlaq also respected the �vet�mbara ï¿½ch�rya Jinaprabhasuri477. The �vet�mbaras established their seat in Delhi. Jinaprabhas�ri obtained the firm�n from the emperor, and he started with Sa�gha on pilgrimage to Mathura, Hastin�pura etc. At that time, the Jainas have been mentioned in the Persian Chronicles as May�rag�na (Sar�vagan). A temple of Mahav�ra was built around 1328 A.D. under the patronage of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq478. Jinaprabha with the help of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq repaired the T�rth of Kany�nayana.479

After his accession, Firoz Tughlaq was faced with the problem of preventing the imminent break-up of the Delhi Sultnate. He adopted the policy of trying to appease the nobles, the army and the theologians and of asserting his authority over only such areas which could be easily administered from the centre. He therefore made no attempt to reassert his authority over south India and Deccan. He led two campaigns into Bengal, but was unsuccessful in both. Bengal was, thus lost to the Sultanate. Even then, the sultanate continued to be as large as it was during the early years of Alauddin Khalji. Firoz led a campaign against the ruler of Orissa, and one against Kangra. He desecrated the temples and gathered a rich plunder, but made no attempt to annex Gujarat. His largest campaigns were to deal with rebellions in Gujarat and Thatta.

Firoz Tughlaq was a benevolent ruler, and took a number of humanitarian measures for the improvement of the society. Being of such a nature, he was also impressed by Jainism. From a pra�asti of the Hol�re�uk� Charita480 by Jinad�sa, it is known that Haripati, a devotee of Padm�vat� was honoured by Firoz Shah. Haripati was well-versed in the science of Medicines. There is mention in the Ar�dhan� Pa�jika481 that at the request of Firoz Shah, Prabh�chandra, after wearing red clothes gave Dar�ana in the inner-apartment (Antehpura). S�hu Vill�, son of S�hu Narapati, of Agraw�la caste of Hissar was respected by the Emperor Firoz Shah Tughlaq.482 Marahap�la of the Agraw�la caste got a copy of the Dravyasa�graha written in V.S. 1416 at Yogin�pura (Delhi) when Firozshah Tughlaq was no ruling. This is the oldest copy of the Dravyasa�graha written in V.S. 1416.483 Firoz Shah Tughlaq also invited the May�ragana Panditas for deciphering the inscriptions engraved on the A�okan pillars located in Delhi.484


For nearly fifteen years after the invasion of Timur, there was no regular Sultan’s government at Delhi. From 1414 to 1450 A.D., Khizr Khan and his three successors administered Delhi and fluctuating territory adjoining it. Khizr-Khan claimed to be a Sayyid or a descendant of the prophet, and hence some historians designate this dynasty founded by him as the Sayyid dynasty.


Sultan Buhlul Lodi may truly be described as the first Afghan Sultan. Buhlul was succeed by his son Nizam Khan who took the title of Sikandar Ghazi. Sikandar Lodi (1489-1517 A.D.) seems to be the most important Sultan. He tried to establish efficient administration. His main aim was to control Chandravad As��khe��, Kerahal etc. of the Chauh�nas and Bhadairiya kings of Atera, Hathikanta etc. and to preserve the revenue income of the Doab. He encouraged learning by giving grant to scholars. Sikander died in 1517 A.D. and his oldest son Ibrahim became the king. When Ibrahim attempted to suppress revolt among the nobles, there was widespread dissatisfaction. Finally, in 1523, Babur marched against Ibrahim. Ibrahim was defeated and sal�n in the field of panipat in 1526 A.D.

Several Jaina temples were built and numerous images installed in them during the Sayyid period and the Lodi period at several sites in Northern India. It seems that the Sayyid and Lodi Sultans gradually became weak. The Hindu rulers became powerful. There was great influence of the Jainas in the administration. They led S��ghas to holy places and got the copies of the manuscripts written.485 S�hu Chhaju of Banasala Gotra and of Agrawala caste got the Prakrit Hema�abd�nu�asana written at Hissar in V.S. 1414 for presentation.486

Devagadha became a great centre of Jainism during this period. Sa�ghapati Holichanda was rich, liberal and religious, and got several Jaina temples and images prepared at this place in 1424 A.D. through Basantak�rti and Padmanandi. His teacher was �ubhachandra. His sons, grandson and ï¿½r�vakas participated in the religious functions. The consecration of Jaina images was performed here in 1436 A.D. The Jaina images installed by J�var�ja P�pa��v�la through Bha���raka Jinachandra at the place Mu���s� during the reign of king �iva Si�ha have been discovered throughout India. It seems to be impossible that such a number of Jaina images can be installed by J�var�ja P�pa��v�la during the reign of �iva Si�ha of Mu���s�, a ruler of small State. It seems that the inscription of V.S. 1548 continued to be stamped on later images for a long period without any significance.

The effect of the Muslims on the Jaina religion at this time is seen in two ways known as idol-worshippers and non-idol-worshippers. The idol-worshippers among the Jainas began to manufacture images in large number. With the impact of the Muslim culture, some sections of the Jainas began to denounce idol worship with great vehemence. The sects of non-idol worshippers arose during this period as follows – Lo�k���h�s Lo�k�gachchha. T�ra�apantha of T�ra�asv�m� in Madhya Pradesh, �rava�apantha by Ka�uva��ha in Gujrat and these new sects were called S�dhum�rgis, and were against image worship and temples.


Because of the Muslim rule in Delhi, the Tomaras migrated to the region of Gwalior. First they established their small principality at Etah. Gradually, the Tomaras became powerful under their ruler V�rasimhadeva and occupied the fort of Gop�dr� in 1394 A.D. Thereafter Gwalior remained the capital of the Tomara rulers : V�ramadeva (1402-23), Ga�apatideva (1423-25 A.D.), D��garendradeva (1425-59 A.D.), K�rttisi�hadeva (1459-80 A.D.), Kaly��amalla (1480-86 A.D.), M�hasi�ha (1486-1516 A.D.) and Vikramasi�ha (1516-1523 A.D.). Ultimately, the Lodi Sultan Ibrahim of Delhi uprooted this ruling dynasty of Gwalior.

During the Tomara period, Jainism became a great cultural and dynamic force. This period is regarded as the golden age in the history of Jainism of this region. Padman�bha K�yastha wrote the Ya�odhara Charita during the reign of V�ramadeva by the inspiration of the Minister S�hu Ku�ar�ja Jaisav�la.487 S�hu Ku�ar�ja was devoted to Jainism, and he built the Jaina temple of Chandraprabha in Gwalior. ï¿½ch�rya Am�itachandra wrote the Tattvad�pik� in V.S. 1469 in Gwalior when Viramadeva was ruling over Gwalior.488

Jaina Temples and caves were built, and innumerable Jana images installed in them during the reign of D��garasi�ha and K�rttideva. Kamalasi�ha, the Chief Minister of D��garasimha, erected a huge image of �din�tha in V.S. 1497, and its consecration? ceremony was performed by Raidh�. Besides Kamalas��ha, Khela Brahmach�r�, Asapati S�hu, Sa�ghapati Nemad�sa and Sa�ghapati Sahadeva installed several images here. These rock-cut sculptures are unique in Northern India as well as for their number and their gigantic size. As the ï¿½r�vakas led pilgrimage to holy places, they assumed the title of Sa�ghapati. The�r�vakas of this place belonged to the Agrav�la, Khandelav�la, Porav�la and Gol�l�ra castes.

Riidh�, who has written more than thirty works in Prakrit, Apabhra��a, and Hindi, was a great poet. Kamalasi�ha and his father Khemasi�ha inspired him for writing these works. The father of Asapati was also the minister of D��garasi�ha.


Annexed by Alauddin Khalji in 1305 A.D., Malwa continued to be governed by Muslim chiefs under the authority of Delhi till it became independent. Dilawar Khan became independent of Delhi Sultanate in 1401 A.D. In 1436 A.D., Mah��d Khan founded the dynasty of the Khalji Sultans of Malwa. Mahmud Khalji was the ablest of the Muslim rulers of Malwa. He extended the limits of his kingdom. He also fought against R��� Kumbha of Mewar and Ahmad Shah of Gujarat. He was succeeded by his eldest son Ghiyas�dd�n and then his second son ascended the throne under the title of Mahm�d II. He appointed Medan� Rai as minister in order to control the Muslim nobles. Bah�dura Sh�h of Gujarat captured M���u in 1531 A.D. About 1535 A.D., Mall� Kh�n established an independent sovereignty in Malwa under the title of Q�dir Shah. Malwa was conquered by Mughal generals from B�z Bah�dur in 1561-62 A.D. The establishment of the independent kingdom of Malwa by Dilawar Khan Gauri also attracted the Jaina merchants to come to Malwa. The new Sultan also felt the need of financial help for economic prosperity of his kingdom and encouraged the Jainas to come and settle in his kingdom.

With the accession of Hoshang Sh�h and reestablishment of the authority after release from Gujarat captivity, the policy of encouraging the Jainas in Malwa seems to have received particular attention of the Sultan. The revenues of the state could be realised only after the harvest or when they were due, whereas the Sultan required ready cash earlier. Sultan Hoshang seems to have recognized in the Jaina financiers a source for supply of cash and the Jainas also found in the state a sound place for investment. Thus, the extension of the royal patronage towards the Jainas led to their activaity in Malwa. To restore confidence of the Jainas, Hoshang Shah honoured them by associating them with his government. The Jainas had a reputation for their honesty in handling cash. Hoshang Shah appointed Nardeva Son� as his Bha���rika (treasurer) and associated him in his council. Naradeva had become famous for his charities, as his son Sangr�m Singh Soni mentions that his charities knew no bounds and all returned to their places after receiving full satisfaction from Naradeva.

Mandan, another Jaina of the �r�m�la caste, became well known in the reign of Hoshang Sh�h. Mandan was a successful businessman and earned a good deal of wealth through his business. While he extended his charities and lavishly donated for the establishment of Jaina monasteries, he neither neglected his business nor failed to assist Sultan Hoshang Shah with his financial aids. Sultan Hoshang Shah also in return honoured him.

Mahmud Khalji I continued the policy of extending patronage to the Jains, and during his reign, the religious activities of the Jainas took greater impetus. M���u became one of the centres of rich Jaina merchants who lavishly subscribed for the transcription of Jaina Kalpas�tras. Many Jaina temples also seem to have been constructed during this period. It is, of course, difficult to ascertain whether this patronage to the Jainas was purely motivated by the desire of the Sultan to get financial help from the Jainas and to encourage trade and commerce or it was an outcome of the policy of religious toleration extended by the Sultan towards his subjects. The outcome of these rich merchants setting up their business houses in the capital of the kingdom, was certainly a flourishing state of trade and commerce of the kingdom.

During the reign of Mahmud Khalji, we find Sangram Singh, son of Nardeva Soni, occupying the same position that his father had enjoyed during the reign of Hoshang Shah. That Sangram Singh enjoyed the confidence of Sultan Mahmud is borne out from the Pra�asti of Buddhis�gara. Sangram Singh accompanied Mahmud-Khalji in his Deccan campaigns and completed his Buddhi S�gar at Pratish�h�napura (Pai�h�n) on the God�var�, where he seems to have gone for a holy dip in A.D. 1463. Sangr�m Singh, on his part, for retaining the favour of the Sultan did not fail to praise him in his composition.

In one of the copies of the Kalpas�tra, we find mention of another Jaina family flourishing in the capital during the reign of Mahmud Khalji I. In his family, Jasav�ra became quite prominent. He visited many of the places of Jaina pilgrimage and distributed charity everywhere. He set-up fifty-two Sa�ghapat�s and was himself honoured with the title of Sa�ghe�avara. Jasav�ra was also associated with the government. He held an important post in the principality (J�g�r) of Sh�hz�d� Ghiyath Shah.

It seems that the Jaina merchants had unchecked access to all the kingdoms where they used to go either for trade or for pilgrimage, and it is not unlikely that they used to bring information about the internal condition prevailing in the kingdoms, they visited, and supplied them to their rulers. We find that in 1454 A.D., Jasav�ra visited Mewar and also the court of R��� Kumbha where he was honoured by the R���. It may be mentioned here that these were the years of trouble for R��� Kumbha while Mahmud Khalji was constantly pressing for the conquest of Mandalgarh. From 1454 A.D. to 1457 A.D., R��� Kumbha remained engaged with the Rathors and Mahmud Khalji conquered Mandalgarh. Jasav�ra, having his business set up in Mandu, visiting the court of R��� Kumbha with whom the Mandu Sultan had no cordial relations, and subsequent successful attack on Mandalgarh by Mahmud Khalji following the return of Jasav�ra, are all circumstances which create suspicion that Jasav�ra might have supplied the information of R��� Kumbha’s troubles with the Rathors.

Ghiyath Shah not only continued the policy of his father but seems to have encouraged them still more. That the Jainas were happy and prosperous in his reign is borne out from the praises that have been lavished on Mandu in the Pra�asti of the Kalpas�tra transcribed in A.D. 1198. The Jainas had become more closely associated with the administration and received various titles from Sultan Ghiyath Shah. Punjar�ja (Munja Baqqnal) was made wazir of the Khalsa lands and was given the title of ‘Mafar-ul-Mulk’, a title which Pu�jar�ja has mentioned in thePra�asti of the commentary.

Towards the later part of the reign of Ghiyath Shah, it seems that these prominent Jainas had started meddling in politics and also that there existed some kind of rivalry among the Jainas. Thus, we find Siva Das Baqqual siding with Sh�hz�d� Nasir Shah while Mu�ja Baqqal (Pu�jar�ja) siding with partisans of Shahzada Shuja at Khan and Rani Khurshid. But in this contest, both of them lost their lives. The former being executed by the order of the Sultan and the latter being assasinated by the partinsans of Nasir Shah. The accession of Nasir Shah, however, does not seem to have altered the position of the Jainas who continued to enjoy the royal favour. Sangr�m Singh Soni (Naqd-ul-Mulk) retained his position throughout the reign. With the accession of Mahmud Khalji II, the political atmosphere in the capital as well as in the kingdom considerably changed, and the Jainas also gredually lost their position. The Muslim nobles did not like the influence exercised by this section, and as Firishta says, the amirs being apprehensive that they might not become too powerful, assasinated Basant Rai and procured order from the new Sultan for the explusion of Sangram Singh Soni. With the exit of Sangram Singh Soni, the influence of the Jainas in the court also declined. The Jainas on their part also lost interest in the kingdom of Malwa as they found the political condition not conducive to their trade, and the state no more a safe place either for investment or for stay.

Besides, their interest in trade and commerce and accumulation of wealth, the Jainas were very much devoted to their relegion. They patronized the Jaina places of pilgrimage and lavishly donated for the construction of Jaina temples and establishment of Jain monasteries. Their spirit of charity, led them to render financial assistance to the people in distress, particularly in times of scarcity. Thus, we find Jasdhir, son of Jasvir helping the distressed people of Malwa by distributing their requirements in 1485 A.D.

As a result of the policy of the Malwa Sultans of patronizing the Jainas and granting them full religious freedom, the rich Jaina merchants very soon set up Jin�layas (temples) in many places out of which special mention may be made of Mandu, Dhar, Ujjain, Ashta (��� Nagar), Hoshangabad and Mandsaur. The extent to which the Jainas enjoyed religious freedom can be imagined from the poetical composition,Ma��ap�chala Chaitya Parip��� consisting of twenty-three verses, which was written about 1493 A.D. by Khemr�ja. The work mentions that there were twenty-two temples containing about five hundred and sixty-two Jaina images. The same work mentions that the temples of Nemin�tha at Hoshangabad contained twenty-four images.489


Alauddin annexed Gujarat in 1297 A.D. In 1401 A.D., Zafarkhan assumed formal independence in 1401 A.D. Ahmed Shah made himself the Sultan and ruled for thirty years, and may well be regarded as the founder of the independent kingdom of Gujarat. In 1414 A.D., he defeated Rai Ma��alika of Girnar and captured the fort of Junagarh. He built the magnificent city of Ahmedabad. The next great ruler of Gujarat was Mahmud Begarha. He was called Begarha on account of his capture of two forts (beggrha) Junagarh and Champaner in Kathiawar. He was by far the most eminent ruler of his dynasty. Begarha came into conflict with Portuguese but was obliged to make peace with them. Between 1511 and 1526 A.D., Gujarat had three insignificant Sultans. The latest notable Sultan was Bahadur Shah (1526-37 A.D.). He overran the territories of Mewar and stromed Chittor in 1539 A.D.


The Jainas did suffer by the Muslim conquest of Gujarat. But even in these hard times, they maintained their trade and temples, obtained permission to repair old Jin�layas (temples) or built new ones and served very faithfully, the goddess of learning, by contributing to Sanskrit, Prakrit and Gujar�t� literature very generously.

It is true that the Muslim rulers were not in favour of erecting new temples, but at times, they gave their consent to the erection of new temples or did not object to the repair of old ones. In V.S. 1366 (1309-10 A.D.), Je�ala Sh�h of Khambhat erected a temple to Ajitan�th, the second T�rtha�kara and Samarasi�ha or Samara Sh�h repaired the temple of �din�tha on the �atru�jaya Hill, when the image of the T�rtha�kara was destroyed by the Muslims in V.S. 1369 A.D. (1312-13 A.D.).

Samarasi�ha who repaired the temple of �din�tha on the �atru�jaya Hill belonged to Upake�a Va��a and Vesata Kula. His elder brother Sahajap�la erected a temple of twenty-four T�rtha�karas in Devagiri in the Deccan. His next elder brother Sahana took up his abode in Cambay and won name, fame and glory by his good deeds, A�ahilav��a was Samarasi��s domicile of choice. Samarasimha was a well known jeweller in the old capital of Gujarat. He exercised great influence at court. When he came to know that �din�tha’s temple on the �atra�jaya Hill was destroyed by the Muslims, he paid a visit to Alapakh�na, the Sub� of Gujrat and obtained a ‘firm�na’ to repair or rebuild the temple. The Suba had also given necessary instructions to Malek Ahidara, his subordinate in this connection.

When the Jainas came to know of Sub�s firm�na, they gave a rousing reception to Samara Sh�h and advised him to set up a new image of �din�tha on the �atru�jaya Hill. Samara Sh�h sent his men to the king of �r�sana with presents. The king was a strict vegetarian and a firm believer in the principles of Jainism, so he consented to give the required marble from his mine without any charge. Marble was taken in carts to Palit�n�, sixteen clever sculptors were sent from Anhilav��a to P�lit�n� to prepare the image. B�lachandra Muni was to supervise the preparation of the image.

When the sculptors completed their work, good news was sent to Samara Sh�h at A�ahilav��a. Samara Sh�h, then, made up his mind to make a pilgrimage too the holy hill in the company of the Jaina congregation to set up the image of �din�tha in the newly constructed temple. Invitations were sent to the Jainas of far off places.

Among the Jaina monks who made the pilgrimage to the holy hill in the company of Samara Sh�h were Vinayachandra S�ri, Ratn�karas�ri of B�ihadgachchha, Padmachandra S�ri of Devas�rigachchha etc. Among the prominent Jainas who joined the congregation were Sa�ghapati Jaitra and Sa�ghapati K�ish�a, Harip�la, Devap�la, Landhaka, son of Sthiradeva of Vatsakula, Pralh�dana Soni, Sodh�ka and Devar�ja who had won name and fame as a great donor. Alapakh�na, Suba of Gujarata, who had granted permission to rebuild the temple, gave ten guards to protect the congregation.

The congregation started from Anahilap��aka and went to P�lit�n� via Seris� (Near Kalola Mehas�na District), Sarkhej (near Ahmedabad) and Dholk�. At Seris�, Samara Shah worshipped P�r�van�tha and held a festival for eight days. He was given a fabulous welcome by the Jainas and Th�kurs of the villages on the way. He spent money freely and was very hospitable to the Jainas who had joined the congregation.

There were no big inns in those days; so when the congregation reached P�lit�n�, Samara Shah pitched tents on the banks of Lalit�sara, erected by Lalit�dev�, wife of Vastup�la. About this time, Sahajap�la from Devagiri and S�ha�a from Khambhat came to P�lit�na with congregation. Samar� Sh�h’s joy knew no bounds when he saw his brothers. He paid his respects to the Jaina monks who had come with the congregation from Cambay. Among the prominent persons who had accompanied S�hana were Sangana, brother of P�t�ka Mantr�, L�l� Simhabha�a, Vijala, Madana, Molhaka and Ratnasi�ha. Samara Sh�h gave all the pilgrims a very warm welcome.

In V.S. 1381 (1315 A.D.), Samara set up the image of �din�tha in the completed temple on the holy hill. Sachik�dev� was the Kuladev� or family deity of Samar� Sh�h. Mahip�ladev�, who gave marble from his mine without taking any charge, was the king of �r�sana, and �s�dhara was the uncle of Samara-��ha. The honour of performing the ceremony at the time of setting up the images is shared by Siddhas�ri of Upake�agachchha and Ratn�karas�ri of Tap�gachchha.

A festival was held by De�ala, Samar� Sh�h’s father to celebrate this event. Sumptuous dishes were served to the Jaina congregation for several days. Jaina monks and nuns were given clothes. Beggars were feasted. Samara Sh�h lived in P�lit�n� for 20 days and made arrangements for the maintenance of the temple. Several servants were appointed to look after the gardens from which flowers were supplied to the temple for the worship of Jina.

From P�lit�n�, Samar� Shah went to Giranara with the congregation and worshipped Nemin�tha. Here Samar� received the good news of the birth of a son lived for ten days. From Giran�ra, he went to Devapattana where he was given a rousing reception by the king. The congregation paid a visit to the well known Soman�tha temple and adorned it with a five colour-flag. This event shows that the Jainas were not hostile to Brahmins, but were generous enough to adorn a �iva temple with a flag.

Samara Sh�h held the ash��hnik�mahotsava or a festival for eight  days at Devapattana and went to Aj�r to worship P�r�van�tha. From Aj�r, the congregation went to Kodin�r and worshipped Ambik�dev�. De�ala, Samara’s father, adorned Ambika’s temple with a flag. The congregation then went to Div where the king received Samara Shah and Harip�la, a multimillionaire, stood a feast. As tahnik�-mahotsava was held, and the beggars were given alms.

From Div, the congregation went to A�ahilav��a via P�tdi, Sankhe�vara and Harij. The Jaina Sa�gha of A�ahilav��a gave a rousing reception to Samar� Sh�h when he entered the capital in V.S. 1371. Five thousand persons were invited to dinner. Sa�ghapati Desala is said to have spent 27.70 lac coins in rebuilding the temple of �din�tha. In V.S. 1375 (1318-9 A.D.), Desala again made a pilgrimage to the holy hill with seven Sa�ghapatis and 2000 persons, and spent eleven lakhs. According to the N�bhinandanoddh�ra-Prabandha, emperor Gy�sudd�n was much pleased with Samar� Shah and highly honoured him. At Samar�’s request, the emperor set free the lord of Pa��ude�a. The king who invited Samar� Sh�h to Delhi was Gyasuddin Tughlak whose dates A.D. 1320-25 show that he was a contemporary of Samar� Shah.

According to the Prabandha writer, Samar� Shah was appointed as the Suba of Telangade�a where he set free many prisioners and obliged many chieftains. He adorned Urangalpura with Jaina temples, invited many Jaina families to settle there and won name, fame and glory as a Suba. This account of Kakkas�ri, though unconfirmed is not unreliable, because he was a ‘Guru’ and contemporary of Samar� Sh�h.

About V.S. 1369 (1312-13 A.D.), the temples of Vimala Shah and Tejap�la were destroyed by the Muslims. When the Jainas came to know of this, they undertook the work of repairing the temples. The Vimalavasah� was repaired by Vijada, son of Dhanasi�ha of Ma��or and his brothers. The Pratish�h� was performed by Ghanachandra S�ri. In the G�dhana��apa, the statues of Gosala and Gu�adev�, the grand-father and grand-mother of Vijada respectively and of Mahanasi�ha and Minaladev�, the parents of Laligasi�ha. These statues were set up in the year V.S. 1378 (1322 A.D.) when the ‘Pratish�h� of the temple was performed.

Tejap�la’s temple was repaired by Petha�a Sanghav�, son of Chandasimha in V.S. 1378 (1321-22 A.D.) when he had come on a pilgrimage to Mount Abu with the Jaina congregation.

There was a famine in Gujarat in V.S. 1376-77. So Bh�ma gave away large sums of money in charity. This Bh�ma was probably Bh�mashah who erected Bh�masi�hapras�da at Mount Abu.

In V.S. 1394 (1337-1338 A.D.), Mantr� Bh��aka, son of Mantr� Jagasi�ha and grandson of Mantr� Abhayasimha, set up an image of Ambik�dev� in Vimalavasah� of Mount-Abu.490


The first half of the 15th century is known as the Somasundarayuga in Jaina history because Somasundaras�ri was a very prominent monk of this period. During his time, the Jainas of Gujarat glorified Jainism by building new temples, repairing old ones, setting up new images of T�rth�nkaras, opening libraries, helping the poor and the needy and by performing many other pious and religions deeds.

In Prahal�danapura (modern P�lanapura), there was a Bani� named Sajjana who had rendered glorious and meritorious services to Jainism by his pious and meritorious deeds. In Va�anagara, there were three wealthy Jaina brothers named Devar�ja, Hemar�ja and Ghatasi�ha. Devar�ja held a festival with the consent of his brothers. In Idar, there was a rich man named Vatchhar�ja who belonged toUke�akula. He won name and fame in the state by the his excellent character. Govinda, son of Vatchhar�ja, repaired the Kum�rap�la’s temple on the T�ra�ga hill. A great festival was held on this occasion.

When Somasundaras�ri came to Kar��vat�, Gu�ar�ja, a favourite of king Ahmad Shah, gave him a warm reception and held a festival. Ch�co made a pilgrimage to the holy places of Jaina and built a Jaina temple. Ahmad Sh�h was well disposed to Gu�ar�ja; so he honoured him on this occasion by giving him presents. Somasundara had accompanied Gu�ar�ja in his pilgrimage of 1420-21 A.D.

Some of the religious deeds of Somesundaras�ri are known. He performed the installation ceremony of temples and images at Devakulap��aka in 1428 A.D., R��akapura in 1439-40 A.D., Chitrakula and Giran�ra. Copies of Jaina ï¿½gamas were made with the advice and consent of S�ri.

Somasundara S�ri promoted literary activities. He had several pupils, Gu�aratnas�ri, Munisundrara S�ri, Jayachandra S�ri, Bhuvanasundaras�ri, Jinak�rtisuri, Ratna�ekharas�ri and Jinaman�anaga�i. Merutu�gas�ri had disciples namely M��ikya-Sundara and M��akya�ekhara S�ri. Besides the monks, some Jaina Sravakas also served literature. Of these Ma��anamantr� is very well known; he was a very learned man and patronized learning and the learned.

Besides monks, Jaina nuns rendered useful service. A famous nun of this period was Dharmalakshm� Mahattar�. Jainas also contributed to architecture in this period. Pittalahara or Bh�ma�� has temple on mountain �bu was built by Bh�ma��ha.491


In 1450 A.D., Mah�r��� Kumbhakar�a repealed the pilgrim tax which was collected from the Jaina pilgrims on Mountain �b�. In 1451 A.D., king M���alika of Junagarh proclaimed am�r�. Lo�k� Sh�h believed in Jaina scriptures but was against idol worship. In 1453 A.D., S�har�ja built a temple of Vimalan�tha on Giran�ra. He made pilgrimage to �atru�jaya and Gira�ara.

Lakshm�s�gara was a prominent Jaina monk of this period. Several pious and religions deeds were performed in his time. Ga�ar�ja Mantr� of Ahmedabad built a Jaina temple in Sojitra and the Pratish�h� was carried out by Somadevas�ri.

Dhanyar�ja and Nagar�ja of Devagiri came to Gujarat, pleased king Mahm�d, made a pilgrimage to the �atru�jaya hill Ga�ar�ja Mantr� set up an image of �din�tha in the Bh�mavih�ra or Pitalahara on Mountain �b�.

I�vara and Pa��a Son� built a temple of Ajitan�tha in Idar and its Pratish�h� was performed by Lakshm�s�gara in 1476-77 A.D. Ujjala and K�ga went on pilgrimage to J�r�pall�.

Saubh�gyaharshas�ri glorified Jainism in Gujarat. About this time, three monks of the A�chlagachchha rendered meritorious services to V�ra��sana-Bhavas�garas�ri, Siddh�nta-�agara �uri and Gu�anidh�nas�ri. Among the well known temples of this period, we may mention Kharataravasah� on mountain Abu and Karma��h�s temple on �atru�jaya hill. In 1445-46 A.D., Parvata �r�m�l� of A�ahilav��a copied many books at the suggestion of Jayachandrasuri of Tapagachchha. Several Jaina monks492 of this period493 are known.


Vijayanagara had a series of capable and enlightened rulers who made it a powerful and wealthy state in the South. Among them were Harihara II. Revar�ya I, Devar�ya II and K�ish�adevar�ya. K�ishnadevar�ya was a competent ruler and a general. He often led his army in person. In 1512 A.D., he took Raichur fort without much difficulty. He defeated the king of Orissa. Under K�ish�adeva R�ya, the kingdom of Vijayanagar emerged as the strongest military power in the South. He maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese. He took active interest in the affairs of the state. During his reign, the city of Vijayanagar was at the height of its glory and prosperity.

Vijay Nagara kingdom was established in 1346 A.D. Though kings of this kingdom were Champions of Brahmanical religion, they followed the policy of religious toleration. During the reign of king Harihara R�ya, the Ta�at�la P�r�van�tha boundary dispute arose between the Jainas and �r� Vaish�avas (Bhaktas). The royal judgement494 by king Bukka R�ya in 1368 A.D. shows that he was not committed to any religious creed, but by his equity, he had saved religion from persecution. By royal decree, Bukka R�ya appointed twenty guards for the God at �rava�a Belagola, and thereby the Jaina religion was saved and its prestige was guaranteed in the Vijayanagara kingdom. This settlement proves beyond doubt that the assurance given to them by king Bukka R�ya in 1368 A.D. had come to stay. All questions especially those of the privileges and beliefs of communities should be settled in the presence, and with the approval of the leaders of both the parties, and the sanction of the state obtained at the end.

The kings and queens, and members of the royal family gave unstinted patronage to the cause of Jainism.495 Bh�ma Dev�, the queen of Deva Raya-I, was a Jaina herself. Her spiritual guru was Pa��it�ch�rya, and in about 1410 A.D., he caused an image of ��ntin�thasv�m� to be made in the Mang�y basadi at �rava�abelagola. Queen Bh�madev� may have been responsible for the generous attitude of king Deva R�ya I towards Jainism. The next monarch Devar�ya II (1419-1446 A.D.) continued the tradition of early Vijayanagara rulers of bestowing patronage on the Jaina institutions. In 1424 A.D., he made over the village of Vara�ga in Tuluva to the basadi of Vara�ga Nemin�tha of the same place. K�ish�a Deva R�ya made no distinction between the different faiths in his empire. His large-hearted benevolence was primarily responsible for the gifts he made to Jaina temples.

General Irugappa was a trusted general, a clever engineer and a successful minister of king Harihara Raya II. He built a basadi in the capital. An inscription in this city tells that Bukkavve, the queen of Harihara R�ya II, gave a gift to the basadi built by general ‘Irugappa in 1937 A.D. Irugappa continued to serve also in the reign of Deva R�ya II. An inscription dated 1526 A.D., records the construction of P�r�van�tha basadi in the capital by Reva R�ya II. Thus the Emperors of Vijayanagara Kingdom were the protectors of Sakalavr���rama Dharma.

Much of the splendour of Jainism is seen in the capitals of provincial viceroys rather than in the great city of Vijayanagara itself. There were two classes of feudatories who actively supported Jainism.496 One class consisted of the great feudatories like the Kong�lvas, the Chang�lvas, the S�luvas of Sang�tapura, the kings of Gerasoppe and the Bhairrasa obeyars of K�rkala. Other lesser feudatores of the type are the lords of B�gu�jisime, Nuggehalli and others. In addition to these, mention must be made of the marked exertions of feudal ladies for the cause of Jainadharma.

As patronized by monarchs and their provincial Governors, Jainism became popular among people even in cities, towns and villages of the Vijayanagara empire. �rava�abelagola, Kopana, Mu�abidre, K�rkala, Belur etc. became the centres of Jainism. The influx of the northern Jaina merchants into the Vijayanagara empire during the 14th century and earlier is noticed.

There are some inscriptions throwing light on the promotion of Jainism by private efforts during the reign of the monarchs of the Vijayanagara kingdom. An inscription dated 1355 A.D. records the erection of Jina image during the time of king Harihara497. The two inscriptions of the time of king Bukka are dated 1357 and 1376 A.D.498 In the first inscription, there is mention of the Sen�pati Baichaya. The second is cenotaph inscription. The commander-in chief Isaga of the king Harihara II constructed Jaina temple.499 The commander in-chief Nema��a500 of king M�dhava of Goa who was subordinate to this king, gave some donation to the P�r�van�th temple in 1935 A.D. In the same inscription dated 1935 A.D., there is reference to the construction of a Jaina temple by the Minister Imma�ibukka, son of Da��an�yakaBaichaya.501 There are two inscriptions of the time of Bukka II.502 One records the consruction of ��ntin�tha temple and in other, there is mention of Sam�dhimara�a. There are two inscriptions of the reign of king Devar�ya.503 The first dated 1412 A.D. describes the agreement of the boundaries between the two temples. The second of 1424 A.D. mentions the donation of the village Var��ga to Nemin�tha temple by the king. One inscription504 describes the donations during the time of king Malik�rjuna in 1450 A.D. to a temple. One inscription dated 1509 A.D. of the time of K�ish�adeva Mah�r�ya mentions the temples free from taxes.505 The inscription506 dated 1515 A.D. mentions how the land of the temple of Var��ga was prepared for agriculture. King Achyutadeva assigned the income of some taxes for worship to the image507 R�mar�jya gave some land in charity to a Jaina temple in 1545 A.D. during the reign of Sad��iva508. A Jaina scholar gave some charity in 1619 A.D. in the reign of king R�madeva. Arasappo�eya, subordinate ruler of Sad��ivar�ya gave some donation to Pandita Ch�ruk�rti.509


The Jaina Acharyas impressed the Mughal Emperors by their teachings. They were of high character because they wanted nothing and also possessed nothing. As a result, the Mughal Emperors became gradually liberal in their views. They prohibited the slaughter of animals on certain days. They abolished Jizy� tax and pilgrimage tax. They gradually stopped the destruction of temples and images, and new temples were built. Several copies of the manuscripts were written. The Jaina merchants gave monetary help to the Mughal emperors and Subed�rs in the time of need. These rulers employed the Jainas in administration on responsible posts. Jainism prospered greatly during the reign of the Mughals.

BABUR (1526-1530 A.D.)

Babur’s advent into India was significant from many points of view. Kabul and Qandhar became integral parts of an empire comprising North India. By dominating them, Babar and his successors were able to give to India security from external invasions and economically strengthened India’s foreign trade. The conquest of Babar against Ibrahim Lodi in the battle of Panipat in 1526 A.D. broke the back of Lodi power and brought under Babar’s control the entire area up to Delhi and Agra. In the battle of Kanwah (1527 A.D.), Babur got victory against R��� Sanga. Babur ruled in India for five years to 1530 A.D.

That Babur continued the prevailing religious policy of the Muslim rulers is clear from the fact that he destroyed the Jaina idols at Urva near Gwalior.510 Even then, the Jainas tried to preserve their religion by writing literary works. From the Pra�asti of the Brihat Siddha Chakra P�j�,511 it is known that the poet V�ru wrote it in R�hetasapura in V.S. 1584 during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Babur. The poet Mahindu wrote the ��ntin�tha Charita512 at the inspiration of Agraw�la �adhh�ra�a in Yogin�pura in V.S. 1587 during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Babur. A temple of P�r�van�tha of Rohitaka was in existence during the time of Emperor Babur in V.S. 1584 and 1586. The temple was under the supervision of the Digambara monks of the K�sh�h� Sa�gha.513

Humayun succeeded Babur in 1530 A.D. at Agra. His empire included Kabul and Gandhar. He also occupied Lahore and Multan. He distributed the territories of his empire among his brothers. He had to fight against Shershah of Gujarat, and Sherkhan of Bengal and Bihar. The battle of Kanauj was decided in favour of Sher Shah against the Mughals. Ultimately, Humayun took shelter at the court of Iranian king, and receptured Qandhar and Kabul with his help in 1545 A.D. In 1555 A.D., following the break up of the Sur empire, he was able to recover Delhi. He did not live long to enjoy the fruits of the victory. He died from a fall from the first floor of the library building in his fort at Delhi.


There is no doubt that Shersh�h was a remarkable figure, and he ruled over the empire which extended from Bengal to the Indus. In the West, he conquered Malwa and almost the entire Rajasthan. He established a sound system of administration in his brief reign of five years. Sher Shah was succeeded by his second son, Islam Shah, who ruled till 1553 A.D. Most of his energies were occupied with the rebellions raised by his brothers and with tribal feuds among the Afghans. These and the ever-present fear of a renewed Mughal invasion prevented Islam Shah from attempting to expand his empire. This provided Humayun the opportunity he had been seeking for recovering his empire in India. In two hotly contested battles in 1555 A.D., he defeated the Afghans and recovered Delhi and Agra.

While invading Rajasthan in 1543 A.D., Sher Shah conquered Ranthambhor. From a Pra�asti of the Holire�uk� Charitra514 written in 1551 A.D., it is known that the great physician Rekha was welcomed by Sher Shah for his vast knowledge in the science of medicines. Shershah gave Ranthambhor to his son Salim Shah in J�g�ra. In his time, Kadirkh�n was administrator of this place. The rulers of the Sur dynasty, though followers, of Islam, were tolerant in religious matters. During their reign, the copies of the Jinadatta Charitra515 and the Holire�uk� Charitra516 were written respectively in 1549 and 1551 A.D. by the ï¿½r�vakas for presentation to Lalitak�rti who visited this place.


Akbar’s first phase of contest was with nobility, and he was crowned in 1556 A.D. at the age of thirteen. During Bairam Khan’s regency, the territories of the Mughal empire had been expanded. Apart from Ajmer, the most importent conquests during the period had been of Malwa and Garh Kata�ga.

Following the conquest of Gujarat, Akbar found time to look at the administrative problems of the empire. He introduced reforms in the system of land revenue administration. The organization of local government remained the same. He reorganised the central machinery of administration on the basis of the division of power between various departments, and of checks and balances. He maintained cordial relations with the Rajputs by matrimonial alliances. He put down rebellions, and there was further expansion of the Mughal empire.

Akbar followed the policy of religious integration and introduced D�n-Il�h�. In 1575 A.D., Akbar built a hall called Ibadat Khana at his new capital Fathepur Sikri. To Ib�dat Kh�na, he invited the people of all religions – Christians, Zoroastrians, Hindus, Jainas and even atheists.

Akbar’s relations with Jaina teachers lasted for at least twenty years from 1578 to 1597 A.D. inclusive. He seems to have been converted to Jainism to some extent by the influence of the teachings of these Jaina teachers. Being impressed with Jainism, he issued several firmans for the propagation of Jainism. Literary works were written by Jaina scholars in praise of Jainism. Jaina temples were built in his time, and copies of the Jaina manuscripts were written for presentation.

Abul Fazal, friend and minister of Akbar, has mentioned the names of Jaina scholars in the Ain-i-Akbari. Among them, the most important is Hiravijayas�ri. In 1582 A.D., when Akbar heard of the lofty virtues and deep learning, he ordered the Viceroy of Gujarat to request him to visit his court. He reached Fatehpur Sikri where he was accorded royal reception. After much discussion upon the problems of religion and philosophy first with Abul Fazal, the Muslim luminary of the age, and then with Akbar, he paid a visit to Agra. He persuaded the Emperor to issue various commands in accordance with Jaina doctrine. At the close of the rainy season, he returned to Fatehapur Sikri. Fishing in the great lake called D�bar, at Fatehpur Sikri was prohibited. The title of ‘Jagad Guru or world teacher, was conferred on the S�ri, who quitted the capital in 1584 A.D. From the inscription517 by Hemavijaya dated 1593 A.D. in the porch of the eastern entrance of the �din�tha temple of �atrunjaya hill, it appears that H�ravijaya persuaded the Emperor in 1592 A.D. to issue an edict forbidding the slaughter of animals for six months, to abolish the confisaction of the property of the deceased persons, the Surjijiya tax and ï¿½ukla, to set free many captives, snared birds and animals, and to present �atru�jaya to the Jainas. Similar inscription518 dated 1587 A.D. is found at Bairat, ruled by Indrar�ja, an official of Akbar.

H�ravijaya left ��ntichandra Up�dhy�ya behind him at court. Late in 1587 A.D., when �antichandra desired to return to Gujarat, the Emperor gave his f�rm�ns abolishing the Jizy� tax on non-Muslims, and prohibiting the slaughter of animals to a large extent. The forbidden days were extended so as to comprise half the year.

Bh�nuchandra continued to reside at court. His pupil Siddhichandra composed a commentary on the latter half of the K�dambar� of B��a. He had the reputation of being able to do 108 things at a time, and so secured from Akbar title of ‘Khush-faham’ or intelligent. From he colophon to the commentary on the K�dambar� by Siddhachandra, we learn that his teacher, Bh�nuchandra had taught Akbar 1,000 names of the Sun, and had obtained from the emperor in 1593 f�rmans abolishing the tax on pilgrims to the holy hill of �atru�jaya at P�lit�n�, and directing that all the sacred places should be made over to H�ravijayas�ri. Vijayasena S�ri was, then, invited to the court, which continued to reside ordinarily at Lahore until 1596 A.D. He vanquished 363 learned Br�hma�as in formal debates to Akbar’s satisfaction and so earned the title of Sawai.519

While Akbar was holding the court at Lahore, he heard the fame of Jinachand S�ri and wanted to hear him. He summoned Mantr� �vara Karmachandra Bachchh�vata and requested him to invite the sage to his court. When Jinachandra S�ri reached Lahore in 1591 A.D., he was courteously received by the Emperor. On the advice of Karmachandra, Akbar gave the title of ‘Yugapradh�na’ or chief of the Age to Jinachandra. At the persuaion of �uriji, Akbar gave protection for a year to all animals of the sea adjoining Khambat the place of pilgrimage. Hearing of the destruction of the Jaina temples at Dwarka, Jinachandra prevailed upon Akbar to issue an imperial firm�n for the protection of the Jaina holy places such as �atru�jaya, P�lit�n� and Giran�ra. The necessary order was sent to �zamkh�n, the Subed�r of Ahmedabad. The places of pilgrimage were put in charge of Karmachandra.

Some Jaina idols are said to have been broken in Gujarat, though Akbar later on sent a firm�n to the governor asking him to protect the Jaina temples from further injury. A cartload of idols was removed from the temples by Mughal officer and was yielded up to a Jaina on payment of money some time after 1578 A.D. Such seem to have been the case and continued to be the popular prejudices against the Hindus.520

Besides inscriptions, firm�ns etc., Akbar’s contemporary Jaina scholars521 praised Akbar, and his reign. P���e R�jamalla (1575 A.D.) has written in the L���sa�hit� “Emperor Akbar has obtained the merit by stopping the Jaziy�. He never spoke the violent words. He lived far  away from the animal violence. He stopped gambling and drinking because they destory his senses, and he goes to the wrong path. P���e Jinad�sa in the Jamb�sv�m� Charitra (1585 A.D.) praised his wise policy and good reign. The poet Parimala in the ï¿½r�p�la Charitra (1594 A.D.) praised the Emperor, “He made attempts for the protection of cows. He described the beauty of Agra. He lived in the company of Jaina scholars, and organised scholarly seminars. Vidy� Harsha S�ri mentions it in the A�jan�sundar�r�sa (1604 A.D.). He stopped the slaughter of animals such as cows, buffaloes and goats. He set free captives from prisons. He respected Jaina saints. He promoted the charitable and meritorious works. The great poet Ban�ras�d�sa writes in the ï¿½tmacharita, “When he heared the news of the death of Emperor Akbar at Jaunpur, he became unconscious. The shock prevailed in the whole public”. The Portuguese Jesuit named Pinherio522 has written, “Akbar became a follower of Jainism. He followed Jaina doctrines. He remained involved in ï¿½tmachintana (thinking) and ï¿½tma-bodha (knowing). He issued directives for the stoppage of drinking, meat and gambling. V. SMITH523 and other scholars are of the view that Akbar had regards for Jainism and Jaina teachers.

�aha To�ara, who was the mint master of Akbar in Agra, renovated the old T�ratha of Mathura. He built 514 new St�pas in place of the broken old St�pas and established twelve dikp�las. He performed their installation ceremony in 1573 A.D. with the Chaturvidha Samgha. He constructed the beautiful Jaina temple at Agra in 1594 A.D. He got the Jambusv�m� Chariu written from R�jamalla P���ey in Sanskrit, and from Jinad�sa in Hindi.524

S�ha N�nu was the Prime-Minister of M�nasi�ha, Kachchhavaha ruler of Amber who was deputed as the Governor of Bangade�a by Akbar. It seems that S�ha N�nu had to visit Bengal several times in connection with his duties towards his Master. He got the Ya�odhara Charitra525 written in V.S. 1659 at Akachchhapura (Adbara Pura), near Champ�nagar� in Ba�gade�a from Bha���raka Jin�nak�rti in the �din�tha temple. He built twenty Jaina temples of the T�rtha�karas at Sammeda �ikhara and led pilgrimage to this holy place several times.

JAHANGIR (1605-1627 A.D.) AND SHÏ¿½H JAHÏ¿½N (1628-1658 A.D.)

The first half of the 17th century in India was, on the whole, an era of progress and prosperity. During this period, the Mughal empire was ruled by two capable rulers, Jahangir (1605-1627 A.D.) and Shahjahan (1628-1658 A.D.). In southern India too, the States of Bijapur and Golconda were able to provide conditions of internal peace and cultural growth. These Mughal rulers consolidated the administrative system which had developed under Akbar. They maintained the alliance with the R�jp�ts and tried to further broaden the political base of the empire by allying with powerful sections such as the Afghans and the Marathas. They embellished their capitals with beautiful buildings. The Mughals played a positive role in stabilizing India’s relations with neighbouring Asian power such as Iran, the Uzbeks and the Ottomon Turks, thereby opening up greater avenues for India’s foreign trade.

No doubt, the Jaina teachers M�nasi�ha and B�lachanda enjoyed royal hospitality under Akbar. But as M�nasi�ha made prophesied that Jah�ngir’s reign would not extend behind two years, Jah�ng�r became angry with M�nasi�ha and issued orders for the expulsion of the Jainas from the imperial territories. It was due to the political motives, and it was soon withdrawn by Jahangir.526

Generally, Jahangir followed the religious policy of his father. He prohibited the most eating and the slaughter of animals in his dominions on certain days. He awarded the title of Yugapradh�na to Yati M�nasi�ha. He took interest in the philosophical discussions with the Jaina teachers. Several new Jaina temples were constructed during his reign. There was freedom to celebrate religious functions, people led pilgrimage to holy places. R�j� Bh�ramala, H�rananda, Muk�ma etc. were favourites of the Jaina Emperor. Ban�ras�d�sa was the tutor of the Nav�b Chinakal�chakhan of Jaunpur in Hindi and Sanskrit. H�rananda was the great jeweller, and with the royal permission, he led Sa�gha to Sammeda �ikhara. He also invited Jah�ngir and his courtiers to his residence. He also performed the installation ceremony in Agra through Labdhivardhana �uri. Sabalasimha Mothiya was another millioniaire in the reign of Jahangir. The other businessmen of Agra were S�ha Band�d�sa T�r�chanda S�hu etc. Anilustrated, Vij�aptipatra was sent to Vijayasena in 1610 A.D. on behalf of the Jaina Sa�gha of Agra. In 1618, Jaina ï¿½r�vakas like Ban�rs�d�sa led pilgrimage to Ahichchhatr� and Hastin�pura.

Ba�aras�d�sa was Mus�hiba of Shahjahan and used to play chess with him. During this period, Ban�ras�d�sa himself, Bhagavat�d�sa, P���e Hemar�ja, P���e R�pachand, P���e Harik�ish�a, Bha���raka Jagatabh�sha�a, Kavi S�liv�hana, Yati L��as�gara, P�ith�p�la, V�rad�sa, Kavi Sagh�sa, Manoharal�la, Kha�agasena, R�yachandra, Jagaj�vana etc. enriched Jaina literature. There is depiction of the life of the Jainas, trade and administration in the Ardhakath�naka (1641 A.D.) of Ban�ras�d�sa. It is important from the historical point of view. This work informs about the pilgrimage of the people to the holy places of Ayodhy�, V�r��as�, Mathura, Hastin�pura and Ahichchhatr�. Among the Jainas, Agrav�las, Osv�las and �r�m�l�s were living in Agra. Agra, Firozabad, Jaunapura, Khairabad, Shahjahanpur, Allahabad, Meerut, Etawa, Kola (Aligarh), Saharanpur, Varanasi etc. were good centres of Jainism.527

AURANGZEB (1658-1707 A.D.)

Aurangzab reversed Akbar’s policy of religious tolerance and thus undermined the loyalty of the Hindus to the empire. This, in turn, led to the popular uprisings which sapped the vitality of the empire. His suspicious nature added to his problems. He got the throne after imprisoning his father and extended his empire by his conquests.

Aurangzeb was a fanatic and an intolerant. There was no freedom to the Jainas in his reign as before. Even then Up�dhy�ya Ya�ovijaya, �nandagha�a, Devabrahmach�r�, Bhaiya Bhagavat�d�sa, Jagatar�ya, �iroma�id�sa, J�var�ja, Lakshm�chandra, Bha���raka, Vi�vabh�sha�a, Kavi Vinod�l�la etc. earned name as literary figures during this time. Vinod�l�la, a native of Allahabad wrote the �s�p�lacharitra in 1690 A.D.

T�r�chandra, Diwan of Alaphakhan of Fatehapura got the translated of the Sanskrit work Ja��n�r�ava in Brajabh�sh� in 1671 A.D. Sonap�la and Ku�varap�la the wise business men, hailed form Agra, to settle in Patna. They built the Jaina temple at Mirzapur. The ancestor of H�ravanda ��ha of the family of Jagat Se�ha was also a native of Agra but settled at Patna in 1661 A.D.528

  1. JAINISM DURING (1707-1857 A.D.)

After the death of Aurangzeb, the decline of the Mughal empire began suddenly. There were dreadful invasions of N�dirsh�h Durrani and Ahmad Shah Abdali. The Marathas and the Sikhs started looting. The S�bedars of the provinces became independent, from the Mughals. It is known as the dark period in Indian history. In 1722 A.D., S�datkh�n was appointed Subed�r of Oudh. His treasurer Ke�ar� Si�ha on Agraw�la Jaina accompanied the Subedar from Delhi to Luknow. In 1724 A.D. he got repaired the five Jaina temples at Ayodhya and tried for the development of this T�rtha. Bachchhar�ja N�ha�� the main Jeweller of Nawab Asafudaul� (1775-1797 A.D.) awarded him the title of ‘R�j�’. At this time, Jinaakshayas�ri established his seat in Yatichhatta of Lucknow and also built the temple of P�r�van�tha. R�j� Bachchhar�ja N�hat� and ï¿½r�vakas of Lucknow invited the Bha���raka Jinachandra S�ri by sending him the illustrated Vij�naptipatra. The royal treasurers R�j� Harasukhar�ya and his son king Suganachandra of Delhi renovated the Hastin�pura T�rtha in 1800 A.D. and built the vast Digambara Jaina temple. They constructed Jaina temples at other places. S�hu H�r�l�la of Allahabad constructed the Jaina temple at Prabh�sa hill, hear Kau��mb� in 1824 A.D. Se�haMa�ir�ma built the Jamb�sv�m� temple on Chaur�s� T�l� at Mathura. Bha���raka Vi�vabh�sha�a, Pandita Jinad�sa. Pandita Hemar�ja (Etawa), Bul�k�d�sa (Agra) Dy�natar�ya (Agra) etc. lived during this period.529

Even during the reign of the Muslims, Jainism continued to develop. Temples were constructed, and numerous images were installed in them. Copies of the manuscripts were made. The Jaina �r�vakas led Sa�ghas to holy places. Some of the Muslim rulers were highly impressed by the teachings of Jaina monks, and held them in high esteem. The Jaina ï¿½r�vakas were sincere and faithful citizens of the Muslim Kingdoms. Some of them became great financiers of the Muslim rulers and also acted as ministers. They even fought in battle-fields as generals. There are several instances that the Muslims rulers gave protection to the Jaina temples instead of destroying them. They gave facilities to the Jainas to practise their religion.


Jainism was in existence in the different parts of Rajasthan in early times. Even the formation of the states, it continued to flourish under the patronage of their rulers. Temples were constructed and images were placed in them with great ceremony. The Jaina monks enjoyed the greatest respect and regard of both the kings and the masses of these states. Such was the dominance of Jainism that some rulers and most of the people began to observe the doctrine of Ahi�s�.

JAINISM UNDER MEWAR RULER : Jainisn enjoyed the patronage of several Mewar rulers. Such was the powerful hold of Jainism that some of the rulers, though not Jainas, constructed Jaina temples and installed images in them. They gave them charities of different kinds. They invited the �ch�ryas and offered them royal reception. Influenced by their discourses they issued an ordinance for the observance of the doctrine of Ahi�s�. The Jaina ministers also constructed several beautiful Jaina temples.

R��� Bhart�ibha��a was ruling in 943 A.D.530 He founded the town of Bhart�ipura after his name. He built the Guhilavih�ra and placed the image of �din�tha in it through B�d�ga�i of Chaitrapur�ya Gachchha.531 The minister of his son king Alla�a constructed a Jaina temple at �gh��a in which the image of P�r�van�tha was installed by Ya�odeavs�ri of the the Sa��eraka Gachchha in the 10th century. Jinaprabodhas�ri was a contemporary of Mah�r�vala Kshetrasi�ha of Chittore.532When Jinaprabodha suri came to Chittore, Br�hma�as, ascetics, the chief among the R�japutras, Kshetrasi�ha and Kar�ar�ja all combined to receive the �ch�rya there in about 1277 A.D.533

Samarasi�ha, the ruler of Mewar and his mother, Jayatall�dev� were greatly influenced by the discourses of Devendras�ri and became his devotees. Probably, it was due to his advice that Jayatall�dev�, queen of lord Tejasi�ha of Medap��a and Chitrak��a constructed the temple of P�r�van�tha as we know from the Chittoragarh inscription of 1278 A.D.534 It also states that Mah�r�vala Samarasi�ha Deva, the adornment of Guhilaputra family, granted land to the west of the temple for a monastery to Pradyumnas�ri with some endowments. Another inscription of the time of the Guhila king Samarasi�ha records the grant of land to a Jaina temple belonging to the Bhart�ipur�ya Gachchha for the spiritual welfare of his mother, Jayatall�dev�, who received religios instructions from S�dhv� Sumal�.535 Besides, being encouraged and advised by S�r�j�, Samarasi�ha had also issued an ordinance prohibiting the slaughter of animals in his kingdom. This ordinance also refers to the fact that the people would abstain from taking wine and would strictly follow the rules of justice and religion. Tej�ka, son of R���, accompanied by his wife, Ratnadev� and his son, Vijayasi�ha set up a Jaina image for the welfare of Jayatall�dev� as we know from the inscription of 1306 A.D. on the image in the temple of Prat�pagarh.536

Gu�ar�ja, the cashier of King Maukala, built the temple of Mah�v�ra by his master’s orders in 1428 A.D.537 At N�gd�, there is a temple of P�r�van�tha which was constucted by a certain trader of the Porav�la caste in 1429 A.D. according to the inscription.538

After R��� Maukala, his son Kumbhakara�a became the ruler who was a great supporter of Jainism. Not only many images and temples were built and installed in his reign but he himself also built the most remarkable Jaina temple at S�da��.539 The Jaina K�rtistambha at Chittore was built by Punnasi�ha, the son of J�j� of the Bagherav�la caste, at the persuasion of his daughter in the 15th century.540 That Mah�r��� Kumbha permitted the construction of a Jaina K�rtistambha inside the fort is a concrete and umistakable evidence of his respectful attitude towards Jainism. The famous Chaumukha temples of Ra�apura and Kamalaga�dha were constructed in his reign. The inscription of 1434 A.D. engraved on a loose stone lying in a Jaina monastery at Del�v��� in the Udaipur State records that during his victorious reign, 14 tanak�s were allotted for the worship of Dharma-chint�ma�i temple.541 In Adbhudaj� temple at N�gd�, a colossal image of S�ntin�tha was set up in 1437 A.D. by a merchant named S�ra�ga in his reign.542 The inscription of 1448 A.D. on a pillar in the Jaina temple now known as Sing�rachaur� at Chittore records the erection of a temple of Jaina T�rtha�kara S�ntin�tha by Bha���r� Vel�ka, son of S�ha Kelh�, the treasury officer of R��� Kumbakara�a.543 An inscription engraved on the image lying in the Jaina temple at Vasantagadh states that the image lying in the Jaina temple at Vasantagadh states that the image was set up in the Vasanatapura Chaitya by Bh�d�ka, son of Dhans�, and was consecrated by Muni Sundaras�ri in 1453 A.D.544 An inscription of 1461 A.D. engraved on the pedestal of a big brass image of �din�tha at Achalagarh on Mt. �b� records that while Mah�r�j�dhir�ja Kumbhakara�a was ruling at Kumbhalameru, the image was made at Dungarapur during the reign of R�vala Somad�sa and brought to �b� by the Sa�gha of Tap�gachchha.545

Jainism continued to flourish in the reign of R��� R�yamala who was the son of R��� Kumbha. An inscription from Udaipur of 1499 A.D. speaks of the erection of temples dedicated to Mah�v�ra, Ambik� and so forth in the victorious reign of R��� R�yamala.546 From the image inscription of �din�tha at N�dl��, it is known that the ceremony of the installation of the image was caused to be made by S�h� and Samad� whose grand-father S�yara had previously rebuilt the subsidiary cells through the orders of P�ithv�r�ja, the eldest son of R�yamala, the ruler of Mewar.547

Mah�r��� Prat�pa, the greatest hero among the Rajputs, wrote a letter to H�ravijaya suri requesting him to visit Mewar for propounding the Dharma. This letter written in the old Mew�r� in 1578 A.D. is a very important document in the history of Jaina religion.548This shows that though incessantly engaged in warfare for the defence of his homeland against the imperial aggressions of Akbar, Prat�pa, the indomitable hero, did not ignore the nourishment of his own soul, as also of those of his people. The fact that the invitation was extended to the greatest Jaina saint of the period indicates the catholicity of his views and his love of Jainism. A long inscription, in M�raw�r� language, of 1602 A.D. records a grant made apparently by Amarasi�ha who was the son of Mah�r��� Prat�pa.549

Jainism enjoyed special royal patronage in the reign of Mah�r��� Jagatasi�ha. The image at N�dol550 and N�dl��551 have been installed by Jayamala and the whole Sa�gha respectively in 1629 A.D. Hearing the virtues of �ch�rya Mah�r�ja Devas�ri, Mah�r��� Jagatasi�ha invited him to spend his ch�turm�sa (four months of rainy season) at Udaipur through his Prime Minister, Jh�l� Kaly��asi�ha. Devas�ri acceded to the request and came to Udaipur where he was welcomed with military honours as known to us from the Digvijayamab�k�vya.552 Impressed by his preaching, the king became his firm devotee. He had prohibited the collection of customs revenue from the large congregation of the people held every year at Varak�n�. He also issued an ordinance for the stoppage of the catching of fish or any other living creature from the Pichol� and Udayas�gara lakes of Udaipur, destruction of animals during the month of birth of Mah�r��� and during the Bh�drapada month every year and destruction of animal life on the coronation day of the Mah�r���. He also ordered the repair of Jaina temples built by Kumbh� R��� on Machinda-durga. Besides this, he worshipped the image of �shabhdeva in the temple of Udaipur.553

The Jaina religion continued to enjoy the royal support even afterwards. The Chief Minister Day�la��ha of Mah�r��� R�jasi�ha built the beautiful Jaina temple at R�janagara and performed the consecration ceremony in 1675 A.D. through Vijayas�gara during his victorious reign.554

JAINISM IN THE STATES OF DUNGARAPUR, BANSWÏ¿½RÏ¿½ AND PRATÏ¿½PAGARH : These three states comprised the V�ga�a region. Jainism enjoyed patronage and prospered under the rulers of these states. In their service, there were several Jaina ministers. They constructed a number of temples and celebrated the consecration ceremony of the images with pomp and show which attracted large crowds. Some manuscripts were also prepared under their patronage. So popular was Jainism for some time there that even oilmen and people of similar castes observed the doctrine of ahi�s� out of respect for the Jaina population.

The existence of Jainism in this region as early as the 10th century is known to us from an inscription of 994 A.D. engraved on the Jaina image ‘Jayati �r� V�ga�a Sa�gha�’. The capital at that time was Va�apadra known at present as Baroda. The faith continued to thrive in this region which is indicated by the various evidences discovered there. On the rock of an ancient temple of P�r�van�tha at this place, there are engraved figures of twenty-four T�rtha�karas. The inscription of 1307 A.D. on it tells us that it was installed by Jinachandras�ri of the Kharatara Gachchha.555 The image of Ke�ariy�j� at Dhuleva in Mewar was carried from this place.556

The ancient name of Dungarpur was Girivara. It was founded in about 1358 A.D. We know from the Prav�sag�tik�traya of Jay�nanda written in 1370 A.D. that in his days, there were five Jaina temples and about nine hundred Jaina families living there.557 In 1404 A.D. Prahal�da, the minister of R�vala Prat�pasi�ha, constructed a Jaina temple.558 After that, Jainism continued to prosper during the reign of Gajap�la. We have copies of the four manuscripts written in his reign, namely, the Pa�chaprasth�na-vishamapada-vy�khy� 1423 A.D., Dvy��rayamah�k�vya Sa��ka 1428 A.D., Dvit�yakha��agranth�-gratriaya-Sakalagranth�1429 A.D. and Kath�ko�a of 1430 A.D.559 From the inscription of 1469 A.D. on the wall of the Jaina temple of �ntr�, it is clear that his chief minister S�bh� built the temple of ��ntin�tha and established an alms-house at �ntr� in 1438 A.D. In that temple, he set up brass images of ��ntin�tha.560 After Gajap�la, his son Somad�sa became the ruler. An inscription of 1461 A.D. engraved on the pedestal of big brass image of �din�tha at Achalagarh on Mt. �b� records that it was made at Dungarpur during the reign of R�vala Somad�sa and brought to �b� by the Sa�gha of Tap� Gachchha; and S�bh� with wife Karan�de and their sons, S�lh� and M�lh� set up the image. The consecration ceremony was performed by Lakshm�s�garas�ri of Tap�gachchha.561

After S�bh�, his son S�lh� became the chief minister of king Somad�sa. He gave liberal charities and in 1464 A.D. fed two thousand people everyday evidently at the time of famine.562 He repaired the temple of P�r�van�tha at Giripura. He erected a Ma��apa and Devakulik�s in the temple built by S�bh� at �ntr�. He also set up there an image of Marudevi seated on an elephant. The consecration ceremony of this newly built protion was performed by Somavijayas�ri in 1468 A.D. He started to construct a big Jaina temple at his native place Th�n� at a distance of five miles from D�ngarpur but it was not completed.563 From the Pra�astis of manuscripts, it is known that Siddha-Hema-b�ihadv�itti VIII, �r� Sukum�la-sv�mia baritram and K�vyakalpalat�kavisikshav�itti were written during the reign of R�vala Somad�sa.564 There is also the monument of the Jaina saint of his time.565 The consecration ceremony of the Jaina images was performed in 1462 A.D., and 1473 A.D. during his reign.566

The son of R�vala Somad�sa was Gangad�sa who was succeeded by Udayasi�ha. There is an inscription of 1514 A.D. engraved on the wall of Jaina temple of ��ntin�tha at Naug�m� (Banswara state) which states that it was built by the sons and grandsons of Dos� Champ� of the Humba�a caste during the reign of king Udayasi�ha.567 That Jainism continued to thrive even in later times in the Dungarpur and Banswara states is evidenced by the images of the later period discovered here.568

Even in the Prat�pagarh State, the Jaina religion was in a flourshing condition. There are several inscriptions of the 14th or 15th century found on the images in the Jaina temples of Deoli, Jh�nsadi and Prat�pagarh.569 The inscription on the back of a brass image in the Jaina temple at Deoli of 1316 A.D. records Th�kura Khe��ka, resident of the town Dhandhale�varav�rak� and of ��m�la caste had the image of P�r�van�tha set up for the spiritual welfare of his father Th�kura Ph�mph� and mother H�nsuladev�570. Even afterwards, Jainism continued to make phenomenal progress. An inscription, engraved on a slab built in the wall of a Jaina temple at Deol�, of 1715 A.D. records that the oilmen of the town agreed to stop working their mills for 44 days in a year at the request of S�raiy� and J�var�ja of the Mah�jana community in the reign of Mah�r�vala P�ithv�si�ha.571 Another inscription in the temple of Mallin�tha at Deol� of 1717 A.D. records that when Mah�r�j�dhir�ja Mah�r�vala P�ith�si�ha was ruling at Devagarh and Pah��asi�ha was his heir-apparent, the temple of Mallin�tha was built by Singhav� Vardham�na, son of Singhav� �r�varsha and his wife Rukmi.572 In the reign of Mah�r�vala S�mantasi�ha, the temple of �din�tha was built by Dhanar�pa, Manarapa and Abhayachandra in 1781 A.D.573 A grand ceremony of the consecration of the images was also performed at Prat�pagarh in 1867 A.D.574

JAINISM IN THE KOTAH STATE : Jainism was prevalent in very early times in the region now included in the Kotah State. Padmanandi composed the Jamb�d�vapa��atti at B�r�. From this work, we know that B�r� was full of the �r�vakas and Jaina temples. This city was in Pariy�tra governed by a king named �akti or ��nti who possessed noble character and true knowledge.575This B�r� may be identified with B�r�n in Kotah state. It was a centre of Jainism in the past as some old Jaina temples are still found here. It also remained the seat of the Bha���rakas of the M�lasa�gha at this time.576 This ruler may be identified with Saktikum�ra of Mewar who ruled in 977 A.D. at �gh��a.577 The kingdom of his grandfather Bhart�ipa��a II seems to have extended on the south-east up the border of Prat�pagarha.578 His son and successor Alla�a was also a powerful ruler. Afterwards, �aktikum�ra obtained the glory and consolidated his kingdom.579 His kingdom might have included some portion of Kotah state.

At Sheragarh, three colossal Jaina images were set up by a Rajaput Sarad�ra in the eleventh century A.D. At present, these images are housed in a dilapidated building. From the inscription on the images, it is known that the city at that time was known as Koshavardhana.580

There are the Jaina caves of the 8th or 9th century A.D. situated at a distance of three miles from Ramagarh. This place is fifty-three miles north-east of Kotah. In early times, it was known as �r�nagara. The hill is covered with a thick forest infested by tigers and lions and other wild life. Several Jaina monks like the Jaina monks of Ellor� passed their time in isolation from busy towns and were devoted to a life of meditation and contemplation. Near the caves, there are several statues of Jaina T�rthankaras.

At Atru, a railway station on the Kotah-Bina railway and situated now in Kotah district, there are the ruins of several beautiful Hindu temples and also those of two exquisite Jaina temples. The inscriptions discovered in the Hindu temples show that they were constructed in the 12th and 13th centuries of the Christian era when the Param�ras of Dh�r� were ruling over this area. It will not be unsafe to conclude that the Jaina temples are contemporary of the Hindu edifices; and under the liberal policy of the Param�ras of Dh�r�, they existed side by side with the Hindu temples for the worship of Jaina community which was quite large at Atru at this time.

Twelve miles from Atru to the east is situated the ruined town of K�ish�avil�sa popularly known as Vil�sa on the bank of a small river known as P�rvat�. There are found a number of dilapidated Jaina and Hindu temples which seem to have been of the 8th to the 11th century A.D.

About 25 miles further east from Vil�sa, there is an old town of �ah�b�da. Five miles from this town is a mound near the tank. At both these places, there are the ruins of both Jaina and Hindu temples which indicate that the followers of Brahmanical religion and Jainism lived in peace and amity in this region.

In 1689 A.D. at Ch�ndakhe��, near Kah�napura, during the reign of Aurangzeb when his S�manta Kishorasi�ha Chauh�na was ruling at Kotah, K�ishnad�sa, a very rich merchant of the Bagherav�la caste, constructed a Jaina temple of Mah�v�ra and celebrated the installation ceremony of the temple as well as images with his wives and sons.581 At this time, Aurangzeb was in the south where Kishorasi�ha was serving him faithfully. Even then repeated explanations were demanded as to why the temple was being built against the express imperial policy. But the local authorities continued to send evasive replies because they knew that the emperor’s end was nigh.

JAINISM IN SIROHI STATE : In Sirohi State too, Jainism made marked progress. Its rulers patronized it beyond any shadow of a doubt. Temples were built and images were placed in them. Some of the rulers invited the religious �ch�ryas and followed their instructions both in letter and spirit.

This area was a centre of the Jaina religion. The K�landar� inscription of 1332 A.D. records a fast unto death by the members of a whole Sa�gha.582 They all gave up their worldly existence by abstaining from food. The names of those who thus immortalized themselves are given. This record bears an eloquent testimony to the deep and passionate faith of the people in the doctrines of Jainism in the 14th century A.D.

Jainism continued to grow and expand under the rulers of Sirohi. The inscription of 1408 A.D. in the temple of Mah�v�ra at Pindw��� records the installation of Vardham�na during the reign of prince Sohaja.583 The fact that R�yamalla constructed the monastery of �ishabha in the reign of R�isi�ha in 1542 A.D. is known to us from the inscription engraved on a slab in the temple of �ishabha about three miles from �b� Road station.584 In 1546 A.D. during the reign of Durjanas�la, two shrines for the merit of Lachhalade585 and Tejap�la586 respectively and in 1565 A.D. in the reign of Udayasi�ha, two shrines for the merit of B�i Gora�gade587 and Laksham�588 were constructed in the temple of Mah�v�ra at Pindw���.

While going to Fatehapur Sikri on the invitation of Akbar, H�ra-vijayas�ri stayed at Sirohi where he was welcomeed by king Surt�nasi�ha. The king took a vow to refrain from drinking, hunting, flesh-eating and irregular sexual life. He also abolished some taxes on the advice of the S�r�.589 An inscription on the temple of Sirohi tells us that the temple of Chaturmukha was built in the city of Sirohi during the reign of Mah�r�ja R�jasi�ha, son of Surat�nasi�ha in 1577 A.D.590

In the reign of Akhair�ja, Dharmad�sa erected the p�duk� of Si�havijaya with the chaturvidha Sa�gha in 1662 A.D. at V�rav���.591 It is the ancient name of Br�mha�av���. In 1664 A.D., Udayabh�na592 and Jagam�la593 celebrated the consecration ceremony of the images �din�tha and ��talan�tha respectively in his reign. At the same time, the whole Sa�gha performed the installation ceremony of the image of the Kunthun�tha at the place, Pe�uv�.594

In the year 1714 A.D, P��ha established the P�duk� of the S�ri in the reign of M�nasi�ha.595 During the same reign in 1730 A.D., Bha���raka Chakre�varas�ri with other saints celebrated the installation ceremony for the good of others at Ma��ra.596 In 1819 A.D., king �ivasi�ha gave the amount of taxes imposed on animals and land in the village B�ma�av��a as J�g�ra to the Jaina temple.597

JAINISM UNDER THE RULERS OF JAILSALMER : Jainism flourished very well under the Bha��i Rajaputs in the medieval period in Jaisalmer. Owing to its location in the heart of the desert, this place remained safe and secure from the Muslim invasions. Several beautiful temples were built and numerous images were placed in them with great celebration. Even the kings also took much interest in the religious affairs by participating in various ceremonies. The p�duk�s of several Jaina �ch�ryas were installed. The ï¿½r�vakas led the Sa�ghas to the places of pilgrimage. The ��stra-bha���ras were founded for the preservation of the manuscripts here.

The former capital of Jaisalmer was Lodorva. In about 994 A.D., there was a king named S�gara in whose time Jine�varas�ri, pupil of Vardham�nas�ri of Kharatara Gacchha, came to this place. By his good wishes, two sons namely �r�dhara and R�jadhara were born, who constructed the temple of P�r�van�tha here.598 This temple was renovated in 1618 A.D. by Se�ha Th�har���ha.599

Jainism had a stronghold at Vikramapura (now called B�kamapura) in Jaisalmer state from the early times. Specially, Kharataragachchha remained dominant here. �ch�ryas of this Gachchha visited this place from time to time and performed various religious functions. In about 1111 A.D., Jinavallabhas�ri visited Vikramapura.600 Jinapatis�ri was born in 1153 A.D. at this place. He was initiated to monkhood in 1160 A.D. and was placed on pa��a in 1166 A.D. here. He initiated several persons to monkhood here from time to time. In 1175 A.D., he performed the installation ceremony of the st�pa of bh����g�rika Gu�achandra-ga�i.601 The �r�vakas of this place participated in the Sa�gha led by Abhayakum�ra to the holy places with Jinapatis�ri from A�ahilapa��a�a in about 1185 A.D.602

Jaisalmer was made the capital after the destruction of Lodorva. In 1283 A.D., Jinaprabhodhas�ri visited Jaisalmer. He was warmly received by Mah�r�ja Kar�a with his army. At his request, S�rij� spent his rainy season.603 Here also, during the reign of King Lakshma�asi�ha, the temple of Chint�ma�i P�r�van�tha was constructed on the preaching of the �ch�rya Jinar�jas�ri in 1416 A.D.604 The image of P�r�van�tha brought from Lodorva was placed in this temple. After the construction, the building was named Lakshma�avil�sa. It indicates the love of the subjects towards the king under whom their religion must have flourished.

The successor of Lakshma�a was Vayarasi�ha. In 1436 A.D., P�sa�a with the members of his family set up an idol of Sup�r�vanatha in the temple of Chaint�m��i during his reign.605 S�ha Hemar�ja and Pun� constructed the temple of Sambhavan�tha in 1437 A.D. during his reign.606 The festivities in connection with the consecration ceremony took place in 1440 A.D. when Jinabhadra put three hundred idols of Sambhavan�tha and of others. Even King Vayarasi�ha took part in the festivities. In his reign, S�ha Lol� with the members of the family set up the image of P�r�van�tha in the standing pose in 1440 A.D.607

Ch�chigadeva was the son of Vayarasi�ha. He became the king in about 1448 A.D. In his reign, Saj�ka.608 Sachohar�ja609 and Sajj�610 celebrated the consecration ceremony of Nand��varapa��ik�, ï¿½atru�jaya Giran�r�vat�ra Pa��ik� and Nand��varapa��ik� respectively through Jinachandras�ri in 1461 A.D.

Jainism made striking progress also during the reign of Devakar�a. Khe�� of S�nkhav�lech� gotra and Pa�ch� of Chopa�� gotra constructed the two temples namely of S�ntin�tha and Ash��pada respectively in 1479 A.D. during his reign.611There was some sort of matrimonial alliance between these two rich persons. Sanghav� Khe�� with his family made pilgrimage to Satru�jaya, Giran�ra and other Tirthas many times. He also performed the consecration ceremony of the famous Tapapa��ik� of the temple of Sambhavan�tha. Even in 1479 A.D., Dhanapati of P�ttana celebrated the pratish�h� of ��ntin�tha bimba during his reign and established it in the P�r�van�tha temple.612 In the same temple, in 1479 A.D., Hem�613 and Bh�mas�614 madeJinavarendra Pa��ik� in his time. The image of Marudevi was also erected at this time in the temple of �ishabha.615

The Jaina religion continued to progress in the time of the later rulers of Jaisalmer. During the reign of Bh�mesena in 1593 A.D., the P�duk� of Jinaku�alas�ri was erected by Sa�ghav� P�sadatta.616 The consecration ceremony of the pillar of P�r�van�tha temple was also performed in 1606 A.D.617 In 1615 A.D. during the victorious reign of Kaly��ad�sa, Jinasi�has�ri built the p�duk� of Jinachandras�ri.618 Even in 1616 A.D., Mantri To�aramala constructed the door of Up�sara.619 In 1621 A.D., Jinasi�has�ri came to Jaisalmer and celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Chint�ma�i P�r�van�tha brought from Lodorva and placed it in the temple named Lakshmanavih�ra.620 In the reign of Buddhasi�ha, Gang�r�ma with his family installed the images at the preaching of Tattvasundara-ga�i in 1712 A.D.621 In the reign of Akhaisi�ha in 1749 A.D. and in 1755 A.D., the P�jyap�duk� of Jinaudais�ri were erected by his disciples.622

M�lar�ja also patronized Jainism. In 1768 A.D., the st�pa of Jinayuktas�ri was constructed.623 The Sa�gha established the st�pa of Jinaku�alas�ri in 1783 A.D. through the discourses of Jinachandras�ri.624 In 1786 A.D, the thamba p�duk� was erected and its consercration ceremony was celebrated by Pt. R�pachandra.625 The pillar was erected over the remains of Pa��ita �r� Vardham�na in 1784 A.D.626 The whole Sa�gha constructed the temple of Rishabhadeva and its installation ceremony was celebrated by             Pt. R�pachanda in 1804 A.D.627 In 1818 A.D., the pillar was raised on the remains of Jinachandras�ri.628

M�lar�ja was succeeded by Gajasi�ha. During this reign, the initiation ceremony of Jinaudais�ri �ch�rya was performed by sa�gha in 1819 A.D.629 Fascinated by the discourses of Jinamahendras�ri, Gum�nachanda, Sav�ir�ma and Magan�r�ma with their wives, sons and daughters went out on pilgrimage to Ab�, �ikharaj� etc. in 1834 A.D.; and there they organized feasts, worship, chairty and rathay�tr� function.630 Encouraged by Jagavi��la Muni, the desolated p�duk� of Jinaharshas�ri was repaired by the Osv�las who consecrated it through Mah�r�vala Gajasi�ha.631 In 1840 A.D., Sa�ghav� Gum�namala with the members of the family, for personal merit, repaired the old Jaina temple near Amaras�gara and installed in it the image of Adin�tha.632 The p�duk� of Jitara�gag�i, pupil of Jinachandra, was placed by Jinamahendas�ri in 1844 A.D.633

Ra�aj�ta S��ha was the successor of M�lar�ja in whose reign, Jainism made further progress. Inspired by the discourses of Jitara�gaga�i, the Sa�gha constructed the temple of �din�tha in 1846 A.D. and its installation ceremony was performed by Muni D��gars�.634 Amaras�gara, the Sthu�gha P�duk� was put up by Jinamuktis�ri in 1860 A.D. and it was consecrated through S�hiba Chandra.635

JAINISM IN JODHPUR AND BIKANER STATES : Jainism flourished in Jodhpur and Bikaner states under the patronage of the R��ho�a rulers. During their reign, temples were constructed and images were installed in them. These R��ho�a rulers had deep reverence for Jaina saints, and they often used to pay visits to them. The official reception was accorded to them on the occasion of their visit to their capitals.

The Jaina religion was quite popular at Nagara, three miles from Jalsola which was ruled by the descendants of Mallin�tha, ruler of Khe�a, the old capital of Jodhpur state. The R��ho�a rulers of this place were liberal in their outlook; and therefore, Jainism flourished exceedingly in their reign. Jaina temples were built and repaired. In 1459 A.D., Govinda R�ja gave donations to the temple of Mah�v�ra on the advice of Modar�ja-ga�i during the reign of Ra�u�a.636 The inscription of 1511 A.D., in the temple of �ishabha of the reign of R�ula Kushaka�a records the erection of ra�gama��apa of Vimalan�tha temple by the Sa�gha of V�ramapura.637 The nalima��apa of S�ntin�tha was completed in 1577 A.D., when R�ula Meghavijaya was the king.638 The inscription of 1580 A.D. records the repairs of the temple when R�ula Meghavijaya was reigning and Parama Bha���raka �r� H�ravijayas�ri was the Pontiff who visited the court of Akbar.639 In the reign of R�ula Teja Si�ha, the Sa�gha repaired the temple of ��ntin�tha.640The inscription in the temple of �ishabhadeva records some reconstruction in 1610 A.D. when R�ula Teja Si�ha was reigning and Bha���raka Vijayadevas�ri was the pontiff.641 The Jaina community of this place constructed a chatushkik� in the temple of Mah�v�ra in 1621 A.D. through the favour of N�ko�� P�r�van�tha in the time of R�ula Jagamala.642 In 1624 A.D. a nirgama-chatushkik� together with three windows was constructed in the temple of P�r�van�tha by the Jaina community when R�ula Jagamala was ruling.643

The R��ho�a rulers of Jodhpur State followed the policy of religious toleration, so Jainism prospered under their rule. In 1612 A.D., during the reign of S�rya Si�ha, Vastup�la with his wife and son celebrated the installation ceremony of the image of P�r�van�tha644 at K�pa�� in 1621 A.D. when Gaja Si�ha was ruling.645 This inscription is important in so far as it points out to the fact that K�pa��, the portion of Sirohi state at that time, was under the possession of the R�tho�a ruler of Jodhpur. Most probably, it came under their sway when Surt�na Si�ha was reduced to submission by S�rya Si�ha. It is clear from the inscriptions that new images were set up in the temples of �din�tha, Mah�v�ra and P�r�van�tha by Jayamalla in 1626 A.D. during the reign of Gaja Si�ha at J�lor.646 The images were also installed at Mert�647 and P�l�648 in 1629 A.D. during hls reign. The inscription on the image of Mert� says that B�i P�rn�mny� with his sons installed the image of Sumatin�tha. From the inscription on the image of P�r�van�tha at P�l�, we learn that, when Gaja Si�ha was reigning and Amara Si�ha was the heir apparent, this place was held by Chauh�na named Jaganan�tha, son of Jasavanta. The image was caused to be made by two brothers namely Dunigara and Bhakara, residents of P�li itself and belonging to the �r�m�la caste. It seems that the Chauh�na ruler Jaganan�tha of P�li acknowledged suzerainty of the R��ho�a rulers of Jodhpur and patronized Jainism or at least allowed it to flourish in his state.

In 1737 A.D., in the reign of Mah�r�ja Abhai Si�ha, when Bakhata Si�ha and Bair� S�la were ruling over M�ro�ha, a great ceremony of the inauguration of the temple of S�ha and the images was held.649 This function was performed by R�ma Si�ha who was the d�v�na. This inscription is of great historical significance as it indicates that M�ro�ha then was not an independent unit but came under the possession of the R��ho�as of Jodhpur. In the reign of R�ma Si�ha, son of Abhai Si�ha, Giradhara D�sa constructed the temple at Bil��� in 1746 A.D.650 In 1767 A.D., a rathay�tr� function was held with great rejoicings during the reign of his feudatory ruler named Hukama Si�ha, a Meraty� R�jap�ta when Bha���raka Vijayak�rti visited M�ro�ha.651

B�k�j� with his followers left Jodhpur and founded Bikaner in about 1488 A.D. He and his successors showed respect towards Jainism and its ascetics. Mah�r�j� R�ya Si�ha, who was contemporary to Akbar, became a disciple of Jinachandra S�ri. At the request of his minister Karama Chandra, he brought 1050 Jaina images of Sirohi from Akbar in 1582 A.D. which were looted by Tur�sanakh�n and thus saved them from destruction.652 This is evidently an exaggerated account. Tur�sankh�n had probably nothing to do with Akbar. He might have been a local fanatic chief who indulged in iconoclasm. Karama Chandra celebrated the Yugaprdh�napadotsava of Jina-chandra S�ri at Lahore in which Mah�r�j� R�ya Si�ha with Ku�vara Dalapata Si�ha participated and presented many religious manuscripts to Suriji.653 Mah�r�ja R�ya Si�ha had good relations with Jinasi�ha S�ri who was the Pa��adhara of Jinachandra S�ri. In his reign, Hamm�ra with the members of his family established the image of Nemin�tha in 1605 A.D.

Kar�a Si�ha became the ruler in 1631 A.D. Jainism continued to grow during his reign. He granted land for the construction of the Jaina Up�sara. The relations of Mah�r�j� An�pa Si�ha with Jinachandra S�ri and the Jaina poet Dharmavardhana were intimate and cordial. The poet Dharmavardhana S�ri composed a panegyric in R�jasth�ni language on the coronation ceremony of king An�pa Si�ha who was a renowned patron of art and literature. Between Jinachandra and the several rulers of Bikaner such as Mah�r�j� An�pa Si�ha, Jor�vara Si�ha, Sajana Si�ha and Gaja Si�ha, there was a considerable correspondence. Mah�r�ja S�rata Si�ha became the ruler in about 1765 A.D. He was devoted to Jaina saints. He used to regard J��nas�gara as the Avat�ra of N�r�ya�a. He granted land for the construction of a number of Jaina Up�saras. He had very great respect for D�d�s�hiba and gave the land of 150 b�gh�s to meet the expenses of the worship of D�d�ji.654 He was succeeded by Mah�r�j� Ratana Si�ha in 1828 A.D. He continued to show respect towards Jaina teachers and Jainism.

JAINISM IN JAIPUR STATE : The Jaina religion also prospered under the Kachchh�v� rulers of Jaipur who extended patronage to it. About fifty Jainas acted as d�v�nas in the State, and under their patronage various copies of the Jaina scriptures were prepared; a large number of temples were constructed; and the consecration of the images was celebrated. At the same time, Jainism flourished in the different parts of the Jaipur State in the J�g�radr�r�s of several powerful th�kuras.

Jaipur State remained the stronghold of the Jaina religion in the medieval period. In 1538 A.D., during the reign of Karama Chanda, a copy ofBhavishyadattacharitra was written.655 Copies of the P���avapur��a656 and Hariva��apur��a657 were written in the temple of Nemin�tha in 1559 A.D. during Bh�ramala’s rule. After Bh�ramala, Bhagav�na D�sa became the ruler. In his time, the copy of the Vardham�nacharitra was written at M�lapur�.658

Jainism continued to develop in the reign of M�na Si�ha. In his reign, the copy of the Hariva��apur��a was written in the temple of �din�tha at M�lapur� in 1588 A.D.659 In his time, Th�na Si�ha of Kha��elav�la caste led the Sa�gha to P�v�pur� in Bihar where he performed the installation ceremony of the Sho�a�ak�ra�a Yantra in 1591 A.D.660 The inscription of 1605 A.D. on the large pillar states that during the reign of emperor Akbar and his feudatory M�na Si�ha, the pillar was erected by Bha���raka Chandrak�rti residing at Champ�vat�661 known as Ch�tsu. The two copies of the Hariva��apur��awere written in 1604 A.D. and 1605 A.D. respectively at R�jamahala662 and Sa�gr�mapura663 (modern S�ng�ner) in his reign. The inscription of 1607 A.D. ponints out that the consecration ceremony of the images on a large scale was celebrated at Maujam�bad by Jet� with his sons and grnadsons when M�na Si�ha was ruling.664

Jainism also continued to develop even in the reign of Mirz� R�j� Jaya Si�ha. There is an inscription of 1654 A.D. engraved on a slab in the Digambara Jaina temple of God� at S�ng�nera of the time of the emperor Sh�hjah�n and R�j� Jaya Si�ha.665The inscription in the Jaina temple at Amber says that the Chief Minister, Mohana D�sa, of Jaya Si�ha of Kha��elv�la caste built the temple of Vimalan�tha at Amb�vat� (Amber) and adorned it with golden kala�a. It further mentions that in 1659 A.D., when Mah�r�j�dhir�ja Mah�r�j� Jaya Si�ha was ruling at Amb�vati as a great feudatory of emperor Sh�hjah�n, some additions were made to the temple by the Chief Minister of Mah�r�ja Jaya Si�ha.666

Saw�i Jaya Si�ha, the celebrated scholarly ruler of Jaipur, was served by three Jaina d�v�nas namely R�ma Chandra Chh�bar�, R�v� K�ip� R�ma and Vijaya R�ma Chh�br�. These statesmen tried their best for the propagation of the Jaina religion. R�ma Chandra constructed the Jaina temple at Sh�hab�da midway between Jaipur and R�maga�ha. He and his son Ki�ana Si�ha participated in the function of the Pa��a ceremony of the Bha���raka Devendrak�rti. It is described in the Jakar� of Bha���raka Devendrak�rti, composed by Nemichanda.667 R�va K�ip� R�ma also took a keen interest in religious affairs. He built a Jaina temple at Ch�tsu. The big Jaina temple in the Chaity�laya for worship in his house. Besides, he participated in the function of the pa��a ceremony of the Bha���raka Mahendrak�rti and sprinkled water over his head. This is written in theJakar� of Mahendrak�rti composed by Pt. Akhai R�ma.668 Vijaya R�ma got the Samyaktvakaumud� written and presented to Pt. Govardhana in 1740 A.D.669 The copy of the Karmak���asa��ka was also written in his reign.670

Even during the troubled reign of Saw�i M�dho Si�ha, the Jaina religion continued to thrive. He was also served loyally like his father by several Jaina statesmen. B�la Chandra Chh�bar� became the Chief Minister of Saw�i M�dho Si�ha in 1761 A.D. Before him, an intolernat Br�hma�a, named Sy�ma R�ma had destroyed many Jaina temples. B�la Chandra gave a new life to Jainism. He renovated the old Jaina temples and constructed several new ones. In 1764 A.D., Indradhvaja P�j� Mahotsava was celebrated at Jaipur by the efforts of B�la Chandra who had a great influence in the State. The State provided all help and facilities for this function.671 D�v�naRatana Chanda ��ha built a Jaina temple and participated in Indradhavaja P�j� Mahotsava. Nanda L�la constructed the Jaina temples at Jaipur and Saw�im�dhopura. He also celebrated the installation ceremony of the images on a large scale as adv�sed by Bha���raka Surendrak�rti in the reign of P�ithv� Si�ha in 1769 A.D. at Saw�im�dhopura.672 D�v�na Ke�ar� Si�ha K�saliv�la built the beautiful Jaina temple of Siramoriy� at Jaipur. Kanhaiy� R�ma built the Jaina temple known as ‘Vaiddyonk� Chaity�laya’ at Jaipur in the time of M�dho Si�ha.

R�ja Chandra Chh�bar�, son of B�la Chandra, served Jagata Si�ha as his Chief Minister. He was a man of religious inclinations. He led the Sa�gha to many holy places. He was, therefore, given the title of Sa�ghapati. He performed the Yantra Pratishth�at Junagada as advised by Bha���raka Surendrak�rti in 1801 A.D.673 On the instruction of the same Bha���raka, in 1804 A.D., he performed the consecration ceremony of the images on a large scale at Jaipur.674 Bakhata R�ma also remained the D�v�na of Jagata Si�ha. He took much interest in matters of religion. He built the Jaina temple in Cho��r�st� at Jaipur which is known as the temple of Yati Ya�od� Nandaj�. He constructed the Jaina temple at Durg�pur� known as the temple of Ro�apur�. This name was given after the name of his friend. A Jaina temple was constructed by him at Anatapur� near Ch�ts� which was given to him as a J�g�ra for his salary.

Jainism flourished in different parts of the Jaipur State, which were ruled by small feudatory rulers. In 1694 A.D., during the reign of Vijaya Si�ha, Jes� Jobanera with his sons set up the images.675 He seems to be the feudatory chief of Jobanera. The inscription of 1653 A.D. points out that during the reign of Sh�hjah�n, when Arjuna Gau�a was ruling over M�lapur�, Sa�gh� N���, Bh�kh�, Sambhu and L�la Chanda performed the installation ceremony of the big Da�alaksha�a Yantra.676 This inscription is historically important as it points out that M�lapur�, once under the rule of the Kachchh�v� rulers of Jaipur, came under the control of Arjuna Gau�a, the ruler of M�ro�ha.

Jainism was also prevalent at Rev�s�. An inscription of 1604 A.D. records that during the reign of emperor P�tisha Akbar and his subordinate Chief Mah�r�j�dhir�ja R�yas�la of Kachchh�v�ha family, the temple of �din�tha was constructed by S�ha Jitamala and his brother Nathamala, the two sons of Dev�d�sa, the Chief Minister of R�yas�la. Dev�d�sa belonged to a Kha��elav�la family. The inscription further states that the temple was built under the advice of Ya�ak�rti belonging to M�lasa�gha.677

Bairat in the time of Akbar was ruled by his official Indrar�ja. The inscription of 1587 A.D. engraved on the wall of the temple of P�r�van�tha states that Indrar�ja, a �r�m�la ba�iy�, erected this temple of Vimalan�tha.678 which was named bothMahodaya Pras�da and Indra Vih�ra.

The Jaina religion was also in existence in the kingdom of Todaraisingh which was ruled by the Sola�k� rulers. The old name of Todaraisingh was Takshakaga�ha. In 1536 A.D., Sa�ghav� K�lu celebrated the consecration ceremony of the images at ��v� near U�iy�r�, during the reign of the Sola�k� ruler S�ryasena.679 The two copies of the Ya�odharacharitra were written separately in 1553 A.D.680 and 1555 A.D.681 when R�va R�machandra was ruling over Todaraisingh. In 1607 A.D., N�nu got the copy of the ï¿½din�tha-pur��a written in the temple of �din�tha of this place when Mah�r�j� Jagann�tha was ruling.682V�dir�ja, the minister of the king R�ja Si�ha of this town, wrote the V�gha��la�k�r�vach�ri Kavichandrik� in 1672 A.D.683

Ch�tsu was a centre of Jainism in early times. Copies of manuscripts such as the Samyaktvakaumud�684 in 1525 A.D., R�jav�rtika685 in 1525 A.D., Chandraprabhacharitra686 in 1526 A.D., Sha�p�hua687 in 1537 A.D., and Up�sak�dhyayana688 in 1556 A.D. were written here. The pra�astis of these manuscripts are important from historical point of view. It is known from the pra�asti of the Chandraprabhacharitra that Chatsu was under the possession of R��� Sa�gr�ma Si�ha and his feudatory R�va R�ma Chandra of Todaraisingh was ruling there. After that, it came under the control of the R��ho�a ruler V�ramade, the ruler of Mert�, as is known to us from the pra�asti of the Sha�p�hu�a. Finally, king Bh�ramala of Amber began to rule there as seen from the manuscript of Up�sak�dhyayana written in his reign.

An inscription689 of 1726 A.D. states that during the reign of Ch�ha�a Si�ha, H�idaya R�ma performed the installation ceremony of the images at B�nsakhoha, a place near Jaipur. Ch�ha�a Si�ha seems to be a petty ruler of this place.

JAINISM IN ALWAR STATE : Some inscriptions of the 11th or 12th century A.D. on the pedestal of the Jaina images and some Jaina monuments have been discovered at the places such as Ajabga�ha690, Naug�m�691 and R�jaga�ha.692 They indicate that Jainism existed in this region in early medieval period when it was ruled over by the G�rjara Prat�h�ras. Even afterwards, during the reign of Kh�nz�d�s, Jainism remained associated with this region in the 15th or 16th century A.D. These Kh�nz�d�s were originally Hindus who were converted to Islam during the reign of Firoz Tughluq in the 14th century A.D. By nature, they were tolerant and showed great regard towards Jainism.

Alwar became the place of pilgrimage in the medieval times and it was visited by several pilgrims. In the T�rtham�l�s693 written in the medieval period, it has been described as a holy place of R�va�a P�r�van�tha. It means that R�va�a worshipped the image of P�r�van�tha at this place. It, therefore, began to be called R�va�a P�r�van�tha T�rtha. It is all legendary but it indicates the importance of Alwar as a centre of religion. It appears that the town P�r�nagar nar Alwar derived its name from the Jaina T�rtha�kara P�r�van�tha. As extensive Jaina ruins abound in P�r�nagara, it may be possible that this place was associated with the Jaina T�rtha�kara P�r�van�tha in early times.

As Alwar remained the holy place of Jainas in medieval times, Jaina scholars and saints resided at this place and carried on their literary activities.694 Some works such as Maunaek�das�stavana in 1567 A.D. by S�dhuk�rt�Vidagdhamukhama��a��anaup�� by L�lachandra in 1625 A.D. Mah�p�la-chup�� in 1821 A.D. by Vinayachandra have been composed in Alwar. Some copies of the manuscripts such as the Ha�sad�ta, Laghu-Sa�ghatray� in 1543 A.D. and Laghu-kshetrasam�sav�itti in 1642 A.D. by �ivachandra, Devakum�rachav�itti in 1546 A.D. have been prepared in Alwar. Even at Tij�r�695 and Bah�durapura,696 several copies of the manuscripts were written during the reign of the Kh�nz�d�s in the 15th and 16th centuries.

Temples were constructed and images were installed in them during the reign of the Kh�nz�d�s in the 15th and 16th centuries. A Jaina inscription of 1516 A.D. records the construction of an Adin�thachaitya at Bahudravyapura by �r�m�la Sa�gha and the installation of an image therein was made by �ch�rya Pu�yaratna S�ri.697 In 1531 A.D. a �r�vaka of Upake�a caste belonging to Alwar installed the image of Sumatin�tha through Siddha S�ri.698 Bha���raka Bh�sha�a of the K�sh�h� Sa�gha performed the installation ceremony of an image at this place in 1619 A.D.699 An inscription of 1628 A.D. engraved on a slab of stone built into the wall of a Jaina temple, now used as a house by a Th�kura at Alwar, records the construction of a temple of R�va�a P�r�van�tha and consecration of his image by H�r�nand suri of Osav�la caste originally of Delhi and then at Agra.700


1)        EI, XX, PP.71 FF, SIRSAR, D.C.:, Select Inscriptions, pp. 213-221

1)2)                                  AV, pp. 691-692

1)3)                                  Ibid  p. 693

1)4)                                  Ibid

1)5)                                  Ibid pp. 693-695

1)6)                                  Shah, J. Chimanlal: Jainism in North India, p 130

1)7)                                  V.A> Smith; Oxford History of India, p 75

1)8)                                  Bharatiya Prachin Lipimala pp. 2-3

1)9)                                  JBROS, XVI, pp. 67-68

1)10)                            Ibid, XXXVII, p. 38

1)11)                            McCrindle: Ancient India, p. 68; F.N.1

1)12)                            Ibid. p. 72

1)13)                            Ibid. p. 73

1)14)                            McCrindle: Ancient India, p. 169

1)15)                            Ibid. p. 183

1)16)                            Ancient India as described by Megasthenese and Arrian, p. 136

1)17)                            B. K. Tiwari; History of Jainism in Bihar, p. 83

1)18)                            E. I. , XXI, p. 85, IHQ, 1934, p. 57

1)19)                            EI, XXII, p. 2; IHQ, X,pp. 45 ff.

1)20)                            RICE, Lewice, Mysore and Coorg from the Inscriptions; NARASIMHACHARYA: Inscription of Sravana Belagola

1)21)                            Mysore and Coorg from the Inscriptions Sravana Belagola

1)22)                            Inscriptions of Sravana Belagola

1)23)                            Jainism or the Early Faith of Asoka, p. 23

1)24)                            IA, XXI, p. 23

1)25)                            IA, p. 156; EI, IV, pp. 22-34, 239; JRASB, 1909, p.23

1)26)                            Cambridge History of India, I, p. 165

1)27)                            JBORS, III, p. 452

1)28)                            V.A. Smith: Oxford History Of India, pp. 75-76

Early History of India, p. 154

29)  SBE XXII Int. p. XIII.

There are also other references in the Jaina Literature which goes to show that Chadragupta was or had become a Jaina.

JACOBI: Parisishthaparvan, pp, 61-62

30)  Bhagwan Parsvanatha Ki Parampara Ka Itihasa, p. 273

30)31)                      Arhant Vachana, Vol. V, pp. 25, 49-58

30)32)                      T. L. Shah: Ancient India, II, pp. 293-294

30)33)                      B. K. Tiwari: History of Jainism in Bihar, pp. 105-107

30)34)                      Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, II, pp. 779-780

30)35)                      NJL, I , No. 856

30)36)                      Bhagwan Parsvanatha Ki Parampara Ka Itihasa, p. 273

30)37)                      Arhant Vachana, Vol. V, pp. 35, 49-58

30)38)                      IHQ, XXV, pp. ff.

30)39)                      IA, XI, p. 246

30)40)                      Jain Tirth Sarva Sangraha, p. 322

30)41)                      IA, XI, p. 247

30)42)                      Idib,

30)43)                      Jaina Tirth Sarva Sangraha, II, p. 318

30)44)                      Chapter XXIX, p. 134

30)45)                      EI, II, pp. 240-244, Luder�s List no. 904-905

30)46)                      EI, XX, pp. 71-78

30)47)                      The Age of Imperial Unity, pp. 215-216

30)48)                      An Early History of Orissa

30)49)                      Luder�s List No. 1346

30)50)                      The Age of Imperial Unity, pp. 213-214

30)51)                      A. C. Mittal; An Early History of India, p.322

30)52)                      Passage of the Hathigumpha Inscription may also suggest that Kharavela killed a king named Goradhagiri and plundered his capital Rajagriha

30)53)                      A. C. Mittal: An Early History of India, p.322

30)54)                      EI, II, pp. 240-244

30)55)                      An Early History of Orissa

30)56)                      Luder�s List No. 1346

30)57)                      R. Subrahmanyam: Guntupalli Brahmi Inscription of Kharvela, 1958

30)58)                      BL. S. Hanumantha Rao: The Religion in Andhra, pp. 142-143

30)59)                      Luder�s List No. 1347

30)60)                      Ibid no. 1348-1353

30)61)                      Ibid no. 1348

30)62)                      Ibid no. 1349 and 1350

30)63)                      Luder�s List No. 1351

30)64)                      Ibid no. 1352 and 1353

30)65)                      Inid No. 1344

30)66)                      Jain Journal Mahaveer Jayanti Special, p.170

30)67)                      Ibid

30)68)                      Prabandha Chintamani of Merutunga. The Murunda king is said to have been residing in Pataliputra

30)69)                      U. P. Shah and M. A. Dhaky; Ed. Aspects of Jaina Art and Architecture, p. 215

30)70)                      JSLS, I, No. 54  p. 102

30)71)                      Para 156

30)72)                      Ibid 26

30)73)                      89.2 ff

30)74)                       89.2 ff

30)75)                      p. 248

30)76)                      Ch. 89

30)77)                      EI, II, p. 195

30)78)                      IB XIV (i); Luder�s List No. 93

30)79)                      Ibid, I, p. 396, no.33, Luder�s List No. 94

30)80)                      EI II p. 199, No. 2

30)81)                      Ibid, XXIV, p, 104

30)82)                      CHJ, P.50

30)83)                      EI, II, p. 200. No. 5, Luder�s List No. 100

30)84)                      Ibid, P. 207, No. 30, Ibid no. 105

30)85)                      Ibid, p. 199, Ibid No. 99

30)86)                      EI, I, p. 390, No. 17, Luder�s List No. 108

30)87)                      Ibid, II, p. 207, No. 6, Luder�s List No. 103

30)88)                      Ibid, II, p. 200 No. 6, Ibid

30)89)                      Ibid, II, p. 200, No. 6; Ibid no. 101

30)90)                      Ibid, II, p. 201, No. 11; Ibid No.16

30)91)                      EI, I, p. 38; Luder�s List No. 18

30)92)                      Luder�s List No. 19-20

30)93)                      EI, I, p. 391 No. 19, Luder�s List No. 21

30)94)                      Luder�s List No. 22

30)95)                      EI, X, pp. 110, F. No. 4; Luder�s List No.

30)96)                      Ibid, I, p. 382 No. 2, Luder�s List No. 24

30)97)                      Ibid, II, p. 202 No. 13, Ibid, No. 25

30)98)                      Ibid, II, p. 202 No. 14, Ibid, No. 26

99)  Ibid, I, p. 382, F. No. 3, Ibid, No. 27

100)                                Luder�s List No. 28-29

101)                                EI, I, P. 383 F. No. 4

102)                                Ibid, I, P. 395, No. 29, Luder�s List No. 30

102)103)          EI, I, P. 391, No. 20, Luder�s List No. 31

104)                                Ibid, I, p. 394, No. 5, Ibid, No. 32

104)105)          PHAI, P. 476

106)                                EI, I, p. 385, No. 6, Luder�s List No. 34

106)107)          Ibid, II, p. 206, No. 26, Luder�s List No. 35

106)108)          JUPHS, X, Pt. I, No. 2

106)109)          EI, II, p. 206, 203, No. 6, Luder�s List No. 37

106)110)          Ibid, I, p. 385, No. 7, Ibid, No. 39

106)111)          I A, XXXIII, P. 40, F No. 10, Ibid, No. 41

106)112)          EI, I, p. 387, no. 9, Ibid, No 42

106)113)          Ibid, p. 387, No. 10, Ibid, No. 44

106)114)          Luder�s List No. 45

106)115)          EI, IV, p. 244, F

106)116)          Luder�s List No. 49-51

106)117)          EI, II, p. 203, No. 18, Luder�s List No. 53

106)118)          EI, I, p. 391, No. 21, Luder�s List No. 54

106)119)          Ibid, I, p. 386, No. 8, Ibid, No. 56

106)120)          Luder�s List No. 57-58

106)121)          EI, X, p.115, F, Luder�s List No. 59

106)122)          IA, 33, p. 102, No. 33, Ibid, No. 63

106)123)          EI, I, p. 392, No. 24, Luder�s List No. 66

106)124)          JASB, N. S. V, P. 276

106)125)          EI, XIX, p. 67, No. 4

106)126)          EI, I, p. 388, No. 12, Luder�s List No. 70

106)127)          Luder�s List No. 71-72

106)128)          EI, II, p. 205, No. 22, Luder�s List No. 73

106)129)          Ibid, II, p. 205, No. 23, Ibid, No. 74

106)130)          IA, 33, p. 108, No. 33; Ibid, No. 77

106)131)          EI, X, p. 123, No. 16; Luder�s List No. 170D

106)132)          SJS, p. 86

106)133)          JRAS, 1898, pp. 516, ff

106)134)          ASC, XXI, pp. 1-3

106)135)          ASI, 1913-14, pp.262 ff

106)136)          CHJ, pp. 91-92

106)137)          JRAS, 1908, p. 1102

106)138)          P. 18

106)139)          SJS, A. X, p. 14

106)140)          Ibid, X, p. 14

106)141)          CHJ, p. 13, p. 93

106)142)          EI, X, p. 120; Luder�s List No. 107d

106)143)          CAG, p. 413

106)144)          NAYA, 157, UPA 35

106)145)          P. 2348

106)146)          Pp. 278 ff

106)147)          SBE, 45, p. 80

106)148)          Vikramaditya of Ujjayini

106)149)          Ancient Malva and the Vikramaditya Tradition, pp. 128-136

106)150)          The Pattavali Samuchchaya, pp. 46, 106

106)151)          IA, XX, p. 247

106)152)          EI, XXXVIII, pt. V, pp. 167-168

106)153)          JSHI, (100BC-900AD), p.112

106)154)          EI, XVI, p. 241; Luder�s List No. 966

106)155)          JSHI pp. 112-113

106)156)          CHJ, p. 96, ASI, XVI, p. 357

106)157)          H.D. Sankaliya; Archeology of Gujarat, p. 53, p. 166 ff, JRAS, 1938, pp. 427f

106)158)          Ibid, pp. 166 ff

106)159)          II, p. 2001

106)160)          Jainism in South India and Jaina Epigraphs, p. 101, JBBRAS, X, p. 133

106)161)          JBORS, XVI, PP. 200-201

106)162)          IHC, 1954, pp. 43-44

106)163)          Religion in Andhra, p. 147

106)164)          IA, pp. 247 f

106)165)          Kalakacharya Kathanaka (SGS)

106)166)          Select Inscriptions, I, p. 190, Note 1

106)167)          JBBRAS, X, p. 132

106)168)          ASI, 1914-15, pp. 39 ff

106)169)          VS, 322

106)170)          I, p. 180

106)171)          SJS, p. 72

106)172)          ASI, 1914-15, p. 2

106)173)          JSHI, p. 149

106)174)          CAG, pp. 21 ff; See also S.N. Majumdar�s Note in P. 671 of The Same work

106)175)          Vienna, Oriental Journal, 1890, IV, pp. 80 ff and 260 f

106)176)          CAG, pp. 142 ff

106)177)          Vienna Oriental Journal, pp. 80 ff

106)178)          Ed. A.N. Upadhye, 27, 82

106)179)          SB, XII, p. 293

106)180)          EI, II, p. 205

106)181)          URI, p. 54

106)182)          CII, III, No. 61

106)183)          Jaina Art and Architecture, pp. 129-131

106)184)          EI, II, No. XIV (39); CII, III, p. 258

106)185)          JRAS, 1896, pp. 578 f; Luder�s list No. 78

106)186)          IA, pp. 125-127

106)187)          EI, XX, pp. 59-61

106)188)          ASI, 1905-06, p.98, fn. 1

106)189)          Ibid, 1925-26, pp. 125 f

106)190)          ASC, I, pp.263, ff

106)191)          Journal of Oriental Institute, Baroda, XVIII, p. 247

106)192)          See Colophon of that tent edited by A. N. Upadhye

106)193)          J.C. Jain: Prakrit Sahitya ka Itihasa, p. 147

106)194)          Ibid

106)195)          Colophon, Vs. 2

106)196)          Punyavijaya: Introduction Vol. 6 of the Brihat kalpasutra

106)197)          Jain Sahitya ka Brihad Itihasa, Vol. III, pp. 130 ff; Puratana Jaina Vakya Suchi, Introduction, P. 145

106)198)           Jaina Art and Architecture, I, p. 135

106)199)          Ibid, p. 138

106)200)          SGS, X, p. 129

106)201)          Avimarakam, 5th Act

106)202)          Vasvadatta, pp. 157, 174, Etc.

106)203)          Kadambari, P. 160

106)204)          V. Chs. 4 ff

106)205)          P. 87. See also Bhavishya, I, 43, 36

106)206)          57, 45

106)207)          Jain Prakrit Sahitya ka Itihasa, p. 381

106)208)          Watters: On Yuan Chwang�s Travels in India, I, p. 123

106)209)          Ibid, I, p. 251

106)210)          Ibid, II, p. 154

106)211)          Ibid, II, p. 184

106)212)          Ibid, II, p. 187

106)213)          Ibid, I, p. 371 f

106)214)          Ibid, II, p. 224, 226, 228

106)215)          JLS, V, No, 5; Indian Epigraphy (Annual Report, 1962-63, P. 381)

106)216)          Tiwari, B. K.: Jainism In Bihar, pp. 161-162

106)217)          Roy Chaudhary P. C.: Jainism In Bihar, p. 80

106)218)          PR, 1983-84, IA, XX, 2a, XXI, p. 58

106)219)          JSAI, P. 391

106)220)          JSAI

106)221)          JSAI, p. 371

106)222)          APJLS, No 365

106)223)          EI, XXIX, pp. 38 ff

106)224)          IAP, 1954-55, p. 29; ARIE, 1954-55, No. 448

106)225)          Jain Sahitya ka Brihad Itihasa, VI, pp. 131, 363, 438

106)226)          Ibid, p. 219

106)227)          Prabandha Chintamani, p. 12, Puratana Prabandha Samgraha, p.12

106)228)          Prabandha Chintamani, Vanaraja-Prabandha, p. 15

106)229)          Samarichchakaha, Introduction p. LIII, Text P. 187-188

106)230)          SJS, XX,

106)231)          JGPS, p. 90 (Introduction)

106)232)          Tiwari, B. K.: Jainism in Bihar, p. 168

106)233)          Ibid, p. 169

106)234)          Ibid, p. 235

106)235)          Roy Chaudhary: Jainism In Bihar, p. 80

106)236)          History of India as told by its own people Vol. I, p. 504

106)237)          Ibid, p. 6

106)238)          Ibid, p. 97

106)239)          Salatore, B. A.: Medieval Jainism with Special Reference to the Vijaya Nagara Empire, pp. 7 ff

106)240)          JSLS, III, 94

106)241)          Ibid, IV, No. 20

106)242)          JSLS, IV, No. 24

106)243)          Ibid, IV. No. 48

106)244)          Successors of the Satavahana, Etc. P. 255, 9a, VI, p. 23

106)245)          JSLS, III, No. 96; IA, VI, pp. 22-32

106)246)          Ibid, III, No. 97

106)247)          Ibid, III, No. 98

106)248)          JSLA, III, No. 99, 9a, VI, pp. 22-32

106)249)          Ibid, III, No. 100

106)250)          Ibid, III, No. 101, IA, VI, pp. 25-32

106)251)          Ibid, III, No. 102

106)252)          EI, IV, pp. 140-142, p. 30 XXV

106)253)          JSLS, III, No. 103; 9a VI, p. 30

106)254)          IB, No. 104

106)255)          IB, No. 101

106)256)          IB, No. 105

106)257)          EI, XXVI, p. 31

106)258)          JSLS, III, p. 109

106)259)          JSLS, III, p. 107, IA, VII, pp.209-220

106)260)          JSLS, NO. 107; IA, XI, pp. 68-69

106)261)          IAR, 1968-69, p. 47

106)262)          EI, VI, p. 7, JSLS, No. 108

106)263)          IA, VII, pp. III, ff

106)264)          Ibid, p.112; JSLS, No. 111

106)265)          Kielhorne List No. 37, JSLS, No. 113

106)266)          IA, VII, pp. 106 f; JSLS, No. 114

106)267)          EI, XXI, pp. 204-206

106)268)          SII, XVII, No. 262

106)269)          ASI, 1908-09, p. 108

106)270)          JRAS, 1895, p. 516

106)271)          The age of Imprial Kanauj, p. 289

106)272)          PR, 1883-84, IA, XX, XXI, p. 58

106)273)          BBDJT, p.278

106)274)          Catalogue of Sanskrit and Prakrit Manuscripts in C.P. and Berar, p. 652

106)275)          BBDJT

106)276)          BBDJT

106)277)          EI, IV, pp. 309-310

106)278)          Ins. No. 148

106)279)          JSLS, V, No. 26

106)280)          2.1; See Story No. 12

106)281)          SJS, X,

106)282)          Vividha Tirthakalpa

106)283)          P. 41

106)284)          Prakrit Sahitya ka Itihasa, p. 321

106)285)          IA, 1961-62, P. 82

106)286)          ASC, XX, p. 122

106)287)          Ibid, pp. 125-129

106)288)          ARRMA, Year 1934, No, 4

106)289)          Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Pattana Bhandaras, p.316

106)290)          Janamana Year 1, No. 1, p. 4

106)291)          Kharatara-Gachchha-Brihadgurvavali, p. 16

106)292)          Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Pattana Bhandaras, p.370

106)293)          EI, Vol. XXIV, p. 84

106)294)          JUPJ, P. 13

106)295)          Kharatara-Gachchha-Brihadgurvavali, p. 25-33

106)296)          EI, Vol. XI, pp. 30-32

106)297)          Ibid, pp. 34-35

106)298)          EI, XI pp. 37-41

106)299)          Notice by Kielhorne EI, Vol. IX, p. 159

106)300)          Edited by Kielhorne EI, Vol. IX, pp. 63-66; Reedited by Ram Karan, IA, Vol. XI, p. 146

106)301)          EI, Vol. XI, pp. 43-46

106)302)           Edited by Kielhorne EI, Vol. IX, pp. 66-70

106)303)          Ibid, p. 63-66; Reedited by Ram Karan, IA, Vol. XL, p. 146

106)304)          EI, Vol. XI, pp. 46-47

106)305)          Ibid, p. 49-50

106)306)          Ibid, pp. 50-51

106)307)          Ibid, pp. 51-52

106)308)          EI, Vol. XI, pp. 52-54

106)309)          PSAS, WC., 1908-09, p. 55

106)310)          Ibid

106)311)          Ibid

106)312)          PUPJ

106)313)          KMPTA, Vol. II, pp. 503-505

106)314)          APJLS, No. 486

106)315)          APJLS, No. 311

106)316)          ARRMMA, 1909-10, No. 22

106)317)          APJLS, No. 55

106)318)          Ibid, No. 490

106)319)          R.C. Majumdar: Struggle for Empire, Vol. V, pp. 427-429

106)320)          Prabhanda Chintamani, p. 110

106)321)          MJI. Pt. I, No. 898

106)322)          Peterson�s Reports 3, pp.158-162

106)323)          Jaina Sahitya no Samkshipata Itihasa, pp. 197-198

106)324)          ARRMA, Year 1915-16, p. 3

106)325)          PRAS. Wc., 1909-10, p. 52

106)326)          ARRMA, 1909-10, No. 1- 2

106)327)          Singhi Jaina  Series, Vol. 21, (Introduction)

106)328)          EI. Vol. 22, p. 120

106)329)          IA, Vol. 21, p. 57

106)330)          PRAS, WC., 1920-21, p. 116

106)331)          Kharataracgachchha Brihadgurvavali P. 19

106)332)          Kharataracgachchha Brihadgurvavali P. 34

106)333)          Bhartiya Vidya, Vol. 2, Part 1, p. 62

106)334)          Ibid

106)335)          JUPJ

106)336)          K. C. Jain: MPTA, II, p. 410

106)337)          K. C. Jain: MPTA, II, p. 453

106)338)          JUPJ

106)339)          KMTA, II, P. 563

106)340)          B. K. Tiwari: Jainism in Bihar, p. 169

106)341)          B. K. Tiwari: Jainism in Bihar

106)342)          Tulasi Pragya, Vol. VI. No. 10, pp. 6 f

106)343)          CHJ, pp. 171-172

106)344)          EI, XIII, pp. 165 f

106)345)          61-67 (ed. By A. N. Upadhye)

106)346)          EI, XIII, pp. 165 f

106)347)          JSLA, IV, pp. 7 ff

106)348)          Ibid, IV, No. 95

106)349)          EI, I, P. 120

106)350)          Ibid

106)351)          Puratana Prabandha Samgraha, p. 97; SJS, X, p. 9 (Vividha Tirthakalpa)

106)352)          Annual Progress report of the Archaeological Deptt. Jambu and Kashmir, 1917-18, p. 7; 1918-19, p. 3

106)353)          CHJ, I, p. 170

106)354)          Jain Journal Mahavira Jaayanti Special, pp. 195-196

106)355)          Altekar, A. S. The Rashtrakutas and Their Times. P. 313

106)356)          EC, II, No. 67

106)357)          Ibid, no. 25

106)358)          EC, IX, No. 61

106)359)          EI, IV, pp. 332, ff, ; IA, XII, pp. 11 f

106)360)          EI, VI, pp. 25 ff

106)361)          ACHJ, p. 204

106)362)          Ibid

106)363)          Ibid

106)364)          JSHI, pp. 204 ff

106)365)          Mysore Gazetteer, II, p. 741

106)366)          EI, XIII, pp. 190 ff; JSS, II, No. 177

106)367)          Saletore, B. A. : Medival Jainism with Special reference to the Vijaya Nagar Empire, p. 89

106)368)          Ibid, p. 39

106)369)          EC, II, no. 67

106)370)          Medival Jainism, p. 207; JSLS, IV, no. 76

106)371)          EI, X, pp. 147 ff

106)372)          ASI, 1905-06, pp. 121 f

106)373)          IA, XII, 1928-29,  p. 125

106)374)          ASI, 1928-29, p. 125

106)375)          The age of Imperial Canauj, p. 13

106)376)          Bombay Karnataka Inscriptions, I, pt. I, No. 34

106)377)          A. R. of South Indians

106)378)          Desai, Jainism In South India, p. 149

106)379)          JSLS, III, No. 48

106)380)          Ibid, No. 46

106)381)          Desai, Jainism In South India, p. 370

106)382)          A. R. South Indians Epigraphy, APP. B. No. 65

106)383)          Bombay Karnataka Inscriptions, vol  I, pt. I, No. 38

106)384)          Desai, Jainism In South India, p. 48, Jainism and Karnataka Culture, p. 34

106)385)          Mysore Gazetteer, II, p. 769-770

106)386)          JSLS, IV, No. 87

106)387)          EC, II, ( Reviced Ed. ) No. 133

106)388)          Desai: Jainism In South India, p. 34

106)389)          The Periyapuranam Refers to the destruction of Several Structural Monuments of the Jaina�s at Chudealore by Mahendravarman I, SEC 9a, 40, p. 215;The Classical age, p. 260

106)390)          EI, XXVII, pp. 203 ff, Nellore Inscriptions, p. 676

106)391)          A. R. on Indian Epigraphy, 1968-69, p. 60

106)392)          Ibid, p. 6

106)393)          A. R. on Indian Epigraphy, p. 6

106)394)          Ibid, 1954-55, p. 360

106)395)          The age of Imperial canauj, pp. 165 ff

106)396)          CHJ,

106)397)          CHJ, p. 213

106)398)          EI, X, pp. 54 ff

106)399)          Ibid, X, p. 64

106)400)          SII, IX, pt. I, No. 19

106)401)          EI, X, p. 70

106)402)          Ibid, p. 65

106)403)          Ibid, p. 68

106)404)          Ibid, IV, pp. 141 f

106)405)          SII, III, pt. 3, no. 92, SII, XIII, No. 245

106)406)          A. R. South Indian Epigraphy, 1909, app. B-82

106)407)          SII, III, pt. 3  No. 91

106)408)          A. R. South Indian Epigraphy, 1907, No. 199

106)409)          SII, 19, No. 80

106)410)          Ibid, No. 51

106)411)          SII, p. 25

106)412)          Ibid, XIX, No. 89, SII, III, No. 97

106)413)          Ibid, I, No. 68

106)414)          A. R. South Indian Epigraphy, 1900, app. B. 53

106)415)          A. R. on South Indian Epigraphy, 1961- 62, pp. 4-5

106)416)          SII, II, p. 287 (No. 7b)

106)417)          CHJ, p. 216

106)418)          EI, IV, p. 137

106)419)          Travancore Archeological Series I, p. 193

106)420)          SASIRI, The Pandyan Kingdom, pp. 36 ff

106)421)          A. R. on Indian Epigraphy (Madras), 430-431 of 1914

106)422)          Desai, Jainism In South India, p. 62

106)423)          SII, XIV, No. 22, EI, XXXII, pt. 337 ff

106)424)          SII, XIV, No. 69

106)425)          SASIRI: The Pandva Kingdom, p. 74 f

106)426)          Ibid, p. 84

106)427)          The Struggle for Empire, p. 429

106)428)          EI, III, pp. 207 f

106)429)          Ibid, III, pp. 211 ff

106)430)          An REP and Ep. 1945-46, p. 40

106)431)          IA, XIV, p. 23

106)432)          E.P. Carn, II, Introduction, p. 61

106)433)          E. P. Carn, II, Introduction, p. 17

106)434)          Ibid

106)435)          Ibid

106)436)          EI, III, pp. 207 f

106)437)          Ibid, p. 211

106)438)          EP Carn, II

106)439)          EI, XIX, pp. 30 f

106)440)          EI, XIX, pp. 30 f

106)441)          Ibid, III, pp. 207 f

106)442)          IA, XIV, pp. 14 f

106)443)          AI, XII, p. 102

106)444)          An REP. Ind. EP, 1953-54, p. 31

106)445)          Mahivira and His Teachings, pp. 294-296

106)446)          Ibid, pp. 287-296

106)447)          The Struggle for Empire, p. 429-430

106)448)          The Kakatiyas, pp. 272-274

106)449)          JSLS, IV, No. 251

106)450)          Ibid, No. 256, 260, 261, 262

106)451)          Ibid, No. 267, 270

106)452)          JSLS, IV, No. 336

106)453)          Ibid, No. 328, 329 and 330

106)454)          Ibid, No. 334, 336, 337, and 339

106)455)          Ibid, No. 340, 341, 344

106)456)          Ibid, N0. 352, 354, 355, 359

106)457)          Chatterji, B. R. : Indian Cultural Influence in Kambodia, P. 125

106)458)          Jineshwar Das:Angokora Ke Panchameru Mandira, ��..

106)459)          The Struggle for Empire, P. 10; See also The Sultanate of Delhi by A. L. Srivastav, p. 49; Aurelstein Locates this place in the salt range in the Punjab; See AREV, p. 40

106)460)          The Salt for Empire, p. 23 (FN. 13)

106)461)          NJI, No. 2543

106)462)          Viravani

106)463)          Lahara, II, No. 8,  p.14

106)464)          JSLI, P. 344

106)465)          AK, VIII, p. 400

106)466)          Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 51

106)467)          IAR, 1970-71, p. 52

106)468)          History of Jainism in Bihar, p. 179

106)469)          PJPI, II, p. 194

106)470)          Ibid, pp. 403-405

106)471)          JUPJ

106)472)          JUPJ, p. 16

106)473)          JGPS, I, p. 21

106)474)          PJPI, II, p.60

106)475)          JGPS, II, p. 19

106)476)          PJPI, II, p. 29

106)477)          JUPJ

106)478)          CHJ, No. 290, pp. 356-357

106)479)          Ibid, no. 127, p. 314

106)480)          JGPS, I, No. 45

106)481)          PJPI, II, pp. 432-434

106)482)          Ibid, II, p. 459-476

106)483)          Ibid, Adhyay, 4

106)484)          JUPJ, p. 16

106)485)          PJPI, II, pp. 523-524

106)486)          PUPJ, p. 6

106)487)          JGPS, I, p. 5

106)488)          Ibid, I, p. 6

106)489)          Upendra Nath Day: Medival Malva, pp. 422-428

106)490)          C. B. Shah: Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 170-198

106)491)          C. B. Shah: Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 199-223

106)492)          Soma dharmagani (1446-48), Somadeva (1447-48), Gunakarasuri (1447-48), Charitravardhana (1448-49), Udayaadharma (1450), Sarvasundarasuri (1453-54), Sadhusoma (1455-56), Sayaraja (1457-58), Ganasagarasuri (1460-61), Subhasilagani (1461-62), Pratishtha Soma (1467-68), Siddhasuri (1474-75), Sadhuvijaya (1488-89), Kamalasamyama (1492), Udayasagar (1489-90), Indrahamsagani (1497-98), Siddhantasara (1513-14), Ganasara (1522-23), and Hridayasaubhagya (1534-35)

106)493)          C. B. Shah: Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 224-259

106)494)          Saletore, B. A.: Medival Jainism with Special reference to the Vijayanagar Empire, pp. 289-291

106)495)          Saletore, B. A.: Medival Jainism with Special reference to the Vijayanagar Empire, pp. 310

106)496)          Saletore, B. A.: Medival Jainism with Special reference to the Vijayanagar Empire, pp. 313

106)497)          JSLS, IV, no. 393

106)498)          Ibid, no. 394-396

106)499)          Ibid no. 403

106)500)          Ibid no. 402

106)501)          Ibid no. 404

106)502)          Ibid no. 406, 415

106)503)          Ibid no. 425-434

106)504)          Ibid no. 440

106)505)          JSLS, IV, No. 456

106)506)          Ibid, IV, No. 457

106)507)          Ibid, IV, No. 467

106)508)          Ibid, IV, No. 503

106)509)          Ibid, IV, No. 520

106)510)          Memories of Babur, II, 340

106)511)          JGPS, I, p. 64

106)512)          Ibid, II, No. 87, PJPI, pp. 525-526

106)513)          CHJ, No. 219, p. 339

106)514)          JGPS, I, pp. 65-66

106)515)          ACTR, p. 334

106)516)          JGPS, I, No. 45, p.32

106)517)          EI, II, p. 59, No. XIII

106)518)          PRAS WC, 1909-10, pp. 44-45

106)519)          Smith: Jainas at the Court of Akbar (The Bhandarkar Commemoration Volume) pp. 265-276

106)520)          The Religious Policy of the Mughal Emperors, p. 15

106)521)          JUPJ, p. 22

106)522)          JUPJ, p. 23

106)523)          Ibid, p. 24

106)524)          Ibid, p. 24

106)525)          JGPS, I, No. 11, p. 112

106)526)          The Religious Policy of the Mughal Emperors, p. 66-67

106)527)          JUPJ, pp. 22-23

106)528)          JUPJ, p. 25

106)529)          JUPJ, p. 25-27

106)530)          ARRMA, Year 1914, No. 1

106)531)          Jaina Satya Prakasha, Year 7, Bipotsavanka, pp. 146-147

106)532)          Jaina Sahityano Samkshipta Itihasa, p. 193

106)533)          Kharataragachchha Brihadgurvavali, p. 56

106)534)          ARRMA, Year 1922-23, No. 8

106)535)          ARRMA, Year 1922-23, No. 9

106)536)          ARRMA, Year 1921-22, No. 3

106)537)          Madhyaprant, Madhyabharata aur Rajputane ke Prachina Jaina Smaraka, p. 137

106)538)          PRAS WC., 1904-05, p. 62

106)539)          History of Indian Architecture, p. 240

106)540)          Anekanta Year 8, No. 3, p. 139

106)541)          ARRMA, Year 1923-24, No. 7

106)542)          PRAS WC, 1905, p. 61

106)543)          ARRMA, Year 1920-21, No. 10

106)544)          Ibid, Year 1923-24, no. 8

106)545)          Ibid, Year 1925-26, no. 8

106)546)          PRAS. WC., 1905-06, p. 60

106)547)          PRAS. WC., 1908-9, p. 43

106)548)          Rajputane ke Jaina Vira, pp. 341-42

106)549)          PRAS. WC., 1907-08, p. 48-49

106)550)          PRAS. WC., 1908-09, p. 46

106)551)          Ibid., p. 43

106)552)          Singhi Jaina Series, Vol. 14, Introduction)

106)553)          Rajputane ke Jaina Vira, pp. 341

106)554)          Keshariyaji Tirthaka Itihasa p. 27

106)555)          Dungarpura Rajyaka Itihasa, p. 1

106)556)          Dungarpura Rajyaka Itihasa, p. 15

106)557)          Mevar Rajyaka Itihasa, p. 42

106)558)          Sri Maharavalarajata Jayanti Abhinanadan Grantha, p. 397

106)559)          ARRMA, Year 1915-16

106)560)          Sri Maharavalarajata Jayanti Abhinanadan Grantha, p. 398

106)561)          ARRMA, Year 1929-30, No. 3

106)562)          ARRMA, Year 1925-26, No. 8

106)563)          Dungarpura Rajyaka Itihasa, p. 58

106)564)          Sri Maharavalarajata Jayanti Abhinanadan Grantha, p. 399

106)565)          ARRMA, Year 1929-30

106)566)          Dungarpura Rajyaka Itihasa, p. 70-71

106)567)          ARRMA, Year 1916-17, No. 5

106)568)          Ibid, 1914-15

106)569)          ARRMA, Year 1921-22

106)570)          Ibid, 1921-22, No. 6

106)571)          Ibid, 1934-35, No. 17

106)572)          ARRMA, Year 1934-35, No. 18

106)573)          Ibid, No. 20

106)574)          Sanvat 1834 Maghshukla 6 Shri Pratapagadh Nagare Shri Kundkundadi Param Digambar Updeshat Pratishthit Idam Jinabimbam Idam Jinabimbam

106)575)          Jugal Kishore Mukthar: Fixes the time of this work to be the 8th Century A. D. See Puratana Jainavakyasuchi, p. 67

106)576)          IA, Vol. 21, p. 57

106)577)          Ibid, 38, p. 186

106)578)          ARRMA, 1916, p. 2

106)579)          IA, Vol. 32, p. 186

106)580)          Kotah Rajya ka Itihasa, P. 28

106)581)          Inscription on Yantra in the Jaina Temple at Jaipur

106)582)          PRAS. WC, 1916-17, p. 63

106)583)          ARRMA, 1909-10, No. 3

106)584)          Ibid, 1924-25, No. 10

106)585)          APJLS, No. 379

106)586)          Ibid, No. 380

106)587)          Ibid, No. 383

106)588)          Ibid, No. 384

106)589)          Surisvara aura Samrat Akbar, p. 188

106)590)          APJLS, No. 250

106)591)          Ibid, No. 298

106)592)          Ibid, No. 243

106)593)          Ibid, No. 257

106)594)          APJLS, No. 504

106)595)          Ibid, No. 101

106)596)          Ibid, No. 103

106)597)          Ibid, No. 304

106)598)          NJI, Pt. III, No. 2543

106)599)          Ibid, No. 2544

106)600)          Kharataragachchha Brihadguruvavali, p. 13

106)601)          Kharataragachchha Brihadguruvavali, p. 24

106)602)          Ibid, p. 34

106)603)          Ibid, p. 58

106)604)          NJI, Pt. III, No. 2112

106)605)          Ibid, No. 2114.

106)606)          Ibid, No. 2139

106)607)          Ibid, No. 2145

106)608)          Ibid, No. 2116

106)609)          Ibid, No. 2117

106)610)          Ibid, No. 2119

106)611)          NJI Pt. III, No. 2154

106)612)          NJI. Pt. III, No. 2120

106)613)          Ibid, No. 2404

106)614)          Ibid, No. 2406

106)615)          Ibid, No. 2400

106)616)          Ibid, No. 2494

106)617)          Ibid, No. 2595

106)618)          Ibid, No. 2497

106)619)          Ibid, No.  2447

106)620)          Ibid, No.  2498

106)621)          Ibid, No. 2501

106)622)          Ibid, No. 2508-2509

106)623)          Ibid, No. 2503

106)624)          Ibid, No. 2502

106)625)          Ibid, No.  2510

106)626)          Ibid, No.  2511

106)627)          Ibid, No. 2575

106)628)          Ibid, No. 2504

106)629)          Ibid, No. 2504

106)630)          Ibid, No. 2530

106)631)          Ibid, No. 2585

106)632)          Ibid, No. 2524

106)633)          Ibid, No. 2499

106)634)          Ibid, No. 2518

106)635)          Ibid, No. 2542

106)636)          NJI, No. 931

106)637)          PRAS. WC., 1911-12, p. 54

106)638)          Ibid,

106)639)          Ibid,

106)640)          Ibid, 1911-12. p. 54

106)641)          Ibid,

106)642)          Ibid,

106)643)          Ibid,

106)644)          NJI, No. 773

106)645)          Ibid, No. 981

106)646)          PRAS, WC., 1908-09, p. 55

106)647)          NJI, No. 783

106)648)          PRAS WC., .   1907-08, p. 45

106)649)          Inscription on a pillar in the temple of Marotha which is at a distance of six miles from Kuchamana Road station.

Samvat 1794 Mahasudi 13 Aditvare Maharotha Nagare Maharajadhiraja Arbhasinhaji Tata Prasadita Rathoda Shri Bastrasinh Bairisal Rajye Shri Moolsamghe Nandyamnaye valatkaragarane Sarswatigachchhe Kundkundacharyanvaye Mandalacharyam Shri Ratnakirti Tatpatte Mandalacharya Shri Anantkirti Amanaya Khandelvalen Gotrena Shah Girdhar Tatputra Shah Ramsinh Tasya Tatputra Daultiram Sahib Ram, Gangaram Shah Ramsinh Bimbam Pratishtha karapit.

650)                                NJI, No. 937

650)651)          Samvat 1824 ka miti Ashadhsudi 10 dine Shrimad Bhattaraka Shri Vijaykirti Maharaj Maharotha Nagare madhye Chaturmas Kiyo. Maharaja Shri Vijaysinhji tatprasadat Medatyaraji Shri Harisunhaji, Raja Shri Yashvantsinhji, Raja Shri Salimsinhji, Raja Shri Deepsinhji, Samarsinhji, Jeevansinhji, Hukamsinhji, Rajya pravartamnae � Shri Rathyatra Uchchhava Bhalibhanti Panchayata kiya.

650)652)          Bikanera Jaina Lekha Samagraha, p. 27 (Introduction)

650)653)          Ibid, p. 7

650)654)          Ibid, p. 8-11 (Introduction)

650)655)          PS, p. 148

650)656)          Ibid p. 126

650)657)          Ibid p. 77

650)658)          Ibid p. 170

650)659)          Ibid p. 73

650)660)          Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration

650)661)          ARRMA, 1927-28, No. 11

650)662)          PS, p. 72

650)663)          Ibid, P. 72

650)664)          Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration

650)665)          ARRMA, 1925-26, No. 11

650)666)          Ibid, 1933-34, No. 13

650)667)          Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration (Gutaka No. 189. In the temple of Patodi at Jaipur)

650)668)          Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration (Gutaka No. 189. In the temple of Patodi at Jaipur)

650)669)          Copy of this manuscripts in Amerabhandara

650)670)          PS, p. 7

650)671)          Viravani p. 29-30. An invitation letter was sent to different places for Indradhvaja Pooja Mahotsava.

650)672)          Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration

650)673)          Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration

650)674)          Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration

650)675)          Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration

650)676)          Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration

650)677)          ARRMA, 1934-35, No. 11

650)678)          PRAS. WC., 1909-10, pp. 44-45

650)679)          Viravani IV, pp. 109-110

650)680)          PS, p. 168

650)681)          Ibid, p. 163

650)682)          Ibid, p. 89

650)683)          JGPS., No. 141

650)684)          PS, p. 63

650)685)          Ibid, p. 54

650)686)          Ibid, p. 99

650)687)          Ibid, p. 175

650)688)          Ibid, p. 94

650)689)          Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration

650)690)          ARRMA, 1918-19, Nos. 4, 9, 10

650)691)          Ibid, 1919-20, Nos. 3, 4

650)692)          Archeological Survey Reports, XX, p. 124

650)693)          Jaina Satya Prakasha, X, p. 99

650)694)          Aravali, I, No. 12

650)695)          Sri Prasasti Samgraha, pp. 96, 108, 115, 125

650)696)          Ibid, p. 35 and 54

650)697)          Archeological Survey Reports, XX, p. 119

650)698)          NJI, No. 1464

650)699)          Bhattarakasampradaya, No 686

650)700)          ARRMA, 1919-20, No. 15