HISTORICAL ROLE OF JAINISM
HISTORICAL ROLE OF JAINISM
Jainism was dominant in Magadha during the reign of the Nandas (364-324 B.C.) and the Mauryas (324-300 B.C.). Afterwards, it migrated to the different regions of the North, South and West, and flourished there. In the Gupta period, Jainism received no royal patronage, and therefore declined. In the South, Jainism continued to develop because of the encouragement given by the rulers. The period from the eighth to the twelfth century A.D. is regarded as the golden period in the history of Jainism because the Jaina monks, statesmen and merchants contributed to its development. A large number of people accepted Jainism, and they formed castes. Numerous temples were built, and images were installed in them. Jaina scholars enriched the different languages by their works. Afterwards, Jainism had setbacks during the medieval period, under the Muslims, but it could not be extinct completely because of devotion of the ï¿½rï¿½vakas and saints to Jainism.
- Jainism Under The Nandas (364-324 B.C.)
The Nandas were the most powerful rulers of Magadha. So great was their power that Alexander, who invaded Punjab at that time, did not dare to move towards the east. The Nanda ruler Mahï¿½padma claimed the sole sovereign who destroyed all the other ruling princes. It seems that he acquired Kaliï¿½ga and annexed Kosala to his kingdom.
Jainism appears to have been followed during the reign of the Nandas in Magadha. From the Udayagiri cave inscription1 of Khï¿½ravela, it is known that Nanda king removed the Jaina image from Kaliï¿½ga to Pï¿½ï¿½aliputra. This throws light on the antiquity of the Jaina sculptural art as well as the fact that Nanda was the follower of Jainism.
According to Jaina tradition, the Nanda dynasty as such had a line of Jaina ministers beginning with Kalpaka2. It was with the help of this minister that king Nanda uprooted all the reigning Kshatriya dynasties3, and as the Jaina tell us, all the ministers of the Nandas were his descendants4. The minister of the ninth Nanda was ï¿½akatï¿½la, who had two sons. The elder was Sthï¿½labhadra and the younger son was called ï¿½rï¿½yaka. After the death of ï¿½akatï¿½la, Nanda offered the minisership to his elder son Sthï¿½labhadra, but the latter refused and, perceiving the vanity of the world, took Dikshï¿½ or joined the order under Sambhï¿½tavijaya5, the sixth pontiff of the Jaina church. The ministership was finally given to his brother ï¿½rï¿½yaka who was in the king’s office6.
That the Jainas were powerful in the days of the Nandas is also clear from the Sanskrit play Mudrï¿½ Rï¿½kshasa, which dramatises the story of Chandragupta’s accession and tells us that the Jainas held a prominent position at that time, and that Chï¿½ï¿½akya who was the prime agent in the revolution, employs a Jaina as one of the Chief emissaries7
The Baï¿½ali inscription, which G.H. OJHA, records as of the year 84 of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra Nirvï¿½ï¿½a Saï¿½vat, proves the existence of the Jainism at Nagri even in the fifth century B.C. during the reign of the Nandas8. K.P. JAYASWAL agrees with G.H. OJHA in the reading, but he refers the year 84 to the Nanda era, which was counted from 458 B.C. and thus the instance inscription seems to be of the fourth century B.C.9D.C. SIRCAR takes this Baï¿½ali inscription to be of the Second or First century B.C. According to him, this inscription, incised during the reign of king Bhï¿½gavata of the ï¿½uï¿½ga dynasty10, seems to be a record of the pious working of an inhabitant of Mï¿½dhyamikï¿½.
- Account of the Greek Writers of Western India
The Greek writers supply very valuable information about the Indian philosophers whom Alexander met. SIRABO mentions two sects of philosophers ï¿½ one called the Brachmaï¿½es and the other Germanes.11 Brachmanes represent the Brï¿½hmaï¿½as and the Germanes, evidently a corruption of Sarmanes, which represents the Sanskrit ï¿½ramaï¿½a (a Jaina ascetic). But the question is who these people were. Some say that these are Buddhist saints, but they seem to be Jaina sanits because they have been described as naked, and they are called by the name Gymnosophists. Nakedness is a special characteristic of the Jaina monks. PALINY says that their philosophers whom they call Gymnosophists, are accustomed to remain in one posture with their eyes immovably fixed on the Sun from dawn to dusk and to stand on the burning sands all day long now on one foot and now on the other.1 One ONESLCRITUS says that these sages went about naked, inflicted hardships on themselves and were held in highest honour and when invited, they did not visit any-body but requested the persons concerned to come to them if they wanted to participate in their conversation.12 This description applies to Digambara Jaina monks.
The Greek observers found women studying philosophy along with men. But they all led a life of extreme austerity.2 And as the Brï¿½hmaï¿½as did not generally admit their women to their philosophy, these women must have been, therefore, probably, the Sï¿½dhvis of the Jaina church.
Among these sages, one Kï¿½lnos who accompanied Alexander probably to instruct him in the matters of religion. His real name, according to PLUTARCH, was Sphines; and he received the name Kï¿½lnos among the Greeks because in saluting the persons, he used the word ‘Kï¿½le‘. It is probably the Sanskrit from Kalyï¿½ï¿½a which is commonly used in addressing a person and signifies good, just or distinguished. When he became ill at Pasargadi, this being the first sickness he ever had, he put an end to his life in his seventy third year without heeding the entreaties of the king.13 This type of voluntary death is specially found among the Jainas. The Ratnakaraï¿½da ï¿½rï¿½vakï¿½chï¿½ra (Chap. 5) of Samantabhadra (about second century A.D.) dilates on sallekhanï¿½ which consists in abandoning the body for the accumulation of merit in calamities, famines, extreme old age and incurable diseases.
The Indian sages, according to the Greek writers, have been divided into two categories (1) the Brï¿½hmaï¿½as and (2) ï¿½ramaï¿½as. The Brï¿½hmaï¿½as succeeded by right of birth to this kind of divine wisdom as to a priesthood. They are one family, the descendents of one father and mother. The ï¿½ramaï¿½as, on the other hand, are taken from all Indian castes differently from all who wish to give themselves to the study of divine beings.14 These saints were probably Jaina saints, because there was no question of caste restriction in Jainism.
These naked Samnoi practise truth, make predictions about futurity and worship a kind of pyramid beneath which they think the bones of some divinity lie buried.15 This practice is also noticed among the Jainas who used to construct the Stï¿½pas, specimens of which are found at Mathura.
According to the Greek writers, the society was divided into the five classes in accordance with the occupations. Some cultivate the soil; very many follow war and other trades. The noblest and richest manage public affairs, administer justice and sit in the council with the kings. A fifth class devotes itself to the philosophy prevalent in the country which almost assumes the form of religion and the members always put an end to their lives by burning themselves on funeral pile.16
The characteristics and practices of these saints indicate that they were Jaina saints. Jainism was prevalent in western India on the eve of the coming of the Greeks in India. The Jaina monks and nuns were found in such a large number that they caught the attention of the foreigners. If it is in the border provinces, it may have been in existence even in the adjacent region like Rajasthan.
- Jainism Under The Mauryas (324-187 B.C.)
Chandragupta (324-300 B.C.)
The Maurya was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, who seems to have belonged to some ordinary family. He is one of the greatest emperors of India. He is first Indian ruler to bring about the unification of Northern India by his conquests and to rule over such a vast empire. From him actually, a continuous as well as unified history starts and he is, therefore, regarded as the first historical emperor. He is the earliest emperor in Indian history whose historicity can be established on the solid ground of ascertained chronology.We can locate him accurately in both time and space. With the help of Chï¿½ï¿½akya known as Kauï¿½ilya, he overthrew the Nandas and established the rule of the Mauryas. He liberated North-Western India from the rule of Selecus, the Greek Viceroy of Alexander. He extended his empire by further conquests of Saurarhï¿½ra and some regions of South India.
There are Jaina traditions regarding Chandragupta’s association with the South. His conquest of some regions of the South India is also attested by the inscriptions of Aï¿½oka found at some sites. He established an efficient administration as known from the Arthaï¿½ï¿½tra of Kauï¿½ilya and the Megasthaness Indica edited by Mcerindle.
Jain tradition avers that Chandragupat Maurya was a Jain. Both Tiloyapaï¿½ï¿½ati (600 A.D.) and Rï¿½javalï¿½kathï¿½ claim him to be Jain. Jainism was prevalent in his reign. The Jaina monks were frequently seen and mentioned within the empire of Chandragupta not only by Indians, but by Greek historians as well, Megasthenese, the Greek envoy to Chandragupta’s court, mentions of ï¿½ramaï¿½as in his empire. He also says that Chandragupta submitted to devotional teaching of the ï¿½ramaï¿½as as opposed to the doctrines of the Brï¿½hmaï¿½as.17
It seems that Chandragupta was quite young and experienced when ascended the throne in or about 324 B.C. He must have been under fifty when his reign terminated twenty-four years later. When king Chandragupta Maurya was ruling over North India (either from Ujjain or from Pï¿½ï¿½aliputra), a great twelve years’ famine was foretold in Northern India by the ï¿½rutakevalin Bhadrabï¿½hu. He was at this time a great sanit of Jainism. When this prophecy began to be fulfilled, the saint led twelve thousand Jainas to the South and settled at ï¿½ravaï¿½a Belagolï¿½. At this time, Chandragupta abdicated the throne and accompanied his teacher Bhadrabï¿½hu. Bhadrabï¿½u soon died, and Chandragupta survived after him for twelve years, and died in Sallekhanï¿½.
Such famines are possible during this period as known from some very early inscriptions.The Mahasthï¿½na stone plaque inscription18found in the Bogra District of Bengal records an endowment to the Paï¿½chavargï¿½ya Buddhist monks. The Sohgaura copper-plate inscription19 found in the Gorakhpur District of U.P. records a provision of grains and fodders during famines.
The tradition of migration of the great ï¿½rutakeval in Bhadrabï¿½hu and his disciple, the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta due to famine in the South is corroborated by the late literary and epigraphic evidences. Besides, there are the names of monuments at ï¿½ravaï¿½abelagola in the memory of Bhadrabï¿½hu and Chandragupta Maurya. The Bï¿½ihatkathï¿½koï¿½a of Harisena dated 931 A.D. Ratnanandi’s Bhadrabï¿½hu Charita of about 1450 A.D., the Kannaï¿½a works Munivaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½bhudaya of C. 1680 A.D. and the Rï¿½javalï¿½yakathï¿½ mention this incident. Several inscriptions20 of ï¿½ravaï¿½abelagolï¿½ refer to this tradition also. The oldest of these inscriptions is of about 600 A.D. Two inscriptions of about 900 A.D. describe the hill at ï¿½ravaï¿½abelagolï¿½ as having its summit marked by the impress of the feet of Bhandrabï¿½hu and Munipati Chandragupta. Two inscripations of the year 1128 and 1169 A.D. are engraved with the names of Bhadrabï¿½hu ï¿½rutakevalin and Chandragupta. Another inscription of the year 1433 A.D. speaks of Yatindra Bhadrabï¿½hu and his disciple Chandragupta. All these agree to the main facts of breaking out famine in Bihar and migration of Jainas towards the South after the death of Bhadrabï¿½hu and Chandragupta at Chandragiri hill in the fourth Century B.C. The smaller hill Chandragiri is said to have derived its affiliation from the fact that Chandragupta was the first of the saints who lived and performed penance there. On the same hill is a cave named after Bhadrabï¿½hu and also a shrine called Chandragupta Basti, as it was erected by Chandragupta.
Both RICE LEWIS21 NARASIMHACHAR22 who have studied the Jaina inscriptions of ï¿½ravaï¿½a Belagolï¿½ thoroughly, give a verdict in favour of Jaina tradition. According to both these scholars, credence may be given to the late traditions of migration of the Jainas to the South under the leadership of ï¿½rutakevalï¿½ Bhadrabï¿½hu and his royal disciple Chandragupta Maurya. This tradition also forms one of the links connected with the Digambaraï¿½ï¿½vetambara Schism in the Jainas Saï¿½gha. This tradition also shows that Chandragupta Maurya was a Jaina. EDWARD THOMAS23, who has taken into consideration, the Greek accounts comes to the same opinion. HOERNLE24 also accepts the immigration of ï¿½rutakevalï¿½ Bhadrabï¿½hu to the South.
On the other hand, J.F. FLEET25 AND J. CHARAPENTIER26 tried to maintain that this Jaina tradition had no historical basis. According toJ.F. FLEET, the name Bhadrabï¿½hu of the two ï¿½chï¿½ryas is found mentioned in the Digambara Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½sï¿½one the last ï¿½rutakevalï¿½ Bhadrabï¿½hu and the other Bhadrabï¿½hu from which the Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½ of Nandi ï¿½mnï¿½ya of the Sarasvatï¿½ Gachchha. His disciple was Guptigupta. According to J.F. FLEET’s view, the saint who migrated to the South was Bhadrabï¿½hu, and Chandragupta was another name of Guptigupta. J.F. FLEET’s contention is wrong. There is no evidence to assume Guptigupta and Chandragupta as one. There is no reference to famine of twelve years during this time. He is not known to be initiated to monkhood after abdication of the throne.
- CHARPENTIERdiscredits the account of the Digambaras and asserts that Bhadrabï¿½hu retired to Nepal in order to pass the reminder of his life in penance, leaving the succession to Sthï¿½labhadra, a disciple of Bhadrabï¿½hu’s own contemporary monk, Sambhï¿½tavijaya.
Some of the modern Scholars of great reputes and authority have come to the conclusion that Chandragupta can safely be called a Jaina on the Authority of this tradition. The Jaina books (fifth century A.D.) and later Jaina inscriptions, observe K.P. JAYASWAL27, “claim Chandragupta as a Jaina imperial ascetic. My studies have compelled me to respect the historical data of the Jaina writings, and I see no reason why we should not accept the Jaina claim that Chandragupta at the end of his reign accepted Jainism and abdicated and died as a Jaina ascetic.”
To quote V.A. SMITH28, who has ultimately leaned towards Jainism. “The only direct evidence throwing light on the manner in which the eventful reign of chandragupat Maurya came to an end is that of Jaina tradition. The Jainas always treat that great emperor as having been a Jaina, and no adequate reason seems to discredit their belief.” Besides this, H. JACOBI29 tells us, ‘The date of Bhadrabï¿½hu’s death is placed indentically by all Jaina authors from Hemachandra down to the most modern Scholiast in the year 170 A.V. And this, according to our caluclation, falls in about 291 B.C. This date of the great pontiff’s Nirvï¿½ï¿½a exactly coincides with that of Chandragupta, who reigned from 321-297 B.C. Early evidence or evidences for Chandragupta Maurya being a Jaina might have disappeared, but still there are persistent late literary as well epigraphical traditions to prove him Jaina.
Chandragupta Maurya is known to have performed the consecration ceremony of the images and temples. In a village of Ghï¿½nghï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, at a distance of twenty seven Km. frm Jodhpur in Rajasthan, there is an old temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. In V.S. 1662, many images were discovered in the tank of this place. By chance, the poet Sundaragaï¿½i went on pilgrimage to this place and saw the inscription on the image and examined it. He is said to have read the inscription by the miraculous power given to him by the goddess Ambikï¿½. He immediately composed the poem on it. According to it, Samrï¿½ï¿½ Chandragupta made the golden image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha and its pratishthï¿½ was probably performed through ï¿½ruti-Kevalï¿½ Bhadrabï¿½hu.30 This evidence is of a very late period and so there is much doubt about its correctness.
The Jainas legends tell that all the monks did not migrate from Magadha to the South and some preferred to remain in their old land. Apprehending the danger that could threaten the loss and distortion of the original teachings of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra Sthï¿½labhadra, who according to ï¿½vetambara tradition, assumed the leadership of the Saï¿½gha in Magadha, summoned a council of Jaina Munis in 307 B.C. for the compilation of the teachings of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra which were preserved in the Pï¿½rvas. Thus, the sacred lore which was in a state of decay, was put in order. The Pï¿½ï¿½aliputra Council is referred to in the ï¿½vaï¿½yakachï¿½rï¿½i of Jinadï¿½sagaï¿½i who flourished in the Second half of the seventh century A.D., and by Haribhadra who lived in the middle of the eight century A.D.
BINDUSÏ¿½RA (C. 300-273 B.C.)
Chandragupta Maurya was succeeded by Bindusï¿½ra, whose reign is important for continued links with the Greek princes. Bindusï¿½ra followed the faith of his parents. The Jaina tents style him as a Jaina and entitle him as ‘Siï¿½hasena’.
AÏ¿½OKA (C.273-236 B.C.)
Bindusï¿½ra was succeeded by his son Aï¿½oka. After his accession to the throne, Aï¿½oka fought only one major war called the Kaliï¿½ga-War. Seeing the cruelty of the war, he adopted Buddhism. Though he professed Buddhism he preached ‘Dhamma‘ based on ehthics but not religious dogmas. He is regarded as one of the greatest figures in history. H.G. WELLS in the Outline of History describes him as ‘the greatest of Kings’ because he tried not only for the material but also spiritual welfare of the people.
It seems that in the beginning, Aï¿½oka followed Jainism, the religion of his ancestors. The Siï¿½halese tradition says that during the life time of his father, when Aï¿½oka was Viceroy of Ujjain, he developed affairs with a girl of a ï¿½reshï¿½hin named Devï¿½ who resided at Vidiï¿½ï¿½ and whom he married. It is possible that Devi belonged to some Jaina family.
It seems that even after Aï¿½oka became Buddhist, he was more or less inclined towards Jainism. The use of the term ‘ï¿½sinava‘, distinction between it and Pï¿½pa and the inclusion of the passions of the Jaina listsï¿½violence, cruelty, anger, conceit and envy are enough to convince any body that in all likelihood, Aï¿½oka has adopted and assimilated some psychological concepts of Jainism.
There are several definite evidences to prove that Aï¿½oka was influenced by Jainism. He emphasised on ‘non-slaughter of animate beings and non-injury to creatures in Pillar Edict-V. In Rock Edict-I, he mentions that many hundred of living beings were formerly slaughtered every day in the kitchen of Priyadarï¿½ï¿½, but now only three living creatures were killed daily for the sake of curry. Even this animal is not slaughtered regularly. These three living beings shall not be killed in future. The Pillar Edict VII mentions Nirgranï¿½has known as Jaina ï¿½rï¿½vakas. Dharmamahï¿½mï¿½tras appointed for the propagation of Dhamma by Aï¿½oka were also recruited from the Nirgranthas and the ï¿½ramaï¿½as.
When Kuï¿½ï¿½la lost his claim to the throne of Magadha on account of his blindness, his son Samprati was declared as the rightful successor by Aï¿½oka. Recently, the historicity of Samprati has been proved because Samprati Vihï¿½ra after the name of Samprati was existing at Vadamï¿½nu in the Krishna-Valley during the second century A.D.31 Under the influence of Suhastin, the leading saint of the Jaina Commuinty under Mahï¿½giri, Smprati was converted to Jainism. He tried to spread Jainism by every means in his power, working as hard for Jainism as Aï¿½hoka had done for Buddhism. He is therefore regarded as a Jaina Aï¿½oka. According to Jaina scriptures, he had decided to rinse his mouth in the moring, only after hearing the news of a new temple having been built. Besides, he got all the old and existing temples repaired and set up into all of them the idols mode of gold, stone, silver, brass and of a mixture of fine metals and performed their ‘Aï¿½janaï¿½alï¿½kï¿½ Ceremony i.e. declared them fit for worship. Within three years and a half, he got one hundred and twenty-five thousand new temples built, thirty-six thousand repaired, twelve and a half millions of idols consecrated and ninety-five thousand metal idols prepared.32
Samprati is said to have erected Jaina temples throughout within his empire. He founded Jaina monasteries even in the non-Aryan countries, and almost all ancient Jaina temples or monuments of unknown origin are ascribed by the popular voice to Samprati. It may also be noted that all the Jaina monuments of Rajasthan and Gujrat, whose builder is not known, are attributed to Samprati33. TOD34 attributes an old temple at Kumbhalmera to Samprati. At Nadlai, there is a Jaina temple dedicated to ï¿½dinï¿½tha. On the seat of the image is engraved an inscription dated V.S. 1686 which speaks of its being rebuilt by the whole Jaina Community of Nadalai. The temple was originally erected by Samprati35. In the Seventeenth century A.D., Jainas at Nadalai believed that the temple was built by Samprati; so there was an old tradition to this effect. He is said to have celebrated the installation ceremony of the image of Padmaprabha at a place named Gharighï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, through ï¿½rya Suhasti in V.N.S.-20336.
Samprati is known to have propagated Jainism not only in his kingdom but also in adjacent countries. He sent out missionaries as far as South India to preach Jainism in peninsula where his creed secured widespread popularity and made the regions of Andhra, Dravida, Mahï¿½rï¿½shï¿½ra and Coorg safe for Jaina monks. According to literary tradition, Salisuka, brother of Samprati Maurya, contributed to the spread of Jainism in Kathiawad. Besides this, Samprati took other steps for the propagation of Jainism. From the Jaina books, it is known that he started Saï¿½gha from Ujjain to ï¿½atruï¿½jaya in the company of Suhasti with five thousand ï¿½ramaï¿½as. He is also said to have convoked a council for the propagation of Jaina religion under Suhasti.
This account for the propagation of Jainism by Samprati seems to be hyperbolic but there seems to be some truth in it. The recent excavations37 in the Krishna valley conducted at a Vaddamanu identified with the ancient Place Vardhamï¿½na named after the last Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara yielded the Jaina remains such as Stï¿½pas, ellipsoidal structures, stone sculptures on pillars, slabs and toraï¿½as confirm the activities of Samprati for the propagation of Jainism. The inscriptions inscribed on potsherds reveal the names of Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas Vï¿½ishabhanï¿½tha, Vardhamï¿½na, Aranï¿½tha etc. These remains seem to have belonged to the Suï¿½ga-Sï¿½tavï¿½hana period. The names of important Jaina preceptors and their disciples with the details of Gaï¿½as, Gotras and ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½s are found engraved on pottery pieces. The names such as Samprativihï¿½ra and Jinonavihï¿½ra are found inscribed. These inscriptions give reference to female devotees. The pillara, Sï¿½chï¿½s (cross slabs), Ushaï¿½ishas (coping slabs) and the Toraï¿½a contained a variety of religions symbols like Stï¿½pas, Aharmachakra, Ratnatriya, Nandipada, Kevalavï¿½iksha, Svastika and so on.
The remains of the foundation of the oldest Jaina temple have been discovered at Lohï¿½nipura, near Patha. Two torsos of the Jaina image were also found at Patna. This proves that Jaina temple and images were worshipped during the Maurya period, in Magadha.
‘Nigaï¿½asa Vihï¿½ra Dipa’ inscribed on one of the pot sherds found at Kasrawad38 proves the existence of the Jaina monastery. It means that the lamp from Nigaï¿½a’s monastery was used for lighting the rooms. This monastery may be attributed to the Maurya period.
When ï¿½rya Suhastin visited Ujjain in order to worship the image of Jï¿½vanta Svï¿½mï¿½, Avanti Sukumï¿½la took the vocation of monkhood from him39. After the death of Avanti Sukumï¿½la, a Stï¿½pa was erected in order to commemorate him and the image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha was installed in it. After some time, the Stï¿½pa became barren, and it was known by the name of Kuï¿½ugeï¿½vara (God of the Great Forest).
Being a holy place, Ujjain was frequently visited by Jaina saints such as Chaï¿½ï¿½arudra, Bhadrakagupta, ï¿½ryarakshita and ï¿½rya ï¿½shï¿½ï¿½ha40. Vajra dwelt at Tumba-vanagrï¿½ma (Tumain).
After Siï¿½hagiri had taught him the even Aï¿½gas, Vajrasvï¿½mi went from Daï¿½apara to Bhadragupta at Avanti (Ujjayini) to learn the twelfth viz. the Dï¿½ishï¿½ivï¿½daï¿½ga. He was the last who knew the complete ten Pï¿½rvas, and from him arose the Vajraï¿½ï¿½khï¿½41. Daï¿½apura (Mandsor) is the birth place of the Jaina Saint ï¿½ryarkshit who learned from Vajra Svï¿½mi nine Pï¿½rvas, and a fragment of the tenth, and taught them to his pupil Durbalikï¿½pushpamitra42. The seventh schism in Jainism occurred at this place. Jaina traditions aver that Vajr Svï¿½mï¿½ and other Jaina pontiffs, obtained liberation in the hills Kunjarï¿½varta and Rathï¿½varta in the neighbourhood of Vidiï¿½ï¿½, now known as Bhilsa43.
- JAINISM UNDER THE Ï¿½UÏ¿½GAS (187-75 B.C)
PUSHYAMITRA (C. 187-151 B.C.)
Bï¿½ihadratha, the last Maurya Emperor, was murdered in the presence of the army by the Brï¿½hmaï¿½a Commander-in-Chief Pushyamitra who became the founder of the ï¿½uï¿½ga dynasty. The first event of his reign was his confilict with Vidarbha. He had also to face the Greek invasion of Indo-Bactrian rulers Demetrious and Menander. He performed two horse sacrifices. According to the Divyï¿½vadï¿½na he was a persecutor of Buddhism. Pushyamitra was succeeded by his son Agnimitra who had the exprience of governing Vidiï¿½ï¿½ as Viceroy under his father. Agnimitra’s son Vasumitra in his earlier days defeated the Yavanas. The Indo-Greek king Antialkidas of Taxila sent his ambassador Heliodorus, son of Dion (Diya) to the court of the ï¿½uï¿½ga ruler Bhï¿½gavata or Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½putra Bhï¿½gabhedra. The Kï¿½ï¿½vas, also Brï¿½hmaï¿½as seized power about seventy-two B.C.
Generally, a very common charge has been levelled against the ï¿½uï¿½ga king Pushyamitra that he was a staunch Brï¿½hmaï¿½a and caused the death of Buddhist and Jaina monks. This assumption is based on the version of the Buddhist text Divyï¿½vadï¿½na44 which says that he put the price of one hundred dinï¿½ras for the head of single monk. This account of Pushyamitra’s vendetta against the monks seems to be exaggerated because a similar vengeance against the ï¿½jivikas and Nirgranthas is attributed to Pushyamitra in the same tent, where it is stated that he put the price of one dinï¿½r for the head of Nirgrantha. He is said to be responsible for destroying monasteries and monks from Magadha to Jullandhara area in the modern Punjab. Tï¿½rï¿½nï¿½tha also affirms that Pushyamitra was the ally of unbelievers and himself burnt monasteries and slew monks.
But the above charges for the prosecution of the Buddhists and the Jainas against Pushyamitra ï¿½uï¿½ga do not seem to be correct. In fact, the Brï¿½hmaï¿½as did not interfere with the ï¿½ramaï¿½a religionsï¿½Buddhism and Jainism. Neither Buddhism nor Jainism had eclipsed, for some magnificent Buddhist and Jaina monuments were erected in the kingdom of the ï¿½uï¿½gas. Therefore it can be concluded that the Divyï¿½vadï¿½na, no doubt, gives a shortsighted view. The Buddhist monuments of Bharhut and Sanchi erected during the sovereignty of the ï¿½uï¿½gas do not bear out the theory that ï¿½uï¿½gas were the leaders of a militant Brï¿½hmanism. The causes of persecutions against Buddhism and Jainism by Pushyamitra may be owing to the personal and potitical reasons.
That the Jainas were holding good position in Uttar-Pradesh is also evident from two inscriptions45 of the second century B.C. recovered from Pabhosï¿½ near Kauï¿½ï¿½mbï¿½ which are of much historical importance.
No.1 By ï¿½sï¿½ï¿½hasena, the son of Gopï¿½lï¿½ Vaihidarï¿½ (i.e. Vaihidara-princess, and maternal uncle of king Bahasatimitra), son of Gopï¿½lï¿½, a cave was caused to be made in the tenth year of—- of the Kaï¿½ï¿½apï¿½ya Arhats.
No.2. Caused to be made by ï¿½shï¿½ï¿½hasena, son of the Vaihidara (Vaihidara-princess, and) son of king Bhï¿½gavata, son of the Tevani (i.e. Traivarï¿½a-Princess, and) son of king Vaï¿½gapï¿½la, son of ï¿½onakï¿½yana (Saunakï¿½yana of Adhichchhatra).
These two inscriptions of the second or first century B.C. are of historical value because they give the pedigree of the early kings of Adhichchhatra, the capital of the once mighty kingdom of Northern Paï¿½chï¿½la. These inscriptions record their dedication by Ashï¿½ï¿½hasena from Ahichchhatra for the use of Kasyapï¿½ya Arhats. On the basis of these inscriptions, it can be said that the Jaina monks enjoyed royal patronage during the ï¿½uï¿½ga period.
Spread of Jainism
Starting from its original home in Magadha, Jainism had slowly spread to different countries like Kaliï¿½ga to the South-east, Mathura and Malva to the West and Deccan and the Tamil lands to South. At the same time, it appears to have lost its hold over Magadha, the land of its origin and grew powerful in the West and the South. After some initial success in winning over royal patronage, which was, in part the cause of its rapid growth and expansion, it soon lost its hold in the North, but retained the support of the middle classes, like merchants and bankers, for a long time. This loss of kingly support in the North, was, however, made good by the favour shown to the religion by some ruling families of the Deccan. By the end of the third century A.D., Jainism had taken firm roots throughout India.
- THE CHEDI (MAHÏ¿½-MEGHAVÏ¿½HANA) DYNASTY OF KALIÏ¿½GA (ORISSA)
The realy migration of the Jainas to the country of Kaliï¿½ga can be seen from the famous Khï¿½ravela inscription of Udayagiri dated second or first century B.C. As this inscription refers this to the removal of a Jaina image from kaliï¿½ga to Pï¿½ï¿½aliputra by the Magadhan king Nanda, it is proved that Jainism was followed in the fourth century B.C. Here the faith took firm root and flourished for a long period.
The Udayagiri cave inscription of Khï¿½ravela may be regarded as the ‘Khï¿½ravela Charita’ because it gives information about the events of his life. He belonged to the third generation of the Mahï¿½meghavï¿½hana dynasty, and he was an offshoot of the Chedi royal family. He is also knwon to be a descendant of the Aila line. Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Khï¿½ravela is one of the most remarkable figures of ancient Indian History. As this inscription starts with the invocation (Mangalï¿½ Charaï¿½a–Namo Arahantï¿½nam and Namo-Sava Siddhï¿½nam, Khï¿½ravela, the Chedi ruler, is proved to be the follower of Jainism.
It is possible to determine the date of Khï¿½ravela by properly identifying the contemporary rulers of Khï¿½ravela mentioned46 in this inscription. K.P. JAYASWAL and R.D. BANERJI are inclined to assign him to the first half of the second century B.C. while other scholars like D.C. SIRCAR47 place him in the first century B.C. or first century A.D. His title Mahï¿½rï¿½ja, later script of the inscription, developed Kï¿½vya style and sculptures of Maï¿½chapuri prove the late date. The Nanda king is known to have excavated the canal three centuries earlier than Khï¿½ravela. As the Nandas held sway over the Magadhan empire in the fourth century B.C., Khï¿½ravela, who flourished more than 300 years after Nandarï¿½ja, should be assigned to the first century B.C.
Khï¿½ravela, while a prince, played different games befitting the young age of the prince with a lovely body and fair brown complexion. He bore the noble and auspicious bodily marks. As to prince Khï¿½ravela’s education ability, he became an expert in matters relating to writing, coinage, accounting, administration and procedures.
That Khï¿½ravela did marry is beyond any dispute. The very fact that the Maï¿½chapuri cave on the Udayagiri Khaï¿½ï¿½agiri was dedicated by the chief queen (Agra-Mahï¿½shi) of Khï¿½ravela for the use of Jaina monks in Kaliï¿½ga, goes to prove that Khï¿½ravela had more than one queen. Again in the seventh year record in the Hathigumpha text, there appears a fragmentary reference to Khï¿½ravela’s wife. In the seventh year of his reign, Khï¿½ravela’s famous wife of the Vajiraghara obtained the dignity of auspicious motherhood48.
He married a daughter of the greatgrandson of King Hastisiï¿½ha, probably of the Lalï¿½ka lineage.49
Immediately after his accession to the throne, Khï¿½ravela launched on a career of a dia-vijaya (conqueror)50. In the second year of his reign, he is said to have sent a large army to the Western countries without even thinking of Sï¿½takraï¿½i who apparently ruled the country to the West of Kaliï¿½ga. In the course of his expedition, the Kaliï¿½ga army is further said to have reached the banks of the Kï¿½ishï¿½ï¿½ bena (Kï¿½ishï¿½ï¿½) where the city called Rishika-nagara was threatened. As there is no indication that Khï¿½ravela’s army came into conflict with Sï¿½takarï¿½i or that Rishika-nagara formed a part of the latter’s dominions, the Kaliï¿½ga king’s calim seems to suggest that friendly relations existed between the two kings and that the Kaliï¿½ga army passed to the ï¿½ishika country on the Krishï¿½ï¿½ through Sï¿½takarï¿½i’s territories without difficulty. But a suggestion that Khï¿½ravela’s army attacked a city on the Krishnï¿½ in the Southern part of Sï¿½takarï¿½i’s kingdom cannot also be regarded as altogether impossible. King Sï¿½takarï¿½i seems to be no other than an early Sï¿½tavï¿½hana ruler of that name, very probably Sï¿½takarï¿½i I who is known from the Nï¿½nï¿½ghï¿½ï¿½a inscription of Nï¿½ganikï¿½. In the fourth year of his reign, Khï¿½ravela seems to have occupied the capital of a prince named Vidyï¿½dhara. In the Jaina literature, the Vidyï¿½dharas are known as a tribal people residing in the Vindhya mountain51.
In the same year, Khï¿½ravela also subdued the Rï¿½shï¿½rikas and Bhojakas. The Rï¿½shï¿½rikas stand for the Marï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ region, and the Bhojakas probably for the Berar (M.P.) region. In the eighth year, Khï¿½ravela destroyed Goradhagiri, a hill fortress in Barï¿½bar hills and attacked the city of Rajagï¿½iha (modern Rajgir in the Gaya District, Bihar)52. The news of these exploits of Khï¿½ravela caused so much terror in the heart of Yavana king that he fled away to Mathura. The Yavana ruler whose name is sometimes doubtfully read as Dimitra or Dimata (Demetrius), was probably a later Indo-Greek ruler of the eastern Punjab. It is possible that this contemporary ruler of Mathura of Khï¿½ravela was not Yavana ruler Demetrius but a ruler of the Mitra dynasty.
In his eleventh year, Khï¿½ravela destroyed the city of Pithuï¿½a, the capital of a king of the Masulipatam region in the Tamilanadu area. Pithuï¿½a53 is probably a coastal city situated somewhere in the South of the Kaliï¿½ga country. He threatened the rulers of Uttarapï¿½tha (probably North-Western India) in the next year, and also defeated the king of the Magadha people, probably on the banks of the Gangï¿½. The name of the Magadha king is given in Prakrit as Bahasatimita which seems to stand for Sanskrit Bï¿½ihatsvï¿½timitra rather than for Bï¿½ihaspatimitra as is usually supposed Bï¿½ihatsvï¿½timitra, a contempory of Khï¿½ravela, seems to be the king of that name mentioned as the sister’s son of ï¿½shï¿½ï¿½hasena of the Pabhosï¿½ inscriptions54 and as the father of the queen of a Mathura king referred to the Mora inscription. He seems to have been related to the Mitra kings of Magadha whose records and coins have been found in the Gaya District. To avenge the humiliation of Kaliï¿½ga during the time of the Nandas and the Mauryas, Khï¿½ravela carried away much booty from Aï¿½ga and Magadha together with certain Jaina images originally taken away by a Nanda king from Kaliï¿½ga. In the same year, Khï¿½ravela also defeated the Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ya king of the Far South.
As regards the extent of Khï¿½ravela’s empire, it included Udra, Utkala and Kaliï¿½ga. These regions were under his suzerainty, and were directly ruled. His capital was Kaliï¿½ganagara which may be identified with Mukhaliï¿½gam or Tosali or Sisupï¿½garh.55
As a ruler, Khï¿½ravela thought of the welfare of the subjects and spent large sums of money on their account. Himself a Past-master of music, he often entertained the people by arranging dancing and musical performances as well as festivities and many gatherings. He enlarged an irrigation canal originally excavated by a Nanda king three centuries ago. He ws also a great builder. On one occasion, the capital city of Kaliï¿½ga was devastated by stormy wind and the king had to rebuild numerous gates, walls and houses that had been damaged and to restore all the gardens. He built a magnificent place called called the Mahï¿½vijaya Prasï¿½da.
Khï¿½ravela was a zealous patron of Jainism and he sent missionaries for its propagation. He convened a conference of learned Jainas on the Kumï¿½iï¿½ Hill and consolidated the Aï¿½gas or sacred tents of Jainism. As a devout Jaina, he excavated a number of caves in Kumï¿½rï¿½ hill to provide resident Arhats with accommodation and shelters for resting their bodies. He also constructed caves for the honoured recluses of established reputation as well as for Yatis, hermits and sages, hailing from a hundred directions. He also set up many pillars and shrine posts. Besides, the inscription of the chief wife of Khï¿½ravela records a dedication of cave in honour of Arahanta for the use of Jaina monks56.
Though Khï¿½ravela was a Jaina, he was like Aï¿½oka tolerant in the matters of religion. The royal epithet Savapï¿½saï¿½ï¿½a Pï¿½jaka’ (worshipper of all religious) attests beyond doubt that Khï¿½ravela observed the principle of religious, toleration. Similarly, the epithet ‘Savadevï¿½yatana Saï¿½kï¿½ra Kï¿½raka’ (the repairer of all temples of the deities) has no meaning, if there were no worshippers among the people of Kaliï¿½ga of those deities at the temples dedicated to them.
Besides the Hï¿½thï¿½gumphï¿½ inscription, Khï¿½ravela’s another inscription at Guï¿½ï¿½upalli57 records the construction of steps by a lady disciple Sï¿½yananï¿½tha, who was residing in the caves58. The Jaina caves of the second century B.C. at Guï¿½ï¿½upalli in the East Godï¿½varï¿½ District prove that Jainism was very popular during the reign of the Chedis.
Besides there are other inscriptions which prove the popularity of Jainism in Orissa. One inscription59 discloses the name of either a predecessor or successor of khï¿½ravela viz. Vakadeva and like the former he is called the king of kaliï¿½ga and is represented as belonging to the Meghavï¿½hana family. This inscription shows that he too was a Jaina.
A few other inscriptions60 disclose the existence of a few Jaina devotees. One inscription61 yields the name of a prince called Vadhuka who too, was a Jaina votary. Some inscriptions62 probably represent the gifts of common people.
One inscription63 is the gift of the town-judge. Two inscriptions64 are also probably the gifts of important persons. Another inscription records the donation of a servant called Kusuma65.
Jainism also made considerable headway in Kaliï¿½ga under Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Kudepasi and Kumï¿½ra Vadukha who as successors of Khï¿½ravela constructed the main wing of the lower storey and a side chamber of Maï¿½chapuri cave respectively66.
After Khï¿½ravela, the history of Orissa enters into obscure phase for some centuries, and it is difficult to determine the condition of Jainism during that period. The same is the condition of Jainism in Pï¿½ï¿½aliputra. It seems that the Muruï¿½ï¿½as were ruling over Orissa and Pï¿½ï¿½aliputra, and they were attracted by Jainism. A gold coin of the Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Rï¿½jï¿½dhirï¿½ja Dharmadhara of the third century A.D. has been found at Sisupï¿½lagarh in course of the excavation, and according to A.S. ALTEKAR67, he was probably a king of Muruï¿½ï¿½a family who controlled Orissa in the post-Khï¿½ravela period. The Muruï¿½ï¿½as were said to have been the followers of Jainism. But gradually after Khï¿½ravela, Buddhism became popular among the people over there. We know from the Dï¿½thï¿½ Vaï¿½ï¿½a that Guhaï¿½iva (C.400A.D.), the king of Kaliï¿½ga, was converted to Buddhism from Jainism and all the Nirgrantha Jainas, being driven out from Kaliï¿½ga took shelter in the court of Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½u of Pï¿½ï¿½aliputra.
The Muruï¿½ï¿½as of Pï¿½ï¿½aliputra were also influenced by Jainism during this period68. The Jaina tradition Bï¿½ihatkalpavï¿½itti refers to a Maruï¿½ï¿½a king of Pï¿½ï¿½aliputra who was a pious Jaina whose widowed sister had also embraced the same faith. The Pï¿½dalipta Prabandha relates the story as to how Pï¿½dalipta cured king Muruï¿½ï¿½a of Pï¿½ï¿½aliputra of his terrible attack.
Viï¿½ï¿½kha Muni, the immediate disciple of Bhadrabï¿½hu, travelled further in the South in the Chola and the Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ya lands and propagated Jainism. The existence of Jainism in the region of Tamiladeï¿½a is attested by the existence of ancient relics such as Jaina rock-cut caves and cavern and lithic records of the third century B.C. found here69. One of the rock-shelters at Pugalur (Karï¿½r in District Tiruchchirapali in Keral) has two inscriptions of the Second Century A.D. The Jaina sages may have commenced their preaching of the Jaina doctrine in Tamil land in the remote age.
The influence of Jainism is earlier than the infiltration of the Vedic or Brahmanical from the North India. This is suggested by the references to Jainism in the famous Tamil works which belong to the so called Saï¿½-gham Age (500 B.C. – 500 A.D.), viz Volkï¿½ppiyam, Kural Maï¿½imekhali and ï¿½ilappadikï¿½ram. According to some scholars, the author of Tolkï¿½ppiyam was himself a Jaina; that Valluvar, the author of Kural, was likewise a follower of Arhat; that Ilangovaï¿½igal, the author of Maï¿½imekhalaï¿½ and the author of Nï¿½ladiyar were both Jainas. The Kural contains wonderful references to Jainism.
The Jaina teachers like Kuï¿½ï¿½akuï¿½ï¿½a and Samantabhadra were responsible for the diffusion of Jainism in the South. It seems that the original name of Kuï¿½ï¿½akuï¿½ï¿½a was Padmanandi, but in course of time this name was pushed into the background and came to be distinguished more prominently on account of his unique personality by characterstic name of the place Kuï¿½ï¿½kuï¿½ï¿½a which was his domicile. Kuï¿½ï¿½akuï¿½de, identified with Kunakoï¿½ï¿½la, is in the Gooty Taluk of the Anandpur District now in Andhra state. Kuï¿½ï¿½akuï¿½ï¿½a lived in the beginning of the Christian era. He became famous as the founder of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha.
Samantabhadra, who is known to be the great leader of Jaina religion and thought through his works, lived in the second century A.D. He is known to have gone from place to place for the propagation of Jainism and attracted masses. According to the ï¿½ravaï¿½a Belagolï¿½ inscription70 dated 1050 ï¿½aka era, he beat the drum (literally invited the opponents to refute him) in Pï¿½ï¿½aliputra, Malwa, Sindh and ï¿½hakka country (in Punjab), and came to Kï¿½ï¿½chï¿½ in the South and thence to Kaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aka. This statement seems to be based on old traditions.
- JAINISM IN MATHURA REGION (SÏ¿½RASENA JANAPADA) (C. 208 B.C. – 200 A.D.)
From the Jaina traditions, it is known that Jainism was prevalent at Mathura, capital of ancient Sï¿½rasena-Janapada from very early times. In the beginning, Mathura was governed by the Mitra rulers during the second century B.C. as known from the coins. Afterwards it was ruled over by the Scythian Chiefs, and then supplanted by the Kushï¿½nas. Kanishka was undoubtedly the greatest among the Kushï¿½ï¿½a rulers. He came to power in 78 A.D. He ruled over a farflung empire with his capital at Peshawar. His vast empire stretched across the Hindu Kush from Bihar to Khurasan in the West and from Khotan in the Terim valley in the North to Konkan in the South. He was a great patron of art and literature. His rule ended about 101 A.D. He was succeeded by Vasishka who possibly ruled jointly with Huvishka.
Though the latter ruled from his capital Mathura, his rule extended in the North-West over Afghanistan. The last great king of the time in India was Vï¿½sudeva. The Kushï¿½ï¿½a age is regarded as the golden period in Indian history. The Jaina art specimens are found in larger number in Mathura than Buddhist and Brahmanical. It seems that the Jainas contributed to the prosperity of the Mathura region.
According to ASIM KUMAR CHATTERJI, the Therï¿½valï¿½ of the Kalpasï¿½tra mentioning ï¿½akhï¿½s belong to the third century B.C. but, it seems that they originated much later. They were redacted in cononical literature. The names of these ï¿½akï¿½s are found mentioned in some Jaina inscriptions discovered at Mathura, Ahich-Chhatra etc. in Uttar Pradesh.
The story of Pï¿½rï¿½vas visit to Mathura is recorded in the Mï¿½yï¿½dhammakahï¿½o71, and that of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra in the Vipï¿½ka Sï¿½tra72. Regarding the actual introduction of Jainism in the Mthura region, we have a story told in the Paumachariyam of Vimalasï¿½ri, a verse text composed about 530 years after the Nirvana of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. According to this poem, Jaina religion was introduced in Mathura by the following seven Jaina saints73 Suramantra, ï¿½rï¿½tilaka, ï¿½rï¿½tilaka, Sarvasundara, Jayamantra, Anilalalita and Jayamitra. The above mentioned seven Jaina saints, we are told, were responsible for the introduction of Jainism not only in Mathura but also in Sï¿½keta.74 We are informed by Vimala Suri that there was a temple dedicated to Munisuvrata, the 20th Tï¿½rthanï¿½kara at the town of Sï¿½keta75. Apparently, this temple was built a few centuries before Vimala Suri. It is one of the earliest Jaina tmples of Northern India. The Jaina Rishis went to Mathura from Saketa76. Jainism travelled to Mathura from Ayodhyï¿½.
The earliest Jaina inscription from Mathura is of 150 B.C. Jainism got a foothold there by the beginning of the second century B.C. if not earlier. The Jaina canonical writers believe Kosala to be homeland of most of their earlier Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas. Some of the seven monks were the teachers of a few Jaina monks mentioned in the inscriptions.
The earliest Jaina inscription77 from Mathura has been assigned to the middle of the second century B.C. by BUHLER. The same inscription78 records dedication of an arch for the temple (Pï¿½sï¿½do toraï¿½a) by Sï¿½vaka Uttaradï¿½saka, son of Vachï¿½ and disciple of the ascetic Mahï¿½rakhita. Chronologically, the next Jaina inscription from Mathura is that which mentions a person calle Gopiputra and his wife Simitrï¿½ who belonged to Kauï¿½ika gotra79. The important expression of this inscription is the epithet ‘Pothayaï¿½akakï¿½lavï¿½la given to her husband Gopiputra ‘black’ serpent to the Poï¿½hayas and ï¿½akas. Poï¿½hayas are mentioned along with the ï¿½akas.
Some other Pre-Kushï¿½ï¿½a Jaina inscriptions were discovered in Mathura but majority of them are undated. The most important is the inscription which mentions the ï¿½aka Mahï¿½kshatrapa ï¿½oï¿½ï¿½sa80, son of Mahï¿½kshatrapa Raï¿½juvula. Both Raï¿½juvula and ï¿½oï¿½ï¿½sa are mentioned in the well known Mathura Lion capital inscription, and also the Mora well inscription81 which refers to the Vï¿½ishï¿½i heores. Another inscription from Mathura82 records the setting up of a shrine (devikula) of the Arhat, a ï¿½yï¿½go ï¿½abhï¿½, a reservoir (Prapï¿½) and stone slabs (ï¿½ilï¿½paï¿½a in the Arhat temple (Arahatï¿½yatana) of the Nigathas (Nirgranthas) by a few courtesans (Gaï¿½ikï¿½s). Another pre-Kushï¿½ï¿½a inscription83 records the setting up of a tablet of homage by ï¿½ivayaï¿½a who has been described as the wife of a dancer called Phaguyaï¿½a. Another inscription84 refers to Sihanï¿½diaka, son of Vaï¿½ika and Koï¿½ikï¿½, set up a tablet of homage (ï¿½yï¿½gapaï¿½a) for the worship of Arhats.
Pre-Kushï¿½ï¿½a record85 mentiones a Jaina monk called Jayasena and his female disciple Dharmaghosha. It further records the gift of a temple (Pï¿½sï¿½da) by that lady. An inscription86 mention a ï¿½rï¿½vikï¿½ called Lahastinï¿½. It records the dedication of an arch. It refers to the setting up of a tablet of homage (ï¿½yï¿½gapaï¿½a) by one Arhat, the daughter-in-law of Bhadrayaï¿½as and wife of Bhadranandi87. The another gift of another ï¿½yï¿½gapï¿½a recorded in an inscription88 by a woman, the wife of one Mï¿½thuraka (inhabitent of Mathura).
The Pre-Kushï¿½ï¿½a record mentions Bhagavat Nemesa.89 The god nemesa who is sculptured as a goat-headed deity here is Hariï¿½egamesï¿½ of the Jaina cononical texts. This god as we learn from the Kalpa Sï¿½tra transferred the embryo of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra from the womb of Devï¿½nadï¿½ to that of Triï¿½alï¿½.
A good number of dated Jaina inscriptions of the Kushï¿½ï¿½a period are found from Mathura. The earliest of such inscriptions is that which is dated in the year four corresponding to 82 A.D. which falls within the reign of the great Kushuaï¿½a king Kanishka. It mentions a monk called Pushyamitra90 and for the first time in the Jaina records of Mathura, the Gaï¿½a, Kula and ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ of a particular monk are mentioned. These Gaï¿½as, Kulas and ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½s originated after Bhadrabï¿½hu, who was a contemporary of Chandragupta Maurya. According to the present inscription, the monk Pushyamitra belonged to the Vï¿½raï¿½a Gaï¿½a, Hï¿½lakiya Kula and Vajanagarï¿½-ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½. The particular ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ should be connected with the Vï¿½iji country.
A number of Jaina image inscriptions bearing the date of the year 5 of the reign of Kanishka have been found. There are references to the Gaï¿½a Koï¿½iya and a preacher (Vï¿½chaka). It is the most popular Gaï¿½a of Mathura. Majority of the inscriptions found from this region mention this particular Gaï¿½a.
The second inscription91 of year 5 mentioning Devaputra Kanishka, records the gift of an image of Vardhamï¿½na by a woman, female companion of Sethiniha. The particular monk belonged to Koï¿½iya Gaï¿½a, Bhamadï¿½sika Kula and Uchenï¿½garï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½. Uchenï¿½garï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ was named after the fort of Unchanagar (Buland Shahr). The two other inscriptions92 of the same date refer to the same Gaï¿½a, Kula and ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½. The next inscription93 is dated in the year 7 and mentions Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½dhirï¿½ja Devapï¿½la ï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ Kanishka. The Gaï¿½a also like Koliya and Vï¿½raï¿½a originated in the second half of the third century B.C.
One inscription94 of the year 9 mentions ‘Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Kanishka. It records the dedication of an image by Vikaï¿½ï¿½, Koliya Gaï¿½a, Sthaniya Kula and Vairï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½. Another image inscription95 of the year 12 mentions that how carpenters jointly make a gift of an image. The next Jaina inscription96 dated 15 records the dedication of a four-fold (Sarvatobhadrikï¿½) image of Bhagvat by Kumï¿½ramitï¿½, wife of ï¿½reshï¿½hin Veni. The inscription97 of the 18 year refers to a Sarvatobhadrikï¿½ image and also mentions the Koliya Gaï¿½a and Vaachchaliya Kula. Another inscription98 yields the name of Arishï¿½anemi, the 22nd Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara. The image inscription99 of the year 19 refers to t Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha. The Koliya Gaï¿½a, Thï¿½ï¿½iya Kula and Verï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ are also mentioned. The two inscriptions100 of the year 20, first dedicated of an image of Vardhamï¿½na – Koliya Gaï¿½a, Sthï¿½niya Kula, the Verï¿½ ï¿½akhï¿½ – the second inscription101 Koliya Gaï¿½a, Brahmadasiya Kula and Uchenagarï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½.
There are two inscriptions of the date 22. The first102 records the dedication by Dharmasomï¿½, the wife of caravan leader. The second inscription records the dedication of an image of Vardhamï¿½na.103 There is an inscription of the year 25.104 The inscription of the year 28 mentions the king Vï¿½sishka, the successor of Kanishka.105 There are two inscriptions of the year 29. In the first inscription106, the name of the king Huvishka has been mentioned. Another refers to Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Devaputra Huvishka.107
There is an inscription108 of the year 30. The inscription109 of the year 32 refers to an unnamed perfumer. The inscription of the year 35 records the dedication of an image of Vardhamï¿½na by the perfumer.
The Jaina elephant inscription110 of the year 38 is of great interest. It mentions Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Devaputra Huvishka and also records the setting up of elephant Naï¿½diviï¿½ï¿½la by the ï¿½reshï¿½hin Rudradï¿½sa for the Worship of Arhats. The Jaina inscriptions111 of the years 40, 44112, 45113, 47114, 49115, 50116 and 52117, are also concerned with donations.
The image inscription of the year 54 records the dedication of an image of Sarasvatï¿½ by the worker in metal118. The next inscription dated 60 mentions Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½, Rï¿½jï¿½tirï¿½ja Devaputra Huvishka. It records the dedication of an image or ï¿½ishabha119. Two inscriptions120 are dated year 62, and the next is dated 74121. An interesting inscription122 of the year 77 records the dedication by one Devila at the temple of Dadhikarï¿½a. The next inscription123 dated 80 mentions Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Vï¿½sudeva.
There are two inscriptions of the year 84. The first inscription124 mentions Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Rï¿½jï¿½tirï¿½ja Devaputra ï¿½ï¿½hï¿½Vï¿½sudeva. It records the setting up of an image of ï¿½ishabha by several women. The second inscription125 of the year 84 records the gift of an image of Vardhamï¿½na. There are inscriptions of the years 86126, 87127, 90128 and 93129 respectively.
The inscription130 of the year 98 refers to rajï¿½a Vï¿½sudevasya and two monks Kshema and Devadatta who belonged to Udehikiya Gaï¿½a, the Paridhï¿½sika Kula and Petaputrikï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½.
A certain perfumer (Gandhika) called Varuï¿½a is mentioned. A few inscriptions of the post-Kushï¿½ï¿½a period have also been found from the Mathura region.
The Mathura inscriptions of the early period abundantly prove the tremendous popularity of Jainism from the second century B.C. onwards. From the Paumachariyam of Vimalasurï¿½, it is known that Jaina saints preached Jainism both at Sï¿½keta and Mathura. These inscriptions of Mathura show that very few among Jaina devotees came from the so-called aristocratic families. No inscription from Mathura yields the name of any Brï¿½maï¿½a patron of Jainism. From the study of the Jaina inscription of Mathura, it is clear that the followers of Jainism were common people. They belonged to the business community.
R.D. BANERJI edited an interesting image ï¿½ inscription131 which mentions a monk of Adhichchhatra (i.e. Ahich-chhatra) belonging to Petavï¿½mika Kula and Vï¿½janagari ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½. It is was taken by him to be an inscription from Rï¿½mnagar, ancient Ahich-chhatra. In any case, this inscription certainly proves that Ahichchhatra was not immune from Jaina influence in the Kushï¿½ï¿½a period.
A council was summoned at Mathura under the presidentship of ï¿½rya Skandila between the year 827 and 840 after the death of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra (i.e. 300-313 A.D. and the scriptural texts were brought into order. This is known as the Mathura version (Vï¿½chanï¿½) of the Canons. The Jaina canonical writers believe Koï¿½ala to be the homeland seuerd of their earlier Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas.
It seems that the cult of the sculpture of Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas originated a century or two after the Nirvï¿½va of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. However the traditional belief is that images of Trithaï¿½kara Mahavir were made during his own liketime, which are known as Jeevitswam.The Jaina sculptures of these Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas in large number were made from the second century B.C. The Nirvï¿½ï¿½a sites of most of the Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas was in Magadha (Bihar) and of birth in Uttar Pradesh because Jainism was prosperous in these two regions during the second and the third century A.D.
Besides Mathura, Ahichchhatra in Paï¿½chï¿½la Janapada, Kauï¿½ï¿½mbï¿½ in Vatsa and Ayodhyï¿½ in Koï¿½ala became the Centres of Jainism. Not only traditions but even archaeological and epigraphical sources given some idea about the state of Jainism. Jainism made striking progress in Uttar Pradesh during the first and second century A.D.
From the Paumachariyam, it is known that there was a temple of Muni Suvratasvï¿½min at Sï¿½keta. That Sï¿½keta was connected with Muni suvrata is proved by the evidence of Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa132. This temple was probably built much earlier here.
That Pabhosï¿½ cave was sacred to the Jaina is proved by the discovery of Jaina images, and carvings from there133. Three standing Jaina images cut in rocks, are also to be found there134. There is little doubt that a number of Jaina monks lived in this cave, and most of them were residents of Kauï¿½ï¿½mbï¿½. This city also yielded a number of Jaina antiquities of the Kushï¿½ï¿½a period135. It was the birth place of Padamprabha, the sixth Tï¿½rthaï¿½kar. An inscription136 of the year 12 of king ï¿½ivamitra, which mentions three monks Baladï¿½sa, ï¿½ivamitra and ï¿½ivapï¿½lita. The reference to the Kauï¿½ï¿½mbikï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ which has been mentioned in the Therï¿½valï¿½ also directly proves the early popularity of Jainism in that region.
ï¿½rï¿½vastï¿½ remained associated with Jainism in very early times. It is said to be the birth place of the third Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara namely Saï¿½ibhavanï¿½tha. The Therï¿½valï¿½ refers to the ï¿½rï¿½vastikï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ which originated during this period. The original temple of Sambhavanï¿½tha was probably built probably a few centuries before the birth of Christ. It was in ruins when Fahien visited this city. The ruined temple has yielded a good number of Jaina images including those of ï¿½ishabhanatha, and Mahï¿½vï¿½ra137. The temple of Sambhavaratha at ï¿½rï¿½vastï¿½ was rebuilt several times, and finally it was destroyed during the reign of Alauddï¿½n as we learn from Jinaprabha. That ï¿½rï¿½vastï¿½ afterwards became a famous centre of Digambara religion is evident from the Bï¿½ihatkathï¿½koï¿½a of Harisheï¿½a composed in 791 A.D.
Ahichchhatra (now known as Rï¿½mnagar in Bareli District, Uttar Pradesh), Capital of North Paï¿½chï¿½la, was an important seat of early Jaina religion. A number of Jaina images were unearthed at this site. Ahichchhatra remained sacred to Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha and there was a shrine dedicated to this Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara at this town. Sï¿½laï¿½ka, who flourished in the second half of the ninth century A.D. in theï¿½chï¿½raï¿½gavritti138, distinctly refers to this shrine. Jinaprabha Sï¿½ri in his Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa139 gives a graphic and beautiful description of the shrine dedicated to Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. ï¿½ï¿½laï¿½ka informs that Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½va was worshipped here as Dharaï¿½ï¿½ndra. But according to Jinaprabha140, the shrine of Dharaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dra was near the original shrine of Pï¿½rï¿½va. The epigraphic evidence fully supports the Jaina tradition regarding the existence of a shrine dedicated to Pï¿½rï¿½va at Ahichchhatra. A Kushï¿½ï¿½a inscription141 found engraved at the pedestal of an image of Neminï¿½tha, bearing the date 50, refers to the shrine of divine Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha.
A number of Jaina inscriptions of the Kushï¿½ï¿½a period have been discovered from this place and at least one of them refers to the city of Ahichchhatra142. The Kushï¿½ï¿½a inscriptions from this city contain the following dates – 9, 18, 31, 44 and 74. Most of the Jaina sculptures from Ahichchhatra belong to the Mathura School of Art. The names of Gaï¿½a, Kula and ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ are usually like those of Mathura. The most common Gaï¿½a is Koliya. The image discovered here are generally nude and they belonged to the Digambara temple of Ahichchhatra.
The Jaina inscriptions from Ahichchhatra disclose the names of the ï¿½rï¿½vakas and monks. The inscriptions with the years 9 (87 A.D.), 12 (90 A.D.) etc. mention carpenters by caste. All these evidences go far to prove the popularity of Jainism at Ahichchhatra in early days.
Another city Kï¿½mpilya was intimately connected with Jainism in pre-Gupta period. This place has been indentified by A. CUNNINGHAM143with Kampil in Farukhabad District, Uttar-Pradesh. As known from the traditions contianed in Jaina canonical texts144, this place was visited by Pï¿½rï¿½va and Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. It is believed to be the birth place of the 13th Jaina Tï¿½rthï¿½nkara Vimalanï¿½tha. It has been mentioned in the Bhagavatï¿½145 and Aupapï¿½tikasï¿½tra146. The fourth Niï¿½hava ï¿½samitra who flourished 220 years after Mahï¿½vï¿½ra’s death, i.e. in the third century B.C. was associated with this town. The Uttarï¿½dhyana147, old Jaina canonical text, refers to a certain king Saï¿½jaya, who was a Jaina devotee. This place has yielded a few Jaina inscriptions.
Sï¿½ï¿½kï¿½sya is identiied by A. CUNNINGHAM with Saï¿½kissa in Farrukhabad District of Uttara Pradesh. The Therï¿½valï¿½ of the Kalpasï¿½tra refers to the Saï¿½khï¿½siya ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ under Chï¿½raï¿½a Gaï¿½a i.e. Vï¿½rï¿½a Gaï¿½a established during this period. This definitely proves Sï¿½nkï¿½ï¿½ya early association with Nirgrantha religion.
- AVANTI, MAHARASHTRA AND SAURASHTRAS
After the downfall of the Mauryas, India fell a victim to foreign invasions. The early advent of the ï¿½akas into Western Malwa from Seistan Via Sind and Kathiawad, in the second century B.C is known from the Kalï¿½kï¿½chï¿½rya Kathï¿½naka. After establishing their hegemony in Saurï¿½shï¿½ra Kathiawad, they may have penetrated into Malwa. On the basis of traditions, RAJBAI PANDEY148 suggests that there was a ruler named Vikramï¿½ditya in Avanti during the first century B.C. He defeated the ï¿½akas who invaded India for the first time in the first century B.C. In order to commemorate this event, he inaugurated a new ear in 57 B.C. called Vikrama Saï¿½vata. He was a great conqueror as well as a patron of art and literature. On the other hand, D.C. SIRCAR149 does not regard Vikramï¿½ditya as a historical figure because there is no contemporary evidence for his existence.
It seems that two families Kshatarï¿½ta and Kï¿½rdamakas of the Western Kshatrapas ruled over Western-India as Kshatrapas of Kanishka-I and his successors. Afterwards, they became independent. Nahapï¿½na of the Kshaharï¿½ta family became independent, and also conquered some territories. In about 124-125 A.D., he seems to have been defeated by the Sï¿½tavï¿½hana ruler Gautamï¿½putra Sï¿½takarï¿½i. Chasï¿½ana, founder of the Kï¿½rdamaka family, established his capital at Ujjain. Chasï¿½ana under his grandson Rudradï¿½man defeated the Sï¿½tavï¿½hana ruler Gautamï¿½putra Sï¿½takarï¿½i and conquered several territories. Sometimes after 130-131 A.D., Rudradï¿½man succeeded to Chasï¿½ana as Mahï¿½kshatrapa. From the Junagarh inscription dated 150 A.D., he seems to be a powerful ruler and he claims to have extended his empire by his conquests. These Western Kshatrapa rulers ruled for about three hundred years, till their power was finally crushed by Chandragupta-II.
From the traditions recorded in the Jaina Nibandhas, we know that Jainism was associated with Saurï¿½shï¿½ra and Avanti in the first century B.C. The great Jaina saints and scholars like Kï¿½lakï¿½chï¿½rya, lived and propagated Jainism in this area. At this time, it was a living and active religion, and it influenced the life of the people. Some of the Jaina sources150 claim Vikramï¿½ditya as a convert to Jainism. It is claimed that Siddhasena Divï¿½kara, having caused the breaking of the phallic symbol Mahï¿½kï¿½la in Ujjayinï¿½, and the appearance of the image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha, enlightened Vikramï¿½ditya. According to the Digambara Jaina Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½vali151, Vikramï¿½ditya played as a child for eight years, for sixteen years, he performed sacrifices following a false doctrine; or forty years, he was devoted to the religion of the Jaina, and then reached heaven. It seems that the ancestral and personal religion of Vikramï¿½ditya was ï¿½aivism, but he was also under the influence of Jainism and patronised it. The temple of Avanti Sukumï¿½la was probably in existence at Ujjain during this period.
A short Brï¿½hmï¿½ inscription found in a cave near Pale in Poona District, Mahï¿½rï¿½shtra may be assigned to the first century B.C.152This inscription records that a certain Bhadaï¿½ta Idarakhita (Indrarakshita), probably together with some others, caused the cave and a cistern to be excavated. The expression ï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ Kï¿½hi Saha occurring towards the end of the record is difficult to interpret. The importance of the record lies in the expression ‘Namoarahaï¿½tï¿½naï¿½‘ which commences the writing. It means obeisance to arahaï¿½tas, and it may therefore be taken as Maï¿½galï¿½charaï¿½a. In no other record of the numerous inscriptions belonging to pre-Christian period from the caves of Western Mahï¿½rï¿½shï¿½ra, does this expression find a place. This invocation occurs in a definitely Jaina context in this expression. This inscription proves the existence of Jainism in Maharashtra during the first century B.C.
According to Jaina traditions, Nahapï¿½na, after his defeat at the hands of Gautamï¿½putra Sï¿½takarï¿½i at Bhï¿½igukachchha in 66 A.D., became a Jaina monk known as Bhï¿½tabali (C. 66-90 A.D.) after abdicating the throne. Though newly initiated, he might have been considered quite capable for the important task of reducting the canon. He was taught by an eminent Guru Dhara-Sena and was guided in his work by his senior colleague Pushapadanta. He completed the work of Shaï¿½akhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½gama in C. 75 A.D.153
The Junagarh inscription154 of the grandson of Jayadï¿½mana (either Dï¿½mayagada or Rudrasiï¿½ha-I) belonging to the second century A.D., makes a mention of men who had attained perfect knowledge (Kevalï¿½jï¿½ï¿½na), and were free from old age and death (Jarï¿½maraï¿½a). This inscription contains the earliest reference to Jaina monks claiming the attainment of perfect knowledge. This inscription is found in a cave which appears to have been used by the Jaina monks as is indicated by the peculiar Jaina symbols like the Svastika, Bhadrï¿½sana, Mï¿½nayugala and others. Of nearly the same date may be the caves found at Dhank in which the sculptures of the Jaina Tirthaï¿½karas ï¿½ishabha, Pï¿½rï¿½va, Mahï¿½vï¿½ra and others have been definitely identified. The Giranar inscription actually refers to theSamï¿½dhimaraï¿½a of the Digambara Jaina saint Dharasena, the original author of the Digambara canon, who according to the tradition, resided at Chandraguptï¿½ of Girnar-whence the inscription was discovered155.
The Therï¿½valï¿½ refers to a ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ called Saurï¿½shï¿½rï¿½ya which originated from ï¿½ishigupta, a disciple of Suhastin during this period. A small inscription156 from Giranar in Gujarat bearing the date 58 refers to Paï¿½chï¿½nachandra Mï¿½rti. The Jaina antiquities discovered from Dhank and Bawa Pyara caves in Gujarat prove that these places were under the influence of Jainism in the early centuries of the Christian era157. The image of ï¿½ishabha, ï¿½ï¿½nti and Pï¿½rï¿½va from Dhanka can easily be recognised. The typical Jain symbols from Bawa Pyara caves of Junagarh are generally assigned to the early centuries of the Christian era158.
Bhï¿½igukachchha, one of the oldest parts of India, identified with modern Bharuch in Gujarat, was a popular Jaina centre in the early centuries of the Christian era. The ï¿½vaï¿½yakaniryukti composed in 200 A.D. refers to the defeat inflicted by ï¿½vetï¿½mbara Jaina monk Jinadeva on the two Buddhist monks Bhadanta Mitra and Kuï¿½ï¿½la at Bhï¿½igukachchha. It is repeated in the ï¿½vaï¿½yaka Niryukti159. Two Jaina Vihï¿½ras namely ï¿½akunikï¿½ Vihï¿½ra and Mï¿½avasatï¿½ existed at Bhï¿½igukachchha.
- THE Ï¿½Ï¿½TAVÏ¿½HANAS
According to the Puranic traditions, as well as the coins, the ï¿½ndhra Sï¿½tavï¿½hana dynasty began with Simuka who destroyed the remains of the ï¿½uï¿½ga power and killed the Kï¿½ï¿½va king Susarman in 27 B.C. Simuka Sï¿½tavï¿½hana is also known from the coins. Several Sï¿½tavï¿½hana rulers are known from the Purï¿½ï¿½as but it is only the last nine rulers of the Puranic list whose historicity is supported from coins. It appears from the coins that the Sï¿½tavahanas came into prominence as independent rulers only after the fall of ï¿½uï¿½gas and Kï¿½ï¿½vas. Their capital was Pratishï¿½hï¿½na (Paiï¿½hï¿½na). It is known from the Nasik inscription that Gautamï¿½putra Sï¿½takarï¿½i, one of the later Sï¿½tavuahana kings, defeated Mahapï¿½na of the Kshaharï¿½ta dynasty and annexed his territory to his kingdom in 124 A.D. Vasishï¿½hiputra ï¿½rï¿½ Pulumï¿½vï¿½, successor of Gautamï¿½putra Sï¿½takarï¿½i, married the daughter of Western Kshatrapa Rudradï¿½man of the Kï¿½rdamaka family. Another notable Sï¿½tavï¿½hana ruler after Vasishï¿½hiputra Pulumï¿½vï¿½ was Gautamï¿½putra Yajï¿½a ï¿½rï¿½ Sï¿½takarï¿½i (C. 173-202 A.D.) who seems to have conquered back some of the lost territories from the Western Kshatrapas. The Sï¿½tavahana dynasty came to an end about 225 A.D.
The Jaina literature contains may references to the Sï¿½tavï¿½hana kings and to their partonage of Jainism.160 The first Sï¿½tavï¿½hana ruler Sï¿½ta or Simuka also known from his coins became a convert to Jainism and built many temples at the capital. The fifty-two stalwart warriors, who were in the court of this king, built Jaina temples in the city after their respective names. The Jaina ï¿½vaï¿½yakasï¿½tra refers to ï¿½ï¿½livï¿½hana of Paiï¿½hï¿½na as a devotee of Jinadeva161. The ï¿½vaï¿½yaka Chï¿½rï¿½i of Haribhadra Sï¿½ri describes how king ï¿½ï¿½livï¿½hana conquered Barukachchha from Naravï¿½hana by inducing him to spend away his treasury on religious activities.162According to the Prabhï¿½vakacharita, ï¿½rï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½tavï¿½hana built a Jaina Tï¿½rtha where Pï¿½daliptasï¿½ri set up his dhvaja163. Another tradition mentions that a certain Sï¿½tavï¿½hana whose capital was Pratishï¿½hï¿½na requested the Jaina pontiff, to postpone his discourse so that he also could attend it. This may be the same as the tradition that ï¿½chï¿½rya Kï¿½laka shifted the day of observance of Paryï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a festival at the request of the Sï¿½tavï¿½hanas.164
The Kï¿½lakï¿½chï¿½rya Kathï¿½naka165 also contains traditions regarding the Sï¿½tavï¿½hanas. Pratishï¿½hï¿½na was ruled by the Sï¿½tavï¿½hanas, and Saint named Kï¿½laka was their preceptor. Some Jaina works mention ï¿½aktikumï¿½ra, son of ï¿½ï¿½livï¿½hana. This prince is identified with ï¿½aktiï¿½rï¿½, son of Sï¿½takarï¿½i and Nï¿½ganikï¿½, who is mentioned in the Nï¿½nï¿½ghï¿½ï¿½ inscription166. It is interesting to note that even later writers like Jinaprabhasï¿½r167 of the fourteenth century A.D. spoke about the Sï¿½tavï¿½hanas in appreciative terms which is only remniscent of the Sï¿½tavï¿½hanas patronage offered to Jainism.
- FOREIGN INVASIONS, GANDHÏ¿½RA JANAPADA AND OTHERS
The early Indo-Bactrian rulers first ruled over Bactria, but gradually, they extended their dominions in the East including Indian territory. The ï¿½akï¿½s occupied Bactria in about 135 B.C. by seizing power from Indo-Bactrians. Then, they gradually extended their supremacy over the Northern and the Western regions of Ancient India by ending Indo-Bactrian rule. After the Indo-Scythians and the Indo-Parthians, the Kushï¿½ï¿½as established their supremacy in India. After the disintegration of the Mauryan empire, most of the tribes settled in Punjab, but others moved to Rajasthan and elsewhere, probably under the pressure of foreign invaders.
Jainism penetrated in Gandhï¿½ra (North-West India) in the early centuries of the Christian era. The Jaina literary tradition168 associates Tamila with Bï¿½hubali, a son fo ï¿½ishabha who was believed to be a Jaina Sï¿½dhu. We further learn from the ï¿½vaï¿½yakaniryukti169, and the ï¿½vaï¿½yakachï¿½rï¿½i170 that Bï¿½hubali had installed a Jewelled Dharmachakra at Taxila. The association of Buahubali with Taxila is also mentioned in the Vividhatï¿½rthankalpa171 of jinaprabha.
Takshaï¿½ilï¿½ was associated with Jainism from early times. JOHN MARSHALL, who first carried out systematic excavation at Takshaï¿½lilï¿½, observes Taxila must have been adorned by a vast number of Jaina edifices, some of which were no doubt of considerable magnificence172. According to JOHN MARSHALL, the shrines of blocks F and G in the excavated area of Sirkap were probably Jaina. Since Takshaï¿½ilï¿½ was one of the greatest cities of ancient India, it is but natural that the Jaina should endeavour to extend the sphere of their indluence in that city. Manadeva, an author of mird century A.D., is reputed to have composed a ï¿½antistava for the resporation of peace and prosperity in the city of Tanila afflicted by the cruel onslaughts of the Turushkars. This fact is also curroborated by archacological discirerias173.
The ancient city of Kapisi identified with Opian in Afghanistan by A. CUNNINCHAM174 had a sizeable Jaina population. Siï¿½hapura was another Jaina centre from early times. It is identified by STEIN175 and A. CUNNINGHAM176 with modern ketas in the Sï¿½t Range (Punjab, Pakistan). According to the traditions contained in Jaina canonical texts, Sï¿½hapura (i.e. Siï¿½hapura) was the birth place of ï¿½reyï¿½ï¿½sa, the eleventh Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara.
STEIN was successful in discovering a great number of Jaina antiquities from Siï¿½hapura. This scholar opines that the Jaina sculptures of Siï¿½hapura are of better execution than those of Ellora and Ankai. He further informs that even at the time of his visit, this place was looked upon as a sacred by the Jainas177. The Varï¿½ï¿½gacharita178 (ed. by A.N. UPADHYE), a work of the seventh century A.D. refers to Siï¿½hapura as sacred to ï¿½reyï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a.
That Jainism reached Punjab during this period is indirectly proved by the fact that the Therï¿½val refers to the Audambarikï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ which originated from Rohaï¿½a during this period. This Audambara ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ is linked with the Audambaras, a well-known Punjab tribe.
The Majhamikï¿½ branch of the Jaina Saï¿½gha, as mentioned in the Sthivï¿½lï¿½ of the Kalpasï¿½tra179, became famous after the name of this place. Priyagrantha, the second pupil of Susthita Supratibudhe, founded this branch probably in the second century B.C. A Kushï¿½ï¿½a inscription in the second century A.D. mentioning Mï¿½dhyamikï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ has been found at Mathura180. This indicates that the ï¿½rï¿½vakas of Madhyamikï¿½ might have migrated to Mathura for their settlement. An inscription of the third or second century B.C., which states that some thing was constructed for the welfare of all living beings, has been discovered at this place181. It may be either of the Jainas or the Buddhists.
- THE GUPTAS (C. 300-C.500)
Among the early Gupta rulers, Chandragupta (C. 311 A.D. – 50) was the powerful ruler because he assumed imperial title of Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½dhirï¿½ja, and it seems that he started the golden coinage. He also owed his imperial status by matrimonial alliance with the Lichchhavï¿½s. Chandraguptas-I’s son Samudragupta (C. 350-70 A.D.), an extensive conquerov, made his influence felt over the rulers of the South-eastern coast as well as over the rulers beyond his frontiers in the North-West. Samudragupta’s son Chandragupta-II (C.376-414 A.D.) extended still further the boundaries of his empire, by annexing Gujrat and Kathiawad to his empire by defeating the ï¿½akas. Chandragupta II’s son Kumï¿½ragupta-I (C.415-50 A.D.), who is known to have performed the Aï¿½vamedha sacrifice, must have extended the empire by his new conquests.
Skandagupta (455-67 A.D.), son of Kumï¿½ragupta-I, was also engaged in military affairs. There was a serious invasion of the Hï¿½ï¿½as during his time and a deadly conflict took place. He was, however, able to drive back the invasion. Soon after Skandagupta, the empire began to decline. By the time of Buddhagupta (C.495-500), the Western part of the empire was lost, and after him, it remained confined to Bihar, Bengal and some parts of Orissa, and ultimately it went into oblivion by 543 A.D. The Hï¿½ï¿½as became very powerful, and they invaded India under Toramï¿½ï¿½a and Mihirakula. The Later Guptas (C.500-C.605 A.D.) ruled over after the Imperial Guptas. Rï¿½magupta is known to have issued local coins, and an inscription with the title Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½dhirï¿½ja was discovered at Vidisa. Some scholars regard him as the ruler of the Imperial Gupta dynasty while others a local ruler of the fifth century A.D. governing Vidiï¿½ï¿½.
Jainism was not prosperous during the Gupta period in the North for want of kingly support. It is further confirmed by absence of any reference to it in the description of the Chinese traveller Fahien. But there are indications that it continued as indicated by a couple of inscriptions of the Gupta period. Literary evidences also prove the existence of Jainism.
Though Gupta rulers were followers of Vaishnavism, they were tolerant towards Jainism. The Udayagiri cave182 inscription of 425-26 A.D. corresponding to the reign of Kumï¿½ragupta records the installation of an image of the Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha by ï¿½ankara, the disciple of saint Goï¿½arman, who was the ornament of the image of ï¿½chï¿½rya Bhadra. This inscription was found inside the cave which may have been a Jaina temple during the Gupta period. It seems that the region round Vidiï¿½ï¿½ was a stronghold of Jainism. Some remains of the Gupta period have been discovered at some sites in Madhya Pradesh. At Sirpahari, a hill near Nachna, is found a group of Jaina sculptures of the Gupta age. Two rock-cut reliefs at Gwalior, one showing Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara standing in meditation (Kï¿½yotasargamudrï¿½) and the other representing a Jina meditating in the Padmï¿½sana posture, also seem to be of the Gupta period183.
An inscription184 of 433 A.D. of Mathura during the reign of Kumï¿½rapï¿½la I, records that an image was set up by Sï¿½mï¿½ï¿½hyï¿½, the daughter of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ibhava and the house-wife of the ferryman, Grahamitrapilat at command of Dattilï¿½chï¿½rya, of the Koliya Gaï¿½aand the Vidyï¿½dharï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½. A disciple of this monk named Sï¿½mï¿½ï¿½hya built an image (Pratimï¿½) under the command of the said Guru. The Vidyï¿½dharï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ referred to here, is found mentioned in the Theravï¿½lï¿½ of the Kalpasï¿½tra as Vijjï¿½harï¿½. Another inscription185 from Mathura dated in the year 299 of an unknown era refers to the erection of an image of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra and a temple (devakula) by Okhï¿½, Sarika and ï¿½ivadinï¿½.
The next important inscription deted 461 A.D. belonging to the tranquil reign of Skandagupta was discovered at Kahum 69 km. from Gorakhpur. This place was known as Kakubha. From this inscription, it is known that a person named Madra, who traced his descent from one Somila and who had equal respect for dvija, guru and Yati, established the stone pillar of five Adikï¿½itris Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas, (probably ï¿½dinï¿½tha, ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha, Neminï¿½tha, Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha and Mahï¿½vï¿½ra)186. This inscription appears to be a Digambara Jaina record. Besides, there are remains of the Jaina temples and shrines in the neighbourhood of this inscription.
A copper plate inscription187 of the Gupta year 159 (478 A.D.) from Paharpur, Bangladesh is one of the most interesting Jaina records of the Gupta period. This inscription records an endowment for the worship of Arhats to a Vihï¿½ra in Vaï¿½agohï¿½lï¿½ which was presided over by the disciples of Nirgrantha preceptor Guhanandin, belonging to the Paï¿½chastï¿½pa Section (Nikï¿½ya) of Benaras. Vaï¿½a-Gohï¿½lï¿½ may be the Goï¿½lbhiï¿½ï¿½. This grant records that a Brï¿½hmaï¿½a and his wife deposited three dinï¿½ras with the city council to secure one Kulavï¿½pa and four Droï¿½avï¿½pas of land situated at four different villages all lying in the Dakshiï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aka Vï¿½thi and Nï¿½giratta Maï¿½ï¿½ala for the maintenance of worship with sandal, incense, flowers, lamps etc. The Jaina Vihï¿½ra at Vaï¿½a-Gohï¿½lï¿½ mentioned in this inscription must have stood at the original site of the present temple at Pahï¿½rpur. The donation of a Brï¿½hmaï¿½a couple for the worship of Jinas, as recorded here, is noteworthy for it bespeaks of the religious toleration of the people. The unspecified reigning sovereign with the titleParamabhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka mentioned in the inscription dated 478 A.D. was Buddhagupta.
An inscription181 of early Gupta character, near Son Bhandar cave at Rï¿½jgï¿½iha, refers to a Jaina Muni called Vaï¿½radeva who is given the epithet ï¿½chï¿½ryaratna. The lower half of a small naked Jaina image still can be seen cut-out of the rock close to the inscription. Another small mutilated inscription189 on a Neminï¿½tha figure in the early Gupta script has been found from Rajgir. This inscription refers to Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½dhiraja Chandra who may be either Chandragupta-I or Chandragupt-II. This image of Neminï¿½tha in black basalt is one of the earliest Jaina images of the Gupta period. The Gupta inscription190 engraved on the pillar at Ahichchhatra mentions ï¿½chï¿½rya Indranandin and also refers to the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½va.
Three stone images of Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas of the fourth of fifth century A.D. were discovered at Vidiï¿½ï¿½. From the inscriptions191 of these imgaes, it is clear that they were made by Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½dhirï¿½ja Rï¿½magupta at the preaching of Chelukshamaï¿½a, son of Gokyï¿½ntï¿½, and pupil of ï¿½chï¿½rya Sarppasena Kshamaï¿½a, who was the grand pupil of the Jaina teacher Kshamï¿½chï¿½rya. It seems that Rï¿½magupta, a local ruler of Vidiï¿½ï¿½ region, a follower of Jainism installed Jaina images.
The evidence192 of the Kuvalayamï¿½lï¿½ composed by Uddyotanasï¿½ri in 778 A.D. shows that King Toramï¿½ï¿½a, who ruled at the town of Pavvaiyï¿½ situated on the bank of Chandrabhï¿½gï¿½ (Chenab) in the Uttarï¿½patha, was a disciple of Harigupta, born in the Gupta family. We are further told that the city could boast of a great number of scholars, apparently Jaina Sï¿½dhus. This city cannot be properly identified but it was certainly in Punjab. Harigupta is described as a scion of the Gupta family. This Harigupta is further described as the Guru ofMahï¿½kavi Devagupta who is apparently mentioned also in the Mahaniï¿½ï¿½tha193. The Mahï¿½niï¿½ï¿½tha194 refers to one Ravi Gupta who should be placed in the fifth century. The Guru of Agastyasiï¿½ha, the author of the Daï¿½avaikï¿½likachï¿½rï¿½i was ï¿½ishi Gupta195who belonged to Koliya Gaï¿½a and Verasï¿½mi ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½196. Pavvaiya, the capital of Tormï¿½ï¿½a, was a great centre of Jainism in the Gupta period. The Kuvalayamï¿½lï¿½ mentions that the grand-disciple of Devagupta namely Yajï¿½adatta, who evidently flourished around 600 A.D., adorned the Gurjaradeï¿½a with Jaina temples.
In the Gupta period. Gujarat was an important centre of Jainism. An earlier council was summoned under Nï¿½gï¿½rjuna at Valabhi in the fourth century A.D. in order to bring the scriptures in order. Lastly, the council of Valabhï¿½ met under Devardhi Gaï¿½in Kshamï¿½ï¿½ramaï¿½a (Vï¿½ra 980-513 A.D.) and the Jaina canon was written down in book form. This is known as Valabhï¿½ version (Vï¿½chanï¿½) of the canons. In spite of the absence of royal patronage, Jainism continued to prosper in Gujarat. An old manuscript of theViï¿½eshï¿½vaï¿½yakabhï¿½shya197 of Jinabhadragaï¿½i discovered in the Jaisalmer Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ra informs that this work was conposed at Valabhï¿½ in 609 A.D. during the reign of ï¿½ilï¿½ditya.
There are other evidences to show that Jainism was in a flourishing condition during the reign of the Maitraka-Valabhï¿½ kings. A few images198 have recently been discovered from the ruins of Valabhï¿½ which have been assigned to the sixth century A.D. It has also been suggested199 that Jinabhardra Vï¿½chanï¿½chï¿½rya mentioned in the sixth century image inscription from Akota (Gujarat) is to be identified with Jinabhadragaï¿½i, the famous Jaina Scholar, who was probably a native of Valabhï¿½.
The Vividhatï¿½rthankalpa200 refers to the fact that there was a shrine dedicated to Chandraprabha at Valabhï¿½ before the destruction by the Muslims in 787 A.D.
In the non-Jaina texts of the Gupta period, there are frequent references to the Jainas. Bhï¿½sa201, Subandhu202, and Bï¿½ï¿½a203frequently refer to the Jainas. It appears from Subandhu’s Vï¿½savadattï¿½ that the Digambara Jainas were looked upon as the bitterest rivals of Hindu philosophers. In the Kï¿½dambarï¿½, Bï¿½ï¿½a openly praises the Jainas for their magnanimity. There are references to the Jainas in theBhï¿½gavata204 Brahamï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a205 etc. Varï¿½hamihira refers to the mode of fashioning of Jaina image in the Bï¿½ihat Saï¿½hitï¿½206. The Vasudevahiï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ is surely a product of the Gupta period207. Daï¿½ï¿½in in the Daï¿½akumï¿½racharita also refers to Jainism.
- POST GUPTA PERIOD
There is a paucity of Jaina records of the post-Gupta period. It seems that Jainism continued to exist without any further progress. The Chinese pilgrim Yuan Chwang, who came to India in the second quarter of the seventh century A.D., gives an account of Buddhism along with that Jainism. Jainism was prevalent in pockets in different parts of the country. Some ruling chiefs of Gujarat were followers of Jainism.
- ACCOUNT OF YUAN CHWANGS
From the account of Yuan Chwang’s visit in the second quarter of the seventy century A.D., it is clear that Jainism was prevalent at the different sites such as Kï¿½piï¿½ï¿½208, Siï¿½hapura209 Rï¿½jagï¿½iha210, Puï¿½ï¿½ravardhana211 and Samataï¿½a212. It appears from the account of the Chinese pilgrim that the Digambara Jainas were more popular in India than the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras in his days. The only reference to the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras that we get in his narrative is in connection with the description of Siï¿½hapura. It appears that during the time of Yuan Chawang’s visit, there was large Jaina centre during his visit. He saw many Digamaras on the Vipula mountain practising austerities incessantly. The account of Yuan Chwang shows that great popularity of Jainism in Puï¿½ï¿½ravardhana and Samataï¿½a, the two provinces of ancient Bengal. At both those places, the pilgrim noticed numerous Digambaras. The Pabhasï¿½ cave, near Kauï¿½ï¿½mbï¿½ was visited by Yuan Chwang213 in the seventh century A.D.214. Yuan Chwang215 noticed numerous Digambaras and shrines in the three Southern States of India, namely Chola, Draviï¿½a and Mo-lo-ku-ta (Malakuï¿½a). At the time of Yuan Chwang’s visit (629-645 A.D.), the cities of Pï¿½ï¿½alï¿½putra and Vaiï¿½ï¿½li were in ruins. The followers of the Nirgranthas were numerous216. Masarh, a village near Arah was visited by Yuan Chwang, who has refered to the place as Mahasolo and mentions in his account that he found there a temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha with eight Jaina images217.
From the well known Jaina temple-complex at Sonagiri (Datia District, Madhya Pradesh) has been discovered an epigraph of the seventh century A.D. which directly proves the great antiquity of the Jaina centre. It refers to a Jaina devotee called Vadï¿½ka who was the son of Singhadeva.
Jainism began to develop round about the region of Ujjain during this period. The Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½s218 of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha tell that the first twenty-six pontificates took place in Bhedalapura. According to the four Pattavalis219, Bhadalapura is in Malwa, while the fifth Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½ tells us more corrcetly, that it was in the South. After that, the twenty-seventh pontiff transferred his seat from Bhadalapura to Ujjain, as is evident from all the Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½s. From Ujjain, Maghachandra II, the fifty-third pontiff, shifted his seat to Baran in Kotah District in 1083 A.D. From Sarasvatï¿½ Gachchha and Balï¿½tkï¿½ra Gaï¿½a originated, and they were mentioned along with Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha220. Thus, it is clear that Jainism must have prospered by the efforts of those Jaina saints. Siï¿½hanandi is also known as the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka of Malwa221.
The region of Ujjain at this time became such a great centre of Jainism that people took it Vaiï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ from its ancient name Viï¿½ï¿½lï¿½. Jaina authors began to associate the incidents of the life of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra with Ujjain. Vardhamï¿½napura now known as Badnawar was founded after the name of Vardhamï¿½na.
In the temple of Vasantagadh, in Sirohi District, a pair of brass images of ï¿½ishabhadeva has been found underground on which is incised an inscription222 of 687 A.D. This inscription mentions that one Droï¿½oraka Yaï¿½odeva had the Jaina image built by the architect ï¿½ivanï¿½ga. This is the earliest Jaina image so far discovered in Rajasthan.
From Orissa, a number of Jaina inscriptions, belonging to this period have been found. The earliest of such inscriptions is that of a Sailodbhava grant, belonging to the seventh century A.D. This inscription223 mentions one Jaina Muni called Prabhuddhachandra and his Guru Arahadï¿½chï¿½rya Nï¿½sichandra. This proves the existence of Jainism in Orissa in the seventh century A.D. There is another seventh century inscription224 found from Ratnagiri hills (Cuttack-District) which is a Jaina record. It refers to the installation of Jaina images and points to the existence of the early Jaina establishment on these hills.
Jainism developed in Gujarat during the post-Gupta period. The great city of Valabhï¿½ was an important centre of Jainism. The city was well known for its celebrated shrine of Chandraprabha. There was also a famous temple at this great twon, dedicated to Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. Another town of Gujarat which was associated with Jainism was Bhï¿½igukachchha. The great ï¿½akunika Vihï¿½ra of this town was one of the greatest and most celebrated Jaina shrines of Western-India. Several Jaina texts225 refer to this Vihï¿½ra which was apparently built in the Gupta period. The Vyavahï¿½rabhï¿½sya226 describes Bhï¿½igukachchha as a place sacred to the Jainas.
The Chï¿½pas of Gujarat were sincere patrons of Jainism. According to the Jaina writers, Vanarï¿½ja of Paï¿½chï¿½sara, who later founded the city of Aï¿½ahilapura, was the earliest prince of this dynasty. One Chï¿½pa king Vyï¿½ghramukha was another prince of this dynasty ruled around 628 A.D. Vanarï¿½ja was helped by his Jaina Guru ï¿½ï¿½laguï¿½a-Sï¿½ri in his attempt to carve out an independent kingdom in 746 A.D. Vanarï¿½ja became a patron of Jainism, and a number of Jaina shrines were founded during his reign in his kingdom. On the suggestion of ï¿½ï¿½lagaï¿½a Sï¿½ri, he constructed the temple of Paï¿½chï¿½sara in which he helped the image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½th227. He also invited the Jaina merchants from ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la and other places of Marudharadeï¿½a to settle in Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ana, by affording to them many facilities.228
Jainism spread in Rajasthan during the eighth century A.D. by the efforts of the great scholar named Haribhadra Sï¿½ri who was the Guru of king Jitari of Chitor. In his work, Samaraich Chakahï¿½,229 he throws some light on the condition of Jainism. We are told how was the minister caused presents to be distributed and a festival to be celebrated in the Jaina temple in honour of the forthcoming ordination of his son, Sikhin. When the day fixed for it came round, he was carried in a palanquin with great pomp. The rivalry between Jainism and Buddhism was very keen in his time. Haribhadra Sï¿½ri wrote the Dhurtï¿½khyï¿½na230, in the eighth century. Vï¿½rasena learnt the Shaï¿½khaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½gama and the Kashayï¿½prï¿½bhï¿½ita from Elï¿½chï¿½rya at Chitor, and after that he wrote the Dhavlï¿½ and a protion of the Jayadhavalï¿½ in the ninth century in the South231. The caves on Patharaghati hill were the abodes of the Jaina ascetics in the sixth and the seventh centuries. There are paintings of the seventh and eighth centuries.232 There are rock-cut sculptures on the Kuluha hill and pair of foot-prints cut into the rock of the Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas on the top of Akaslochana hill in Hazaribagh District. The inscriptions found on the hill, however show that some of the ruins would date about seventh or eighth century A.D.233. There are evidences to prove that Jinasena, author of the Padmapurï¿½ï¿½a, lived in Bhadripura (Bhandil), Pï¿½ï¿½aliputra and Champï¿½234.
A number of ancient antiquities identified to be of the sixth century to ninth century A.D. have been excavated from Chausa in Buxar Sub-division. These antiquities include about twenty images of Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas ï¿½ Neminï¿½tha, ï¿½ishabhanï¿½tha and others, and a Dharma Chakra. These relics are now preserved in the Museum of Patna235.
- RECORD OF THE MUSLIM VISITORS ABOUT JAINISM IN WESTERN INDIA
Some information about Jainism is available in the writings of the Muslim travellers who visited Western India in about the eighth or ninth century A.D. Unfortunately, they were not enlightened observers and suffered from a confusion and ascribed evey image, temple and sage to Buddhism which is not necessarily correct. The image of Buddha became so popular with them that even the temple of the Sun was believed to be that of Buddha by Biladuri236. Even the European scholars who translated their works, could not distinguish between Jainism and Buddhism.
Abu Zaidul writes : “In India, there are persons who in accordance with their professions wander in the woods and mountains and rarely communicated with the rest of mankind. Sometimes, they have nothing to eat but herbs and fruits of the forest. Some of them go about naked, others stand naked with the face turned to the Sun, having nothing on but panther’s skin. In my travels, I was a man in the position I have described, sixteen years afterwards, I turned to that country and found him in the same posture. What astonished me was that he was not melted by the heat of the Sun237. Nakedness is the creed found among the Jainas though it was not unknown among the Hindus. Most probably, some of them were Jaina saints.
Asaral Bilad, an author of the 13th century, was not a traveller but he compiled his work from the writings of the earlier travellers. He on the information derived from Misorbin Muhalhil, author of Ajaibuldan, writes that in the city named Saimur, near Sindhu, there lived infidels who do not slaughter animals nor do they eat flesh, fish or eggs, but there are persons who eat animals that have fallen precipices or that been gored to death but they do not eat at once that have died a natural death.238 This type of information indicates that there were two kinds of people namely Buddhists and Jainas.
DECCAN (C. 300-600 A.D.)
Jainism received great royal support in the South from the various ruling dynasties of the Deccan during this period. At this time, Jainism was more popular in the Southern states than in those of the North. Many royal families of the Deccan, their ministers and small chieftains showed decided inclination towards Jainism. Although in some cases, it is difficult to prove that the rulers were actual converts to this faith, there is ample evidence to show that they were quite liberal in their help and patronage, which accounts for much of the prosperity of Jainism in this part of the country.
- THE GAÏ¿½GAS OF TALKAD
The Gaï¿½gas established their rule in Southern Karï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aka around the fourth century A.D. They are called Western Gaï¿½gas or Gangas of Mysore. Their earliest capital was located at Kolar, but later on it was transferred to Talkï¿½d. One of the notable early Ganga kings was Durvinita. Another great Gaï¿½ga monarch was ï¿½rï¿½purusa (C. 726-76 A.D.). During the eighth and ninth centuries A.D., the Gaï¿½gas were greatly harassed by the aggressive activities of the Eastern Chï¿½lukyas of Veï¿½gi, the Rashï¿½rakï¿½tas of Malkhed and other neighbours.
The Gaï¿½ga kings of Mysore were intimately associatded with Jainism239. A later tradition makes Konguï¿½ivarma, (C. 350-400 A.D.) the founder of the Gaï¿½ga family, a disciple of a Jaina teacher, called Siï¿½hanandina, and suggests that all his successors were followers of the faith. A later ruler, Annita (C. 500-540 A.D.) is said to have been brought up by a Jaina sage called Vijayakï¿½rti. At the preaching of Paramï¿½harta Vijayakï¿½rti240, he donated a village to the Jaina temple of Uranï¿½ra, and to the another temple one-fourth of the government custom. Another inscription241 records the endowment of land to the Jaina temple of Yï¿½vanika Saï¿½gha by the king Avinita. The famour Digambara author Pï¿½jyapï¿½da is associated with another king of this family, called Durvinita (C. 570-600 A.D.) The inscriptions of such Gaï¿½ga kings as Avinita, ï¿½ivamï¿½ra (670-713 A.D.) and ï¿½rï¿½purusha (C. 725-788 A.D.) record gifts to Jaina monks and building of Jaina temples, along with other giving donations to Brahmanic temples whatever be the personal religion of these rulers, their patronage to Jainism is quite apparent. An inscription242 of the seventh century A.D. of the time ï¿½ivamï¿½ra records the endowment of land by the king and others. The inscription243 of the eighth century A.D. mentions donation of two villages to a temple by some officials.
- THE KADAMBAS (C. 340-600 A.D.)
The Kadambas established their kingdom in Northern Karï¿½ï¿½taka in the fourth century A.D. after defeating the early Pallavas. Mayï¿½raï¿½arman founded this kingdom with Vaijayantï¿½ or Banavï¿½sï¿½ as the capital. Among the successors of Mayï¿½raï¿½arman Kï¿½kustha-Varman was important. During his reign, the Kadamba dominion and influence grew considerably. The next noteworthy Kadamba king was Ravi Varman, who made Halsï¿½ (Belgaum District) his capital, and successfully fought against the Gaï¿½gas and the Pallavas. The rise of the Chï¿½lukyas of Vï¿½tï¿½pi, then, dealt a severe blow to the ambitions of the Kadambas.
The Kadamba rulers of Vijayanti or Banavï¿½sï¿½ are often regarded as of Jaina persuasion. They showed unusual favour towards Jainism, probably the religion of a large section of their subjects. There are several records of these rulers giving donations to Jaina monks, erecting Jaina temples and giving other help to the different sections of the Jaina community. These records of the Kadamba rulers show that the Jaina community was flourishing under their benevolent patronage and that many high officials and rich land-lords of the country were devout followers of this religion. Building temples, feeding groups of monks, worship of the Jaina images and celebration of festivals formed the time-honoured mode of showing religious zeal.
The first king of this dynasty, who definitely showed special favour for the Jainas, was Kï¿½kusthavarman whose Halsigrant (Belgaum District, Karnataka) is dated in the 80th year (G.E., 400 A.D.) of the Paï¿½ï¿½abndha of his successor Mayï¿½raï¿½arman244. Some grant was issued from Palï¿½sikï¿½ (Halsi) by Kï¿½kusthavarman who is represented as the Yuvarï¿½ja of the Kadambas. By this grant, a field in the village called Kheï¿½agrï¿½ma,which belonged to the holy Arhats, was given to the general ï¿½rutakï¿½rti as a reward for saving the prince.245Kï¿½kusthavarman’s son was ï¿½ï¿½ntivarma whose son was Mrigeï¿½va Varma. Several grants of Mrigeï¿½va Varmï¿½ are connected with the Jaina religion. It the third year of his reign, he donated the land for Abhisheka and worship.246 In the fourth year of his reign, he made a gift of a village named Kï¿½lavaï¿½ga.247 It was divided in three equal portions; the first was meant for the temple of Jinendra. The second portion was concerned with the Saï¿½gha of the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras and the third for the use of the Nirgrantha-Mahï¿½sramaï¿½as. It is evident from this inscription that the Jinendra temple mentioned here, was the joint property of the monks of both the sections. In the eighth year of his reign, he gave to the holy Arhats, thirty-three nivartanas of land for the Yï¿½panï¿½yas, Nirgranthas and Kï¿½rchakas.248
Mrigeï¿½vavarma had three sons namely Ravivarma, Bhï¿½nuvarmï¿½ and ï¿½ivaratha. His successor Ravivarmï¿½ ruled from 478 to 513 A.D., According to the inscription249, Jayakï¿½rti, grandson of Senï¿½pati ï¿½rutakï¿½rti by the order of Ravivarmï¿½ donated ancestral Kheï¿½aka village to Kumï¿½radatta and other main ï¿½chï¿½ryas of the Yï¿½panï¿½ya Saï¿½gha for the welfare of his parents. According to the second inscription250, Damakirti, son of ï¿½rutakirti, donated four Nivartanal and after taking it from his master Ravivarmï¿½ for the welfare of his mother. As known from the third inscription251, in the eleventh year of Ravivarmï¿½’s reign, his younger brother Bhï¿½nuvarmï¿½ after acquiring fifteen Nivartana land from Paï¿½ï¿½ara Bhojaka, donated it to Jinendra. The reigning period of Ravivarmï¿½ is from 418 to 513 A.D.
The successor of Ravivarmï¿½ was his son Harivarmï¿½. Two inscriptions of his reign are available. The first inscription records the grant of the village of Vasuntavï¿½ï¿½aka, in the District of Suddikundï¿½ra, to a Jaina Sect, by Harivarmï¿½ in the fourth year of his reign252. Harivarma, in the fourth year of his reign at the preaching of ï¿½ivaratha donated the village Vasantuvï¿½ï¿½aka for the worship and alms to the Saï¿½gha in the temple built by Mrigeï¿½a, son of Senï¿½pï¿½ti Siï¿½ha. Chandrakshï¿½nta was made head of the Varisheï¿½ï¿½chï¿½rya Saï¿½gha by the Kï¿½rchakes253. As known from another inscription254 at the request of Sendraka king Bhanuvarmï¿½, that ruler donated the village Bharade for the second ï¿½ramaï¿½a Saï¿½gha named Ahirishï¿½ha, Harivarmï¿½ ruled over 513 A.D. to 534 A.D.
There is one more branch of the Kadambas who revolted against the main branch255. One inscription belonged to the time of Krisï¿½avarmï¿½256. There is mention of Yuvarï¿½ja (prince) named Pritaï¿½gaya Devarï¿½ja mentioned in the inscription. He was the ruler of Triparvata, and was follower of Jainism. He donated some land to the Yï¿½panï¿½ya Saï¿½gha for the worship, repairs etc. of the temple. The second inscription records the grant of a village Harivarmï¿½, in the fifth year of his reign, at the request of king Bhï¿½nuï¿½akti of the family of the Sendrakas257.
- WESTERN CHÏ¿½LUKYAS OF VÏ¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½PI (MODERN BADAMI)
The Chï¿½lukya power had a modest beginning under Jayasiï¿½ha and his son Raï¿½arï¿½ga. The latter’s successor, Pulakeï¿½in I, who came to the throne about the middle of the sixth century A.D. was, however, a figure of some note. He made Vï¿½tï¿½pi his capital. The next member of the dynasty was Kï¿½rtivarman. He defeated the Mauryas of North Konkan as well as the Kadambas of Banavï¿½sï¿½ (North Kanï¿½ra) and the Nalas. When Kï¿½rtivarman died, his younger brother Maï¿½galarï¿½ja or Maï¿½galeeaa is said to have taken Revatï¿½dvï¿½pa (Modern Reï¿½i, Ratnagiri District) and subjugated the Kalchuris of Northern Dekkan. Pulakï¿½in II (620-642 A.D.) found himself in possession of a big kingdom. After restoring order in his territories, he launched conquests which brought the Kadambas, the Gaï¿½gas of South Mysore, the Mauryas of Konkan, the Lï¿½ï¿½as, the Mï¿½lavas and the Gurjaras under his control. He also defeated the Pallava ruler, Mahendravarman, in the South and entered into friendly relations with the kingdom of the far Southern Kingdoms for a whole century. Though they established their authority over them in the end, they had to bow before the rising power of the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½tas by the middle of the eighth century A.D.
The followers of Jainism enjoyed the respectable position under the the Western Chï¿½lukyas who were of generous outlook. During the reign of Raï¿½arï¿½ga, his Saï¿½ï¿½raka feudatory named Durgaï¿½akti donated the land to the famous Ï¿½ankhï¿½ Jinalaya of Puligere258. The grant259 dated 489-90 A.D. of the reign of Pulakeï¿½in I mentions a feudatory of his Sï¿½miyï¿½ra of the Rundranila-Saindraka family who was his Governor for the Kuhuï¿½ï¿½i, District. It then purports to record that Sï¿½miyï¿½ra built a Jaina temple at the city of Alaktakanagars, which was the chief town of a circle of seven hundred villages in that District, and, with the permission of the king, made grants of certain lands and villages to the temple on the occasion of an eclipse of moon.
The inscription260 of the early Chï¿½lukya king Kï¿½rttivarmï¿½-I engraved on a stone tablet at the village of ï¿½ï¿½ur records the grant of a field for the dï¿½naï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ or hall for the distribution of charity and other puroses, of a Jinï¿½laya or Jaina tempe which had been built by one of the Guamuï¿½ï¿½as or village headman. This inscription also records that, while Kirttivarmï¿½ was reigning as supreme sovereign, and while a certain king Sind was governing the city of Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ipura, Doï¿½agï¿½muï¿½ï¿½a and Elagï¿½muï¿½ï¿½a and others, with the permission of king Mï¿½dhavatti, gave to the temple of Jinendra, for the purpose of providing the oblation, unbroken rice, perfumes, flowers etc., eight mattals of rice land, by the royal measure, to the west of the village of Karmagalï¿½r. The inscription is not dated but the style of characters leaves no doubt that it belonged to the early Chï¿½lukya king Kï¿½rttivarmï¿½ I.
Kirttivarman I who ruled up to 597 A.D. was succeeded by his brother Maï¿½galeï¿½a Recently, a new inscription261 of his reign has been discovered which proves the popularity of the Jaina religion during his time. The inscription is undated but refers to Maï¿½galaraja, who is no other than Maï¿½galeï¿½a of the Badami branch and it should therefore be assigned to C. 600 A.D. It records a grant of land to a Jaina monastery by the Sendraka chief Raviï¿½akti of Kannaï¿½akti. From the Aihole inscription262 dated 634 A.D. written by Ravikï¿½rtti, it is known that with the generous support of his patron Pulikeï¿½in-II of Badami, Ravikï¿½rtti founded a Jaina shrine. The poet Ravikï¿½rtti was not only a sincere and dedicated Jaina, but also one of the celebrated men of letters of his time. A Jaina cave at Badami and another at Ahihole belong to the early Chï¿½lukya period. Ayaï¿½a Mahï¿½devï¿½, the queen of Kubja Vishï¿½u Vardhana, junior brother of Pulikeï¿½in-II, made the gift of the village for the benefit of a Jaina tample. King Sï¿½hasatuï¿½ga, the patron of Akalaï¿½ka, appears to have been identified with the Western Chï¿½lukya emperor Vikramï¿½ditya-I (642-81 A.D.), and successor of Pulakeï¿½in-II.
There are also a number of grants professing to be from Chï¿½lukya kings like Vinayï¿½ditya, Vijayï¿½ditya and Vikramï¿½ditya giving gifts to Jaina teachers and for the building of temples. A long stone tablet from Lakshmeï¿½vara has several interesting inscriptions.263 The inscription dated 686 A.D. of the reign of Vinayï¿½ditya264 records a grant to an ï¿½chï¿½rya of Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha ï¿½nvaya and Devagaï¿½a sect. Another part of the same stone tablet dated in the 34th year of Vijayï¿½ditya265 mentions that the grant was made for the benefit of the temple of ï¿½ankha Jinendra at the city of Pulikara, the present Lakshmeï¿½vara. Another inscription dated 734 A.D. of the time of Vikramï¿½dityaII266 records that ï¿½ankhatï¿½rtha of the city of Pulikara and the temple called white Jinï¿½laya (Dhavala Jinï¿½laya) were embellished and repaired and that certain land was given for maintaining the worship of Jina.
The stone inscription267 dated 751-52 A.D. of Kï¿½rttivarman II Satyï¿½ï¿½raya discovered at the village Aï¿½ï¿½igeri in Navalgunda Taluka of Dharwar District records the construction of a Jaina temple by Kaliyamma who was holding the office of the headman of Jebulageri and the erection in fornt of a sculpture by a certain Koï¿½ï¿½iï¿½ulara-Kuppa whose name was Kï¿½rttivarman Gosï¿½i.
There are some epigraphs of Tamil Nadu, Kerala etc. which are not connected with any ruling dynasty. One inscription dated about sixth century A.D., has been discovered from Tirunï¿½tharkunru268 in Ginger Tï¿½luk of South Arcot. It records the fast unto death (niï¿½idikï¿½) in fifty seven days by Chandranandi ï¿½siriyar. A great Jaina saint named Ajanandi did every thing to make Jainism popular in the States Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala in South India during the eighth century A.D. He was responsible for fashioning a number of images in different parts of the Southern states of India. His name is mentioned in short epigraphs found from Vallimalai in Chitoor District of Andhra Pradesh and from Anaimala, Aivarmalai, Alagaramalai, Karuï¿½gï¿½lkkuï¿½i and Uttampaliyam in Madurai District. His name is also found in the natural cavern at Eruvï¿½ï¿½i in Tinnevelly District near Chitral in Keral.
NORTH INDIA (C. 800 – 1200 A.D.)
After the fall of the Guptas and the death of Harsha, there was political vacuum. The Rajputs seem to have appeared in the eighth century A.D. The period from eighth to the twelfth century A.D. in North and Western India, is called the Rajput period. Old Kshatriya dynasties disappeared and new ones with uncertain origin came into existence. The theory of Agnikula story of the Rajputs mentions the Pratï¿½hï¿½ras, the Chauhï¿½nas, the Parmï¿½ras and the Chï¿½lukyas. The Gurjara Pratï¿½haras, were chronologically the earliest and historically the most important of the Rajput dynasties. Besides there were other Rajput dynasties such as the Chandellas, Kalachuris, Tomaras, Kachchhapaghï¿½ï¿½as, Guhilas and Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½tas. It seems that these Rajput dynasties might have descended from the foreigners, Brï¿½hmaï¿½as, tribal people etc. One common factor among these Rajput dynasties is that they belonged to the ruling clans. Though these Rauputs were followers of Brahmanical religion, they patronized Jainism. As a result, Jainism made striking progress in their respective kingdoms.
- THE IMPERIAL PRATÏ¿½HARAS
The earliest settlement of the Imperial Pratï¿½hï¿½ras like the other Rajput clans was Rajasthan. The first important ruler of this dynasty was Nï¿½gabhaï¿½a I (C. 730-756 A.D.) who defeated the Arabs. Vatsarï¿½ja who ascended the throne about 778 A.D. was the first to attempt the building of an empire in North India. Vatsarï¿½ja was succeeded by his son Nï¿½gabhaï¿½a-II who retrieved the fortunes of the family. The rulers of ï¿½ndhra, Saindhava, Vidarbha and Kaliï¿½ga succumbed to him, and he defeated Chakrï¿½yudha, the lord of Vaï¿½ga. He forcibly seized the forts of the kings of ï¿½narta, Mï¿½lava, Kirï¿½ï¿½a, Turuska, Vatsa and Matsya. He shifted his capital from his homeland Kanauj in 815 A.D. Mihira Bhoja gradually rebuilt the empire by his conquests of the territories in Rajasthan, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. Mihira Bhoja was succeeded by his son Mahendrapalï¿½-I who ruled till about 909 A.D. He extended the empire over Magadha and North Bengal. His records have also been found in Kathiawar, East Punjab and Awadh.
Jainism flourised in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat under the Imperial Pratï¿½hï¿½ras. There is a temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra at Osia, constructed in the time of Vatsarï¿½jï¿½269. Uddyotana Sï¿½ri informs that he completed the Kuvalayamï¿½lï¿½ in 778 A.D. in the ï¿½shabhadeva temple of Jalor which was adorned with a large number of Jaina shrines. Another place called Agï¿½savana, which was probably situated not far from Jalor, was adorned with a large number of Jaina temples. That Jainism was in a flourishing conditions is further proved by an inscription discovered from Osia and is dated 956 A.D. Kakkuka was the Pratï¿½hï¿½ra ruler of Mandor near Jodhpur. He was a Sanskrit scholar and patron of Jainism. From the Ghaï¿½iyï¿½lï¿½ inscription of 861 A.D., it is clear that he constructed a Jaina temple.270
Under the advice of Bappabhaï¿½ï¿½isï¿½ri, Nï¿½gabhaï¿½a-II also known as ï¿½na spent much money on setting up Jaina temples and images. He built a Jaina temple at Kanauj, 100 cubits high, and erected a golden image of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. He also set up an image of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra at Gwalior, 23 cubits and is further said to have built Jaina temples at Mathura, Aï¿½ahilavï¿½ï¿½a, Modhera etc.271 It is known that various Gachchhas originated in the North with the disciples of Uddyotana Sï¿½ri who remained attached with this area because he died in about 937 A.D on a pilgrimage which he had undertaken from Mï¿½lavadeï¿½a to ï¿½atruï¿½jaya to worship ï¿½shabha. Mihira Bhoja also patronized Jainism under the influence of Nennasï¿½ri and Govindasï¿½ri, the disciples of Bappasï¿½ri.
Ujjain remained the seat of the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha during this period as known from the Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½s272. It was during the time of the Pratï¿½hï¿½ra ruler Vatsaraja that Jinasena-II composed the Harivarï¿½ï¿½nsapurï¿½ï¿½a in 783 A.D. at Vardhaï¿½ï¿½napura identified with modern Badnawar in Ujjain District. ï¿½chï¿½rya Harisheï¿½a,273 who belonged to the Puï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a Saï¿½gha, composed the Kathakoï¿½a in 931 A.D. at Vardhamï¿½napura now identified with Badnawar. Devasena274 wrote the Darï¿½anasï¿½ra at Dhï¿½ra.
Davagarh, Gyaraspur, Baï¿½oh-Pathari, Ahar and Indor (District Guna) became great centres of Jainism where Jaina temples were built and images were installed in them.275 From the inscription of 982 A.D. engraved in the ï¿½ï¿½hakhambhï¿½ at Gyaraspur, it is known that some pilgrims visited this place.
Several places of Uttar Pradesh were connected with the Jaina religion during this period. There is a celebrated group of Devgarh temples276 in Jhansi District. Majority of them came into existence in this period. The important inscription of Devgarh dated 862 A.D. of the time of Pratï¿½hï¿½ra Bhoja277 has been found in the temple ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha. The inscription proves that the shrine of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha existed before 862 A.D. Devagarh was known formerly as Luachchhï¿½gira. In further mentions that Mahï¿½sï¿½manta Vishï¿½urï¿½ma who had the tittle Paï¿½chamahï¿½ï¿½abda given to him by Paramabhaï¿½ï¿½raka Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½dhirï¿½ja Parameï¿½vara ï¿½rï¿½ Bhojadeva. The inscription which is incised on a pillar of the temple further refers to one ï¿½rï¿½deva who was the disciple of ï¿½chï¿½rya Kamaladeva. Another inscription278 deated V.S. 1016 mentions Tribhuvanakï¿½rti, a disciple of Devendrakï¿½rti who was a disciple of Ratnakï¿½rti of the Sarasvatï¿½ gachchha of Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha. A third inscription279 of the ninth century A.D. from this place refers to a Jaina Muni called Nï¿½gasenï¿½chï¿½rya.
In the literary texts composed during this period, Mathura is repeatedly mentioned as a celebrated Jaina centre. The Bï¿½ihatakalpabhï¿½shya280, composed in the eighth century A.D. refers to the Jaina shrines in residential areas of Mathura. The Bï¿½ihat Kathï¿½ Koï¿½a281 of Hariseï¿½a describes Mathura as Jinayatanamaï¿½ï¿½itï¿½ i.e. abounding in Jaina temples. This text was composed in 931 A.D. Jinaprabha282 informs that in 768 A.D., the great ï¿½vetï¿½mbara Savant Bappabhaï¿½ï¿½i established an image of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra at Mathura. This is also confirmed by the evidence of the Prabandha Koï¿½a.283 According to Devasena (895 A.D.), Rï¿½masena established Mathura Saï¿½gha at Mathura.284 This shows that Mathura continued as a favourite resort for both the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras and the Digambaras. A few Jaina inscriptions of this period have been discovered at Mathura. Several old cities of Uttar Pradesh like Ahichchhatra, Kï¿½mpliya, Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, Sï¿½ï¿½kï¿½ï¿½ya, ï¿½rï¿½vastï¿½, Kauï¿½ï¿½mbï¿½ etc. remained centres of Jainism, and Jaina images of this period have been discovered from these sites. These ancient remains point out that Jainism was popular in this region during this Pratï¿½hï¿½ra period.
- BAÏ¿½A GURJARA PRATÏ¿½HÏ¿½RAS OF Ï¿½Ï¿½JORAGRH
Jainism made marked progress during the reign of the Baï¿½a-Gï¿½rjara Pratï¿½hï¿½ras Rajorgarh, situated forty-five km. to the South-West of Alwar in Rajasthan. Jaina saints performed penances in some caves the traces of which are visible in the hills. By their inspiration, their followers constructed maginificent temples and placed images in them. An inscription dated V.S. 979 (923 A.D.) of the reign of king Sï¿½vaï¿½a records the construction of the temple as well as the installation of images of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha therein at Rï¿½jyapura by Sarvadeva, son of Dedullaka, and grandson of Arbhaï¿½a (of caste) of Dharkaï¿½a family.285 Three life-size Jaina figures are all standing upright.286 There are also two highly ornamented gaps besides numerous broken figures all apparently Jaina. In one of the ruined temples, there is a colossal Jaina figure thirteen feet nine inches with a canopy of two feet six inches over head which is supported by two elephants.287 The whole height of the sculpture is 16‘, 3”, and its breadth six feet. It is known as Nowgazï¿½, and it is said to have been by Bhaiï¿½sï¿½ Mahï¿½jana during the reign of some Baï¿½a Gurjara ruler.
- THE CHAHAMÏ¿½NAS
The Chahamï¿½nas, claiming descent from the Agnikula Rajputs, became independent in Ajmer towards the end of the ninth century A.D. Different branches of the Chahamï¿½nas ruled over different parts of Rajasthan such as ï¿½ï¿½kambharï¿½, Ranthambhor, Nï¿½ï¿½ol, Jï¿½lor and Chandrï¿½vatï¿½ of the several branches of the clan, the most important was that of ï¿½ï¿½kambharï¿½ or Sambhar. Ajayarï¿½ja founded the city of Ajayameru or Ajmer. Another famous member of the dynasty was Vigraharï¿½ja IV Vï¿½saladeva (1153-1164 A.D.). He conquered Gujarat, and captured Delhi from the Tomaras. The greatest monarch of this dynasty was Pï¿½ithvï¿½raja III ( 1179 A.D.). He was the lord of territories of Sambhar and Delhi. He asserted his superiority over Rï¿½jï¿½ Jayachandra with Kanauj as his capital. Both Pï¿½ithvï¿½rï¿½ja and Jayachandra were defeated towards the close of the twelfth century A.D. by Muhammed Ghori.
JAINISM UNDER THE CHAUHÏ¿½NAS
By the influence of the Jaina ï¿½chï¿½ryas, the Chauhï¿½na rulers also patronized Jainism. Pï¿½ithvï¿½rï¿½ja I is known have been ruling in 1105 A.D.288 He had golden cupolas put on the Jaina temples of Raï¿½thambhor.289 This besides proving his mastery of Raï¿½thambhor testifies to his liberal views in matters of religion. His son and successor was Ajayarï¿½ja. Though he was a devotee of ï¿½iva, he paid due respect also to the followers of Jaina sects. He permitted the Jainas to build temples in the newly founded city of Ajmer, presented a golden Kalaï¿½a to the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha290 and acted as a judge in the religious discussion between the ï¿½vetï¿½mbara teacher Dharmaghoshasï¿½ri and his Digambara opponent Guï¿½achandra. He was succeeded by his son Arï¿½orï¿½ja, also known as ï¿½nnaladeva, before 1133 A.D. He was a contemporary of Jinadattasï¿½ri whom he held in great respect. He visited him at his seat and granted a suitable site to his followers for the construction of a big Jaina temple291. Jinadattasï¿½ri died and was also cremated Ajmer in 1154 A.D. After Dï¿½dï¿½ Jinadattasï¿½ri, the place came to be known as Dï¿½dï¿½bï¿½rï¿½ or the garden of Dï¿½dï¿½. After that, in a number of towns in Rajasthan, the Jaina merchants renamed their gradens as Dï¿½dï¿½bï¿½rï¿½s in respectful memory of the great saint.
After Arï¿½orï¿½ja, Vï¿½saladeva Vigraharï¿½ja ascended the throne in about 1152 A.D. In religious matters, he followed the foot-steps of his forefathers. For Jainas, he built Vihï¿½ras, participated in their religious ceremonies and on the representation of one of their religious teachers, Dharmaghoshasï¿½ri, prohibited the slaughter of animals on the Ekï¿½daï¿½ï¿½ day.292 After him, Pï¿½ithvï¿½rï¿½ja II became the ruler. It is known from the Bijolia inscription of 1169 A.D. that Pï¿½ithvï¿½rï¿½ja II endowed the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha at Bijoliï¿½ with a village called Morakuri to meet its recurring expenses. Pï¿½ithvï¿½rï¿½ja II was succeeded by his uncle Someï¿½vara, son of Arï¿½orï¿½ja. He earned through his personal valour the biruda of Pratï¿½palaï¿½keï¿½vara and with a desire to gain heaven endowed Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha on the bank of the Revï¿½ wih a village named Revï¿½nï¿½ in absolute charity.293 After the Tomaras, the Chauhï¿½nas occupied Delhi. The Chauhï¿½na ruler Someï¿½vara was patron of Jainism. When he came to Delhi from Ajmer, a rich Jaina named Devapï¿½la accompanied him. Both made pilgrimage to the holy place Hastinï¿½pura. Devapï¿½la installed the standing image in 1176 A.D.294 After Someï¿½vafa, his son Pï¿½ithvï¿½rï¿½ja III became the emperor who ruled from 1179 A.D. He liked religious discussions and therefore, in his royal court, a debate was held in 1182 A.D. between Jinapatisï¿½ri and Paï¿½ï¿½ita Padmaprabha, Chaityavï¿½sï¿½ to Upakeï¿½agachchha in which Jinapatisï¿½ri emerged victorious.295
A branch of Chauhï¿½nas ruled from Nï¿½ï¿½ol in Marwar from 960 A.D. till 1252 A.D. Aï¿½varï¿½ja of this dynasty was a feudatory of the Solï¿½nkï¿½ emperor Kumï¿½rapï¿½la. He accepted Jainism and patronized it. He gave commands for the strict observance of ahiï¿½sï¿½ in his kingdom on certain days. He made over to his son Kaï¿½ukarï¿½ja the villlage of Sevï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ as Jï¿½gï¿½ra which was famous for the temple of Vï¿½ranï¿½tha, the 24th Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara. The inscription of Sevï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ of 1110 A.D. of the time of Aï¿½varï¿½ja records a grant of barley equal to one hï¿½raka from every one of the wells arahaï¿½a belonging to the villages of Padrï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, Medraï¿½chï¿½, Chhechhaï¿½iyï¿½ and Meddaï¿½ï¿½ for the daily worship of Dharmanï¿½thadeva in the temple of Samï¿½pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ by the Mahï¿½sï¿½haï¿½ï¿½ya Uppalarï¿½ka (the great master of stables). The second stone inscription of Sevï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ of 1115 A.D. records that Kaï¿½ukarï¿½ja made an annual grant of 8 drammas to Thallaka, the son of Bï¿½haï¿½a, on the ï¿½ivarï¿½trï¿½ day for the worship of ï¿½ï¿½ntinatha in the Khattaka (niche) of Yaï¿½odeva, the grandfather of the donee.296
Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Rï¿½yapala also patronized Jainism. The Nï¿½ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½ stone inscription of 1132 A.D. records a grant made by Rudrapï¿½la and Amï¿½itapï¿½la, sons of Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Rï¿½yapala along with their mother, Rï¿½jï¿½ï¿½ Mï¿½naladevï¿½. The gift consists of two palikï¿½s of oil out of the share due to the royal family from each oil mill. The recipients were the Jaina ascetics in the outside of Nï¿½ï¿½ï¿½laï¿½ï¿½gika297. The Nï¿½ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½ stone inscription of 1138 A.D. refers to the reign of Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Rï¿½yapï¿½la over Naï¿½ï¿½laï¿½ï¿½gika and then records the gift of one twentieth part of the income derived from the loads leaving or entering Nï¿½ï¿½ï¿½laï¿½ï¿½gika by the Guhila ï¿½hï¿½kura Rï¿½jadeva for the the worship of Neminï¿½tha298. The third Nï¿½ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½ stone inscription of 1143 A.D. is of the reign of Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Rï¿½yapï¿½la when Rï¿½ula Rï¿½jadeva was the ï¿½hï¿½kura of Naï¿½ï¿½laï¿½ï¿½gika. It records some benefaction of the temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra.299 The fourth inscription of 1143 A.D. of his place of the reign of Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Rï¿½yapï¿½la records that Rï¿½ula Rï¿½jadeva made a grant of one Viï¿½ï¿½opaka from the Pailas (coin) according to him and two palikï¿½s from the bales of oil due to him from every ghï¿½ï¿½aka to this temple300.
Mahï¿½rï¿½ja ï¿½lhaï¿½adeva, feudatory of Kumï¿½rapï¿½la, obtained Kirï¿½ï¿½akï¿½pa, Lï¿½ï¿½arhaï¿½a and ï¿½ivï¿½ in 1152 A.D. through the favour of his master. He also extended patronage to Jainism. He on the ï¿½ivarï¿½trï¿½ day in 1152 A.D. thinking the granting of security to animals to be the highest gift issued injunctions for the increase of his spiritual merit and fame to the Mahï¿½janas, tï¿½mbï¿½likasand other subjects, forbidding the slaughter of living beings on the 8th, 11th and 14th days of both the fortnights of every month in the three towns named above and threatening with capital punishment those who killed or caused others to kill living beings.301 The Brï¿½hmaï¿½as, priests, ministers and others were also ordered to respect this edict of non-slaughter. And amongst these, he who commits the sin of taking life should be fined five drammas, but if the sinner be one attached the king, he should be fined one dramma only. We know from the Nï¿½ï¿½ol grant that ï¿½lhaï¿½a and Kelhaï¿½a were pleased to give to the Rï¿½japurta Kï¿½rtipï¿½la 12 villages, appertaining to Nï¿½ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½. In 1160 A.D. after bathing at Nï¿½ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½ and worshipping the Sun and Maheï¿½vara, Kï¿½rtipï¿½la granted a yearly sum of two drammas from each of his twelve villages to Jina Mahï¿½vï¿½ra at Nï¿½ï¿½alï¿½ï¿½.302 This he had done either voluntarily or on the request of the Jainas. The Nï¿½ï¿½ol grant of 1171 A.D. registers that Mahï¿½rï¿½ja ï¿½lhaï¿½deva of Nï¿½ï¿½ï¿½la worshipping the Sun and Iï¿½ï¿½na and making gifts to Brï¿½hmaï¿½as and Gurus, granted to the Jaina temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra in the Sanderaka Gachchha at the holy place (Mahasthï¿½na) of Nï¿½ï¿½ï¿½la a monthly sum of 5 drammas to be paid from the custom house (Sulkamaï¿½ï¿½apikï¿½) in the Nï¿½ï¿½ulatalapada.303
Kelhaï¿½adeva, the son of ï¿½lhaï¿½adeva, also contributed to the progress of Jainism. The Saï¿½ï¿½erï¿½va stone inscription of 1164 A.D. in the reign of Kelhaï¿½adeva records that Aï¿½halladevï¿½, the queen mother, granted one plough of land to the Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, Mï¿½lanï¿½yaka of the Saï¿½ï¿½eraka Gachchha.304 The Lï¿½lrï¿½i stone inscription of 1176 A.D. of the reign of Kelhaï¿½adeva states that the Rï¿½japutras Lï¿½khaï¿½apï¿½la and Abhayapï¿½la, the owners of Siï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ava and sons of Kï¿½rtipï¿½la, made grant conjointly with the queen Mahibaladevï¿½ in the presence of the village Paï¿½chakula for celebrating the festival of the god ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha. The grant consisted of barely weighing one Bï¿½raka as used as the country of Gurjarï¿½tra from the well of the village Bhaï¿½iyï¿½uva.305 The second Lï¿½lrï¿½ï¿½ stone inscription of the same time speaks of the Rï¿½japutras Lï¿½khaï¿½apï¿½la and Abhayapï¿½la as the owners of Saï¿½nï¿½ï¿½aka. It then records that the cultivators Bhï¿½vaï¿½ï¿½, ï¿½sadhara and others granted for their spiritual merit four seers of barely from the (field) called Khï¿½ï¿½isï¿½ra to the Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha in connection with the festivals of the Gurjaras.306 The second Saï¿½ï¿½erï¿½va stone inscription of 1179 A.D. of the reign of Kelhaï¿½adeva of Nï¿½ï¿½ï¿½la records the gift of a column and house to the Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha, worshipped at Saï¿½ï¿½eraka (Sanderï¿½va) in the Bhuktiof the queen Jï¿½lhaï¿½a by Rï¿½lhï¿½ and Pï¿½lhï¿½. Those residing in the house must pay four ‘draelas‘ to the God.307
Kï¿½rtipï¿½la removed the Chahamï¿½na capital from Nï¿½ï¿½ol to Jabï¿½lipura. Jainism made much headway even under the reign of Chahamï¿½nas of Jabï¿½lipura. The Jï¿½lore stone inscription 1182 A.D. of the reign of Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Samarasiï¿½hadeva, son of Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Kï¿½rtipï¿½ladeva and grandson of Mahï¿½rï¿½ja ï¿½lhaï¿½a records that Maï¿½ï¿½apa was constructed by the seï¿½haYaï¿½ovï¿½ra of ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la family who was joined in this work by his brother and all the members of the Goshï¿½hï¿½.308 Yaï¿½ovï¿½ra became the minister of Udayasiï¿½ha, the successor Samarasiï¿½ha. Another inscription of Jï¿½lore records that the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha built by Kumï¿½rapï¿½la was rebuilt in 1185 A.D. by the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rï¿½ Yaï¿½ovï¿½ra in accordance with the orders of Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Samarasiï¿½hadeva of the Chahamï¿½na family.309 The inscription of 1245 A.D. referring itself to the reign of Chahamï¿½na king Chï¿½chigadeva specified the contribution of 50 drammas to the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ra of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra of the Chandanavihï¿½ra by a Teliï¿½ Osavï¿½la called Narapati.310 Another inscription of 1275 A.D. records the gift of one Narapati to the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha in the reign of Sï¿½mantasiï¿½ha.311
We thus see that under the liberal patronage of the Chauhï¿½na rulers, Jainism acquired a hold in the Marwar, Ajmer, Bijoliï¿½ and Sï¿½mbhar regions of Rajasthan. Both Jainism and Hinduism continued to flourish side by side. There was no spirit of rivalry on intolerance. The kings used to worship both Hindu gods and Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas at the same time and used to participate in the affairs and functions of both the religions.
THE CHAUHÏ¿½NAS OF CHANDRAVUAÏ¿½A
The Chauhï¿½na ruler Chandrapï¿½la established a principality outside Rajasthan at Chandravï¿½ï¿½a, modern Firozabad, Uttar Pradesh in the last quarter of the tenth century A.D. His Diwï¿½n Rï¿½masiï¿½ha and king himself were followers of Jainism. After constructing Jaina fort at Chandravï¿½ï¿½a, thy built the Jaina temple in 996-999 A.D., and installed the image of Chandraprabhu in it. The Chauhï¿½na rulers of this dynasty namely Chandrapï¿½la, Bharatapï¿½la, Jï¿½haï¿½a and Ballï¿½la were either Jainas or partons of Jainism. Their ministers were followers of Jainism. Amï¿½itapï¿½la, a Ministers of Abhayapï¿½la constructed the Jaina image at Chandravï¿½ï¿½a. Soï¿½ï¿½sï¿½hu Minister of Jahaï¿½a, got the Bhavishyadattakathï¿½ written in Apabhraï¿½ï¿½a in 1173 A.D. There was another branch of this Chauhï¿½na dynasty at Asï¿½likheï¿½a in Etawa District of Uttar Pradesh. Several images of this period were discovered at this site. Even Jaina images of this period were found at Kauï¿½ï¿½mbhi and Jalso in Allahabad District were discovered.312
2.2 THE PARAMÏ¿½RAS
Although Malwa was the centre of Paramï¿½ra power, minor branches of the clan ruled over Chandrï¿½vati and Abu, Banswara, Jaor and Kirï¿½ï¿½u. Vï¿½lkapati Muja (973 A.D.) is known to be the well known ruler of the Paraï¿½ï¿½ra dynasty of Malwa. He combined the rare combination of military ability and constructive statesmanship. He is said to have vanquished the Kalachuri ruler of Tripuri. Besides, he made the Lï¿½ï¿½as, Karï¿½ï¿½ï¿½as, Cholas and the Kerals bow to his head. He was badly defeated by the Chï¿½lukya Tailapa II. In about 1000 A.D., Bhoja became the ruler, and ruled up to 1055 A.D. He is the most famous and greatest Paramï¿½ra ruler of Malwa. Under him, Paramï¿½ra imperialism reached its zenith, and Malwa rose to its greatest glory and renown. This dynasty continued in the hands of undistinguished rulers until Ala-ud-dï¿½n-Khaljï¿½ conquered Malwa in the beginning of the fourteeth century A.D.
That Jainism made considerable progress in Malwa during this period is clear from literary and archaeological evidence. Though the ruling chiefs were followers of Brahmanical religion, they took an active interest in the development of Jainism. They patronized Jaina scholars, and promoted Jainism in their kingdom. Jaina saints converted a large number of people. Jaina temples were built, and images were placed in them. There were also the Jaina holy places of pilgrimage.
The Jaina ï¿½chï¿½ryas Amitagati, Mahï¿½sena, Dhanapï¿½la and Dhaneï¿½vara, were patronized by Vï¿½kpati Muï¿½ja. Amitagati, who belonged to Mï¿½thura Saï¿½gha, was the disciple of Mï¿½dhavasena Sï¿½ri and grand-disciple of Nemisheï¿½a. Mahï¿½sena was of the Lï¿½ï¿½a Bï¿½gaï¿½a Saï¿½gha, and he was the pupil of Guï¿½akarasena, who was the pupil of Jayasena. Mahï¿½sena was the Guru of Parpaï¿½a who was the Mahattama of Sindhurï¿½ja. Mï¿½ï¿½ikyanandi, the author of Parï¿½kshï¿½mukha, probably lived during his reign at Dhï¿½ra. His predecessors are Padmanandi, Viï¿½hnunandi, Viï¿½vanandi, Vï¿½ishabhanandi, Ramanandi and Trailokyanandi. They might have been living in the area of Malwa.
The great Jaina writer Prabhï¿½chandra was honoured by Bhojadeva. Dhanapï¿½la wrote his Tilakamaï¿½jarï¿½ at the request of Bhoja who conferred on the author the title of Sarasvatï¿½. Under his influence, Bhoja is said to have inclined towards Jainism. From the Dubkunda inscription of V.S. 1145 (1088 A.D.), it is known that ï¿½ï¿½ntisheï¿½a defeated the learned scholars in discussions in the court of Bhoja. Surï¿½chï¿½rya also adorned his court. Devabhadra also perhaps received the favour and patronage of Bhoja.
The famous Jaina ï¿½chï¿½ryas, Jineï¿½varasï¿½ri and Buddhisï¿½gara of Dhï¿½ranagarï¿½, must have lived during Bhoja’s time. Another contemporary Jaina poet was Nayanandi, who composed his Sudarï¿½ana Charita in 1043 A.D., while staying in the Jinavaravihï¿½raof Dhï¿½ra. ï¿½rï¿½chandra, pupil of ï¿½rï¿½nandi, who under Bhojadeva of Dhï¿½ra, wrote the Purï¿½nasï¿½ra, and commentaries on thePadmacharita of Ravisheï¿½a, and the Mahï¿½purï¿½ï¿½a of Pushpadanta. Nemichandra Saidhï¿½nika wrote the Laghudravya Saï¿½graha at ï¿½ï¿½ramanagara (Keshorï¿½ipï¿½tan) during the reign of Bhoja, when ï¿½rï¿½apï¿½la was Mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½alika.
The inscription engraved on the pedestal of a colossal image of a Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara in the old Jaina temple at Bhojapura, refers to Chandrï¿½rdhamauli (i.e. the God ï¿½iva), and its consecration by the Jaina householder Sï¿½garnandin, through the Jaina monk Nemichandra Sï¿½ri, in the reign of Bhojadeva. While installing the Jaina image, it invokes the god ï¿½iva in its beginning and thus it goes to show that the person who installed the image was equally devoted to both these faiths. Bhoja was succeeded by Jayasiï¿½hadeva, who was also patron of Prabhï¿½chandra.
The Jaina temples at unascribed to the eleventh and twelfth centuries, appear to have been built during the reign of the later Paramï¿½ra kings of Malwa. This is confirmed by the two inscriptions of Udayï¿½ditya, and a Sarpabandha inscription of Naravarman.
The inscription of V.S. 1157 on the pedestal of an image of the Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha at Bhojapura records that it was installed by Chillna of the Vemaka family during the reign of Naravarman. An inscription of 1134 A.D., in the Jaina temple of Sheragarh, records how a great festival of the Jaina Tï¿½rthï¿½nkara of Neminï¿½tha was celebrated at the new Chaitya during the reign of Naravarman. Devapï¿½la ordered the ratnatraya (images of three Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas – ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha, Kuntanï¿½tha, and Arahanï¿½tha), and performed their installation ceremony in association with his son, parents, relatives and goshï¿½hï¿½s at Koï¿½avardhana. His ancestor Mï¿½hilla had migrated to Malava from Sï¿½ryï¿½ï¿½rama.
Jainism gradually became a powerful force because of the literary, missionary and reformist activities of the Jaina scholars and saints in the Paramï¿½ra dominions. Dharasena lived in Dhï¿½ra, and his disciple was Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, a learned ï¿½chï¿½rya, well-versed in different branches of Jainism, and who received the patronage of king Vindhyavarman. When ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dhara migrated to Dhï¿½ra from Mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½algarh in about 1192 A.D., he was taught by Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dhara, was a profound scholar of Jainism. He lived for a long time, to the middle of the thirtheenth century A.D., and wrote a number of books on Jainism. He mentions five kings during his lifetime viz., Vindhavarma, Subhaï¿½avarma, Arjunavarma, Devapï¿½la and Jaitugideva. Probably, his father Salakhaï¿½a, was Sandhivigrahika (Minister of peace and war) of Arjunavarman, and ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dhara’s son also served the same ruler in some capacity. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dhara has been highly praised by the great poet Bilhaï¿½a, who was also the Saï¿½dhivigrahika of Vindhyavarmadeva, and Bï¿½la Sarasvatï¿½ Mahï¿½kavi Madana learnt Kï¿½vyaï¿½ï¿½stra under his guidance. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dhara left a number of Jaina disciples, such as Viï¿½ï¿½lakï¿½rtti, Arhadï¿½sa and Devachandra, who advanced the cause of Jainism by their literary contributions.
In 1197 A.D., (V.S. 1264), Jinapati Sï¿½ri visited Dhï¿½ra and propagated Vidhimï¿½rga in the temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha. In the middle of the thirteenth century, Devadhara seems to have been the head of a Jaina monastery at Ujjain. He died in V.S. 1327 (1270 A.D.) in Malwa, and thirteen days later, his appointed successor, Vidyï¿½nandasï¿½ri, also passed away at Vidyï¿½purï¿½. After that, the brother of the latter, Dharmakï¿½rtti Upï¿½dhyï¿½ya, received the Sï¿½ripada under the name of Dharmaghosha. He died in V.S. 1357 (1300 A.D.).
The considerable progress and growing popularity of Jainism is reflected in the remains of numerous images found at Gandhawal, Badnawar, ï¿½n, Ujjain etc. The holy places of Jainism existing before the fourteenth century A.D. are known from the Vividha-tï¿½rth of Jinaprabhasï¿½ri, who mentions Kuï¿½uï¿½geï¿½wara of Ujjain, Abhinandanadeva at Maï¿½galapura, Supï¿½rï¿½va at Daï¿½apura and Mahï¿½vï¿½ra of Bhï¿½ilasvï¿½ï¿½i Gaï¿½ha. The ï¿½ï¿½sanachatustriï¿½ï¿½atikï¿½ of Madanakï¿½riti also refers to Abhinandana Jina of Maï¿½galpura and the image of Bï¿½vangajï¿½ of Badwani as Bï¿½ihaddeva. Jayï¿½nanda, in the Pravï¿½sagï¿½tikï¿½ mentions Lakshmï¿½, which is situated in the forest near Nimbï¿½ra. There is a holy place named Tï¿½lanpur in Dhï¿½ra District. Once inscription dated V.S. 1022 on an image bears the name Tuï¿½gipattan. The Prï¿½krit Nirvï¿½ï¿½a Kï¿½ï¿½da, which seems to be wrongly attributed to Kundakunda, refers to Chï¿½lagiri, Pï¿½vï¿½giri and Siddhavarakï¿½ï¿½a. Chï¿½lagiri is identified with Bavï¿½nagajï¿½ of Badwani and Pï¿½vï¿½giri with ï¿½ï¿½. The remains of Jaina temples and images of the eleventh and twelfth centuries have been discovered both at Bï¿½vanagajï¿½ and ï¿½ï¿½.
Some inscriptions engraved on the images throw light upon the Jaina Saï¿½ghas and their ï¿½chï¿½ryas, who performed the installation ceremony of images. The Mulasaï¿½gha and its ï¿½chï¿½rya Ratnakï¿½rtti has been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1323. This Saï¿½ghahas also been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1230 found at Badnawar. The Mï¿½thura Saï¿½gha is known from the inscriptions of the twelfth century engraved on the Jaina images discovered here. Kalyï¿½ï¿½akï¿½rtti of the Vï¿½gaï¿½a Saï¿½gha is known to have installed images at Vardhanï¿½pura now known as Badnawar, in V.S. 1308. The Lï¿½ï¿½a Vï¿½gaï¿½a Gachchha (Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Samgha) is also mentioned in the Jaina image dated V.S. 1325 found at Tï¿½lanpur. The temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha existed at Badnawar, as is known from the inscription of V.S. 1229. Khaï¿½ï¿½ela gachchha, which originated from Khandela in Rajasthan, has been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1325. The Mï¿½thura Saï¿½gha and its ï¿½chï¿½ryas, are known from the inscription of V.S. 1308. There is an image at Badnawar installed by the teachers of the Punnï¿½ï¿½a Saï¿½gha.313
Jainism : The Parmara rulers of ï¿½bï¿½ also patronized Jainism like other Rï¿½japuta rulers. An inscription of 967 A.D. in the Jaina temple at a village named Diyï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ in Sirohi state records that during the reign of Kï¿½ishï¿½arï¿½ja, the image of Vï¿½ranï¿½tha was set up by Vardhamï¿½na belonging to the Vishï¿½ita family314. This inscription is very important as it determines the date of Kï¿½ishï¿½arï¿½ja also. He was the Paramï¿½ra ruler of ï¿½bï¿½, son of Araï¿½yarï¿½ja and grandson of Utpalarï¿½ja. This is the oldest in cription of the Paramï¿½ra rulers of ï¿½bï¿½.
There is an inscription in the temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra at Jhï¿½ï¿½oli which records that the wife of Paramï¿½ra king Dhï¿½rï¿½varsha named ï¿½rigï¿½radevï¿½ gave land to the temple in 1197 A.D.315 An inscription of 1243 A.D. records a grant to the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha during the reign of ï¿½lhaï¿½asiï¿½ha, king of Chandrï¿½vatï¿½316. In 1288 A.D., during the reign of Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Vï¿½saladeva, Sï¿½raï¿½gadeva of Chandrï¿½vatï¿½, the Paramï¿½ra Thï¿½kuras namely ï¿½rï¿½ Pratï¿½pa and ï¿½rï¿½ Hemadeva of the village Dattï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ gave two pieces of land to meet the expenses of the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha.317 Suhhaï¿½asiï¿½ha, the son of Rï¿½vala Mahï¿½pï¿½ladeva, gave 400 drammas to this temple for performing some religious function. From the inscription of 1334 A.D. at Diyï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, we know that the king Tejapï¿½la and his minister Kï¿½pa constructed a cistern and gave it to the temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra.318
23 THE CHÏ¿½ULUKYAS
As the Chï¿½ulukyas conquered ï¿½bï¿½, this dyansty became associated with the Agnikula story. The Chï¿½ulukya dynasty of Aï¿½ahilapï¿½ï¿½aka identified with modern Pï¿½ï¿½an in Gujarat was founded by Mï¿½larï¿½ja. The next important figure was Bhï¿½ma-I, nephew of Mï¿½larï¿½ja’s grandson Durlabharï¿½ja who ruled for about forty-two years from C. 1021 A.D. to 1063 A.D. When Sultï¿½n Mahmï¿½d Ghazï¿½i withdrew, he recovered his capital and revived the Chaulukya power. Bhï¿½ma-I was followed by his son Karï¿½a, who could not achieve anything substantial despite a long reign about thirty years (C. 1063-93 A.D.). Karï¿½a’s successor was Jayasiï¿½ha Siddharï¿½ja. He was the most striking personality among the rulers of Aï¿½ahilawï¿½ï¿½a, and he ruled from 1093-1145 A.D. After the death of Jayasiï¿½ha, the throne was seized by his distant relative Kumï¿½rapï¿½la. He was an energetic man, he pursued a policy of active militarism. The later Chaulukya monarchs were not important.
JAINISM IN GUJARAT
Gujarat was a flourishing centre of Jainism throughout the Chaulukya. The Jaina influence at the court of the Chaulukya kings of Gujarat may be traced from the time of the very founder of the dynasty. A Jaina temple, known as Mï¿½labastikï¿½, is said to have been constructed by Mï¿½larï¿½ja himself at his capital Aï¿½ahilapï¿½ï¿½aka or Aï¿½ahilavï¿½ï¿½a. According to the Kathakosha of ï¿½rï¿½chandra, Mï¿½larï¿½ja had for his legal adviser (dharma-stï¿½nasya Goshï¿½hikah) one Sajjana of the Prï¿½gvï¿½ï¿½a family of Aï¿½ahilavï¿½ï¿½a and ï¿½rï¿½chandra, the disciple of Sahasrakï¿½rti, whose spiritual predecessors were ï¿½rutakï¿½rti and ï¿½rï¿½kï¿½rti in the line of Kundakunda, composed the work for the instruction of the family of Sajjana’s son Krishï¿½a. The prestige that this line of spiritual teachers enjoyed in the political world of the period is indicated incidentally in the praï¿½asti, where Sahasrakï¿½rti is described as “the sinless teacher whose supreme lotus feet were worshipped by eminent kings like Gï¿½ï¿½geya, Bhojadeva and others.” The reference is presumably to the Kalachuri king of Chedi and the Paramï¿½ra king of Malwa.
During the reign of Bhima-I, his minister Vimala of the Prï¿½gvï¿½ta family built, at abu the most magnificent Jain temple of ï¿½dinï¿½tha. Indian craftsmanship of the age has found its best expression here, and the temple, for its rich delicate carving, grace, and beauty, is considered to be unique in the world. The temple was completed in A.D. 1031, i.e. within seven years of the demolition of Somanï¿½tha by Mahmï¿½d of Ghazni. The Kharatara gachchha-paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½vali records that minister Vimala of the Porwï¿½ï¿½ caste captured the parasols of thirteen Sultï¿½ns, founded the town of Chandrï¿½vatï¿½, and built the temple of ï¿½ishabhadeva on the Arbudï¿½chala. These activities of Vimala which, of course, had the approval of his royal master, Bhï¿½ma, were probably a reaction to the Muslim vandalism exhibited at Somanï¿½tha and other places.
Jainism became more dominant at the Chaulukya court during the reigns of Siddharï¿½ja and his successor Kumï¿½rapala. The latter actually accepted Jainism under the influence of “the most learned man of his time,” the celebrated Hemachandra (A.D. 1088-1172), and under his inspiration and guidance enriched Gujarat with Jain shrines to an enormous extent. During his reign, Gujarat became a stronghold of Jainism, in respect of followers as well as institutions, for all time to come. The secret of this success was not any fanatic zeal, but the promotion of understanding between different faiths, which is the corner-stone of Jainism and was particularly emphasised by Hemachandra in word as well as in deed. The continuity of the faith and the prosperity of the followers are attested by the temple of Neminï¿½tha built in the vicinity of ï¿½dinï¿½tha temple at ï¿½bu, mentioned above, by Tejapï¿½la of the Porwï¿½ï¿½ family, who was a minister of the chaulukya king Somasiï¿½hadeva. It was completed in A.D. 1230. In its beauty of sculptural decoration, it is only comparable to the ï¿½dinï¿½tha temple. To these were added numerous Jaina shrines and other structures during the twelfth and the thirteenth century, the fame of which gave the place its new name Devala-vï¿½da or Delwï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. Besides ï¿½bu, ï¿½atrunjaya and Girnï¿½r in Kathiawad received particular attention of the rulers and merchants, whose bounty is reflected in the huge and beautiful temples which have since been adorning their peaks. The Chintï¿½maï¿½i Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha temple at Khambhï¿½ta was built about A.D. 1108 and repaired in A.D. 1295. It records names of several devotees from Malwa, Sapï¿½dalaksha, and Chitrakï¿½ï¿½a, who endowed the temple from time to time.319
The successor of Jayasiï¿½ha was Kumï¿½rapï¿½la who gradually came under the influence of Hemachandra and at last, embraced Jainism. He took various steps for the propagation of Jainism; and in certain respects, he made his state a model Jaina state. He not only himself renounced the joys and pleasures prohibited by the Jaina scriptures but also induced his subject to follow his path. He issued an ordinance for the protection of animal life; and it was applied most strictly throughout his empire. The Dvyï¿½ï¿½raya-Kï¿½vya says that in Pï¿½lideï¿½a in Rajasthan the Brï¿½hmaï¿½as were forced to use corn instead of flesh in sacrifice and the ascetics who used to wear antelope skin found it hard to procure it. Merutï¿½ga in the Yï¿½kï¿½vihï¿½raprabandha also mentions that a simple minded merchant of Sapï¿½dalaksha was given the punishment of building the Yï¿½kï¿½vihï¿½ra at his cost for committing the offence of crushing a mouse.320
- JAINISM UNDER THE RÏ¿½THORAS OF HAÏ¿½HÏ¿½NDÏ¿½
Haï¿½hï¿½ndï¿½ (Hastikundi) is a place near Bijapur in Marwar. The Rï¿½thoras ruled here during the tenth century A.D. Generally, they were the followers of Jainism. Vidagdharï¿½ja, son of Harivarman, at the preaching of Vï¿½sudevï¿½chï¿½rya, built a temple of Rishabhdeva here and also made a gift of land to it. His son Mammaï¿½a made a grant for this temple. His son was Dhavala who also renovated the Jaina temple built by his grandfather and helped in every way to glorify Jainism. He in conjuction with his son made a gift of a well called Pï¿½ppala.Dhavala renounced the world in his old age after having placed his son Balaprasï¿½da on the throne. The goshï¿½hï¿½ of Hastikuï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ also renovated this temple. After its restoration, the installation ceremony of the image was performed ï¿½ï¿½ntibhadra, the pupil of Vï¿½sudevï¿½chï¿½rya, in 1053 A.D.; and several ï¿½rï¿½vakas participated in it. These Rashï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½as weighed themselves in gold and distributed it among the poor as charity.321
25 THE YADUVAÏ¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½ OR SÏ¿½RASENA KINGS OF BAYÏ¿½NÏ¿½ OR Ï¿½RÏ¿½PATHÏ¿½
The kingdom of Yaduvaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ or ï¿½urasena dynasty comprised the old Bharatpur state and the Mathura District. The king Jaitapï¿½la as known from the traditions may be placed in the first half as known from the traditions may be placed in the first half of the eleventh century. His successor was Viajayapï¿½la mentioned in the Bayana inscription dated 1044 A.D. His successor was Tahanapï¿½la who was followed in succession by Dharmapï¿½la, Kuï¿½varapï¿½la and Ajayapï¿½la (1150 A.D.) Haripï¿½la was successor of Ajayapï¿½la. Haripï¿½la was succeeded by Sahanapï¿½ladeva (1192 A.D.). Sahanapï¿½la’s successor seems to have been Kuï¿½varapï¿½la. Anaï¿½gapï¿½la ascended the throne after Kuï¿½varpï¿½la. Anaï¿½gapï¿½la was followed in succession by Pï¿½ithvï¿½pï¿½la, Rï¿½jyapï¿½la and Trilokapï¿½la, the last of whom may be placed at the end of the thirteenth century A.D.
JAINISM UNDER THE SURASENAS
Sï¿½rasenas ruled over the region now included in Bharatpur state from the 6th century to the 12th century A.D. Jainism developed much here at this time. Some of the Sï¿½rasena rulers accepted and patronized it. Several images are known to have been installed here. The Jaina ï¿½chï¿½ryas visited it and some of them also had their Chaturmasa here. They cannot have their residence anywhere. They stay for some time.
As Jainism was prevalent in Mathura in early times, it may have been in existence here also. But old monuments were destroyed by the Muslims. The earliest trace of Jainism here is known from the tenth century A.D. Pradyumnasï¿½ri who was the contemporary of king Allaï¿½a of Mewar was honoured in the courts of Sapï¿½dalaksha and Tribhuvanagriil322. Ghanesvarasï¿½ri was initiated to Jaina monkhood by Abhayadevasï¿½ri, pupil of Pradyumnasï¿½ri. Ghaneï¿½varasï¿½ri was famous as Kardamabhï¿½pati of Tribhuvanagiri. Whether Kardama was his name or title, it is not known. He founded Rï¿½jagachchha. He founded Rï¿½jagachchha. He is said to be a contemporary of the king muï¿½ja of Malwa who died in 997 A.D.323 This Kardamabhï¿½pati may be identified with the ruler pï¿½ithvï¿½pï¿½ladeva alias Bharatï¿½ipaï¿½ï¿½a mentioned in the Thï¿½kardï¿½ (Dungarapur) inscription of Anaï¿½gapï¿½ladeva of 1155 A.D.324 This inscription mentions the four princes, namely, pï¿½ithvï¿½pï¿½ladeva alias Bharatï¿½ipaï¿½ï¿½a, his son Tribhuvanapï¿½ladeva, his son Vijayapï¿½la and his son Sï¿½rapï¿½ladeva. The family to which they belonged is not mentioned but they seem to be the Sï¿½rasena rulers. The inscription of 994 A.D. on the image of a Jina found at Bayï¿½nï¿½ says that it was caused to be made in accordance with the instructions of Sï¿½rasena of apparently the Vï¿½gaï¿½a Saï¿½gha by three brothers Siï¿½haka, Yaï¿½orï¿½ja and Nonnaika.325 The pedestal of a Jaina image with the inscriptions of 994 A.D. and one Digambara Jaina image of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra with head missing bearing an inscription of 1004 A.D. have been discovered at Kaï¿½arï¿½.326
Durgadeva, the Digambara Jaina poet, finished the Risï¿½asamuchchaya at Kumbhanagara ruled over by Lakshmï¿½nivï¿½sa in the fine temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha in 1032 A.D.327 Kumbhanagara may be identified with Kï¿½mï¿½ near Bharatpur. As regards the king named Lakshmï¿½nivï¿½sa, he may be identified with Lakshmaï¿½arï¿½ja, the son of Chitralekhï¿½, mentioned in the Bayï¿½nï¿½ inscription of V.S. 1012.328 The Bayï¿½nï¿½ stone inscription of 1043 A.D. contains the name of Vishï¿½usï¿½ri and Maheï¿½varasï¿½ri, the Jaina teachers of the Kï¿½myakagachchha of the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras, and records the death of Maheï¿½verasï¿½ri during the reign of prince Vijayapï¿½la.329Vijayapï¿½la is said to have rebuilt and added to the fort and to have named it after himself as Vijayamandiragaï¿½ha. The Kï¿½myakagachchha originated from Kï¿½mï¿½ in Bharatpur state and remained confined only to this area. The mention of the city of ï¿½rï¿½pathï¿½ in the inscription clearly points out that the ancient Sanskrit name of Bayana was ï¿½rï¿½pathï¿½. Jaina images with the inscription of 1136 A.D. have been discovered at Narolï¿½ in Bayana Tehsil.330 These images prove that they were consecrated at the same time.
The last ï¿½urasena ruler of Bayï¿½nï¿½ was Kumï¿½rapï¿½la who came to the throne in about 1154 A.D. He was preached by the Jaina monk Jinadattasï¿½ri. The ceremony of placing the golden Kalaï¿½a and flag on the temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha was performed here by Jinadattasï¿½ri with great rejoicings.331
The two disciples of Jinapatisï¿½ri, namely, Jinapï¿½lagaï¿½i and Dharmaï¿½ï¿½la-gaï¿½i, used to study with Yaï¿½obhadrï¿½chï¿½rya of this place. After getting information from Jinapatisï¿½ri, they went on pilgrimage along with the Saï¿½gha of Tribhuvanagiri and met their teacher along with the other Saï¿½gha in 1188 A.D.332 Vï¿½didevasï¿½ri who lived in the latter half of the 12th century defeated some learned scholar in the fort of Tribhuvanagiri.333 An old temple of Upakeï¿½agachchha was also there.334 All these facts indicate that Jainism was flourishing under the Sï¿½rasenas in this area at this time.
26 THE TOMARAS OF DELHI
The Tomaras ruled the Haryana country from their capital Delhi. About this time, the Tomaras of Delhi must have acknowledged the supremacy of the Pratï¿½hara Bhoja. Vajraï¿½a, Jajjuka and Goga were probably connected with Delhi. In the tenth century A.D., the Tomaras came into conflict with the Chahamï¿½nas of ï¿½ï¿½kambhari. The Tomaras continued to rule from Delhi till the middle of the twelfth century A.D. when they were overthrown by the Chahamï¿½na Vigraharï¿½ja Vï¿½saladeva-III.
The Tomara rulers were liberal towards Jainism. Naï¿½ï¿½halasï¿½hu, a minister of Anaï¿½gapï¿½la III (1132 A.D.), was rich, and a pious Jaina ï¿½rï¿½vaka. He built several Jaina temples in Delhi and other places. He gave patronage to poets and scholars, and got many Jaina Kï¿½vyas written in Apabhraï¿½ï¿½a.335
27 THE KALACHURIS
The Kalachuris rose into prominence under Kokalla I who founded a kingdom at Tripuri in Dï¿½hala i.e. Jabalpur region. The next important ruler has been described as conqueror and assumed the title of Vikramï¿½ditya. Lakshmï¿½karï¿½a, son and successor of Gï¿½ï¿½geyadeva, was the most powerful personality among the Kalachuri rulers. He dominated Northern India during the greater part of his long reign from 1041 to 1072 A.D. His successors were weak, and therefore, they were dislodged from their position.
Jainism : That Jainism flourished during the Kalachuri period is shown by the Bahuriband stone inscription of Gayï¿½karï¿½a and other archaeological remains. This inscription records that one Mahï¿½bhoja, son of Sï¿½dhu Sarvadhara, eracted a temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha. The inscription further notes that the white canopy over it was built by Sï¿½tradhï¿½ra. The image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha was consecrated by theï¿½chï¿½rya Subhadra who belonged to the line of Deï¿½ï¿½gï¿½na in the kï¿½mnï¿½ya of Chandrakara ï¿½chï¿½rya. A large number of Jaina sculptural remains of this period have been found at Tripuri, Bilhari and Karitalai. Another important stronghold of Jainism was Sohagpur. At Jura too, fragments of Jaina images have been located. Images of the Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas have been discovered at Arang, Sirpur, Malhar, Dhanpur, Ratanpur and Padmpur, those at Malhar are colossal.336
28 THE CHANDELLAS OF JEJÏ¿½KABHÏ¿½KTI (BUNDELKHAND)
According to traditions, the Chandellas attribute their descent to the union of the moon (Chandra) with a Brï¿½hmaï¿½a damsel. It seems that the Chandellas sprang from the aboriginal stock of the Bhars or the Gonds. They rose from the position of feudatories of the Gurjara-Pratï¿½hï¿½ras under the leadership of their ruler Dhaï¿½ga (954-1008 A.D.) Becoming independent, he carried on war against his eastern and western neighbours. He successor Vidyï¿½dhara (1017-29 A.D.) fought against Mohammad Ghaznï¿½. Before their decline, they were considered to be the paramount power over the Paramï¿½ras of Malwa and the Kalachuris of the Narmada region.
Jainism flourished greatly under the patronage of the Chandella rulers by the efforts of merchants who constructed Jaina temples and installed images in them. The Khajuraho inscription dated 953-954 A.D. in the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha records a number of gifts and endowments of gardens by one Pï¿½hila who claims to have been held in esteem by king Dhaï¿½ga. The devotion of the Grahapati family to which Pï¿½hila belonged is also evidenced by ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha image inscription of V.S. 1132 in which it is found that during the reign of Kï¿½rttivarman, the image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha was installed by a group of his hereditary Ministers viz., Pï¿½hilla and Jiju. They were disciples of Vï¿½savachandra. One image inscription dated 1147-48 A.D. refers to Paï¿½idhara, his sons ï¿½reshï¿½hin Trivikrama, ï¿½lhaï¿½a and Lakshmï¿½dhara of Gï¿½ihapati family. Another idol or image was installed by Sï¿½lhe, the son of Pï¿½hilla in 1157-58 A.D. during the prosperous reign of Madanavarman, and sons of Sï¿½lhe were Mahegï¿½a, Mahichandra, ï¿½rï¿½chandra, Jinachandra and Udayachandra. Khajuraho has a few Jaina shrines and a large number of Jaina image of the tenth to the twelfth century A.D.
The site of Mahobï¿½ has so many Jaina shrines; some of them are dated in the reign of the Chandella kings Jayavarman (1117 A.D.), Madanavarman and Paramardin (C. 1163). The inscription dated 1180 A.D. of the reign of Parmardin records the construction of a Chaitya of ï¿½antinï¿½tha at Madaneï¿½a-Sï¿½garapura (i.e. Ahar) by Jahad and Udayachandra, the sons of ï¿½resï¿½hin, Galhaï¿½a, the son of Ralhaï¿½a, the son of Ratnapï¿½la, the son of Devapï¿½la of Grahapati family and resident of Vanapura. Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha is known to have performed the installation cermony of the three Jaina images ï¿½antinï¿½tha, Kunthunï¿½tha and Arahanï¿½tha in V.S. 1236 at Thubona, Aharajï¿½, Bajarangagarh, and Manahardeva. Dudhai has yielded half-a-dozen foundation inscriptions referring to prince Devalabdhi, grandson of the famous Chandel king Yaï¿½ovarman. Remains of several Jaina images and temples were unearthed at Deogarh also known as Kï¿½rttigiri after king Kï¿½rttivarman (C. 1070-1090 A.D.). Sonagiri, Aharjï¿½, Droï¿½agiri and Nainï¿½giri (Reï¿½andï¿½giri) were Jaina pilgrim places as known from the Prï¿½kï¿½it Nirvï¿½nakï¿½ï¿½da, and several Jaina images of the Chandella period were also discovered at these places.337
Mahoba, Kï¿½laï¿½jara, Devagarh, Karagata, Bï¿½napura, Chandapurï¿½, Dudhai and Sairona were great dwellings of wealthy Jainas in Uttara Pradesh during the reign of the Chandellas. Several Jaina temples and images were built here. The Digambara Jaina saints and scholars such as Kamaladeva, ï¿½rï¿½deva, Vï¿½savachandra, ï¿½ubhachandra, Guï¿½abhadra visited this region for the propagation of Jainism. In 1063 A.D., Sahaï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a Caityï¿½laya was built during the reign of Chandella ruler Kï¿½rttivarman. In 1907, a Jaina temple was constructed at Devagadh. Several Jaina images were installed in 1112 at Mahoba during the rule of Jayavarmï¿½. The image of Neminï¿½tha in 1154 and of Sumatinï¿½tha in 1156 were constructed by Rï¿½pakara Lakhana. The famous wealthy ï¿½rï¿½vaka Ratanapï¿½la and his sons built the temple and performed the installation ceremony in 1163 A.D. ï¿½reshï¿½hï¿½ Mahipati of Grahapati caste constructed Neminï¿½tha Jinï¿½laya and performed its installation ceremony. During the time of Chandella Paramï¿½la (1165-1203 A.D.), several Jaina temples and images were built. A Jaina temple was built at Mahoba in 1167 A.D. by the king himself. Jaina images of the time of Chandella Vï¿½raverman (1274-1278 A.D.) were discovered. Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha (Bhaï¿½sï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha), famous trader of this time, built several Jaina temples338 in this region.
29 THE KACHCHHAPAGHÏ¿½Ï¿½AS
There were three branches of the Kachchhapaghï¿½ï¿½a family ruling from Gwalior, Dubkund and Marwar respectively. The earliest known chief of Gwalior branch is Lakshamaï¿½a. In or before 977 A.D., Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½dhirï¿½ja Vajradï¿½m, son of Lakshamaï¿½a established his supremacy over Gwalior by defeating the pratï¿½hï¿½ra ruler of Gwalior. The earliest known ruler of the second branch is Arjuna with his capital at Chandobha (Dubkund). Three generations of the kings of the third branch are known. In the first half of the thirteenth century A.D., the Vajrapï¿½la or Jajepalla dynasty established its supremacy over Marwar. Chï¿½haï¿½adeva was the greatest of the kings in the region of Gwalior, Chanderi, Marwar and Nï¿½lava during this period.
Jainism : Jainism made striking progress during this period under the Kachchhapaghï¿½ï¿½as, the Pratï¿½hï¿½ras and the Yajvapï¿½las. The rulers of these dynasties were followers of Brahmanical religion, but they took interest even in the progress of Jainism. The inscription of 1077 A.D. on the pedestal of Jaina image records the installation of Jaina image in the time of the Kachchhapaghï¿½ï¿½a ruler Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½dhirï¿½ja Vajradï¿½man of the Gwalior branch. From the Dubkund stone inscription, it is known that encouraged by the teaching of the Jaina monk Vijayakï¿½rti of the Lï¿½ï¿½avï¿½gaï¿½a Gaï¿½a, some Jaina ï¿½rï¿½vakas (Laymen) constructed Jaina temple, and the Kachchhapaghï¿½ta ruler Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½dhirï¿½ja of the Dubkund branch made some donation of land and others in favour of this temple in 1088 A.D. There is a memorial of Jaina pillar dated 1095 A.D. of the Great Devasena of the Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha at Dubkund. The sites such as Sihonia, Manaharadeva and Sonagiri, became centres of Jainism during the rule of the Kachchhapaghï¿½ï¿½as because remains of several Jaina temples and images have been discovered.
There is mention of the name of pilgrim in the inscription dated 1056 A.D. and the name of pilgrim Devachandra in the inscription dated 1077 A.D. of the Jaina temple at Badoh in Vidisha District.
Chanderi, Bï¿½ï¿½hï¿½chanderi, Thubon, Bhamon, Devagarh etc. developed as great centres of Jainism under the Pratï¿½hï¿½ras of Chanderi, and later on under the Yajvapï¿½las of Marwar. Some images installed by Aneï¿½ï¿½ha in 1226 A.D. have been found at Khaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ragiri. The Narwar inscription of 1262 A.D., records the construction of Jaina temple by Jaitrasimha, officer of the Yajvapï¿½la ruler ï¿½saladeva. Nï¿½gadeva is known to have installed the image in the Jaina temple.339
- THE PÏ¿½LAS AND THE SENAS
After the death of ï¿½aï¿½ï¿½rika, there prevailed an anarchy for about a hundred years in Bengal. In order to remove anarchy, the notable men of the region elected Gopï¿½la as their ruler who founded the Pï¿½la empire in 750 A.D. The greatest king of the Pï¿½la dynasty was Gopï¿½la’s son Dharmapï¿½la who ruled from about 770 to 810 A.D. The tripartite struggle for the mstery of Kanauj among the Pratï¿½hï¿½ras, the Rashï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½as and the Pï¿½las started at this time. At first, the Pratï¿½hï¿½ra ruler Vatsarï¿½ja defeated Dharmapï¿½la. After his departure, Dharmapï¿½la made himself the master of Northern India and held a Darbar at Kanauj after placing another king on the throne. Son, the Pratï¿½hï¿½ra ruler Nï¿½gabhaï¿½a II defeated Dharmapï¿½la. Dharmapï¿½la’s son Devapï¿½la excelled his father in his military expolits. During the reign of forty years, he occupied the position of paramaount ruler in North India. His direct rule may not have extended beyond Bengal and Bihar. It did not take long for the Pï¿½las to decline after Devapï¿½la in the twelfth century A.D. Before the advent of the Muslims, the Senas of Bengal built up their power in the twelfth century A.D., and finally destroyed the power of the Pï¿½las.
Jainism began to decline gradually under the Pï¿½las and the Senas in Bengal and Bihar. The Jaina record of the Pï¿½la period has been discovered from Baragaon. The inscription belongs to the 24th year of the reign of Rï¿½jyapï¿½la who ruled in the first half of the tenth century A.D. The object of the inscription is to record the visit of Vaidanï¿½tha, son of Manoratha of the merchant family to the temple. Besides, there are some Jaina idols of this period found at Nalanda.340
Two idols of Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas have been discovered at Baniya. An image of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra (in black Basalt stone) of the Pï¿½la period was discovered at Vaiï¿½ï¿½lï¿½. Several images relating to Jaina cult have been discovered from Rï¿½jgï¿½iha.
Twenty-nine bronzes were discovered at Alaura in District Dhanbad of the period ranging from ninth to eleventh century A.D. The Shahbad District has several images of Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas. The Chausa hoard also contains the statues not latter than tenth-eleventh century A.D. There are several Jaina idols at National Museum, New Delhi of the tenth or eleventh century A.D.341
One big and beautiful Jaina image was discovered at the village named Surahara in Dinï¿½jpur District (Bengal). A few other Jaina images were also found from this site. Jaina were also known from Mï¿½ladï¿½h District, Bengal. These images prove that there was some influence of Jainism in North Bengal during this period.342
The name of famous Somadeva, author of the Yï¿½ï¿½asatilakashampï¿½, is mentioned in an inscription dated ï¿½aka year 888. As he has been described as belonging to the Gauï¿½a Saï¿½gha, he seems to be originally a Jaina saint from Bengal. Jainism was known at this time and Jaina monks were held in esteem. Somadeva in his work refers to a Jaina shrine of Tï¿½mralipta, the ancient port of Southern Bengal. With the decline of Jainism in Bengal in the tenth century A.D., the monks of this state naturally sought asylum in other parts of the country.343
31 KEÏ¿½ARÏ¿½ DYNASTY OF ORISSA
Two Digambara Jaina inscriptions have been discovered from Udayagiri-Khaï¿½ï¿½agiri caves. They belong to the tenth century A.D. and were inscribed during the reign of Udyotakeï¿½arï¿½ of the Keï¿½arï¿½ dynasty of Orissa. The first inscription344 discovered in the cave called Lalitendu Keï¿½ari’s cave was incised in the fifth year of the reign of Udyot Keï¿½arï¿½ and refers to the repair of the old Jain temples. It also preserves the name of a Digambara saint called Yaï¿½anandi. This inscription refers to the Udayagiri-Khaï¿½ï¿½agiri hills as Kumï¿½rï¿½ Parvata which reminds us of the Kumï¿½rï¿½ Parvata of Khï¿½ravela’s record. There is also a literary reference to this hill. In the Bï¿½ihat Kathï¿½ Koï¿½a345 of Harisheï¿½a, composed in 931 A.D., there is mention of Kumï¿½ragiri of Oï¿½ravishaya. It is the same as Kumï¿½ragiri or Kumï¿½rï¿½giri.
The second inscription346 of the eighteenth year of Udyota Keï¿½ari’s reign mentions ï¿½ubhachandra, the disciple of Kulachandra belonging to the Deï¿½ï¿½gaï¿½a and ï¿½ryasanghagraha Kula. The Deï¿½ï¿½ Gaï¿½a is also known from inscriptions found from different places in Karï¿½ï¿½taka and Madhya Pradesh347. Another inscription found from the same hill refers to the above mentioned Munis.348 These inscriptions prove that Jainism continued to survive in Orissa up to the tenth century A.D. Afterwards, it gradually almost disappeared.
- PUNJAB, HIMACHAL PRADESH AND HARYANA
Only a few evidences regarding the existence of Jainism in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana are known. An important inscription349from Kangra, Himachal Pradesh mentions the names of two Jaina saints, belonging to Rï¿½jakula Gachchha, which is probably the same as Rï¿½jagachchha. A certain Siddharï¿½ja is described as a disciple of Sï¿½ri Amalachandra, a pupil of Abhayachandra Sï¿½ri. Siddharï¿½ja’s son was Dhï¿½ï¿½ga and Dhï¿½ï¿½ga’s son Chashï¿½aka. The wife of Chashï¿½aka was Ralhï¿½ and the two sons were born of her and both of them were devoted to the law of Jaina. The elder was called Kuï¿½ï¿½alaka and the younger Kumï¿½ra. We are told that they were responsible for the construction of the image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. This inscription seems to be dated 854 A.D.350
One ï¿½rï¿½vaka Ratna (Rayana) from Kashmir founded a Maï¿½ibimba of Neminï¿½tha351 in 932 A.D. on the sacred hill of Raivataka. This shows that there were a few Jainas in Kashmir in the tenth century A.D. Archaeological evidences352 prove that Jainism was not entirely known in some places of Kashmir. Recently, a few Jaina images belonging to the eighth and ninth century A.D. have been discovered from Punjab353. We have later Jaina inscriptions from the Himalayan areas which show that Jainism somehow lingered in those areas till a very late period.
Sindhudeï¿½a included roughly the present District of Multan, Muzaffargarh and Montogomery. One of the chief centres of Jainism in the region was Multan. In V.S. 1169, Jinadattasï¿½ri of the Kharataragachchha spent rainy season (Chaturmï¿½sa) here. The Komala Gachchha was already in existence in Multan. The relations between the followers of the Kharataragachchha and those of the Komala Gachchha were not cordial.354
33 THE RASHÏ¿½RAKÏ¿½TAS
The term ‘Rï¿½shtrakï¿½ï¿½as’ means designated officers in charge of divisions called ‘Rï¿½shï¿½ras’. The kingdom of the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½tas was founded by Dantidurga who overthrew the Chï¿½lukyas in 750 A.D. and fixed his capital at Mï¿½ï¿½yakheï¿½a or Malkheï¿½ near modern Sholapur. The Rï¿½shtrakï¿½tas soon dominated the entire area of Northern Mahï¿½rï¿½shï¿½ra. They also engaged with the Pratï¿½hï¿½ras for the overlordship of Gujrat and Malwa. Although their raids did not result in the extension of the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a empire to the Ganga valley, they brought rich plunder, and added to the fame of the Rï¿½shtrakï¿½ï¿½as. The Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½as also fought constantly against the Eastern Chï¿½lukyas of Veï¿½gï¿½ (modern Andhra Pradesh) and in the South against the Pallavas of the Kï¿½ï¿½chï¿½ and the Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½yas of Madurai. Probably, the greatest rulers were India III (914-922 A.D.) and Kï¿½ishï¿½a III (934-965 A.D.). After the defeat of Mahipï¿½la and the Sack of Kanauj in 915 A.D., Indra III was the most powerful ruler of his times. He was engaged in a struggle against the Paramï¿½ras of Malwa and the Eastern Chï¿½lukyas of Veï¿½gï¿½. He also launched a campaign against the Chola rulers of Tanjore. After the death of Kï¿½ishï¿½a III, the other Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ta feudatories rose up and made themselves independent. This marked the end of the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a empire.
The Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a period seems to be the most flourishing period in the history of Jainism in the Deccan. This period produced a galaxy of Jaina authors and preachers. They took active part in the education of the masses. Several Maï¿½hï¿½s were established by the Jainas to the dwellers of which food and medicines were provided, and provision was also made for the Jainas. Many of the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a rulers were not only great patrons of but even showed distinct inclinations towards Jainism. Many of the feudatories and officers of the Rashï¿½rakï¿½tas were Jainas. According to A.S. ALTEKAR355, it is very probable that at least one third population of the Deccan of this period was following the gospel of Jainism.
It has been suggested on the basis of a ï¿½ravaï¿½a Belagola inscription dated 1229 A.D. that Akalaï¿½ka, the great Jaina philosopher, was patronized by Danti durga356. The earliest Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a Jaina inscription comes from ï¿½ravaï¿½abelagola.357 It refers to the reign of Raï¿½ï¿½valoka Kambayya, son of Dhruva and elder brother of Govinda III. This prince was the eldest son of Dhruva and was the governor of Gangvï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ under his illustrious father. The inscription records a grant and proves Kambayya’s (Stambha) affection for the Jaina religion. The Mana plates358 dated ï¿½aka 724 also shows that the prince had a soft corner for the Jaina religion.
Govinda III, the younger brother of Stambha and the successor of Dhruva, was probably an admirer of the Jaina religion. The Kadamba plates359 dated 814 A.D. refer to the regin of Prabhï¿½tavarsha who is no other than Govinda III. Arhakï¿½riti was successful in removing an evil influence of Saturn on Vimalï¿½ditya, who was the sister’s on of Chï¿½kirï¿½ja, the ruler of the entire province of the Ganges. It is clear from the inscription that Vimalï¿½ditya was Chï¿½lukya chief under Chï¿½kirï¿½ja, the supreme Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ta Governer of Gaï¿½gï¿½vï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. The grateful Vimlï¿½ditya and his uncle Chï¿½kirï¿½ja were pleased to give an entire village called Jï¿½kamaï¿½gala for a Jaina temple at ï¿½iï¿½grï¿½ma which was in the western side of Mï¿½nyapura.
The success or of Govinda III viz. Amoghavarsha I, who ascended the throne in 814 A.D., was one of the greatest patrons of the Jaina religion in the ninth century. There existed a Jaina shrine in Nasik District which was named after him. A broken slab inscription dated 859 A.D. of the reign of Amoghavarsha refers to a Jaina shrine constructed by one Nï¿½galï¿½ra pollabe and therefore it was known as Nï¿½gula Vasedi. This inscription records the gift of land made as a lifetime document for the temple by several villagers. The gift was received on behalf of the temple by Nï¿½ganandin ï¿½chï¿½rya of the Singhavura gaï¿½a. According to the Konnur stone inscription360 dated 860 A.D. of the reign of the same king in Nawalgund Taluk in Dharwar District, emperor Amoghavarsha I while residing at Mï¿½nyakheï¿½a, at the request of his subordinate Baï¿½keï¿½a (Baï¿½keya) in recognition of the important services, rendered by him granted the village of Teleyur and some land of other villages for the benefit of a Jaina sanctuary founded by Baï¿½keya at Kolanara to the sage Devendra, who was disciple of Trï¿½kï¿½layogï¿½ï¿½a, belonging to the Pustaka Gachchha, Deï¿½ï¿½ya Gaï¿½a and Mï¿½la Saï¿½gha. It is interesting to note that the opening verse of the inscription invokes the blessing of both Vishï¿½u and Jinendra. This reveals the spirit of Jainism.
A number of literary works very clearly prove that Amoghavarsha was a converted Jaina. Guï¿½abhadra, the author of the Uttarapurï¿½ï¿½a and a contemporary of Amoghaversha I asserts that his preceptor Jinesena was a Guru of that celebrated Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a monarch361. That Amoghavarsha was believer in the doctrine of Syï¿½dvï¿½da is also repeated in the Gaï¿½ita-sï¿½ra362. Saï¿½graha of Mahï¿½vï¿½rï¿½chï¿½rya, who was an exact contemporary of that monarch. Amoghavarsha himself in his Praï¿½notararatnamï¿½la363 pays homage to Vardhamï¿½na.
A few contemporary Jaina writers have clearly shown their pious Zeal for this great Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a King. ï¿½ï¿½kaï¿½ï¿½yana, a contemporary Jaina grammaniam wrote a commentary on his own grammatical work and named it as Amoghavï¿½itt. This shows his respect for that Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a monarch. Jinasena himself is full of praise for this great Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a monarch. Another contemporary Jaina writer viz Ugraditya, the author of the medical treatise Kalyï¿½ï¿½akï¿½raka364 which was composed on Mt. Rï¿½magiri refers to the fact that he delivered a discourse on the uselessness of meat diet in the court of ï¿½rï¿½tuï¿½ga-Vallabha Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½dhirï¿½ja who is no other than Amoghavarsha-I. A few verses of the Kavirï¿½jamï¿½rga are in praise of Jine365. Two famous Digambara commentaries namely Dhavalï¿½ and Jayadhevatï¿½ were named after Amoghvarsha I who was also as Dhavala and Atiï¿½aya Dhavala. So much was the influence of Jainism on him that he had abdicated his thine more than once.
King Amoghavarsha’s son and successor was Kï¿½ishï¿½a II. He appointed Guï¿½abhadra as the preceptor of his son Kï¿½ishna II; so if not a full-fledged Jaina, he was at least a patron of Jainism. In the Mulaguï¿½ï¿½a inscription366 dated 902 A.D., we are told during the time of Kï¿½ishï¿½a II, his governor Chikï¿½rya, son of Chandrï¿½rya, the Governor of Dhavala-Vishaya of Varavaiï¿½ya caste constructed a lofty temple of Jina at the town of Mulaguï¿½da. His younger brother Arsï¿½rya, described as proficient in a few ï¿½gama made an endowment for the maintenance of the Jinï¿½laya built hy his father.
Krishï¿½a II was probably the patron of Guï¿½abhadra, the author of the Uttarapurï¿½ï¿½a. This work was completed by Guï¿½abhadra’s disciple Lokasena in the reign of Kï¿½ishï¿½a II. Lokasena’s patron was Lokï¿½ditya who was Governor of Bï¿½nkï¿½pura in Vanarï¿½sï¿½ under that Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ta king. This Lokï¿½ditya was a patron of Jainism as we learn from the praï¿½asti of the Uttarapurï¿½ï¿½a367. Guï¿½abhadra himself claims that Kï¿½ishï¿½a II was his disciple368. An inscription from ï¿½ravaï¿½abelagola369 connects a Jaina Saint called Paravï¿½dimalla with one Kï¿½ishï¿½arï¿½ja identified with the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a monarch. There is another Jaina inscription370 dated 902 A.D. mentioning Lokï¿½ditya and his overlord Kï¿½ishï¿½a II.
The next king Indra III also had some fascination for the Jaina religion. From the Dï¿½havulapï¿½du pillar inscription371 it is known that ï¿½rï¿½vijaya, general of king Indra III, voluntarily resigned this world and became a Jaina-ascetic. From the same place, another Jaina inscription372 of Indra III has been discovered. One more Jaina inscription373 of the reign of Indra III dated 916 A.D. discovered from Karajgi Tï¿½luk of Dharwar District, Karnataka, records the grant of a village called Vutavura by the Mahï¿½sï¿½manta Leï¿½ï¿½eyarasa. An important Jaina inscription of Indra III was found from Nasik District. An inscription of C.900 A.D. from Belgaum District Karï¿½ï¿½taka States that a Jaina Saint called Neminï¿½tha, the preceptor of Maï¿½ichandra, was like a moon in the Ocean, which was the dynasty of the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ta’s374 kings of his times. Evidently, this Jaina monk was held in highest esteem by the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a kings of his time.
For the reign of Govinda IV, there are two Jaina inscriptions375 dated 925 A.D. and 932 A.D. both discovered from the modern Karï¿½ï¿½taka state. The first dated 925 A.D. refers to a Jinï¿½laya built by one Nï¿½gayya376. It also refers to another Jinï¿½laya called DhoraJinï¿½laya at Baï¿½kï¿½pura with the preceptor Chandra-Prabha Bhaï¿½ï¿½ra as its head. This Jaina priest is described as administering a village called Pasundi (modern Asuï¿½ï¿½i), which probably shows that the village was an endowment for this Jaina temple377. The second inscription dated 932 A.D. discovered from Adoni Taluk of Bellary district, refers to a Jaina temple, built by queen Chandi Yabbe, wife of Kanhara, the Governor (mahï¿½sï¿½manta) of Sindavï¿½di, 1000. We are told that this queen constructed a Jaina temple at Nandavara and made suitable provision for its maintenance. This inscription also refers to a Jaina Guru called Padmanandin. This Kanhara is the prince Krishï¿½a III who at this time, was a Governor under his cousin Govinda IV.378
Krishï¿½a III was one of the greatest members of the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a dynasty. Two inscriptions of his reign have been discovered from the holy Kopbal area in Raichur District of his reign. The earlier one379 dated 940 A.D. refers to Akï¿½lavarsha Kannardeva and he was no other than Kï¿½ishï¿½a III. The second inscription380 dated 964 A.D. found near Kopbal is an important Jaina record. It reveals the existence of a feudatory king of Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a called ï¿½aï¿½karagaï¿½ï¿½a II who erected a Jaina shrine called Jayadhï¿½ra Jinï¿½laya which was apparently named after him, Jayadhï¿½ra being one of his titles. This chief is mentioned in the Ajitatï¿½rthaï¿½kara purï¿½ï¿½atilakam381of the Kanarese poet Ranna, who wrote this work in 993 A.D. According to that poet, ï¿½aï¿½karagaï¿½ï¿½a was a great Jaina patron. From the combined testimony of epigraphy and literature, it appears that this Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a Governor was a great promoter of Jainism in Karï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aka during the tenth century. It appears from the title Rattarameru given to him in this inscription that ï¿½aï¿½karagaï¿½ï¿½a was of the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a extraction. We further learn from this epigraph that another Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a feudatory namely Raï¿½ï¿½aya, of Chï¿½lukya lineage, donated some land for the temple erected by ï¿½aï¿½karagaï¿½ï¿½a II, and Nï¿½ganaï¿½di Paï¿½ï¿½ita Bhaï¿½ï¿½ra received the endowment on behalf of the temple.
A few other Jain inscriptions of the reign of Kï¿½ishï¿½a III are known. One such inscription382 has been discovered from Tirumalai hill near Polï¿½r (N. Arcot) in Tamil Nadu, which records the gift of a lamp made to the Yaksha on the sacred Tirumalai hill by a servant of the queen of Kï¿½ishï¿½a III. More than a dozen Jaina epigraphs and a number of Rock-cut Jaina figures have been discovered from the same hill. There is another Jaina inscription383 of the time of Kï¿½ishï¿½a III found from Naregal in the Roï¿½ Tï¿½luk of Dharwal District. According to this, the wife of Gaï¿½ga Bï¿½tuga II called Padmabbaresi, constructed a Jaina temple at Naregal, and in 950 A.D., the grant of a tank to the charity house, attached to the temple, was made by a subordinate chief called Namayara Mï¿½rasimghayya.
The celebrated Jaina poet Somadeva wrote the Yaï¿½astilakachampu during the reign of this great Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a monarch in the ï¿½aka era year 881. Another Jaina literary figure namely Indranandi Yogindra composed his Jvï¿½lï¿½mï¿½linï¿½kalpa384 at Malkheï¿½ in ï¿½aka era year 861 during the reign of Kï¿½ishï¿½a III.
There are a few Jaina inscriptions of the reign of Khoï¿½ï¿½iga, the brother and successor of Kï¿½ishï¿½a III. An inscription from Chitaldurg District 908 A.D. mentions the fact that Jakki Sundarï¿½, the wife of Pandayya, a Chï¿½lukyan feudatory of Khoï¿½ï¿½iga built a Jaina temple, for which her husband gave a grant.385 Another inscription, praising, the Jaina religion, of his reign has been discovered from Dharwar District386.
The last prominent name in the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a dynasty is that of king Indra IV. An inscription from ï¿½ravaï¿½a Belgola387 dated 982 A.D. shows that he died like a true Jaina. It also bestows lavish praise on him, and we are told that as a believer in the doctrine of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, he never spoke a lie.
34 UNDER THE PALLAVAS
The Pallavas seem to be descended from the Nï¿½ga chieftains who were the vassals of Sï¿½tavï¿½hana chieftains. The rise of the Pallavas in the Deccan is connected with the breck of Sï¿½tavï¿½hana empire, and very soom, they occupied Kanchi. A new Pallava dynasty was then founded by Siï¿½havishï¿½u. He extended his sway up to the Kï¿½verï¿½ at the cost of the Cholas, and is further said to have defeated the Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½yas, Kalabhras and the Mï¿½lavas. Siï¿½havishï¿½u was succeeded by his son Mahendravarman I. A few years after his accession, there began a deadly and long drawn struggle between the Pallavas and the Chï¿½lukyas for supermacy in the South. After the death of Mahendravarman I, his son Narasiï¿½havarman I ascended the throne about the beginning of the second quarter of the seventh century A.D. He is one of the most striking personalities among the Pallava potentiates. He successfully repulsed the onslaughts of Pulakeï¿½in II. He also sent two naval expeditions to Ceylon in support of Mï¿½navarma, a claimant to the throne. In about 655 A.D., Parameï¿½vara Varman I ascended to the throne. During his time, the old enmity between the Pallavas and the Chï¿½lukyas revived, and as usual both sides claim victories for themselves. Then, Narasiï¿½havarman II succeeded in about the last decade of the Seventh century A.D. His reign was marked by peacs and prosperity. Narasiï¿½havarman was succeeded by Parameï¿½varavarman II. When Parameï¿½varvarman II died, his kingdom was involved in civil war. People eventually chose as king a popular prince named Nandivardhana who ruled for sixty-five years. During the reign of Nandivarman, there was a renewal of the Pallava-Chï¿½lukya animosity. The last important sovereign was Aparajitavarman ( 876-895 A.D.).
Jainism was in flourishing conditions in Tamil Nï¿½ï¿½u during the Pallava period. Siï¿½havishï¿½u was a patron of the Jainas. There is also reason to believe that Pallava Mahendravarman I himself was a Jaina in his early life388. However, it is evident from the Mattavilï¿½sa-prahasana that Mahendravarman I became a ï¿½aiva under the influence of Appar, the noted South Indian ï¿½aiva philosopher. After his conversion, this king became a persecutor of the Jaina. The earliest Pallava inscription connected with Jainism probably belongs to the reign of Parameï¿½varavarman I (670-695 A.D.) and it was found at Nalajanampadu389 in Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh. The Parameï¿½vara Pallavï¿½ditya of this record is identical with Parameï¿½vara I and he is described here as meditating on the feet of the supreme master, the Lord Arhat.
A few Jaina Pallava inscriptions of the reign of Nandivarman II Pallavamalla (730-800 A.D.) are known. A rock inscription390 from Kil-Sattamangalam dated in the 14th year of that king in Wandiwash Taluk of North Arcot District in Tamil-Nandu records an endowment of seven Kalaï¿½ju of Gold by Andai Ilaiyar Pavaï¿½andi of the village for feeding ascetics excluding the manager of the monastery. From the same site, two more Jaina inscriptions of the reign of the same king have been discovered. Both the epigraphs are dated in the 56th year of Nandivarman II. One of them391 records an endowment of seventeen Kalanju of gold to a palli called Pavanandivar (named after the ascetic) for the merit of Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½it Muppavai. The Jaina saint Pavanandi may be identified with the person of the same name the author of the Naï¿½ï¿½ul, a Tamil grammatical text392.
Another Jaina shrine is mentioned in an inscription found from Agalur, Giï¿½gee Tï¿½luk of South Arcot District. This is dated in the 50th year of Nandivarman II393. An undated inscription394 which has been assigned to this king was discovered from Kanchi in Chingleput District and records the gift to an Arhat temple. This epigraph, it is interesting to note, mentions an ï¿½chï¿½rya ï¿½jivikadarï¿½ana, who probably cured Lokamahï¿½devï¿½, the queen of Narasimhavarman II.
The next Jaina Pallava inscription395 belongs to the reign of Kampavarman, who is identified with Dantivarman, son of Nandivarman II who ruled in the last half of the ninth century A.D. This inscription is dated in the sixth year of Kampavarman’s reign. This record gives a very clear idea regarding a Jaina complex of the Pallava period. The inscription records the renovation of the temple, addition of mukhamaï¿½ï¿½apa and the gift of a big bell to the Palli by Madevi, the wife of Kï¿½ï¿½agadiyariyar396. It appears that this entire temple-complex was possibly called Palli. It had a main shrine, dedicated to Jina, with a maï¿½ï¿½apa in front, a subsidiary shrine of Yakshï¿½ and the monastery (Pï¿½li) where the Jaina monks lived. This Palli is there called the temple of Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Vimala. This epigraph records the sale of land by one Baladevapidï¿½ran, a disciple of ï¿½rï¿½ Nandidevar for the maintenance of a perpetual lamp in the temple.
The Nulamba Pallavas, who came into the limelight during the ninth and tenth centuries A.D., ruled in parts of modern Karï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aka and were feudatories of the Western Gaï¿½gas. Three inscriptions of the time of Nolamba Mahendra are connected with the Jaina religion. The earliest epigraph dated 878 A.D. discovered from the fort at Dharampuri in Tamil Nadu records a grant397 to a Jaina temple. The second Jaina inscription398 of his reign bears the date ï¿½aka 815 corresponding to 893 A.D. It records that two citizens called Chaï¿½ï¿½iyaï¿½ï¿½a and Nandiyaï¿½ï¿½a after receiving the gift of the village of Mï¿½llapalli from the king donated it to Kanakasena Siddhï¿½nta, the pupil of Vinayasena Siddhï¿½nta of the Pogarï¿½ya Gaï¿½a, Senï¿½nvaya and Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha for the repirs of the basadi at Dharmapuri. The inscription further informs that the basadi was originally built by the two above mentioned citizens who are described as sons of the Setti of ï¿½rimaï¿½gala. Dharamapuri was known in ancient times as Tagaï¿½ï¿½ru399.
The third Jaina inscription of Mahendra’s reign has been found from Hemï¿½vatï¿½ in Anantapur District of Andhra Pradesh. This damaged stone inscription400 records some donations to a local Jaina temple by Mahendra and his son Ayyapa. Another Jaina inscription401 of this Ayyapa has been found from the same site which contains the second inscription of his father Mahendra. It records the fact that Ayyapadeva, presented the village called Budugï¿½ru to Lokï¿½yya, who was the younger brother of Dasayya and who is described as the illuminator of the doctrine of the Arhats. And this Lokï¿½yya presented it to the Jaina basadi built by Nidhiyaï¿½ï¿½a, apparently the same temple, mentioned in Mahendra’s inscription of ï¿½aka 815. This stone epigraph proves that Mehendra and his son were patrons of Jainism. The undated inscription of Ayyapa is assigned402 to the early tenth century A.D. It should also be pointed that Mahendra’s epigraph of ï¿½aka 815 begins with an invocation to Jinendra403.
A Bï¿½ï¿½a records of about the ninth century A.D. found from Vallamalai (North Arcot) which records the setting-up of an image of Devasena, the pupil of Bhavanandin and the spiritual preceptor of the king404.
- THE IMPERIAL CHOLAS
The Chola empire, which arose in the ninth century, covered a large part of the Peninsulars. The Chola rulers overran and conquered ï¿½rï¿½ Lanka and the Moldiva Islands as well. For some time, their rule also extended over Kaliï¿½ga and Tungabhadrï¿½ doab. They had a powerful navy, and made their influence felt in the country of South-East Asia. The Chola empire undoubtedly marks a climax in the history of South-India.
The founder of the Chola empire was Vijayalaya who was at first a Pallava feudatory. He captured Tanjore in 850 A.D. and fought the Pandyan kings. By 897 A.D., the Cholas were strong enough to defeat and kill the Pallava king and conquered the entire Toï¿½ï¿½amaï¿½ï¿½ala. The Cholas had to struggle hard against the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½as. In 949 A.D., the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a king, Kï¿½ishï¿½a III defeated the Chola king, Parï¿½ï¿½taka – I and annexed the northern part of the Chola empire. This was a serious setback to the Cholas, but they rapidly recovered after the downfall of the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ta empire.
The greatest Chola rulers were Rï¿½jï¿½rï¿½ja (985-104 A.D.) and his son Rï¿½jendra I (1012-1044 A.D.). Rï¿½jï¿½rï¿½ja I turned his attention towards the Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½yas, the Cheras and their ally, the ruler of ï¿½rï¿½ Laï¿½kï¿½. He destroyed the Chera navy at Trivandrum, and attacked Quilon. He, then, conquered Madurai and captured the Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½yan king. He also invaded ï¿½rï¿½ Laï¿½kï¿½ and annexed its Northern-part to his empire. Rï¿½jendra-I carried forward the annexationist policy of Rï¿½jï¿½rï¿½ja by completely over running the Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ya and Chera countries, and including them in his empire. The conquest of ï¿½rï¿½ Lï¿½nkï¿½ was completed. The Chola power began to decline after Rï¿½jendra Chola. At the beginning of the eleventh century and the beginning of the twelfth century A.D., the Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½yas recovered their lost territory from the Cholas and at the same time, new powers like the Hoysalas and Kï¿½katiyï¿½s established their independant kingdoms.
A good number of inscriptions, connected with Jainism belonging to the Chola period show that the Jainas were present almost everywhere in the vast Chola empire. The imperial Cholas were followers of Brahmanical religion, they were somhow tolerant in the matters of religion. The earliest Jaina-inscription of the time of the Imperial Cholas belonging to the reign of ï¿½ditya I (871-207 A.D.) was discovered from Veï¿½al in Arkonam Tï¿½luk of North Arcot District405. This epigraph records an undertaking given by the lay disciples at Viï¿½al alias Mï¿½devi-Arandaimaï¿½galam in Singapura Nï¿½ï¿½u to protect and feed along with her lady pupils Kanakvï¿½ra Kurattiyï¿½r, a woman ascetic and disciple of the teacher Guï¿½akï¿½rttibhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka. This epigraph, dated in the 14th regal year of ï¿½ditya (Rï¿½jakeï¿½arï¿½varman) further refers to the dispute between 500 male pupils and 400 female ascetics. It was evidently a very big Jaina establishment. It further appears that the female ascetic, mentioned in this epigraph, was the daughter of an influential person. An earlier epigraph from the same site belongs to the reign of Nandivarman II406, where the Jaina temple complex is called Vidï¿½r-Palli-Mï¿½devi Arandaimangalam, mentioned in the epigraph of the time of ï¿½ditya was another name of Viï¿½ï¿½l. An earlier Jaina inscription407 dated in the second year of Rï¿½jaï¿½ekharavarman probably also belongs to the reign of ï¿½ditya I. It was found from Tirunagesvarman on the Southern bank of the Kï¿½verï¿½. It registers gifts made by merchants in Kumï¿½rmarataï¿½ï¿½apuram to meet the cost of reparis to the enclosure called Manukumï¿½ramï¿½rtaï¿½ï¿½an and the Gopura of Milï¿½ï¿½iyarpalli. From another epigraph, it appears408 that Kumï¿½ramï¿½rtaï¿½ï¿½an was a surname of the Pallava king Nandivarman II.
Of the reign of Parï¿½ntaka I (907-955 A.D.), there are several inscriptions. The first epigraph409 is dated in the third year of Parï¿½ntaka I was found from Toï¿½ï¿½ur in Gingee Tï¿½luk of South Arcot District. It records the endowment of a village with two gardens and wells as Pallichchandam to the Jaina teacher Vachchirsiï¿½ga IIamperumï¿½naï¿½igal at parambï¿½r and his disciple by the Chief Vinnakovaraiyan Vayiri Malaiyan. There is another Jaina epigraph410 of the same year from Tirakkot in Wandiwash Tï¿½luk in North Arcot District. It records a gift of 200 sheep for the Jaina temple called Maisitta Perumballi at ï¿½ridaï¿½ï¿½apuram in Ponnur Nï¿½ï¿½u by one Era Nandi alias Naratoï¿½ga Pallavariyam of Nelveli, which is probably situated in Tanjore District411. The same Jaina shrine is also mentioned in another Tamil record of the tenth century.
There is an epigraph412 of the fourth year of Parï¿½ntaka found from Polur Tï¿½luk of North Arcot District. This inscription records a gift to the Jaina temple of this place by two persons recruited from Karï¿½ï¿½ta country. The gift was made for feeding a devotee and for daily offering to Palliyï¿½lvï¿½r i.e. Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara. A somewhat later Chola inscription413 (dated in the 12th year of Rajendra I) refers to the fact that in the earlier time a Pallava queen had made provision for the burning of a perpetual lamp in the Jaina shrine of this hill.
An inscription414 of about 945 A.D. of the reign of Parï¿½ntaka I found from Villï¿½pakkam in North Arcot District refers to the sinking of a well by one nun called Paï¿½ï¿½ini Kuratti Aï¿½igal. As the very name signifies, she was an eminent lady teacher. According to the same source, she was a disciple of a saint called Arishï¿½anemï¿½ Bhaï¿½ï¿½rar of the Jaina establishment of Tiruppï¿½nmalai. It is known from the inscription that the Jaina residents of the place had organised themselves and constituted a representative council of twenty-four members to look after their interest.
A number of Jaina inscriptions belonging to the immediate successors of Parï¿½ntaka I are known. The most important of such inscriptions is the copper plate record415 from Pallankovil situated in Tirutturaipundi Tï¿½luk of Tanjor District. The inscription discloses the existence of a Jaina temple (Palli) founded by ï¿½aletti Kuï¿½iyan. The name of the shrine is given as Sundaraï¿½olapperumballi, apparently named after Sundara Chola, the grandson of Parï¿½antaka I. The gift provided for the maintenance of Chandranandi Bhaï¿½ï¿½ro alias Mundidevar of Nandisaï¿½gha who most probably presided over the Jaina establishment to which male and female ascetics were attached. Since the temple was named after Sundara Chola (956-973 A.D.), it seems to have been built in the third quarter of the tenth century A.D. In this connection, we should also refer to the Udayendiram plates of Hastiamlla416, according to which the Digambara Jainas had an ancient Pallichchandamcomprising two paï¿½ï¿½is of land which were specially excluded from the gift of the village of Kadaikkottï¿½r made in the reign of Parï¿½ntaka I.
At Sirrï¿½mur in South Arcot District, an inscription of the seventeenth year of a Rï¿½jakeï¿½ari (probably Sundara Chola 956-973 A.D.) records the provision of a lamp in the Maï¿½ï¿½apa of the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha in which the scripture was expounded417. So far as the reign of Rï¿½jarï¿½ja I (985-1014 A.D.) is concerned, we have already referred to a Jaina inscription of his time. There is another Jaina inscription418 of the eighth year of his reign which mentions one Lï¿½ï¿½arï¿½ja Vï¿½ra Chola, who was a tributary of the Chola king. At the request of his wife, he assigned to the god Tiruppanmalai certain income derived from the village Kuraganapï¿½ï¿½i (modern Kurambadi, near Arcot town). The Chola feudatory is described as a worshipper at the holy feet of the god Tiruppamalai. Kundavai, the elder sister of Rï¿½jarï¿½ja I had strong afffection for the Jaina religion.
- THE PÏ¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½YAS OF MADURÏ¿½
The Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½yas ruled the Southern extremity of the Indian peninsula along the east-west. Its capital was Madurï¿½. Kuï¿½uï¿½gon or his son Mï¿½ravarman Ayanisulï¿½maï¿½i came into conflict with the Pallava ruler Siï¿½avishï¿½u. The next notable Pï¿½ï¿½dya king was Arikeï¿½arï¿½ Mï¿½ravarman (C. 650 A.D.) identified with Neï¿½umaran. During the reign of Arikeï¿½arï¿½ Mï¿½ravarman and his successors, Kuchchadayan, Raï¿½adhira (C. 800 A.D.), Mï¿½ravarman Rï¿½jasiï¿½ha I and Nedunjaï¿½ayan Varaguï¿½a I (C. 765-815 A.D.), the Pandya suzerainty continued to expand on all sides at the expense of the Cholas, Keralas and other neighbours. His son and successor ï¿½rï¿½ Mara-ï¿½rï¿½ Vallabha (C. 815-62 A.D.) distinguished himself by defeating the king of Ceylon as well as a combination of the Pallavas, Gahcas and the Cholas, etc. at kuï¿½omukku. The Cholas, the Pallavas and the Gaï¿½gas together gained a decisive victory over the Pï¿½ï¿½dya monarch Varaguï¿½avarman or Varaguï¿½a II about 880 A.D. Besides this heavy blow, the Pï¿½nï¿½yas had to face another serious complication owing to the rise of the Cholas. Thus, the Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ya kingdom lost its independence, and it had to suffer the Chola yoke from about 920 A.D. to the commencement of the thirteenth century.
Of course, the ruling family was not extirpated, and from time to time, it made serious attempts to throw off the Chola suzerainty. The uprising headed by Vï¿½ra Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ya was putdown. The Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ya territories thus became a mere province of the Chola empire. But despite this control, the Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½vas continued to revolt. Soon the Cholas sank fast into insignificance, and the Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½yas gradually regained much of their lost glory and importance. The accession of Jaï¿½avarman and Kulaï¿½ekhara in 1190 A.D. may be regarded as a turning point in the fortunes of the Pï¿½ï¿½dyas. From now on, their recovery began and for a century or more they dominated the political stage in Southern India. During the reign of Jaï¿½ï¿½varman, Kulaï¿½ekhara’s successor, Mï¿½ravarman Sundara Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½yal (C. 1216-38 A.D.), the Cholas had to recede further into the background. In the time of Mï¿½ravarman, Sundara Pï¿½ï¿½dya II (C. 1238-51 A.D.), the Chola-Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ya-Hoysala relations remained almost unchanged. The next ruler, Jaï¿½ï¿½varman Sundara Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ya (C. 1251-72 A.D.) was however, a vigorous personality, and he raised the Pï¿½ï¿½dyas to the pinnacle of their power. He finally crushed Chola authority in the South, occupied Kï¿½ï¿½chï¿½ and subdued the Chera country, Kongudeï¿½a and Ceylon. There was a fratricidal struggle between his illegitimate son, Vira Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ya and the legitimate Sundara. Taking advantage of this situation, their territories were conquered by the Kholjis.
Jainism was prevalent during the rule of the Pandyas. The earliest Jaina inscription419 of this dynasty comes from Chitaral in the former Travancore State. The record in Tamil language and Vaï¿½ï¿½eluttu characters, belongs to the 28th year of the reign of Varaguï¿½a I (C. 765-815 A.D.)420 alias Neï¿½uï¿½jadayan. The epigraph belongs to the last quarter of the eighth century A.D. It records a gift of golden ornaments known as the holy hill of the Chï¿½raï¿½as, made by the lady teacher Guï¿½andï¿½ngi Kurattigal, disciple of Arishï¿½anemi Bhaï¿½ï¿½ra of Perayakkuï¿½i. Two more inscriptions of the reign of this king are known and both come from Ramanathapuram District. They make mention421 of Trukkï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½mpalli which seems to have been a Jaina temple at Kurandai, an important Jaina centre422 at Venbunï¿½ï¿½u.
There is a historically important Jaina inscription of the reign of Veraguï¿½a II. This is the Aivarmalai stone inscription423 found from Palni Tï¿½luk of Madural District. The epigraph is incised above the natural cave on the Aivarmalai hill, so well known for its Jaina relics. Unlike most of the Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½yan epigraphs, it yields a definite date, viz., ï¿½aka 792 corresponding to 870 A.D. which according to the epigraph, was the eighth regnal year of Varaguna II. It registers a gift of 500 Kï¿½ï¿½am of gold by ï¿½ï¿½ntivï¿½ro Kkuravar of Kï¿½lam, the disciple of Guï¿½avï¿½rakkura Vaï¿½igal for offering to the images of Pï¿½rï¿½va Bhaï¿½ï¿½ra (i.e. Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha) and of the attendant Yakshï¿½s and for the feeding of one ascetic. The inscription, therefore, indirectly proves that the temple complex of this hill, dedicated to Pï¿½rï¿½va, existed before the date of this inscription. Another important Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½yan Jaina inscription is dated in the 20th year of Saï¿½ayan Mï¿½ran424 identified by some with Rï¿½jasiï¿½ha II (C. 900-920 A.D.), although Sastri, it appears, believes that he was a different person425. The inscription was discovered from Uttamapaliyam in Periyakulam Tï¿½luk of Madurai District. The epigraph is much damaged but definitely refers to a Jaina shrine of this hill, known for its Jaina antiquities. The Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½yan king Rï¿½jasiï¿½ha II is said to have endowed several Jaina temples426 which proves that he was a Jaina patron.
- THE WESTERN GAÏ¿½GAS
The Western Gaï¿½ga rulers were great patrons of Jainism. Nï¿½timarga I (853-870 A.D.) and his second son Bï¿½tuga were devout Jainas. Marasiï¿½ha (880-900 A.D.) was a disciple of Ajitasena, and was a staunch Jaina. He actively supported the renowned Jaina scholars, mï¿½intained the Jaina doctrine, caused basadis and mï¿½nastambhas to be erected at several places, and, after abdication, ended his life by Sallekhanï¿½. His minister Chï¿½muï¿½ï¿½arï¿½ya, one of the triumvirate of the special promoters of Jainism, was a brave general and possessed several exceptional virtues including liberality. Nemichandra and Ajitasena were his preceptors. He gave many endowments for the love of Jainism; caused the collosal image of Gommaï¿½a to be set up at ï¿½ravaï¿½abelagola; constructed a basadi on Chikkabetta at ï¿½ravaï¿½a Belagola and patronized the Kannaï¿½a author Ranna. His example was followed by his successors and feudatories.
- THE LATER CHALUKYAS
The age of the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½tas (754-974 A.D.) was immediately followed by that of the later Chï¿½lukyas. It is alleged that they persecutted the Jainas but there are instances to prove that they also patronized Jainism. We read that Jailapa II had strong weakness for Jainism, and patronized Ranna Kaviratna, the author of Ajita-purï¿½ï¿½a, who received the title ‘Kavichakravartin’ from the king. Tailapa’s son Satyï¿½ï¿½raya constructed a monument (nisidhi) in honour of his Jaina guru. One of his successors Jayasiï¿½ha III, caused a basadi to be constructed at Balipura. Members of the royal family, high State officials, vassal Kings and feudal lords, sometimes, followed Jaina faith, and were either ï¿½rï¿½vakas or ï¿½rï¿½vikas. Some of the Eastern Chï¿½lukyas were Jainas of patrons of that religion and made pious endowments to that faith. Three records of Ammarï¿½ja II speak of Jainism as a very popular religion in the tenth century. A Kannaï¿½a inscription at Rï¿½matï¿½rtham, near Vizianagram of the reign of king Vimalï¿½ditya (1022 A.D.) states that Trikï¿½layogin Siddhï¿½ntadeva Muni, ï¿½chï¿½rya of Deï¿½ï¿½gaï¿½a, who was a guru of the king, paid respects to the Rï¿½matirtham hill which was regarded as the place of pilgrimage by the Jainas.
- THE WESTERN CHALUKYAS
Tailapa, the founder of the Western Chï¿½lukya dynasty, was the patron of the great Kannaï¿½a poet Raï¿½ï¿½a. The next king Satyï¿½ï¿½raya received spiritual guidance from a Jaina teacher named Vimala Chandra Paï¿½ï¿½itadeva of the Drï¿½viï¿½a Saï¿½gha. Many other kings of this dynasty such as Jayasiï¿½ha II, Someï¿½vara I and II, and Vikramï¿½ditya IV, showed favour to the Jaina faith by patronizing Jaina writers and giving lands to Jaina teachers and Jaina temples.427
40 THE Ï¿½ILÏ¿½HÏ¿½RAS
There are three branches of the ï¿½ilï¿½hï¿½ra family known to history. The oldest ï¿½ilï¿½hï¿½ra house ruled over South Konkan from the last quarter of the eighth century A.D. The second family held sway over Northern Konkan for roughly four centuries. The third ï¿½ilï¿½hï¿½ra branch established its authority about the commencement of the eleventh century A.D. in Kolahapur and the Districts of Satï¿½rï¿½ and Belgaum. This family enjoyed more independence and one of its kings, Vijayï¿½rka or Vijayï¿½ditya, is said to have helped Vijjana or Bijjala in bringing about the downfall of the last Chï¿½lukya sovereign. The most notable monarch of the line was, however, Bhoja (C. 1175-1210 A.D.) after whom the kingdom was conquered by Singhaï¿½a, the Yï¿½dava prince.
The tutelary deity of the ï¿½ilï¿½hï¿½ras was Mahï¿½lakshmï¿½, but they also extended patronage to Jainism as known from the literary and inscriptional records of the age. There is a shrine of Arhat at Irukuï¿½ï¿½ by Gaï¿½ï¿½arï¿½ditya. He built another temple of the Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Neminï¿½tha at Ajurikï¿½ (modern ï¿½jre in Kolhapur District) and named it Tribhuvanatilaka which was one of his ownbirudas.
Several other Jaina temples erected at different places in the ï¿½ilï¿½hï¿½ra Kingdom find mention in the records of the age. Thus, there was a temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha at the village Havina Herelige (modern Herla), which was built by one Vï¿½sudeva, the Haï¿½apavala (betel-box carrier) of ï¿½amanta Kï¿½mï¿½deva, who owed allegiance to the ï¿½ilï¿½hï¿½ra king Vijayï¿½ditya.428 Another temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha was at Maï¿½dalur (modern Madur, Kolhapur District). At the request of maternal uncle Sï¿½manta Lakshmaï¿½a, king Vijayï¿½ditya granted some land to the disciple Arhannadi Siddhï¿½ntadeva of Mï¿½ghanandi Saiddhï¿½ntika, who officiated as the pontiff of the temple429. A third temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha was built at Kavaï¿½egolla by Nimbadevarasa, a Sï¿½manta of Gaï¿½ï¿½arï¿½ditya. It received several donations of rates and taxes from the famous merchant guild of the age, viz., the Vï¿½ra-Baï¿½aï¿½jas of Ayyï¿½vole (modern Ahihola in the Bijapur District).
Nimbadevarasa was a brave Sï¿½manta of the ï¿½ilï¿½hï¿½ra king Gaï¿½ï¿½arï¿½ditya. He was as devout as he was brave. His construction of a temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha at Kavuï¿½egolla has been mentioned. He erected two more Jaina temples in Kolhapur. Nimbadeva, a Sï¿½manta of Gaï¿½ï¿½arï¿½jaditya, built the Chaityalaya.430 Nimbaradeva was a lay disciple of the Jaina Muni Mï¿½ghanandi of Kundï¿½nvaya. Nimbadeva claims that he had obtained the boon of the Jaina goddess Padmï¿½vatï¿½. He erected another temple at Kolhapur and named it Rï¿½panï¿½rï¿½yaï¿½a which was a Biruda of his suzerain Gaï¿½ï¿½arï¿½ditya. This is explicitly stated in an inscription, at the Jaina Vasati at Teradï¿½l in the former Sï¿½ngli State.431 Nimbaradeva belonged to the Sarasvatï¿½gachchha, the Deï¿½ï¿½yagaï¿½a and the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha, and was of the ï¿½mnaya (line) of Kundakundachï¿½rya. He placed his Guru Mï¿½ghanandi Saiddhï¿½ntika in charge of the temple of Rï¿½panï¿½rï¿½yaï¿½a, a famous centre of Jainism. It is mentioned in several records of the age. It is now called the temple of Mï¿½nastambha.
Mï¿½ghanandi Siddhï¿½ntika was a great ascetic, highly venerated for his learning and piety. According to the Terï¿½dï¿½l inscription432, he preached the principles of Jainism to all people and was saluted by the ï¿½amanta Nimba.
Mï¿½ghanandi is also greatly extolled in an inscription at ï¿½ravaï¿½a Belagola.433 He was the prince of ascetics. He had several powerful lay disciples as well as the ï¿½amantas Kedï¿½ranï¿½karasa, Nimbaradeva and Kï¿½madeva.434 Several of his religious disciples are mentioned in inscriptions of the period such as ï¿½rutakï¿½rti, Traividya, Gaï¿½ï¿½avimuktadeva435, Mï¿½ï¿½ikyanandi, Pandita436 and Arhanandi Siddhï¿½ntadeva.437
Mï¿½ghanandi is said to have founded a tirth (holy-place) in Kolhapur. He was evidently the founder of the Maï¿½ha at Kolhapur which became a powerful centre of Jainism in that period. When Nimbadeva erected the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha, he placed Mï¿½ghanandi hisGuru in charge of it. The temple was known as Rï¿½panï¿½rï¿½yana, a biruda of Sï¿½manta Nimbadeva’s suzerain Gaï¿½ï¿½arï¿½ditya. Later Mï¿½ghanandi appointed ï¿½rutakï¿½rti-Traividya as the priest of Rï¿½panï¿½rï¿½yaï¿½a.438 The latter also was a learned man.
The temple of Rï¿½panï¿½rï¿½yaï¿½a became the centre of Jaina religious activities in that period. ï¿½rutakï¿½rti-Traividya, though the priest of the Rï¿½panï¿½rï¿½yaï¿½a temple in Kolhapur, received gifts of rates and taxes levied on commodities sold in the market of Kavaï¿½egolla for the benefit of the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha at that place.439 This shows that the affairs of the temple were controlled from the centre at the Rï¿½panï¿½rï¿½yaï¿½a temple in Kolhapur.
Another disciple of this Mï¿½ghanandi Saiddhï¿½ntika viz. Mï¿½ï¿½ikyanandi Pandita is mentioned in another stone inscription placed in the courtyard of the Rï¿½panï¿½ryaï¿½a temple at Kolhapur.440 He was the priest of the Chaityï¿½laya of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha erected probably at Hï¿½vina-Harilige (modern Herle in Kolhapur District) by one Vï¿½rideva, the betel-box carrier of Sï¿½manta Kï¿½madeva. The inscription records the gifts of a field and a house in favour of the temple.
Another disciple of Mï¿½ghanandi Saiddhï¿½ntika, viz. Arhanandï¿½ Saiddhï¿½ntadeva is known from the stone inscription originally belonging to the Jaina Vasati of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha at Bamani,441 a village near Kï¿½gal in the Kolhapur District. The temple had been erected by one Chaudhore-Kï¿½magï¿½vuï¿½ï¿½a, and the gift of a field together with a flower-garden was made in its favour by king Vijayï¿½ditya at the request of his maternal uncle Sï¿½manta Lakshmaï¿½a for the spiritual benefit of the latter’s family.
Another temple dedicated to the Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Chandraprabha was built by Nemagï¿½vuï¿½ï¿½a at the instance of Nï¿½galadevï¿½, who was probably the mother of Gaï¿½ï¿½arï¿½ditya. It was at Hï¿½vina-Herilige, modern Herle in the Kolhapur District. Like the Rï¿½panï¿½rï¿½yaï¿½a temple of Kolhapur, it was named after a biruda of Gaï¿½ï¿½arï¿½ditya, viz. Tribhuvanatilaka, Its priest ï¿½antivï¿½ra-Siddhï¿½ntadeva, was a disciple of Bï¿½lachandra-Vrati who is glorified in the Neminï¿½thapurï¿½ï¿½a of Karï¿½apï¿½rya, and who was patronized by Lakshmï¿½dhara, a minister of the ï¿½ilï¿½hï¿½ra king Vijayï¿½ditya. The inscription at Herle records the grant of one Mattara of land and a garden for the worship of the Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Chandraprabha. It is dated in 1118 A.D. The gifts made to the Jaina priests who were disciples of the Jaina Muni Mï¿½ghanandi Saiddhï¿½ntika will show what influence the centre of Jainism exerted on the religious life of the adherents of that religion in the territory of the Kolhapur ï¿½ilï¿½hï¿½ras.
Mï¿½ghanandï¿½ Saiddhï¿½ntika was venerated beyond the dominion of the ï¿½ilï¿½hï¿½ras of Kolhapur. Goï¿½ka, who was a feudatory of the Chï¿½lukya Emperor Vikramï¿½ditya VI, erected a temple of Neminï¿½tha, called Goï¿½ka Jinï¿½laya after him at Teridï¿½la, modern Terdï¿½l in the former Sï¿½ngli state.442 The inscription set up near the temple states that Goï¿½ka invited the venerable Mï¿½ghanandï¿½ Saiddhï¿½ntika of Kolhapur, the preceptor of ï¿½amanta Nembhadeva evidently for the consecration of the temple. The Terdï¿½l inscription mentions several disciples of the Mï¿½ghanandi Saiddhï¿½ntika. The last mentioned Vardhamï¿½na received the grant made to the Goï¿½ka Jinï¿½laya.
Not only kings and Sï¿½mantas but ordinary people also erected Jaina temples, some of them are whom from inscriptional records. An inscription of the image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha at Honnur near Kï¿½gal in Kolhapur District records certain gifts made by ï¿½ilï¿½hï¿½ra brothers Ballï¿½la and Gaï¿½ï¿½arï¿½ditya for the temple erected by Bamma-gï¿½vï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a, the chief of a District.443 At Shedhal in Belgaon District, there was a Jaina temple erected by the Koï¿½ï¿½aligas of the place. A stone inscription discovered at the place records certain rates and taxes voluntarily granted to the temple by the local guilds and also some more levied on the marriage performed locally.444
Some of the Munis connected with those Jaina Vasatis were engaged in literary activities.445 There is a controversy among scholars about authorship of some works by ï¿½rutakï¿½rti-Travidya, the disciple of Mï¿½ghanandï¿½ Saiddhï¿½ntika. There is however incontrovertible evidence about the literary activities of two other Jaina authors who flourished in the ï¿½ilï¿½hï¿½ra dominion in that age. One of them was Karï¿½apï¿½rya, the author of the Kannaï¿½a work Neminï¿½thapurï¿½ï¿½a. The other Jain author who flourished in this period was Somadeva, the author of the ï¿½abdï¿½rï¿½avachandrikï¿½, a commentary on the Jaina Vyï¿½karaï¿½a-ï¿½abdï¿½rï¿½ava. He completed his work at ï¿½jurika (modern ï¿½jare, Kolhapur District) in the Jinï¿½laya called Tribhuvanatilaka built by the ï¿½ilï¿½hï¿½ra king Gaï¿½ï¿½arï¿½ditya in 1205 A.D. He flourished in the reign of the last ï¿½ilï¿½hï¿½ra king Bhoja II who he glorifies at the end of his work.446
- THE HOYSÏ¿½LAS OF DVÏ¿½RASAMUDRA
The Hoysï¿½las emerge into prominence about the beginning of the eleventh century A.D. During the reign of Bittiga Vishï¿½uvardhana (C. 1110-1140 A.D.) the Hoysï¿½las attained a position of some importance in the politics of Southern India. He transferred the capital from Velï¿½pura (modern Belï¿½r, Hasan District) to Dvï¿½rasamundra (Halebid), and made himself independent of the Chï¿½lukyas. He established his authority over an extensive territory. The next noteworthy ruler of this dynasty was Vishï¿½uvardhana’s grandson, Vï¿½ra-Ballï¿½la I (C. 1172-1215 A.D.) who was the first to style himself Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½dhirï¿½ja. Vira-Ballï¿½la I’s son and successor, Vï¿½ra-Ballï¿½la-II or Narasiï¿½ha II, however met with some reverses at the hands of the Yï¿½dava Singhaï¿½a. The last Hoysï¿½la monarch was Vï¿½ra-Ballï¿½la-III. About 1310 A.D., his kingdom was ravaged by the Muslem hosts under Mal-ik Kï¿½fï¿½r, who after plundering Devagiri, advanced against the Hoysala capital. It was sacked and king made a prisoner.
The founder of the Hoysï¿½la dynasty owed his greatness to the benedictions of a Jaina saint. A Jaina saint Vardhamï¿½andeva is said to have been foremost in the management of the affairs of the Hoysï¿½las, probably during the reign of Vinayï¿½ditya. The next two kings had Jaina saints as their spiritual teachers. All these kings made grants to Jaina temples and settlements. Though Vishï¿½uvardhana, the most celebrated glorious Hoysï¿½la ruler later on became Vaishï¿½ava, he continued to benevolent and generous even towards Jainism. In 1125 A.D., he paid his devotions to the Jaina saint ï¿½rï¿½pï¿½la Traividyadeva, built a Jaina Chaitya, and made suitable grants for repairs of the Jaina temples as well as for the maintenance of Jaina saints. According to another stone inscription at Belur 1129 A.D., he made a gift to the Malli Jinï¿½laya. In 1133 A.D., he granted a village to the Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha temple in the capital itself, Dvï¿½rasamudra, and to commemorate his recent victories, he named the god as Vijaya Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha and his own son as Vijaya Narasiï¿½ha. His queen Sï¿½ntaladevï¿½, a great dancer in the temple, continued to be a staunch devotee of Jainism all through her life, and made several donations to the Jaina temples. Her spiritual guide was Prabhï¿½chandra Siddhï¿½ntadeva the disciple of Meghachandra Traividyadeva. She died by the Jaina form of renunciation called Sallekhanï¿½ in 1131 A.D.447
Some of the most outstanding ministers and commanders of the Hoysalas were also staunch devotees of the Jaina faith. Amongst them was Gaï¿½garï¿½ja, who built several Jaina temples, repaired many more and generously endowed numerous Jaina institutions. His wife Lakshmï¿½matï¿½ died in accordance with the rules of Jaina Sallekhaï¿½a, and her noble husband commemorated her by an epitaph at ï¿½ravaï¿½a Belgola. Other commanders of Vishï¿½uvardhana, who subscribed to the Jaina faith and served it properly, were Boppa, Punisa, Maniyana and Bharateï¿½vara whose devotion to Jaina teachers and acts of piety were recorded several inscriptions at ï¿½ravaï¿½a Belagola and other places. Vishï¿½uvardhana’s successor Narasiï¿½ha I paid a visit to ï¿½ravaï¿½a-Belagola and endowed the Chaturviï¿½ï¿½ati bagadi built by his illustrious general Hulla, by the grant of a village. The later Hoysï¿½la kings were also patrons of Jainism. Two of them, Vï¿½ra Ballï¿½la II and Narasiï¿½ha III, had Jaina saints as their spiritual ancestors, and these and others erected Jaina temples and made rich endowments to them.
- FEUDATORIES AND HIGH OFFICIALS
It was not only these predominant royal houses that patronised Jainism, but the faith was adopted by several feudatory chiefs and small rulers in the land as well. For example, the Sï¿½ntaras, who ruled over that part of Karï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aka which roughly corresponds with the modern Tï¿½rthahalli Taluk and its surrounding country, where the followers of Jainism from the very beginning. Bhujabala Sï¿½ntara erected a Jain temple in his capital Pomburcha and granted to his guru, Kanakanandideva, a village for its maintenance. In A.D. 1081 Nagularasa, the minister of Vï¿½ra Sï¿½ntara, is described as ‘a fortress to the Jain Dharma’. The later chiefs also built numerous Jain temples and shrines and endowed them suitably with lands and tolls. In A.D. 1173, Vï¿½ra Sï¿½ntara is described as ‘a bee at the lotus feet of Jaina’. Later on, however, the Sï¿½ntaras adopted the creed of Vï¿½raï¿½aivism, and this affected the progress of Jainism in that region to some extent. During the thirteenth century the capital of the Sï¿½ntaras was shifted to Kalasa, and later to Karkala in Tuluva. Where they, in spite of their new faith, continued to be benevolent towards Jainism.
The Kï¿½ï¿½galvas, who ruled over north Coorg and the Arkalgud Tï¿½luk in the south of the Hassan District of Mysore, and emerged into prominence during the eleventh century, were great patrons of Jainism. The Kï¿½ngalva rulers constructed Jain temples and made grants for their maintenance till the beginning of the twelfth century, when their fortunes declined consequent upon the expulsion of the Cholas by the Hoysï¿½las from the land.
Similarly, the Chï¿½ngalvas of the Changanï¿½ï¿½ (roughly corresponding with the Hansur Tï¿½luk in Mysore State), although ï¿½aivite by profession, were benevolent towards Jainism, as is clearly proved by epigraphic records of A.D. 1091 and 1100 which make mention of the construction of Jain temples and donations for the same, particularly to some of the “sixty-four basadis in the city of Hanasoge or Panasoge (in the Yedatore Tï¿½luk of Mysore), reputed to have been built by Rï¿½ma the son of Daï¿½aratha.” We possess numerous records, both dated and undated, and ranging between A.D. 1000 and 1300, of solitary rulers and noblemen, in addition to those of persons of the merchant class and others, who built temples, installed images, performed worship and made endowments for perpetual service of divinity and piety, and who even ended their lives by the renunciation of all worldly attachments and by observing fasts in strict accordance with the Jain faith. Jain temples, shrines, images, Samadhis and epitaphs, strewn all over the South, amply testify to the fact that during this period the Jain religion was extremely popular and constituted a living faith of all classes of people from royalty to peasantry, inspiring them to deeds of piety and philanthropy during life, and affording them solace and hope in death.
- THE KÏ¿½KATÏ¿½YAS OF WARANGAL
The Kï¿½katï¿½yas were at first feudatories of the Later Chï¿½lukyas, after whose decline, they rose to power in Telingana and exercised authority there. The earlier seat of Kï¿½katï¿½ya government was Anmakoï¿½ï¿½a or Hanumï¿½nkuï¿½d, but subsequently Warangal became the capital. The first prince to bring the family into prominence was Prolarï¿½ja, one of whose records is dated 1117-18 A.D. He distinguished himself in warfare against the Western Chï¿½lukyas and ruled for a long time. After the reign of Rudra (C. 1160 A.D.) and his younger brother, Mahï¿½deva, the latter’s son, Gaï¿½apati, ascended the Kï¿½katï¿½ya throne in 1199 A.D. He was the most powerful monarch, and he continued to rule for sixty-two years. He is represented to have successfully measured swords with the kings of Chola, Kaliï¿½ga, Seuï¿½a (i. e. Yï¿½dava ruler) Karï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a, Lï¿½ï¿½a and Valanï¿½ï¿½u. Gaï¿½apati was able to win these achievements owing perhaps, to the weakness of the Chola sovereign and the confused political situation in the Southern India in the second quarter of the 13th century. Being without an issue, Ganapati was succeeded by his daughter Rudï¿½aï¿½bï¿½ in C. 1261 A.D. After a reign of nearly thirty years, Rudrï¿½ï¿½bï¿½, was followed by her grandson, Pratï¿½parudradeva. Pratï¿½parudradeva was the last great king of the Kï¿½katï¿½ya dynasty, and he had to submit to the yoke of the Moslems during the Southern raid of Malik Kï¿½fur. Thenceforward, the Kï¿½katï¿½yas began to sink into insignificance and eventually their kingdom passed into the hands of the Bahmani Sultans of the Dekkan.
The Kï¿½katï¿½yas started their career in the Telugu country when Jainism enjoyed royal patronaga under the Rï¿½sï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½as. In Teliï¿½gï¿½ï¿½a particularly, the Chï¿½lukyas of Memulaveï¿½a extended full patronage to that religion as evidenced by their monuments and literary works like Yaï¿½asatilaka and ï¿½dipurï¿½ï¿½a which were written by their court poets Somadeva and Pampa. The early Kï¿½katï¿½yas were not far removed from that period. Their association with the myth of Mï¿½dhava-varman stated in the Siddheï¿½vara-Charitra indicates their affiliation to Jainism in the early days. Beta I is stated in his Sanigram inscription to have made a gift to the Yaddhamalla Jinï¿½laya. The Banajipet inscription of Meï¿½arasa I records a gift to a Jaina basadi by Kï¿½katï¿½ya Beta II. The Padmï¿½kshi temple inscription of Prola II dated A.D. 1117 records the construction of Kadalalï¿½ya basadi and endowments to the same by his minister’s wife Mailama and Medarï¿½ja II.
The Garuï¿½a symbol, which adorned their banner till the time of Pratï¿½parudra, alluded to in Pratï¿½parudrï¿½ya of Vidyï¿½nï¿½tha does not indicate their strong attachment to Vaishï¿½avism, as there is little evidence in that regard. It is quite possible that it may indicate some Jaina symbol like the Garuï¿½a of ï¿½antinï¿½tha, the sixteenth Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara.
It may not be out of place in this connection to co-relate two identical statements occurring in the Govindapuram epigraph and the Telugu Chronical Siddheï¿½vara-Charita. According to the former, certain Mï¿½dhava-Chakravartin who is stated to be the founder of the Polavasa family of chiefs, acquired his military strength consisting of eight thousand elephants, ten crores of horses and innumerable soldiers by the grace of Yaksheï¿½varï¿½ at the command of Jina. The same in Siddheï¿½vara-Charitra, is stated that Mï¿½dhavavarman, the founder of the Kï¿½katï¿½ya family. acquired an army comprising thousands of elephants and lakhs of horses and foot soldiers by the grace of the Goddess Padmï¿½kshï¿½. The Dï¿½kshï¿½rama inscription of Durga, son of Prola II mentions Mï¿½dhavavarman as the founder of the Kï¿½katï¿½ya family. The goddess Padmï¿½kshï¿½ on the hill near Anumakoï¿½ï¿½a is beyond all doubt a Jaina deity although it is present worshipped as a ï¿½aiva goddess. The image of this goddess situated amidst the images of Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas can not be believed to be a ï¿½aiva goddess. The original Jaina deity was gradually transformed into a ï¿½aiva goddess to suit the ï¿½aiva leanings of the latter Kï¿½katï¿½yas. The said Jaina myth itself is recast into a ï¿½aiva one. The goddess might have been originally Padmï¿½vatï¿½, the Yaksheï¿½varï¿½ or ï¿½ï¿½sanadevï¿½ of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha, the twenty-third Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara. While editing the inscription of Prola II set up before this temple, H. KRISHNA SASTRI expressed the view that the Kadalalï¿½ya basadi mentioned in it must have been dedicated to Kadalalï¿½ya, the Kaï¿½aï¿½ï¿½a name for the goddess Ambikï¿½ or Padmï¿½vatï¿½. All this leads us to the conclusion that the early members of the Kï¿½katï¿½yas were the followers of Jainism. It is not unreasonable to believe that the Jaina goddess on the Anumakoï¿½ï¿½a hill was set up by Garuï¿½a-Beta or Beta I and called it Kï¿½katï¿½ as stated in the Gudur-epigraph that Kï¿½mavasï¿½ni by reinstating Garuï¿½a Beta established Kï¿½kati.
That Jainism was patronized even by the later Kï¿½katï¿½ya members is evidenced by the renovation work conducted by Rudra’s minister Gaï¿½gï¿½dhara to the Jaina Vasati on the Padmï¿½kshï¿½ hill as stated in his epigraph at Hammakonda.
A Jaina poet named Appayï¿½rya states in his Jinendra-Kalyï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ bhyudaya that he completed his work during the reign of Kï¿½katï¿½ya Kumï¿½ra Rudradeva, that is Pratï¿½parudra. This is also an indication that Jainism flourished in Andhra till the end of the Kï¿½katï¿½ya period.
To illustrate the general tendency of the society towards Jainism during this period, we have an inscription at Bekkallu, Jangaon tï¿½luk,datable to Rudra’s reign. Certain Mallireï¿½ï¿½i is stated to have constructed twenty-one temples for ï¿½iva, although Jainism was his family religion. It is interesting to note in the record a specific statement in Telugu prose as well as verse that the four Samayas ï¿½aiva, Vaishï¿½ava, his own Jaina and Buddha were mere causes for disbelief (Saï¿½saya-hetu), but the god in all faiths or Samayas was only one and that with such strong belief he constructed all those temples for the god ï¿½iva.
It is evident that the people at large in those days were following the four religions without prejudice to each other.448
- THE KALACHURIS OF THE SOUTH
Among the Kalachuris of the South, Bijjala was important. Bijjala and his sons held the Chï¿½lukya crown for some years and Bijjala was forced to addicate in 1167 A.D. His brief tenure of rule was marked by the rise of the liï¿½gï¿½yat or Vï¿½ra-ï¿½aiva Sect. Bijjala is said to have persecuted the Liï¿½gï¿½yats which ultimately led to the loss of his life. Thereafter all his sons ruled in quick succession till 1183 A.D., But none of them had the ability to take full advantage of their father’s usurpation. However, they succeeded in keeping up the hostilities against Hoysala Ballï¿½la II (1173-1220 A.D.). In 1183 A.D., the Kalachuri power was swept away by the Chï¿½lukya Someï¿½vara IV, son of Taila III.
Seven Jaina inscriptions of the Kalachuri period are known. The earliest inscription449 is dated 1159 A.D., and it records the donation to some Jaina ï¿½chï¿½rya by the Senï¿½pati. This inscription is of the time of Bijjala. The name of this ruler has been mentioned in the four inscriptions450, ranging from 1161 to 1168 A.D., and they describe the charities by local officials to the Jaina ï¿½chï¿½ryas. The last two inscriptions451 dated 1173 A.D. and 1175 A.D. respectively belong to Sovideva and they mention donation by local persons. Though Bijjala was the persecutor of the Liï¿½gï¿½yats, he was tolerant towards Jainism as known from Charities during his reign.
- THE YÏ¿½DAVAS OF DEVAGIRI
The Yï¿½davas were a feudatory family when the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½tas and the Chï¿½lukyas held sway in the South. The first noteworthy figure in the dynasty was Bhillam V who taking advantage of the confusion, fixed his capital at Devagiri, modern Daulatabad. Bhillan’s successor was his son Jaitugi (1191-1210 A.D.). The Yï¿½davas gradually extended their power among their contemporaries. Singhana, son of Jaitugi, was the most energetic personality and during his rule C. 1210 to 1247 A.D., he is represented to have conquered many lands. Singhana was succeeded by his grandson Kï¿½ishï¿½a (C. 1247-60 A.D.). Kï¿½ishï¿½a was followed by his brother Mahï¿½deva (C. 1260-71 A.D.) who conquered some conutries. It was during the reign of Rï¿½machandra that the Muslem army led by Alauddin Khilji, the then Governor, marched towards the South and suddenly invaded Devagiri in 1294 A.D. Rï¿½machandra had to conclude a humiliating treaty with Alauddin Khilji.
There are fifteen Jaina inscriptions of the Yï¿½davas of Devagiri. Among them, the earliest inscription452 is dated 1230 A.D. of the time of Singhaï¿½a. It describes some charities to the Jaina temple. There are three Jaina inscriptions453 which describe charities to Jaina temples by three Mahï¿½pradhï¿½nas Prabhï¿½karadeva, Malla and Bï¿½chirï¿½ja. These inscriptions range from 1245 to 1247 A.D. There are four Jaina inscriptions454 of the reign of Kanharadeva, of which three are concerned with charities and one with Samï¿½dhilekha (Cenotaph-Inscription). Three Jaina inscriptions455 belong to king Mahï¿½deva, and those are dated 1265 and 1269 A.D. There are monuments of Samï¿½dhimarana. There are four inscriptions of the king Rï¿½machandra which belong from 1285 to 1297 A.D.456 The first inscription describes the construction of Jaina temple by Sarvï¿½dhikarï¿½ named Mï¿½yadeva. The second is a cenotaph inscription, and the third one mentions charities to the temple. The fourth inscription refers to the repair of one temple by the son of the minister of Mahï¿½maï¿½ï¿½aleï¿½vara Tï¿½kamadeva. These inscriptions reveal the activities of Jainism in the Yï¿½dava kingdom of Devagiri.
There was colonial and cultural expansion in South-East Asia because of the encouragement of sea voyage by the traders of the South during the Early Medieval period. The cult of ï¿½aivism was dominant during this period, and next came Vaishï¿½avism. Buddhism was also popular. Even there were some traces of Jainism in Kamboj. Jayavarman VII, who ruled over Kamboj in the twelfth century A.D., was first Buddhist but afterwards, he became a follower of Jainism.457 It indicates that there were some followers of even Jainism here during this period.457
- CHATTERJI, B.R. : Indian Cultural Influence in Kambodia, P. 125.
- JINESHWAR DAS : Angokora Ke Paï¿½chameru Mandira.
JINESHWAR DAS is of the view that Panchameru and Nandï¿½ï¿½varadvï¿½pa described in the Jaina, Pï¿½jï¿½s (Jinabhï¿½ratï¿½-Saï¿½graha, pp. 340-343) were Jaina temples of Angaveru and Nandï¿½ï¿½varadvï¿½pa of Angakorovï¿½ï¿½a. A few inscriptions out of 900 in the French Library of Pandecheri may be related to Jainism in Indonesia. Half Padmï¿½sana and Nï¿½ga images of these temples might be related to the Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas. The places in the neighbourhood of Angakora might be the birth-places of the Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas. In the National Central Museum of the capital of Kambodia, there are Jaina images. These views do not seem to be correct. These temples and images were not actually concerned with Jainism but Buddhism.
- THE AGE OF CONFLICT
INVASION OF MAHMUD GHAZNI (998-1030 A.D.)
Mahmud Ghazni ascended the throne at Ghazni. In India, his image is only that of a plunderer and a destroyer of temples. He is said to have made seventeen raids into India. The raids of Mahmud into India were aimed at plundering the rich temples and cities of Northern India. From the Punjab, Mahmud raided Nagarkot hills and Thanesar near Delhi. His most daring raids, however, were against Kanauj in 1018 A.D. and against Somanï¿½tha in Gujarat in 1025 A.D. In the campaign against Kanauj, he sacked and plundered both Mathura and Kanauj and returned via Kalinjar in Bundelkhand loaded with fabulous riches. Mahmud marched from Multan across without entering any serious resistance on the way, in order to raid the fabulously rich temple of Somanï¿½tha. This was his last campaign in India outside Punjab. He died at Ghazni in 1030 A.D.
These raids of Mahmï¿½d Ghazni brought great destruction to Jainism. While invading India, Mahmï¿½d Ghazni also passed through Rajasthan and destroyed the cities on the way. In 1009 A.D., Mahmud Ghazni led an army against Nï¿½rï¿½yaï¿½a situated in the heart of Hind. The king of this place fought bravely in defence of his country, but was defeated. The Sultan ruthlessly broke the idols and returned to Ghazni with large booty including the elephants and horses. This place had great commercial importance, and had become the emporium of foreign articles of central Asia as well as that of the indigenous ones. This place has been identified by A. CUNNINGHAM with Narayanapura near Alwar, and other scholars also followed him.459 This identification appears to be doubtful because Narayanpura is not known to be Nï¿½rï¿½yaï¿½a in the tenth or eleventh century A.D. At this time, it was a prosperous town, inhabited by rich merchants. The discovery of early medieval Jaina images (of the tenth and eleventh centuries) from under the ground of this place proves that it was invaded by Muslim forces. The ruler, who seems to have come into clash with Muhmï¿½d, was Chauhï¿½na ruler Govindarï¿½ja II, son of Durlabharï¿½ja of ï¿½ï¿½kambharï¿½ which is only at a distance of 13 km. from Naraina. Firishta also states that Mahmï¿½d also came to Somanï¿½tha via Sambhar.460
In his invasion in 1024 A.D., he decided to advance along the Rajasthan desert route to reach his destination. In course of his journey, he destroyed the cities en route. He first reached Lodorva. At the time of the Muslim invasion of Mahmï¿½d Ghazni, the temple of Chintï¿½maï¿½i Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha of Lodorva was probably destroyed. Afterwards, it was repaired by Khï¿½masï¿½ and his son Pï¿½nasi as known from aPraï¿½asti of the ï¿½atadala Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha Yantra written by Sahajakï¿½rti in 1618 A.D.461 Sanchor and Chandrï¿½vatï¿½ were also plundered by his forces on his way to Somanï¿½tha. Mahmud also destroyed the Jaina temples and images of these places. Some of the Jaina temples of these two places were renovated. While invading Mathura and Kanauj, Mahmï¿½d destroyed the Jaina temples of these cities also.
We learn from the Tabqat-i-Nï¿½siri and Tï¿½rikhi-Firishta that Muhammad Bahlin whom Bahram Shah of Ghazni had appointed the Governor of his dominions in Hindustan in 1112 A.D., captured and fortified the town of Nagaur. A Muslim Sufi Saint named Hamiduddani Raihani settled at Nagaur either earlier or later than 1112 A.D. He was highly influenced by Jainism and became its follower. The remains of his tomb and his residence are still found at Nagaur.462
THE TURKISH CONQUEST OF NORTH INDIA
In 1173 A.D., Shahabuddin Mohammad (1172-1206 A.D.) also known as Muizzuddin Mohammad ascended the throne of Ghor. Muizzuddin, proceeding by way of Gomal pass, conquered Multan and Uchch. In 1178 A.D., he attempted to penetrate into Gujarat marching across Rajasthan. But the Gujarat ruler completely routed him in a battle near Mount ï¿½bï¿½, and Muizuddin. Muhammad was lucky enough in escaping alive. A battle between the two ambitious ruler Muizzuddin and Muhammad and Prithvï¿½rï¿½ja was inevitable. The conflict started with rival claims for Tabarhinda (Bhatinda). In the battle which was fought at Taram in 1191 A.D., the Ghori forces were completely routed and Muizzuddin Muhammad’s life was saved. The second battle of Tarain in 1192 A.D. is regarded as one of the turning points in Indian history. The Turkish armies captured the fortress of Hansi, Saraswati, Samana and Ajmer. The Tomara ruler of Delhi was ousted and Delhi was made a base for further Turkish advance into the Ganga valley. Delhi area and eastern Rajasthan passed under the Turkish rule. Aibak defeated Bhima II, the ruler of Gujarat and Anhilwara, ravaged and plundered and a number of other towns. Thus the battles of Tarain and Chandawar laid the foundation of Turkish rule in North India. He occupied the powerful forts of Bayana, Gwalior, and conquered Kalinjar, Mahoba and Khajuraho from the Chandella rulers.
As a result of the invasions of Muhammad Ghori from time to time, Jainism suffered greatly. The Muslims destroyed Jaina temples and images. People left their cities and towns, and went to the safer places for security. From the Upakeï¿½agachchha-Prabandha463, it is known that the Muslim army of Muhammad Ghori destroyed Osia in 1195 A.D. This Muslim invasion compelled the people to leave their homes and hearths in panic to other places for safety. From a Praï¿½asti of the Dharmï¿½mï¿½ita tï¿½kï¿½ of ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dhara, it is known that he left Mandalgarh for Dhï¿½rï¿½nagarï¿½ because of the Muslim invasion.464 Sambhar, Nï¿½ï¿½ol, Narhad etc. were also affected badly as a result of the defeat of the Chauhï¿½nas.
In 1196 A.D., Muhammad Ghori defeated the Sï¿½rasena ruler named Kunwarapï¿½la of Bayana and placed it under the command of Bhï¿½uddï¿½n Tughril. Kï¿½ynï¿½ and Tahangarh also suffered greatly by this invasion. The Muslims destroyed Hindu and Jaina temples and on their ruins erected a large number of mosques. He invited the Muslims for settlement by providing all kinds of facilities at these places and the Jainas were forced to migrate. From a Praï¿½asti of Jinadatta Charita465 written in 1218 A.D., it is known that the poet Lakshmaï¿½a left Tribhuvanagiri (Tahangarh) for Krishï¿½aviï¿½sa. The Dhaidin Kï¿½ Jhoï¿½parï¿½, originally a Jaina temple and Sanskrit College was converted into mosque.466
The ï¿½iva shrine of Hanumï¿½na temple at Jambholi in Jaipur District was originally, a Jaina temple of Chandra Prabha. One inscription467engraved on the stone beam of this temple contains five verses composed by Pandita Nishkalankasena, the brother of Aklaï¿½kasena in praise of Chandraprabha Jina, and some pontiffs whose names are given – Amï¿½itasena, Samyamasenasï¿½ri, Brahmasena and Yogasena. The last pontiff is described as one whose feet were worshipped by the Turushkas.
A Khalji officer Bakhtiar Khalji was appointed in charge of some of the areas beyond Benaras. Taking advantage of confusion, he made frequent raids into Bihar. He had attacked and destroyed the famous Nalanda University and the Vikramaï¿½ilï¿½ University. Then he marched with an army towards Nadia, the capital of the Sena kings of Bengal which was rich owing to internal resources and flourshing foreign trade.
Jainism suffered a great setback from the invasion of Muhammad-bin-Bakhtiar, who captured Bihar and Bengal. He razed many Jaina temples to ground, massacred their communities and burnt their manuscripts. Owing to these attacks, Jainism generally suffered in number of its adherents. Many of the beautiful Mohammaden mosques in India have woven into their fabric stones from Jaina shrines which the ruthless conquerers had destroyed. All that the victorious Muhammedans had to do was to make slight structural alterations in the temples and buildings.468
- THE DELHI SULTANATE (1200-1400 A.D.)
Muizddin Muhammad Ghort was succeeded by Qutbuddin Aibak, a Turkish slave who played an important part in expansion of the Turkish Sultanate in India after the battle of Tarain. It also enabled the Delhi Sultanate to develop on its own. In 1210 A.D., Iltutmish (1210-36) succeeded Aibak. He must be regarded as the real consolidator of the Turkish conquets in north India. The most serious threat to Iltutmish came from Chingiz Khan, the great Khan of the Mangols but he returned. Iltutmish led an expedition to Bengal in 1225 A.D. and defeated its ruler. In 1232-34 A.D. he conquered Gwalior and Malwa.
Iltutmish nominated his daughter Raziya to the throne in 1236 A.D. In order to assert her claim, Raziya had to contend against her brother as well as against powerful Turkish nobles, and could rule only for three years. Her rule marked the beginning of struggle for power between the monarchy and the Turkish chiefs sometimes called the ‘forty’, Nasiruddin Mahmud, a younger son of Iltutmish, secured the throne in 1246 A.D. with the help of Balban who was made Naib (Deputy). After getting rid of many of his rivals gradually, he ascended the throne in 1266 A.D. He established the centralized government and tried to increase the prestige and power of monarchy. To deal with the elements of lawlessness in the neighbourhood, he adopted a policy of blood and iron. Balban died in 1286 A.D. He was undoubtedly one of the main architects of the Sultanate of Delhi. By raishing the power of the monarchy, Balban strengthened to Delhi Sultanate. But even he could not fully defend northern India against the inroads of the Mangols.
The Delhi Sultanate Muslim rulers adopted a certain religious policy against the non-Muslims. They used to collect a special tax, Jizyï¿½from the non-Muslims. Most of the Muslim rulers collected a pilgrimage tax at holy places of religious faiths. Old temples were not to be repaired nor new temples built. Public worship of idols was forbidden. It is difficult to say definitely how for this injunction was enforced and obeyed by the non-Muslims including even the Jainas. During the Delhi Sultanate period, several Jaina temples were built, and numerous images were installed in them. There were Jaina scholars who pursued their literary activities. Several copies of Jaina manuscripts were written for presenting them to the Jaina Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ras. A few Jaina officers were employed on high posts by the Sultanas.
THE SLAVE DYNASTY
The Muslims under Sultan Iltutmish brought great destruction to Jainism in the regions of Rajasthan and Malwa. This fact is known to us from the Nemi Jina Charita of the poet Dï¿½modara written in V.S. 1287 at Salakshï¿½apura during the reign of the Paramï¿½ra ruler Devapï¿½la.469At this time, Iltutmish was the emperor of Delhi. Dï¿½modara left Gurjaradeï¿½a (Rajasthan) and settled in Mï¿½lavadeï¿½a. Madanakï¿½rti, author of the 13th century A.D., in his work ï¿½ï¿½sanachatustriï¿½ï¿½atikï¿½.470 informs us how the invasion of Iltutmish brought destruction to the holy place of Abhinandana of Maï¿½galapura in Mï¿½lavedeï¿½a.
After the Bharas, the Chauhï¿½na ruler Chandrapï¿½la founded his kingdom at Chandrawad (Firozabad). He himself, his ministers, and successors became the followers of Jainism. At the time of Chauhï¿½na ruler Ballï¿½la of Chandrawada, his successor was ï¿½havamalla (1257 A.D.). His father’s minister Soï¿½ï¿½s, elder son of Ratnapï¿½la (Kalha) was the Nagaraseï¿½ha, and his younger brother Kï¿½ishï¿½ï¿½ditya (Kanha) was the Chief Minister and Senï¿½pati. This warrior fought several successful battles against the Sultans of the Slave Dynasty. He got several Jaina temples constructed in the Chandravï¿½ï¿½a Kingdom. A Jaisavï¿½la Jaina poet named Lakshmaï¿½a, from Tribhuvanagiri wrote the Aï¿½uvrataratanapradï¿½pa in 1256 A.D. ï¿½ivadeva, nephew of Kï¿½ishnï¿½ditya became Nagaraseï¿½ha after his father Ratnapï¿½la. This Jaina family of many generations consisting of rich-millionaires and high officials was the pillar of the Chandravada kingdom of the Chauhï¿½nas. It is said that fifty-one ceremonies of installation of images were performed in this Chandravï¿½ï¿½a kingdom of the Chauhï¿½nas.471
THE KHALJIS (1290-1320 A.D.)
Jalaluddin Khalji (1290-96 A.D.) ruled only for a brief period of six years. He was the first Khalji ruler of the Delhi Sultnate who clearly put forward the view that the state should be based on the willing support of the government.
Alauddin Khalji (1296-1314 A.D.) came to the throne by treacherously murdering his uncle and father-in-law, Jalaluddin Khalji. To overawe his opponents, he adopted methods of utmost severity and ruthlessness. He tried to extend his empire by conquests. Gujarat passed under his control. Then, he turned his attention to the consolidation of his rule over Rajasthan. The first to invite his attention was Ranthambhor of Hammï¿½radeva Chauhï¿½na. He is credited with having won victories against Rï¿½jï¿½ Bhoja of Dhar and the Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ of Mewar between 1309-11 A.D. His general Malik Kï¿½fur led two campaigns in South India against Warangal and Dwarsamundra respectively. His ablest general Zafar Khan defeated the Mangols and dispersed them. The most important experiment undertaken by Alauddin Khalji was his attempt to control the markets.
During the reign of Alauddin Khalji, the multimillionaire of Delhi was Pï¿½rï¿½a Chandra Agrawal. At the advice of the emperor, he requested the Digambara Mï¿½dhavasena to visit Delhi from the south and established the seat of the Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha in Delhi472. This line of the Saï¿½gha continued among the Agrawals of India. The Paï¿½ï¿½a of Nandi Saï¿½gha was established in Delhi, and the seat of Sena Saï¿½gha by Prabhakara. Allauddï¿½n was greatly influenced by the Digambar saint Madhavasena473.
Lalitakï¿½rti, author of the Sanskrit commentary of the Mahï¿½purï¿½na, was the Paï¿½ï¿½adhara of the Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha, Mï¿½thura Gachchha and Pushkaragaï¿½a. He was expert in several Mantras and Tantras. Being pleased with Lalitakï¿½rti, Alauddin gave him thirty-two firmans.474 Copies of these firmans are found in the Granthbhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ras of Kolhapur and Nagaur. Alauddin Khalji is known to have been influenced by the teachings of Jainaprabhasï¿½ri. The well known ï¿½hakurra Feru who was the mint master of Alauddin Khalji and wrote the Dravyaparï¿½kshï¿½, belonged to Delhi. He accepted the teachings, propounded by the monks of the Kharatara Gachcha.
THE TUGHLAQS (1320-1412 A.D.)
Ghiyï¿½suddin established a new dynasty called Tughlaq which remained in prominence till 1412 A.D. The Tughlags provided three competent rulers – Ghiyasuddin, his son, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1324-51 A.D.) and his nephew Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-87 A.D.). the first two of these rulers ruled over an empire which comprised almost the entire country. The empire of Firoz was smaller but even it was almost as large as that ruled over by Alauddin Khalji. After the death of Firoz, the Delhi Sultnate disintegrated, and north India was divided into a series of small states. Although the Tughlaqs continued to rule till 1412 A.D., the invasion of Delhi by Timur in 1398 A.D. may be said to mark the end of the Tughlaq empire, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1324-51 A.D.) is best remembered as a ruler who undertook a number of bold experiments and showed a keen interest in agriculture. The most controversial step which Muhammad-Bin Tughlaq undertook after his accession was so called transfer of the capital from Delhi to Deogiri. His another step at this time was the introduction of the token currency.
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was deeply read in religion and philosophy, and had a critical and an open mind. He conversed not only with the Muslim mysties, but also with Brahmanical yogis and Jaina saints. He honoured the Digambara Jaina saint Prabhï¿½chandra. From the Bï¿½hubali Charita Praï¿½asti475 written in 1397 A.D. by Dhanapï¿½la, it is known that Prabhï¿½chandra defeated his opponents in discussion, and pleased the heart of Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaq. This poet was the disciple of the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Prabhï¿½chandra, and accompanied his master to Chandravï¿½ï¿½a for pilgrimage. Vasï¿½dhara got composed the work ï¿½rï¿½vakï¿½chï¿½ra-Sï¿½roddhï¿½ra476 from the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Padmanandi of Delhi, Paï¿½ï¿½ahara of Prabhï¿½chandra. Vï¿½sadhara has been mentioned as Lambakaï¿½chuka (Lamechu) in this work. From a Praï¿½asti of the work Purushï¿½rthï¿½nuï¿½ï¿½sana written by the poet Govinda, it is known that one of his concestors named Amarasiï¿½ha was the officer of the emperor Muhammad, and earned name and fame.
Muhammed bin Tughlaq also respected the ï¿½vetï¿½mbara ï¿½chï¿½rya Jinaprabhasuri477. The ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras established their seat in Delhi. Jinaprabhasï¿½ri obtained the firmï¿½n from the emperor, and he started with Saï¿½gha on pilgrimage to Mathura, Hastinï¿½pura etc. At that time, the Jainas have been mentioned in the Persian Chronicles as Mayï¿½ragï¿½na (Sarï¿½vagan). A temple of Mahavï¿½ra was built around 1328 A.D. under the patronage of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq478. Jinaprabha with the help of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq repaired the Tï¿½rth of Kanyï¿½nayana.479
After his accession, Firoz Tughlaq was faced with the problem of preventing the imminent break-up of the Delhi Sultnate. He adopted the policy of trying to appease the nobles, the army and the theologians and of asserting his authority over only such areas which could be easily administered from the centre. He therefore made no attempt to reassert his authority over south India and Deccan. He led two campaigns into Bengal, but was unsuccessful in both. Bengal was, thus lost to the Sultanate. Even then, the sultanate continued to be as large as it was during the early years of Alauddin Khalji. Firoz led a campaign against the ruler of Orissa, and one against Kangra. He desecrated the temples and gathered a rich plunder, but made no attempt to annex Gujarat. His largest campaigns were to deal with rebellions in Gujarat and Thatta.
Firoz Tughlaq was a benevolent ruler, and took a number of humanitarian measures for the improvement of the society. Being of such a nature, he was also impressed by Jainism. From a praï¿½asti of the Holï¿½reï¿½ukï¿½ Charita480 by Jinadï¿½sa, it is known that Haripati, a devotee of Padmï¿½vatï¿½ was honoured by Firoz Shah. Haripati was well-versed in the science of Medicines. There is mention in the Arï¿½dhanï¿½ Paï¿½jika481 that at the request of Firoz Shah, Prabhï¿½chandra, after wearing red clothes gave Darï¿½ana in the inner-apartment (Antehpura). Sï¿½hu Villï¿½, son of Sï¿½hu Narapati, of Agrawï¿½la caste of Hissar was respected by the Emperor Firoz Shah Tughlaq.482 Marahapï¿½la of the Agrawï¿½la caste got a copy of the Dravyasaï¿½graha written in V.S. 1416 at Yoginï¿½pura (Delhi) when Firozshah Tughlaq was no ruling. This is the oldest copy of the Dravyasaï¿½graha written in V.S. 1416.483 Firoz Shah Tughlaq also invited the Mayï¿½ragana Panditas for deciphering the inscriptions engraved on the Aï¿½okan pillars located in Delhi.484
For nearly fifteen years after the invasion of Timur, there was no regular Sultan’s government at Delhi. From 1414 to 1450 A.D., Khizr Khan and his three successors administered Delhi and fluctuating territory adjoining it. Khizr-Khan claimed to be a Sayyid or a descendant of the prophet, and hence some historians designate this dynasty founded by him as the Sayyid dynasty.
Sultan Buhlul Lodi may truly be described as the first Afghan Sultan. Buhlul was succeed by his son Nizam Khan who took the title of Sikandar Ghazi. Sikandar Lodi (1489-1517 A.D.) seems to be the most important Sultan. He tried to establish efficient administration. His main aim was to control Chandravad Asï¿½ï¿½kheï¿½ï¿½, Kerahal etc. of the Chauhï¿½nas and Bhadairiya kings of Atera, Hathikanta etc. and to preserve the revenue income of the Doab. He encouraged learning by giving grant to scholars. Sikander died in 1517 A.D. and his oldest son Ibrahim became the king. When Ibrahim attempted to suppress revolt among the nobles, there was widespread dissatisfaction. Finally, in 1523, Babur marched against Ibrahim. Ibrahim was defeated and salï¿½n in the field of panipat in 1526 A.D.
Several Jaina temples were built and numerous images installed in them during the Sayyid period and the Lodi period at several sites in Northern India. It seems that the Sayyid and Lodi Sultans gradually became weak. The Hindu rulers became powerful. There was great influence of the Jainas in the administration. They led Sï¿½ï¿½ghas to holy places and got the copies of the manuscripts written.485 Sï¿½hu Chhaju of Banasala Gotra and of Agrawala caste got the Prakrit Hemaï¿½abdï¿½nuï¿½asana written at Hissar in V.S. 1414 for presentation.486
Devagadha became a great centre of Jainism during this period. Saï¿½ghapati Holichanda was rich, liberal and religious, and got several Jaina temples and images prepared at this place in 1424 A.D. through Basantakï¿½rti and Padmanandi. His teacher was ï¿½ubhachandra. His sons, grandson and ï¿½rï¿½vakas participated in the religious functions. The consecration of Jaina images was performed here in 1436 A.D. The Jaina images installed by Jï¿½varï¿½ja Pï¿½paï¿½ï¿½vï¿½la through Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Jinachandra at the place Muï¿½ï¿½ï¿½sï¿½ during the reign of king ï¿½iva Siï¿½ha have been discovered throughout India. It seems to be impossible that such a number of Jaina images can be installed by Jï¿½varï¿½ja Pï¿½paï¿½ï¿½vï¿½la during the reign of ï¿½iva Siï¿½ha of Muï¿½ï¿½ï¿½sï¿½, a ruler of small State. It seems that the inscription of V.S. 1548 continued to be stamped on later images for a long period without any significance.
The effect of the Muslims on the Jaina religion at this time is seen in two ways known as idol-worshippers and non-idol-worshippers. The idol-worshippers among the Jainas began to manufacture images in large number. With the impact of the Muslim culture, some sections of the Jainas began to denounce idol worship with great vehemence. The sects of non-idol worshippers arose during this period as follows – Loï¿½kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½hï¿½s Loï¿½kï¿½gachchha. Tï¿½raï¿½apantha of Tï¿½raï¿½asvï¿½mï¿½ in Madhya Pradesh, ï¿½ravaï¿½apantha by Kaï¿½uvaï¿½ï¿½ha in Gujrat and these new sects were called Sï¿½dhumï¿½rgis, and were against image worship and temples.
THE TOMARA RULERS OF GWALIOR
Because of the Muslim rule in Delhi, the Tomaras migrated to the region of Gwalior. First they established their small principality at Etah. Gradually, the Tomaras became powerful under their ruler Vï¿½rasimhadeva and occupied the fort of Gopï¿½drï¿½ in 1394 A.D. Thereafter Gwalior remained the capital of the Tomara rulers : Vï¿½ramadeva (1402-23), Gaï¿½apatideva (1423-25 A.D.), Dï¿½ï¿½garendradeva (1425-59 A.D.), Kï¿½rttisiï¿½hadeva (1459-80 A.D.), Kalyï¿½ï¿½amalla (1480-86 A.D.), Mï¿½hasiï¿½ha (1486-1516 A.D.) and Vikramasiï¿½ha (1516-1523 A.D.). Ultimately, the Lodi Sultan Ibrahim of Delhi uprooted this ruling dynasty of Gwalior.
During the Tomara period, Jainism became a great cultural and dynamic force. This period is regarded as the golden age in the history of Jainism of this region. Padmanï¿½bha Kï¿½yastha wrote the Yaï¿½odhara Charita during the reign of Vï¿½ramadeva by the inspiration of the Minister Sï¿½hu Kuï¿½arï¿½ja Jaisavï¿½la.487 Sï¿½hu Kuï¿½arï¿½ja was devoted to Jainism, and he built the Jaina temple of Chandraprabha in Gwalior. ï¿½chï¿½rya Amï¿½itachandra wrote the Tattvadï¿½pikï¿½ in V.S. 1469 in Gwalior when Viramadeva was ruling over Gwalior.488
Jaina Temples and caves were built, and innumerable Jana images installed in them during the reign of Dï¿½ï¿½garasiï¿½ha and Kï¿½rttideva. Kamalasiï¿½ha, the Chief Minister of Dï¿½ï¿½garasimha, erected a huge image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha in V.S. 1497, and its consecration? ceremony was performed by Raidhï¿½. Besides Kamalasï¿½ï¿½ha, Khela Brahmachï¿½rï¿½, Asapati Sï¿½hu, Saï¿½ghapati Nemadï¿½sa and Saï¿½ghapati Sahadeva installed several images here. These rock-cut sculptures are unique in Northern India as well as for their number and their gigantic size. As the ï¿½rï¿½vakas led pilgrimage to holy places, they assumed the title of Saï¿½ghapati. Theï¿½rï¿½vakas of this place belonged to the Agravï¿½la, Khandelavï¿½la, Poravï¿½la and Golï¿½lï¿½ra castes.
Riidhï¿½, who has written more than thirty works in Prakrit, Apabhraï¿½ï¿½a, and Hindi, was a great poet. Kamalasiï¿½ha and his father Khemasiï¿½ha inspired him for writing these works. The father of Asapati was also the minister of Dï¿½ï¿½garasiï¿½ha.
THE SULTANS OF MANDU
Annexed by Alauddin Khalji in 1305 A.D., Malwa continued to be governed by Muslim chiefs under the authority of Delhi till it became independent. Dilawar Khan became independent of Delhi Sultanate in 1401 A.D. In 1436 A.D., Mahï¿½ï¿½d Khan founded the dynasty of the Khalji Sultans of Malwa. Mahmud Khalji was the ablest of the Muslim rulers of Malwa. He extended the limits of his kingdom. He also fought against Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Kumbha of Mewar and Ahmad Shah of Gujarat. He was succeeded by his eldest son Ghiyasï¿½ddï¿½n and then his second son ascended the throne under the title of Mahmï¿½d II. He appointed Medanï¿½ Rai as minister in order to control the Muslim nobles. Bahï¿½dura Shï¿½h of Gujarat captured Mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½u in 1531 A.D. About 1535 A.D., Mallï¿½ Khï¿½n established an independent sovereignty in Malwa under the title of Qï¿½dir Shah. Malwa was conquered by Mughal generals from Bï¿½z Bahï¿½dur in 1561-62 A.D. The establishment of the independent kingdom of Malwa by Dilawar Khan Gauri also attracted the Jaina merchants to come to Malwa. The new Sultan also felt the need of financial help for economic prosperity of his kingdom and encouraged the Jainas to come and settle in his kingdom.
With the accession of Hoshang Shï¿½h and reestablishment of the authority after release from Gujarat captivity, the policy of encouraging the Jainas in Malwa seems to have received particular attention of the Sultan. The revenues of the state could be realised only after the harvest or when they were due, whereas the Sultan required ready cash earlier. Sultan Hoshang seems to have recognized in the Jaina financiers a source for supply of cash and the Jainas also found in the state a sound place for investment. Thus, the extension of the royal patronage towards the Jainas led to their activaity in Malwa. To restore confidence of the Jainas, Hoshang Shah honoured them by associating them with his government. The Jainas had a reputation for their honesty in handling cash. Hoshang Shah appointed Nardeva Sonï¿½ as his Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rika (treasurer) and associated him in his council. Naradeva had become famous for his charities, as his son Sangrï¿½m Singh Soni mentions that his charities knew no bounds and all returned to their places after receiving full satisfaction from Naradeva.
Mandan, another Jaina of the ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la caste, became well known in the reign of Hoshang Shï¿½h. Mandan was a successful businessman and earned a good deal of wealth through his business. While he extended his charities and lavishly donated for the establishment of Jaina monasteries, he neither neglected his business nor failed to assist Sultan Hoshang Shah with his financial aids. Sultan Hoshang Shah also in return honoured him.
Mahmud Khalji I continued the policy of extending patronage to the Jains, and during his reign, the religious activities of the Jainas took greater impetus. Mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½u became one of the centres of rich Jaina merchants who lavishly subscribed for the transcription of Jaina Kalpasï¿½tras. Many Jaina temples also seem to have been constructed during this period. It is, of course, difficult to ascertain whether this patronage to the Jainas was purely motivated by the desire of the Sultan to get financial help from the Jainas and to encourage trade and commerce or it was an outcome of the policy of religious toleration extended by the Sultan towards his subjects. The outcome of these rich merchants setting up their business houses in the capital of the kingdom, was certainly a flourishing state of trade and commerce of the kingdom.
During the reign of Mahmud Khalji, we find Sangram Singh, son of Nardeva Soni, occupying the same position that his father had enjoyed during the reign of Hoshang Shah. That Sangram Singh enjoyed the confidence of Sultan Mahmud is borne out from the Praï¿½asti of Buddhisï¿½gara. Sangram Singh accompanied Mahmud-Khalji in his Deccan campaigns and completed his Buddhi Sï¿½gar at Pratishï¿½hï¿½napura (Paiï¿½hï¿½n) on the Godï¿½varï¿½, where he seems to have gone for a holy dip in A.D. 1463. Sangrï¿½m Singh, on his part, for retaining the favour of the Sultan did not fail to praise him in his composition.
In one of the copies of the Kalpasï¿½tra, we find mention of another Jaina family flourishing in the capital during the reign of Mahmud Khalji I. In his family, Jasavï¿½ra became quite prominent. He visited many of the places of Jaina pilgrimage and distributed charity everywhere. He set-up fifty-two Saï¿½ghapatï¿½s and was himself honoured with the title of Saï¿½gheï¿½avara. Jasavï¿½ra was also associated with the government. He held an important post in the principality (Jï¿½gï¿½r) of Shï¿½hzï¿½dï¿½ Ghiyath Shah.
It seems that the Jaina merchants had unchecked access to all the kingdoms where they used to go either for trade or for pilgrimage, and it is not unlikely that they used to bring information about the internal condition prevailing in the kingdoms, they visited, and supplied them to their rulers. We find that in 1454 A.D., Jasavï¿½ra visited Mewar and also the court of Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Kumbha where he was honoured by the Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. It may be mentioned here that these were the years of trouble for Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Kumbha while Mahmud Khalji was constantly pressing for the conquest of Mandalgarh. From 1454 A.D. to 1457 A.D., Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Kumbha remained engaged with the Rathors and Mahmud Khalji conquered Mandalgarh. Jasavï¿½ra, having his business set up in Mandu, visiting the court of Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Kumbha with whom the Mandu Sultan had no cordial relations, and subsequent successful attack on Mandalgarh by Mahmud Khalji following the return of Jasavï¿½ra, are all circumstances which create suspicion that Jasavï¿½ra might have supplied the information of Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Kumbha’s troubles with the Rathors.
Ghiyath Shah not only continued the policy of his father but seems to have encouraged them still more. That the Jainas were happy and prosperous in his reign is borne out from the praises that have been lavished on Mandu in the Praï¿½asti of the Kalpasï¿½tra transcribed in A.D. 1198. The Jainas had become more closely associated with the administration and received various titles from Sultan Ghiyath Shah. Punjarï¿½ja (Munja Baqqnal) was made wazir of the Khalsa lands and was given the title of ‘Mafar-ul-Mulk’, a title which Puï¿½jarï¿½ja has mentioned in thePraï¿½asti of the commentary.
Towards the later part of the reign of Ghiyath Shah, it seems that these prominent Jainas had started meddling in politics and also that there existed some kind of rivalry among the Jainas. Thus, we find Siva Das Baqqual siding with Shï¿½hzï¿½dï¿½ Nasir Shah while Muï¿½ja Baqqal (Puï¿½jarï¿½ja) siding with partisans of Shahzada Shuja at Khan and Rani Khurshid. But in this contest, both of them lost their lives. The former being executed by the order of the Sultan and the latter being assasinated by the partinsans of Nasir Shah. The accession of Nasir Shah, however, does not seem to have altered the position of the Jainas who continued to enjoy the royal favour. Sangrï¿½m Singh Soni (Naqd-ul-Mulk) retained his position throughout the reign. With the accession of Mahmud Khalji II, the political atmosphere in the capital as well as in the kingdom considerably changed, and the Jainas also gredually lost their position. The Muslim nobles did not like the influence exercised by this section, and as Firishta says, the amirs being apprehensive that they might not become too powerful, assasinated Basant Rai and procured order from the new Sultan for the explusion of Sangram Singh Soni. With the exit of Sangram Singh Soni, the influence of the Jainas in the court also declined. The Jainas on their part also lost interest in the kingdom of Malwa as they found the political condition not conducive to their trade, and the state no more a safe place either for investment or for stay.
Besides, their interest in trade and commerce and accumulation of wealth, the Jainas were very much devoted to their relegion. They patronized the Jaina places of pilgrimage and lavishly donated for the construction of Jaina temples and establishment of Jain monasteries. Their spirit of charity, led them to render financial assistance to the people in distress, particularly in times of scarcity. Thus, we find Jasdhir, son of Jasvir helping the distressed people of Malwa by distributing their requirements in 1485 A.D.
As a result of the policy of the Malwa Sultans of patronizing the Jainas and granting them full religious freedom, the rich Jaina merchants very soon set up Jinï¿½layas (temples) in many places out of which special mention may be made of Mandu, Dhar, Ujjain, Ashta (ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Nagar), Hoshangabad and Mandsaur. The extent to which the Jainas enjoyed religious freedom can be imagined from the poetical composition,Maï¿½ï¿½apï¿½chala Chaitya Paripï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ consisting of twenty-three verses, which was written about 1493 A.D. by Khemrï¿½ja. The work mentions that there were twenty-two temples containing about five hundred and sixty-two Jaina images. The same work mentions that the temples of Neminï¿½tha at Hoshangabad contained twenty-four images.489
- THE MUSLIM RULE IN GUJARAT (14TH-15THCENTURY A.D.)
Alauddin annexed Gujarat in 1297 A.D. In 1401 A.D., Zafarkhan assumed formal independence in 1401 A.D. Ahmed Shah made himself the Sultan and ruled for thirty years, and may well be regarded as the founder of the independent kingdom of Gujarat. In 1414 A.D., he defeated Rai Maï¿½ï¿½alika of Girnar and captured the fort of Junagarh. He built the magnificent city of Ahmedabad. The next great ruler of Gujarat was Mahmud Begarha. He was called Begarha on account of his capture of two forts (beggrha) Junagarh and Champaner in Kathiawar. He was by far the most eminent ruler of his dynasty. Begarha came into conflict with Portuguese but was obliged to make peace with them. Between 1511 and 1526 A.D., Gujarat had three insignificant Sultans. The latest notable Sultan was Bahadur Shah (1526-37 A.D.). He overran the territories of Mewar and stromed Chittor in 1539 A.D.
JAINISM IN THE 14TH CENTURY
The Jainas did suffer by the Muslim conquest of Gujarat. But even in these hard times, they maintained their trade and temples, obtained permission to repair old Jinï¿½layas (temples) or built new ones and served very faithfully, the goddess of learning, by contributing to Sanskrit, Prakrit and Gujarï¿½tï¿½ literature very generously.
It is true that the Muslim rulers were not in favour of erecting new temples, but at times, they gave their consent to the erection of new temples or did not object to the repair of old ones. In V.S. 1366 (1309-10 A.D.), Jeï¿½ala Shï¿½h of Khambhat erected a temple to Ajitanï¿½th, the second Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara and Samarasiï¿½ha or Samara Shï¿½h repaired the temple of ï¿½dinï¿½tha on the ï¿½atruï¿½jaya Hill, when the image of the Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara was destroyed by the Muslims in V.S. 1369 A.D. (1312-13 A.D.).
Samarasiï¿½ha who repaired the temple of ï¿½dinï¿½tha on the ï¿½atruï¿½jaya Hill belonged to Upakeï¿½a Vaï¿½ï¿½a and Vesata Kula. His elder brother Sahajapï¿½la erected a temple of twenty-four Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas in Devagiri in the Deccan. His next elder brother Sahana took up his abode in Cambay and won name, fame and glory by his good deeds, Aï¿½ahilavï¿½ï¿½a was Samarasiï¿½ï¿½s domicile of choice. Samarasimha was a well known jeweller in the old capital of Gujarat. He exercised great influence at court. When he came to know that ï¿½dinï¿½tha’s temple on the ï¿½atraï¿½jaya Hill was destroyed by the Muslims, he paid a visit to Alapakhï¿½na, the Subï¿½ of Gujrat and obtained a ‘firmï¿½na’ to repair or rebuild the temple. The Suba had also given necessary instructions to Malek Ahidara, his subordinate in this connection.
When the Jainas came to know of Subï¿½s firmï¿½na, they gave a rousing reception to Samara Shï¿½h and advised him to set up a new image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha on the ï¿½atruï¿½jaya Hill. Samara Shï¿½h sent his men to the king of ï¿½rï¿½sana with presents. The king was a strict vegetarian and a firm believer in the principles of Jainism, so he consented to give the required marble from his mine without any charge. Marble was taken in carts to Palitï¿½nï¿½, sixteen clever sculptors were sent from Anhilavï¿½ï¿½a to Pï¿½litï¿½nï¿½ to prepare the image. Bï¿½lachandra Muni was to supervise the preparation of the image.
When the sculptors completed their work, good news was sent to Samara Shï¿½h at Aï¿½ahilavï¿½ï¿½a. Samara Shï¿½h, then, made up his mind to make a pilgrimage too the holy hill in the company of the Jaina congregation to set up the image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha in the newly constructed temple. Invitations were sent to the Jainas of far off places.
Among the Jaina monks who made the pilgrimage to the holy hill in the company of Samara Shï¿½h were Vinayachandra Sï¿½ri, Ratnï¿½karasï¿½ri of Bï¿½ihadgachchha, Padmachandra Sï¿½ri of Devasï¿½rigachchha etc. Among the prominent Jainas who joined the congregation were Saï¿½ghapati Jaitra and Saï¿½ghapati Kï¿½ishï¿½a, Haripï¿½la, Devapï¿½la, Landhaka, son of Sthiradeva of Vatsakula, Pralhï¿½dana Soni, Sodhï¿½ka and Devarï¿½ja who had won name and fame as a great donor. Alapakhï¿½na, Suba of Gujarata, who had granted permission to rebuild the temple, gave ten guards to protect the congregation.
The congregation started from Anahilapï¿½ï¿½aka and went to Pï¿½litï¿½nï¿½ via Serisï¿½ (Near Kalola Mehasï¿½na District), Sarkhej (near Ahmedabad) and Dholkï¿½. At Serisï¿½, Samara Shah worshipped Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha and held a festival for eight days. He was given a fabulous welcome by the Jainas and Thï¿½kurs of the villages on the way. He spent money freely and was very hospitable to the Jainas who had joined the congregation.
There were no big inns in those days; so when the congregation reached Pï¿½litï¿½nï¿½, Samara Shah pitched tents on the banks of Lalitï¿½sara, erected by Lalitï¿½devï¿½, wife of Vastupï¿½la. About this time, Sahajapï¿½la from Devagiri and Sï¿½haï¿½a from Khambhat came to Pï¿½litï¿½na with congregation. Samarï¿½ Shï¿½h’s joy knew no bounds when he saw his brothers. He paid his respects to the Jaina monks who had come with the congregation from Cambay. Among the prominent persons who had accompanied Sï¿½hana were Sangana, brother of Pï¿½tï¿½ka Mantrï¿½, Lï¿½lï¿½ Simhabhaï¿½a, Vijala, Madana, Molhaka and Ratnasiï¿½ha. Samara Shï¿½h gave all the pilgrims a very warm welcome.
In V.S. 1381 (1315 A.D.), Samara set up the image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha in the completed temple on the holy hill. Sachikï¿½devï¿½ was the Kuladevï¿½ or family deity of Samarï¿½ Shï¿½h. Mahipï¿½ladevï¿½, who gave marble from his mine without taking any charge, was the king of ï¿½rï¿½sana, and ï¿½sï¿½dhara was the uncle of Samara-ï¿½ï¿½ha. The honour of performing the ceremony at the time of setting up the images is shared by Siddhasï¿½ri of Upakeï¿½agachchha and Ratnï¿½karasï¿½ri of Tapï¿½gachchha.
A festival was held by Deï¿½ala, Samarï¿½ Shï¿½h’s father to celebrate this event. Sumptuous dishes were served to the Jaina congregation for several days. Jaina monks and nuns were given clothes. Beggars were feasted. Samara Shï¿½h lived in Pï¿½litï¿½nï¿½ for 20 days and made arrangements for the maintenance of the temple. Several servants were appointed to look after the gardens from which flowers were supplied to the temple for the worship of Jina.
From Pï¿½litï¿½nï¿½, Samarï¿½ Shah went to Giranara with the congregation and worshipped Neminï¿½tha. Here Samarï¿½ received the good news of the birth of a son lived for ten days. From Giranï¿½ra, he went to Devapattana where he was given a rousing reception by the king. The congregation paid a visit to the well known Somanï¿½tha temple and adorned it with a five colour-flag. This event shows that the Jainas were not hostile to Brahmins, but were generous enough to adorn a ï¿½iva temple with a flag.
Samara Shï¿½h held the ashï¿½ï¿½hnikï¿½mahotsava or a festival for eight days at Devapattana and went to Ajï¿½r to worship Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. From Ajï¿½r, the congregation went to Kodinï¿½r and worshipped Ambikï¿½devï¿½. Deï¿½ala, Samara’s father, adorned Ambika’s temple with a flag. The congregation then went to Div where the king received Samara Shah and Haripï¿½la, a multimillionaire, stood a feast. As tahnikï¿½-mahotsava was held, and the beggars were given alms.
From Div, the congregation went to Aï¿½ahilavï¿½ï¿½a via Pï¿½tdi, Sankheï¿½vara and Harij. The Jaina Saï¿½gha of Aï¿½ahilavï¿½ï¿½a gave a rousing reception to Samarï¿½ Shï¿½h when he entered the capital in V.S. 1371. Five thousand persons were invited to dinner. Saï¿½ghapati Desala is said to have spent 27.70 lac coins in rebuilding the temple of ï¿½dinï¿½tha. In V.S. 1375 (1318-9 A.D.), Desala again made a pilgrimage to the holy hill with seven Saï¿½ghapatis and 2000 persons, and spent eleven lakhs. According to the Nï¿½bhinandanoddhï¿½ra-Prabandha, emperor Gyï¿½suddï¿½n was much pleased with Samarï¿½ Shah and highly honoured him. At Samarï¿½’s request, the emperor set free the lord of Paï¿½ï¿½udeï¿½a. The king who invited Samarï¿½ Shï¿½h to Delhi was Gyasuddin Tughlak whose dates A.D. 1320-25 show that he was a contemporary of Samarï¿½ Shah.
According to the Prabandha writer, Samarï¿½ Shah was appointed as the Suba of Telangadeï¿½a where he set free many prisioners and obliged many chieftains. He adorned Urangalpura with Jaina temples, invited many Jaina families to settle there and won name, fame and glory as a Suba. This account of Kakkasï¿½ri, though unconfirmed is not unreliable, because he was a ‘Guru’ and contemporary of Samarï¿½ Shï¿½h.
About V.S. 1369 (1312-13 A.D.), the temples of Vimala Shah and Tejapï¿½la were destroyed by the Muslims. When the Jainas came to know of this, they undertook the work of repairing the temples. The Vimalavasahï¿½ was repaired by Vijada, son of Dhanasiï¿½ha of Maï¿½ï¿½or and his brothers. The Pratishï¿½hï¿½ was performed by Ghanachandra Sï¿½ri. In the Gï¿½dhanaï¿½ï¿½apa, the statues of Gosala and Guï¿½adevï¿½, the grand-father and grand-mother of Vijada respectively and of Mahanasiï¿½ha and Minaladevï¿½, the parents of Laligasiï¿½ha. These statues were set up in the year V.S. 1378 (1322 A.D.) when the ‘Pratishï¿½hï¿½ of the temple was performed.
Tejapï¿½la’s temple was repaired by Pethaï¿½a Sanghavï¿½, son of Chandasimha in V.S. 1378 (1321-22 A.D.) when he had come on a pilgrimage to Mount Abu with the Jaina congregation.
There was a famine in Gujarat in V.S. 1376-77. So Bhï¿½ma gave away large sums of money in charity. This Bhï¿½ma was probably Bhï¿½mashah who erected Bhï¿½masiï¿½haprasï¿½da at Mount Abu.
In V.S. 1394 (1337-1338 A.D.), Mantrï¿½ Bhï¿½ï¿½aka, son of Mantrï¿½ Jagasiï¿½ha and grandson of Mantrï¿½ Abhayasimha, set up an image of Ambikï¿½devï¿½ in Vimalavasahï¿½ of Mount-Abu.490
JAINISM DURING 1400-1450 A.D.
The first half of the 15th century is known as the Somasundarayuga in Jaina history because Somasundarasï¿½ri was a very prominent monk of this period. During his time, the Jainas of Gujarat glorified Jainism by building new temples, repairing old ones, setting up new images of Tï¿½rthï¿½nkaras, opening libraries, helping the poor and the needy and by performing many other pious and religions deeds.
In Prahalï¿½danapura (modern Pï¿½lanapura), there was a Baniï¿½ named Sajjana who had rendered glorious and meritorious services to Jainism by his pious and meritorious deeds. In Vaï¿½anagara, there were three wealthy Jaina brothers named Devarï¿½ja, Hemarï¿½ja and Ghatasiï¿½ha. Devarï¿½ja held a festival with the consent of his brothers. In Idar, there was a rich man named Vatchharï¿½ja who belonged toUkeï¿½akula. He won name and fame in the state by the his excellent character. Govinda, son of Vatchharï¿½ja, repaired the Kumï¿½rapï¿½la’s temple on the Tï¿½raï¿½ga hill. A great festival was held on this occasion.
When Somasundarasï¿½ri came to Karï¿½ï¿½vatï¿½, Guï¿½arï¿½ja, a favourite of king Ahmad Shah, gave him a warm reception and held a festival. Chï¿½co made a pilgrimage to the holy places of Jaina and built a Jaina temple. Ahmad Shï¿½h was well disposed to Guï¿½arï¿½ja; so he honoured him on this occasion by giving him presents. Somasundara had accompanied Guï¿½arï¿½ja in his pilgrimage of 1420-21 A.D.
Some of the religious deeds of Somesundarasï¿½ri are known. He performed the installation ceremony of temples and images at Devakulapï¿½ï¿½aka in 1428 A.D., Rï¿½ï¿½akapura in 1439-40 A.D., Chitrakula and Giranï¿½ra. Copies of Jaina ï¿½gamas were made with the advice and consent of Sï¿½ri.
Somasundara Sï¿½ri promoted literary activities. He had several pupils, Guï¿½aratnasï¿½ri, Munisundrara Sï¿½ri, Jayachandra Sï¿½ri, Bhuvanasundarasï¿½ri, Jinakï¿½rtisuri, Ratnaï¿½ekharasï¿½ri and Jinamanï¿½anagaï¿½i. Merutuï¿½gasï¿½ri had disciples namely Mï¿½ï¿½ikya-Sundara and Mï¿½ï¿½akyaï¿½ekhara Sï¿½ri. Besides the monks, some Jaina Sravakas also served literature. Of these Maï¿½ï¿½anamantrï¿½ is very well known; he was a very learned man and patronized learning and the learned.
Besides monks, Jaina nuns rendered useful service. A famous nun of this period was Dharmalakshmï¿½ Mahattarï¿½. Jainas also contributed to architecture in this period. Pittalahara or Bhï¿½maï¿½ï¿½ has temple on mountain ï¿½bu was built by Bhï¿½maï¿½ï¿½ha.491
JAINISM IN THE LATER HALF OF THE 15TH CENTURY
In 1450 A.D., Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Kumbhakarï¿½a repealed the pilgrim tax which was collected from the Jaina pilgrims on Mountain ï¿½bï¿½. In 1451 A.D., king Mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½alika of Junagarh proclaimed amï¿½rï¿½. Loï¿½kï¿½ Shï¿½h believed in Jaina scriptures but was against idol worship. In 1453 A.D., Sï¿½harï¿½ja built a temple of Vimalanï¿½tha on Giranï¿½ra. He made pilgrimage to ï¿½atruï¿½jaya and Giraï¿½ara.
Lakshmï¿½sï¿½gara was a prominent Jaina monk of this period. Several pious and religions deeds were performed in his time. Gaï¿½arï¿½ja Mantrï¿½ of Ahmedabad built a Jaina temple in Sojitra and the Pratishï¿½hï¿½ was carried out by Somadevasï¿½ri.
Dhanyarï¿½ja and Nagarï¿½ja of Devagiri came to Gujarat, pleased king Mahmï¿½d, made a pilgrimage to the ï¿½atruï¿½jaya hill Gaï¿½arï¿½ja Mantrï¿½ set up an image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha in the Bhï¿½mavihï¿½ra or Pitalahara on Mountain ï¿½bï¿½.
Iï¿½vara and Paï¿½ï¿½a Sonï¿½ built a temple of Ajitanï¿½tha in Idar and its Pratishï¿½hï¿½ was performed by Lakshmï¿½sï¿½gara in 1476-77 A.D. Ujjala and Kï¿½ga went on pilgrimage to Jï¿½rï¿½pallï¿½.
Saubhï¿½gyaharshasï¿½ri glorified Jainism in Gujarat. About this time, three monks of the Aï¿½chlagachchha rendered meritorious services to Vï¿½raï¿½ï¿½sana-Bhavasï¿½garasï¿½ri, Siddhï¿½nta-ï¿½agara ï¿½uri and Guï¿½anidhï¿½nasï¿½ri. Among the well known temples of this period, we may mention Kharataravasahï¿½ on mountain Abu and Karmaï¿½ï¿½hï¿½s temple on ï¿½atruï¿½jaya hill. In 1445-46 A.D., Parvata ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½ of Aï¿½ahilavï¿½ï¿½a copied many books at the suggestion of Jayachandrasuri of Tapagachchha. Several Jaina monks492 of this period493 are known.
51 THE VIJAYANAGARA KINGDOM
Vijayanagara had a series of capable and enlightened rulers who made it a powerful and wealthy state in the South. Among them were Harihara II. Revarï¿½ya I, Devarï¿½ya II and Kï¿½ishï¿½adevarï¿½ya. Kï¿½ishnadevarï¿½ya was a competent ruler and a general. He often led his army in person. In 1512 A.D., he took Raichur fort without much difficulty. He defeated the king of Orissa. Under Kï¿½ishï¿½adeva Rï¿½ya, the kingdom of Vijayanagar emerged as the strongest military power in the South. He maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese. He took active interest in the affairs of the state. During his reign, the city of Vijayanagar was at the height of its glory and prosperity.
Vijay Nagara kingdom was established in 1346 A.D. Though kings of this kingdom were Champions of Brahmanical religion, they followed the policy of religious toleration. During the reign of king Harihara Rï¿½ya, the Taï¿½atï¿½la Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha boundary dispute arose between the Jainas and ï¿½rï¿½ Vaishï¿½avas (Bhaktas). The royal judgement494 by king Bukka Rï¿½ya in 1368 A.D. shows that he was not committed to any religious creed, but by his equity, he had saved religion from persecution. By royal decree, Bukka Rï¿½ya appointed twenty guards for the God at ï¿½ravaï¿½a Belagola, and thereby the Jaina religion was saved and its prestige was guaranteed in the Vijayanagara kingdom. This settlement proves beyond doubt that the assurance given to them by king Bukka Rï¿½ya in 1368 A.D. had come to stay. All questions especially those of the privileges and beliefs of communities should be settled in the presence, and with the approval of the leaders of both the parties, and the sanction of the state obtained at the end.
The kings and queens, and members of the royal family gave unstinted patronage to the cause of Jainism.495 Bhï¿½ma Devï¿½, the queen of Deva Raya-I, was a Jaina herself. Her spiritual guru was Paï¿½ï¿½itï¿½chï¿½rya, and in about 1410 A.D., he caused an image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½thasvï¿½mï¿½ to be made in the Mangï¿½y basadi at ï¿½ravaï¿½abelagola. Queen Bhï¿½madevï¿½ may have been responsible for the generous attitude of king Deva Rï¿½ya I towards Jainism. The next monarch Devarï¿½ya II (1419-1446 A.D.) continued the tradition of early Vijayanagara rulers of bestowing patronage on the Jaina institutions. In 1424 A.D., he made over the village of Varaï¿½ga in Tuluva to the basadi of Varaï¿½ga Neminï¿½tha of the same place. Kï¿½ishï¿½a Deva Rï¿½ya made no distinction between the different faiths in his empire. His large-hearted benevolence was primarily responsible for the gifts he made to Jaina temples.
General Irugappa was a trusted general, a clever engineer and a successful minister of king Harihara Raya II. He built a basadi in the capital. An inscription in this city tells that Bukkavve, the queen of Harihara Rï¿½ya II, gave a gift to the basadi built by general ‘Irugappa in 1937 A.D. Irugappa continued to serve also in the reign of Deva Rï¿½ya II. An inscription dated 1526 A.D., records the construction of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha basadi in the capital by Reva Rï¿½ya II. Thus the Emperors of Vijayanagara Kingdom were the protectors of Sakalavrï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rama Dharma.
Much of the splendour of Jainism is seen in the capitals of provincial viceroys rather than in the great city of Vijayanagara itself. There were two classes of feudatories who actively supported Jainism.496 One class consisted of the great feudatories like the Kongï¿½lvas, the Changï¿½lvas, the Sï¿½luvas of Sangï¿½tapura, the kings of Gerasoppe and the Bhairrasa obeyars of Kï¿½rkala. Other lesser feudatores of the type are the lords of Bï¿½guï¿½jisime, Nuggehalli and others. In addition to these, mention must be made of the marked exertions of feudal ladies for the cause of Jainadharma.
As patronized by monarchs and their provincial Governors, Jainism became popular among people even in cities, towns and villages of the Vijayanagara empire. ï¿½ravaï¿½abelagola, Kopana, Muï¿½abidre, Kï¿½rkala, Belur etc. became the centres of Jainism. The influx of the northern Jaina merchants into the Vijayanagara empire during the 14th century and earlier is noticed.
There are some inscriptions throwing light on the promotion of Jainism by private efforts during the reign of the monarchs of the Vijayanagara kingdom. An inscription dated 1355 A.D. records the erection of Jina image during the time of king Harihara497. The two inscriptions of the time of king Bukka are dated 1357 and 1376 A.D.498 In the first inscription, there is mention of the Senï¿½pati Baichaya. The second is cenotaph inscription. The commander-in chief Isaga of the king Harihara II constructed Jaina temple.499 The commander in-chief Nemaï¿½ï¿½a500 of king Mï¿½dhava of Goa who was subordinate to this king, gave some donation to the Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½th temple in 1935 A.D. In the same inscription dated 1935 A.D., there is reference to the construction of a Jaina temple by the Minister Immaï¿½ibukka, son of Daï¿½ï¿½anï¿½yakaBaichaya.501 There are two inscriptions of the time of Bukka II.502 One records the consruction of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha temple and in other, there is mention of Samï¿½dhimaraï¿½a. There are two inscriptions of the reign of king Devarï¿½ya.503 The first dated 1412 A.D. describes the agreement of the boundaries between the two temples. The second of 1424 A.D. mentions the donation of the village Varï¿½ï¿½ga to Neminï¿½tha temple by the king. One inscription504 describes the donations during the time of king Malikï¿½rjuna in 1450 A.D. to a temple. One inscription dated 1509 A.D. of the time of Kï¿½ishï¿½adeva Mahï¿½rï¿½ya mentions the temples free from taxes.505 The inscription506 dated 1515 A.D. mentions how the land of the temple of Varï¿½ï¿½ga was prepared for agriculture. King Achyutadeva assigned the income of some taxes for worship to the image507 Rï¿½marï¿½jya gave some land in charity to a Jaina temple in 1545 A.D. during the reign of Sadï¿½ï¿½iva508. A Jaina scholar gave some charity in 1619 A.D. in the reign of king Rï¿½madeva. Arasappoï¿½eya, subordinate ruler of Sadï¿½ï¿½ivarï¿½ya gave some donation to Pandita Chï¿½rukï¿½rti.509
52 THE MUGHALS
The Jaina Acharyas impressed the Mughal Emperors by their teachings. They were of high character because they wanted nothing and also possessed nothing. As a result, the Mughal Emperors became gradually liberal in their views. They prohibited the slaughter of animals on certain days. They abolished Jizyï¿½ tax and pilgrimage tax. They gradually stopped the destruction of temples and images, and new temples were built. Several copies of the manuscripts were written. The Jaina merchants gave monetary help to the Mughal emperors and Subedï¿½rs in the time of need. These rulers employed the Jainas in administration on responsible posts. Jainism prospered greatly during the reign of the Mughals.
BABUR (1526-1530 A.D.)
Babur’s advent into India was significant from many points of view. Kabul and Qandhar became integral parts of an empire comprising North India. By dominating them, Babar and his successors were able to give to India security from external invasions and economically strengthened India’s foreign trade. The conquest of Babar against Ibrahim Lodi in the battle of Panipat in 1526 A.D. broke the back of Lodi power and brought under Babar’s control the entire area up to Delhi and Agra. In the battle of Kanwah (1527 A.D.), Babur got victory against Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Sanga. Babur ruled in India for five years to 1530 A.D.
That Babur continued the prevailing religious policy of the Muslim rulers is clear from the fact that he destroyed the Jaina idols at Urva near Gwalior.510 Even then, the Jainas tried to preserve their religion by writing literary works. From the Praï¿½asti of the Brihat Siddha Chakra Pï¿½jï¿½,511 it is known that the poet Vï¿½ru wrote it in Rï¿½hetasapura in V.S. 1584 during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Babur. The poet Mahindu wrote the ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha Charita512 at the inspiration of Agrawï¿½la ï¿½adhhï¿½raï¿½a in Yoginï¿½pura in V.S. 1587 during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Babur. A temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha of Rohitaka was in existence during the time of Emperor Babur in V.S. 1584 and 1586. The temple was under the supervision of the Digambara monks of the Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha.513
Humayun succeeded Babur in 1530 A.D. at Agra. His empire included Kabul and Gandhar. He also occupied Lahore and Multan. He distributed the territories of his empire among his brothers. He had to fight against Shershah of Gujarat, and Sherkhan of Bengal and Bihar. The battle of Kanauj was decided in favour of Sher Shah against the Mughals. Ultimately, Humayun took shelter at the court of Iranian king, and receptured Qandhar and Kabul with his help in 1545 A.D. In 1555 A.D., following the break up of the Sur empire, he was able to recover Delhi. He did not live long to enjoy the fruits of the victory. He died from a fall from the first floor of the library building in his fort at Delhi.
There is no doubt that Shershï¿½h was a remarkable figure, and he ruled over the empire which extended from Bengal to the Indus. In the West, he conquered Malwa and almost the entire Rajasthan. He established a sound system of administration in his brief reign of five years. Sher Shah was succeeded by his second son, Islam Shah, who ruled till 1553 A.D. Most of his energies were occupied with the rebellions raised by his brothers and with tribal feuds among the Afghans. These and the ever-present fear of a renewed Mughal invasion prevented Islam Shah from attempting to expand his empire. This provided Humayun the opportunity he had been seeking for recovering his empire in India. In two hotly contested battles in 1555 A.D., he defeated the Afghans and recovered Delhi and Agra.
While invading Rajasthan in 1543 A.D., Sher Shah conquered Ranthambhor. From a Praï¿½asti of the Holireï¿½ukï¿½ Charitra514 written in 1551 A.D., it is known that the great physician Rekha was welcomed by Sher Shah for his vast knowledge in the science of medicines. Shershah gave Ranthambhor to his son Salim Shah in Jï¿½gï¿½ra. In his time, Kadirkhï¿½n was administrator of this place. The rulers of the Sur dynasty, though followers, of Islam, were tolerant in religious matters. During their reign, the copies of the Jinadatta Charitra515 and the Holireï¿½ukï¿½ Charitra516 were written respectively in 1549 and 1551 A.D. by the ï¿½rï¿½vakas for presentation to Lalitakï¿½rti who visited this place.
Akbar’s first phase of contest was with nobility, and he was crowned in 1556 A.D. at the age of thirteen. During Bairam Khan’s regency, the territories of the Mughal empire had been expanded. Apart from Ajmer, the most importent conquests during the period had been of Malwa and Garh Kataï¿½ga.
Following the conquest of Gujarat, Akbar found time to look at the administrative problems of the empire. He introduced reforms in the system of land revenue administration. The organization of local government remained the same. He reorganised the central machinery of administration on the basis of the division of power between various departments, and of checks and balances. He maintained cordial relations with the Rajputs by matrimonial alliances. He put down rebellions, and there was further expansion of the Mughal empire.
Akbar followed the policy of religious integration and introduced Dï¿½n-Ilï¿½hï¿½. In 1575 A.D., Akbar built a hall called Ibadat Khana at his new capital Fathepur Sikri. To Ibï¿½dat Khï¿½na, he invited the people of all religions – Christians, Zoroastrians, Hindus, Jainas and even atheists.
Akbar’s relations with Jaina teachers lasted for at least twenty years from 1578 to 1597 A.D. inclusive. He seems to have been converted to Jainism to some extent by the influence of the teachings of these Jaina teachers. Being impressed with Jainism, he issued several firmans for the propagation of Jainism. Literary works were written by Jaina scholars in praise of Jainism. Jaina temples were built in his time, and copies of the Jaina manuscripts were written for presentation.
Abul Fazal, friend and minister of Akbar, has mentioned the names of Jaina scholars in the Ain-i-Akbari. Among them, the most important is Hiravijayasï¿½ri. In 1582 A.D., when Akbar heard of the lofty virtues and deep learning, he ordered the Viceroy of Gujarat to request him to visit his court. He reached Fatehpur Sikri where he was accorded royal reception. After much discussion upon the problems of religion and philosophy first with Abul Fazal, the Muslim luminary of the age, and then with Akbar, he paid a visit to Agra. He persuaded the Emperor to issue various commands in accordance with Jaina doctrine. At the close of the rainy season, he returned to Fatehapur Sikri. Fishing in the great lake called Dï¿½bar, at Fatehpur Sikri was prohibited. The title of ‘Jagad Guru or world teacher, was conferred on the Sï¿½ri, who quitted the capital in 1584 A.D. From the inscription517 by Hemavijaya dated 1593 A.D. in the porch of the eastern entrance of the ï¿½dinï¿½tha temple of ï¿½atrunjaya hill, it appears that Hï¿½ravijaya persuaded the Emperor in 1592 A.D. to issue an edict forbidding the slaughter of animals for six months, to abolish the confisaction of the property of the deceased persons, the Surjijiya tax and ï¿½ukla, to set free many captives, snared birds and animals, and to present ï¿½atruï¿½jaya to the Jainas. Similar inscription518 dated 1587 A.D. is found at Bairat, ruled by Indrarï¿½ja, an official of Akbar.
Hï¿½ravijaya left ï¿½ï¿½ntichandra Upï¿½dhyï¿½ya behind him at court. Late in 1587 A.D., when ï¿½antichandra desired to return to Gujarat, the Emperor gave his fï¿½rmï¿½ns abolishing the Jizyï¿½ tax on non-Muslims, and prohibiting the slaughter of animals to a large extent. The forbidden days were extended so as to comprise half the year.
Bhï¿½nuchandra continued to reside at court. His pupil Siddhichandra composed a commentary on the latter half of the Kï¿½dambarï¿½ of Bï¿½ï¿½a. He had the reputation of being able to do 108 things at a time, and so secured from Akbar title of ‘Khush-faham’ or intelligent. From he colophon to the commentary on the Kï¿½dambarï¿½ by Siddhachandra, we learn that his teacher, Bhï¿½nuchandra had taught Akbar 1,000 names of the Sun, and had obtained from the emperor in 1593 fï¿½rmans abolishing the tax on pilgrims to the holy hill of ï¿½atruï¿½jaya at Pï¿½litï¿½nï¿½, and directing that all the sacred places should be made over to Hï¿½ravijayasï¿½ri. Vijayasena Sï¿½ri was, then, invited to the court, which continued to reside ordinarily at Lahore until 1596 A.D. He vanquished 363 learned Brï¿½hmaï¿½as in formal debates to Akbar’s satisfaction and so earned the title of Sawai.519
While Akbar was holding the court at Lahore, he heard the fame of Jinachand Sï¿½ri and wanted to hear him. He summoned Mantrï¿½ ï¿½vara Karmachandra Bachchhï¿½vata and requested him to invite the sage to his court. When Jinachandra Sï¿½ri reached Lahore in 1591 A.D., he was courteously received by the Emperor. On the advice of Karmachandra, Akbar gave the title of ‘Yugapradhï¿½na’ or chief of the Age to Jinachandra. At the persuaion of ï¿½uriji, Akbar gave protection for a year to all animals of the sea adjoining Khambat the place of pilgrimage. Hearing of the destruction of the Jaina temples at Dwarka, Jinachandra prevailed upon Akbar to issue an imperial firmï¿½n for the protection of the Jaina holy places such as ï¿½atruï¿½jaya, Pï¿½litï¿½nï¿½ and Giranï¿½ra. The necessary order was sent to ï¿½zamkhï¿½n, the Subedï¿½r of Ahmedabad. The places of pilgrimage were put in charge of Karmachandra.
Some Jaina idols are said to have been broken in Gujarat, though Akbar later on sent a firmï¿½n to the governor asking him to protect the Jaina temples from further injury. A cartload of idols was removed from the temples by Mughal officer and was yielded up to a Jaina on payment of money some time after 1578 A.D. Such seem to have been the case and continued to be the popular prejudices against the Hindus.520
Besides inscriptions, firmï¿½ns etc., Akbar’s contemporary Jaina scholars521 praised Akbar, and his reign. Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½e Rï¿½jamalla (1575 A.D.) has written in the Lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½saï¿½hitï¿½ “Emperor Akbar has obtained the merit by stopping the Jaziyï¿½. He never spoke the violent words. He lived far away from the animal violence. He stopped gambling and drinking because they destory his senses, and he goes to the wrong path. Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½e Jinadï¿½sa in the Jambï¿½svï¿½mï¿½ Charitra (1585 A.D.) praised his wise policy and good reign. The poet Parimala in the ï¿½rï¿½pï¿½la Charitra (1594 A.D.) praised the Emperor, “He made attempts for the protection of cows. He described the beauty of Agra. He lived in the company of Jaina scholars, and organised scholarly seminars. Vidyï¿½ Harsha Sï¿½ri mentions it in the Aï¿½janï¿½sundarï¿½rï¿½sa (1604 A.D.). He stopped the slaughter of animals such as cows, buffaloes and goats. He set free captives from prisons. He respected Jaina saints. He promoted the charitable and meritorious works. The great poet Banï¿½rasï¿½dï¿½sa writes in the ï¿½tmacharita, “When he heared the news of the death of Emperor Akbar at Jaunpur, he became unconscious. The shock prevailed in the whole public”. The Portuguese Jesuit named Pinherio522 has written, “Akbar became a follower of Jainism. He followed Jaina doctrines. He remained involved in ï¿½tmachintana (thinking) and ï¿½tma-bodha (knowing). He issued directives for the stoppage of drinking, meat and gambling. V. SMITH523 and other scholars are of the view that Akbar had regards for Jainism and Jaina teachers.
ï¿½aha Toï¿½ara, who was the mint master of Akbar in Agra, renovated the old Tï¿½ratha of Mathura. He built 514 new Stï¿½pas in place of the broken old Stï¿½pas and established twelve dikpï¿½las. He performed their installation ceremony in 1573 A.D. with the Chaturvidha Samgha. He constructed the beautiful Jaina temple at Agra in 1594 A.D. He got the Jambusvï¿½mï¿½ Chariu written from Rï¿½jamalla Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ey in Sanskrit, and from Jinadï¿½sa in Hindi.524
Sï¿½ha Nï¿½nu was the Prime-Minister of Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha, Kachchhavaha ruler of Amber who was deputed as the Governor of Bangadeï¿½a by Akbar. It seems that Sï¿½ha Nï¿½nu had to visit Bengal several times in connection with his duties towards his Master. He got the Yaï¿½odhara Charitra525 written in V.S. 1659 at Akachchhapura (Adbara Pura), near Champï¿½nagarï¿½ in Baï¿½gadeï¿½a from Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Jinï¿½nakï¿½rti in the ï¿½dinï¿½tha temple. He built twenty Jaina temples of the Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas at Sammeda ï¿½ikhara and led pilgrimage to this holy place several times.
JAHANGIR (1605-1627 A.D.) AND SHÏ¿½H JAHÏ¿½N (1628-1658 A.D.)
The first half of the 17th century in India was, on the whole, an era of progress and prosperity. During this period, the Mughal empire was ruled by two capable rulers, Jahangir (1605-1627 A.D.) and Shahjahan (1628-1658 A.D.). In southern India too, the States of Bijapur and Golconda were able to provide conditions of internal peace and cultural growth. These Mughal rulers consolidated the administrative system which had developed under Akbar. They maintained the alliance with the Rï¿½jpï¿½ts and tried to further broaden the political base of the empire by allying with powerful sections such as the Afghans and the Marathas. They embellished their capitals with beautiful buildings. The Mughals played a positive role in stabilizing India’s relations with neighbouring Asian power such as Iran, the Uzbeks and the Ottomon Turks, thereby opening up greater avenues for India’s foreign trade.
No doubt, the Jaina teachers Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha and Bï¿½lachanda enjoyed royal hospitality under Akbar. But as Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha made prophesied that Jahï¿½ngir’s reign would not extend behind two years, Jahï¿½ngï¿½r became angry with Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha and issued orders for the expulsion of the Jainas from the imperial territories. It was due to the political motives, and it was soon withdrawn by Jahangir.526
Generally, Jahangir followed the religious policy of his father. He prohibited the most eating and the slaughter of animals in his dominions on certain days. He awarded the title of Yugapradhï¿½na to Yati Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha. He took interest in the philosophical discussions with the Jaina teachers. Several new Jaina temples were constructed during his reign. There was freedom to celebrate religious functions, people led pilgrimage to holy places. Rï¿½jï¿½ Bhï¿½ramala, Hï¿½rananda, Mukï¿½ma etc. were favourites of the Jaina Emperor. Banï¿½rasï¿½dï¿½sa was the tutor of the Navï¿½b Chinakalï¿½chakhan of Jaunpur in Hindi and Sanskrit. Hï¿½rananda was the great jeweller, and with the royal permission, he led Saï¿½gha to Sammeda ï¿½ikhara. He also invited Jahï¿½ngir and his courtiers to his residence. He also performed the installation ceremony in Agra through Labdhivardhana ï¿½uri. Sabalasimha Mothiya was another millioniaire in the reign of Jahangir. The other businessmen of Agra were Sï¿½ha Bandï¿½dï¿½sa Tï¿½rï¿½chanda Sï¿½hu etc. Anilustrated, Vijï¿½aptipatra was sent to Vijayasena in 1610 A.D. on behalf of the Jaina Saï¿½gha of Agra. In 1618, Jaina ï¿½rï¿½vakas like Banï¿½rsï¿½dï¿½sa led pilgrimage to Ahichchhatrï¿½ and Hastinï¿½pura.
Baï¿½arasï¿½dï¿½sa was Musï¿½hiba of Shahjahan and used to play chess with him. During this period, Banï¿½rasï¿½dï¿½sa himself, Bhagavatï¿½dï¿½sa, Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½e Hemarï¿½ja, Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½e Rï¿½pachand, Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½e Harikï¿½ishï¿½a, Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Jagatabhï¿½shaï¿½a, Kavi Sï¿½livï¿½hana, Yati Lï¿½ï¿½asï¿½gara, Pï¿½ithï¿½pï¿½la, Vï¿½radï¿½sa, Kavi Saghï¿½sa, Manoharalï¿½la, Khaï¿½agasena, Rï¿½yachandra, Jagajï¿½vana etc. enriched Jaina literature. There is depiction of the life of the Jainas, trade and administration in the Ardhakathï¿½naka (1641 A.D.) of Banï¿½rasï¿½dï¿½sa. It is important from the historical point of view. This work informs about the pilgrimage of the people to the holy places of Ayodhyï¿½, Vï¿½rï¿½ï¿½asï¿½, Mathura, Hastinï¿½pura and Ahichchhatrï¿½. Among the Jainas, Agravï¿½las, Osvï¿½las and ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½s were living in Agra. Agra, Firozabad, Jaunapura, Khairabad, Shahjahanpur, Allahabad, Meerut, Etawa, Kola (Aligarh), Saharanpur, Varanasi etc. were good centres of Jainism.527
AURANGZEB (1658-1707 A.D.)
Aurangzab reversed Akbar’s policy of religious tolerance and thus undermined the loyalty of the Hindus to the empire. This, in turn, led to the popular uprisings which sapped the vitality of the empire. His suspicious nature added to his problems. He got the throne after imprisoning his father and extended his empire by his conquests.
Aurangzeb was a fanatic and an intolerant. There was no freedom to the Jainas in his reign as before. Even then Upï¿½dhyï¿½ya Yaï¿½ovijaya, ï¿½nandaghaï¿½a, Devabrahmachï¿½rï¿½, Bhaiya Bhagavatï¿½dï¿½sa, Jagatarï¿½ya, ï¿½iromaï¿½idï¿½sa, Jï¿½varï¿½ja, Lakshmï¿½chandra, Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka, Viï¿½vabhï¿½shaï¿½a, Kavi Vinodï¿½lï¿½la etc. earned name as literary figures during this time. Vinodï¿½lï¿½la, a native of Allahabad wrote the ï¿½sï¿½pï¿½lacharitra in 1690 A.D.
Tï¿½rï¿½chandra, Diwan of Alaphakhan of Fatehapura got the translated of the Sanskrit work Jaï¿½ï¿½nï¿½rï¿½ava in Brajabhï¿½shï¿½ in 1671 A.D. Sonapï¿½la and Kuï¿½varapï¿½la the wise business men, hailed form Agra, to settle in Patna. They built the Jaina temple at Mirzapur. The ancestor of Hï¿½ravanda ï¿½ï¿½ha of the family of Jagat Seï¿½ha was also a native of Agra but settled at Patna in 1661 A.D.528
- JAINISM DURING (1707-1857 A.D.)
After the death of Aurangzeb, the decline of the Mughal empire began suddenly. There were dreadful invasions of Nï¿½dirshï¿½h Durrani and Ahmad Shah Abdali. The Marathas and the Sikhs started looting. The Sï¿½bedars of the provinces became independent, from the Mughals. It is known as the dark period in Indian history. In 1722 A.D., Sï¿½datkhï¿½n was appointed Subedï¿½r of Oudh. His treasurer Keï¿½arï¿½ Siï¿½ha on Agrawï¿½la Jaina accompanied the Subedar from Delhi to Luknow. In 1724 A.D. he got repaired the five Jaina temples at Ayodhya and tried for the development of this Tï¿½rtha. Bachchharï¿½ja Nï¿½haï¿½ï¿½ the main Jeweller of Nawab Asafudaulï¿½ (1775-1797 A.D.) awarded him the title of ‘Rï¿½jï¿½’. At this time, Jinaakshayasï¿½ri established his seat in Yatichhatta of Lucknow and also built the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. Rï¿½jï¿½ Bachchharï¿½ja Nï¿½hatï¿½ and ï¿½rï¿½vakas of Lucknow invited the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Jinachandra Sï¿½ri by sending him the illustrated Vijï¿½naptipatra. The royal treasurers Rï¿½jï¿½ Harasukharï¿½ya and his son king Suganachandra of Delhi renovated the Hastinï¿½pura Tï¿½rtha in 1800 A.D. and built the vast Digambara Jaina temple. They constructed Jaina temples at other places. Sï¿½hu Hï¿½rï¿½lï¿½la of Allahabad constructed the Jaina temple at Prabhï¿½sa hill, hear Kauï¿½ï¿½mbï¿½ in 1824 A.D. Seï¿½haMaï¿½irï¿½ma built the Jambï¿½svï¿½mï¿½ temple on Chaurï¿½sï¿½ Tï¿½lï¿½ at Mathura. Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Viï¿½vabhï¿½shaï¿½a, Pandita Jinadï¿½sa. Pandita Hemarï¿½ja (Etawa), Bulï¿½kï¿½dï¿½sa (Agra) Dyï¿½natarï¿½ya (Agra) etc. lived during this period.529
Even during the reign of the Muslims, Jainism continued to develop. Temples were constructed, and numerous images were installed in them. Copies of the manuscripts were made. The Jaina ï¿½rï¿½vakas led Saï¿½ghas to holy places. Some of the Muslim rulers were highly impressed by the teachings of Jaina monks, and held them in high esteem. The Jaina ï¿½rï¿½vakas were sincere and faithful citizens of the Muslim Kingdoms. Some of them became great financiers of the Muslim rulers and also acted as ministers. They even fought in battle-fields as generals. There are several instances that the Muslims rulers gave protection to the Jaina temples instead of destroying them. They gave facilities to the Jainas to practise their religion.
- JAINISM IN THE DIFFERENT FORMER STATES OF RAJASTHAN
Jainism was in existence in the different parts of Rajasthan in early times. Even the formation of the states, it continued to flourish under the patronage of their rulers. Temples were constructed and images were placed in them with great ceremony. The Jaina monks enjoyed the greatest respect and regard of both the kings and the masses of these states. Such was the dominance of Jainism that some rulers and most of the people began to observe the doctrine of Ahiï¿½sï¿½.
JAINISM UNDER MEWAR RULER : Jainisn enjoyed the patronage of several Mewar rulers. Such was the powerful hold of Jainism that some of the rulers, though not Jainas, constructed Jaina temples and installed images in them. They gave them charities of different kinds. They invited the ï¿½chï¿½ryas and offered them royal reception. Influenced by their discourses they issued an ordinance for the observance of the doctrine of Ahiï¿½sï¿½. The Jaina ministers also constructed several beautiful Jaina temples.
Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Bhartï¿½ibhaï¿½ï¿½a was ruling in 943 A.D.530 He founded the town of Bhartï¿½ipura after his name. He built the Guhilavihï¿½ra and placed the image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha in it through Bï¿½dï¿½gaï¿½i of Chaitrapurï¿½ya Gachchha.531 The minister of his son king Allaï¿½a constructed a Jaina temple at ï¿½ghï¿½ï¿½a in which the image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha was installed by Yaï¿½odeavsï¿½ri of the the Saï¿½ï¿½eraka Gachchha in the 10th century. Jinaprabodhasï¿½ri was a contemporary of Mahï¿½rï¿½vala Kshetrasiï¿½ha of Chittore.532When Jinaprabodha suri came to Chittore, Brï¿½hmaï¿½as, ascetics, the chief among the Rï¿½japutras, Kshetrasiï¿½ha and Karï¿½arï¿½ja all combined to receive the ï¿½chï¿½rya there in about 1277 A.D.533
Samarasiï¿½ha, the ruler of Mewar and his mother, Jayatallï¿½devï¿½ were greatly influenced by the discourses of Devendrasï¿½ri and became his devotees. Probably, it was due to his advice that Jayatallï¿½devï¿½, queen of lord Tejasiï¿½ha of Medapï¿½ï¿½a and Chitrakï¿½ï¿½a constructed the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha as we know from the Chittoragarh inscription of 1278 A.D.534 It also states that Mahï¿½rï¿½vala Samarasiï¿½ha Deva, the adornment of Guhilaputra family, granted land to the west of the temple for a monastery to Pradyumnasï¿½ri with some endowments. Another inscription of the time of the Guhila king Samarasiï¿½ha records the grant of land to a Jaina temple belonging to the Bhartï¿½ipurï¿½ya Gachchha for the spiritual welfare of his mother, Jayatallï¿½devï¿½, who received religios instructions from Sï¿½dhvï¿½ Sumalï¿½.535 Besides, being encouraged and advised by Sï¿½rï¿½jï¿½, Samarasiï¿½ha had also issued an ordinance prohibiting the slaughter of animals in his kingdom. This ordinance also refers to the fact that the people would abstain from taking wine and would strictly follow the rules of justice and religion. Tejï¿½ka, son of Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, accompanied by his wife, Ratnadevï¿½ and his son, Vijayasiï¿½ha set up a Jaina image for the welfare of Jayatallï¿½devï¿½ as we know from the inscription of 1306 A.D. on the image in the temple of Pratï¿½pagarh.536
Guï¿½arï¿½ja, the cashier of King Maukala, built the temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra by his master’s orders in 1428 A.D.537 At Nï¿½gdï¿½, there is a temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha which was constucted by a certain trader of the Poravï¿½la caste in 1429 A.D. according to the inscription.538
After Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Maukala, his son Kumbhakaraï¿½a became the ruler who was a great supporter of Jainism. Not only many images and temples were built and installed in his reign but he himself also built the most remarkable Jaina temple at Sï¿½daï¿½ï¿½.539 The Jaina Kï¿½rtistambha at Chittore was built by Punnasiï¿½ha, the son of Jï¿½jï¿½ of the Bagheravï¿½la caste, at the persuasion of his daughter in the 15th century.540 That Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Kumbha permitted the construction of a Jaina Kï¿½rtistambha inside the fort is a concrete and umistakable evidence of his respectful attitude towards Jainism. The famous Chaumukha temples of Raï¿½apura and Kamalagaï¿½dha were constructed in his reign. The inscription of 1434 A.D. engraved on a loose stone lying in a Jaina monastery at Delï¿½vï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ in the Udaipur State records that during his victorious reign, 14 tanakï¿½s were allotted for the worship of Dharma-chintï¿½maï¿½i temple.541 In Adbhudajï¿½ temple at Nï¿½gdï¿½, a colossal image of Sï¿½ntinï¿½tha was set up in 1437 A.D. by a merchant named Sï¿½raï¿½ga in his reign.542 The inscription of 1448 A.D. on a pillar in the Jaina temple now known as Singï¿½rachaurï¿½ at Chittore records the erection of a temple of Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Sï¿½ntinï¿½tha by Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rï¿½ Velï¿½ka, son of Sï¿½ha Kelhï¿½, the treasury officer of Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Kumbakaraï¿½a.543 An inscription engraved on the image lying in the Jaina temple at Vasantagadh states that the image lying in the Jaina temple at Vasantagadh states that the image was set up in the Vasanatapura Chaitya by Bhï¿½dï¿½ka, son of Dhansï¿½, and was consecrated by Muni Sundarasï¿½ri in 1453 A.D.544 An inscription of 1461 A.D. engraved on the pedestal of a big brass image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha at Achalagarh on Mt. ï¿½bï¿½ records that while Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½dhirï¿½ja Kumbhakaraï¿½a was ruling at Kumbhalameru, the image was made at Dungarapur during the reign of Rï¿½vala Somadï¿½sa and brought to ï¿½bï¿½ by the Saï¿½gha of Tapï¿½gachchha.545
Jainism continued to flourish in the reign of Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Rï¿½yamala who was the son of Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Kumbha. An inscription from Udaipur of 1499 A.D. speaks of the erection of temples dedicated to Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, Ambikï¿½ and so forth in the victorious reign of Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Rï¿½yamala.546 From the image inscription of ï¿½dinï¿½tha at Nï¿½dlï¿½ï¿½, it is known that the ceremony of the installation of the image was caused to be made by Sï¿½hï¿½ and Samadï¿½ whose grand-father Sï¿½yara had previously rebuilt the subsidiary cells through the orders of Pï¿½ithvï¿½rï¿½ja, the eldest son of Rï¿½yamala, the ruler of Mewar.547
Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Pratï¿½pa, the greatest hero among the Rajputs, wrote a letter to Hï¿½ravijaya suri requesting him to visit Mewar for propounding the Dharma. This letter written in the old Mewï¿½rï¿½ in 1578 A.D. is a very important document in the history of Jaina religion.548This shows that though incessantly engaged in warfare for the defence of his homeland against the imperial aggressions of Akbar, Pratï¿½pa, the indomitable hero, did not ignore the nourishment of his own soul, as also of those of his people. The fact that the invitation was extended to the greatest Jaina saint of the period indicates the catholicity of his views and his love of Jainism. A long inscription, in Mï¿½rawï¿½rï¿½ language, of 1602 A.D. records a grant made apparently by Amarasiï¿½ha who was the son of Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Pratï¿½pa.549
Jainism enjoyed special royal patronage in the reign of Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Jagatasiï¿½ha. The image at Nï¿½dol550 and Nï¿½dlï¿½ï¿½551 have been installed by Jayamala and the whole Saï¿½gha respectively in 1629 A.D. Hearing the virtues of ï¿½chï¿½rya Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Devasï¿½ri, Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Jagatasiï¿½ha invited him to spend his chï¿½turmï¿½sa (four months of rainy season) at Udaipur through his Prime Minister, Jhï¿½lï¿½ Kalyï¿½ï¿½asiï¿½ha. Devasï¿½ri acceded to the request and came to Udaipur where he was welcomed with military honours as known to us from the Digvijayamabï¿½kï¿½vya.552 Impressed by his preaching, the king became his firm devotee. He had prohibited the collection of customs revenue from the large congregation of the people held every year at Varakï¿½nï¿½. He also issued an ordinance for the stoppage of the catching of fish or any other living creature from the Picholï¿½ and Udayasï¿½gara lakes of Udaipur, destruction of animals during the month of birth of Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ and during the Bhï¿½drapada month every year and destruction of animal life on the coronation day of the Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. He also ordered the repair of Jaina temples built by Kumbhï¿½ Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ on Machinda-durga. Besides this, he worshipped the image of ï¿½shabhdeva in the temple of Udaipur.553
The Jaina religion continued to enjoy the royal support even afterwards. The Chief Minister Dayï¿½laï¿½ï¿½ha of Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Rï¿½jasiï¿½ha built the beautiful Jaina temple at Rï¿½janagara and performed the consecration ceremony in 1675 A.D. through Vijayasï¿½gara during his victorious reign.554
JAINISM IN THE STATES OF DUNGARAPUR, BANSWÏ¿½RÏ¿½ AND PRATÏ¿½PAGARH : These three states comprised the Vï¿½gaï¿½a region. Jainism enjoyed patronage and prospered under the rulers of these states. In their service, there were several Jaina ministers. They constructed a number of temples and celebrated the consecration ceremony of the images with pomp and show which attracted large crowds. Some manuscripts were also prepared under their patronage. So popular was Jainism for some time there that even oilmen and people of similar castes observed the doctrine of ahiï¿½sï¿½ out of respect for the Jaina population.
The existence of Jainism in this region as early as the 10th century is known to us from an inscription of 994 A.D. engraved on the Jaina image ‘Jayati ï¿½rï¿½ Vï¿½gaï¿½a Saï¿½ghaï¿½’. The capital at that time was Vaï¿½apadra known at present as Baroda. The faith continued to thrive in this region which is indicated by the various evidences discovered there. On the rock of an ancient temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha at this place, there are engraved figures of twenty-four Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas. The inscription of 1307 A.D. on it tells us that it was installed by Jinachandrasï¿½ri of the Kharatara Gachchha.555 The image of Keï¿½ariyï¿½jï¿½ at Dhuleva in Mewar was carried from this place.556
The ancient name of Dungarpur was Girivara. It was founded in about 1358 A.D. We know from the Pravï¿½sagï¿½tikï¿½traya of Jayï¿½nanda written in 1370 A.D. that in his days, there were five Jaina temples and about nine hundred Jaina families living there.557 In 1404 A.D. Prahalï¿½da, the minister of Rï¿½vala Pratï¿½pasiï¿½ha, constructed a Jaina temple.558 After that, Jainism continued to prosper during the reign of Gajapï¿½la. We have copies of the four manuscripts written in his reign, namely, the Paï¿½chaprasthï¿½na-vishamapada-vyï¿½khyï¿½ 1423 A.D., Dvyï¿½ï¿½rayamahï¿½kï¿½vya Saï¿½ï¿½ka 1428 A.D., Dvitï¿½yakhaï¿½ï¿½agranthï¿½-gratriaya-Sakalagranthï¿½1429 A.D. and Kathï¿½koï¿½a of 1430 A.D.559 From the inscription of 1469 A.D. on the wall of the Jaina temple of ï¿½ntrï¿½, it is clear that his chief minister Sï¿½bhï¿½ built the temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha and established an alms-house at ï¿½ntrï¿½ in 1438 A.D. In that temple, he set up brass images of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha.560 After Gajapï¿½la, his son Somadï¿½sa became the ruler. An inscription of 1461 A.D. engraved on the pedestal of big brass image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha at Achalagarh on Mt. ï¿½bï¿½ records that it was made at Dungarpur during the reign of Rï¿½vala Somadï¿½sa and brought to ï¿½bï¿½ by the Saï¿½gha of Tapï¿½ Gachchha; and Sï¿½bhï¿½ with wife Karanï¿½de and their sons, Sï¿½lhï¿½ and Mï¿½lhï¿½ set up the image. The consecration ceremony was performed by Lakshmï¿½sï¿½garasï¿½ri of Tapï¿½gachchha.561