HISTORICAL ROLE OF JAINISM
Jainism was dominant in Magadha during the reign of the Nandas (364-324 B.C.) and the Mauryas (324-300 B.C.). Afterwards, it migrated to the different regions of the North, South and West, and flourished there. In the Gupta period, Jainism received no royal patronage, and therefore declined. In the South, Jainism continued to develop because of the encouragement given by the rulers. The period from the eighth to the twelfth century A.D. is regarded as the golden period in the history of Jainism because the Jaina monks, statesmen and merchants contributed to its development. A large number of people accepted Jainism, and they formed castes. Numerous temples were built, and images were installed in them. Jaina scholars enriched the different languages by their works. Afterwards, Jainism had setbacks during the medieval period, under the Muslims, but it could not be extinct completely because of devotion of the Árävakas and saints to Jainism.
- Jainism Under The Nandas (364-324 B.C.)
The Nandas were the most powerful rulers of Magadha. So great was their power that Alexander, who invaded Punjab at that time, did not dare to move towards the east. The Nanda ruler Mahäpadma claimed the sole sovereign who destroyed all the other ruling princes. It seems that he acquired Kaliõga and annexed Kosala to his kingdom.
Jainism appears to have been followed during the reign of the Nandas in Magadha. From the Udayagiri cave inscription1 of Khäravela, it is known that Nanda king removed the Jaina image from Kaliõga to Päûaliputra. This throws light on the antiquity of the Jaina sculptural art as well as the fact that Nanda was the follower of Jainism.
According to Jaina tradition, the Nanda dynasty as such had a line of Jaina ministers beginning with Kalpaka2. It was with the help of this minister that king Nanda uprooted all the reigning Kshatriya dynasties3, and as the Jaina tell us, all the ministers of the Nandas were his descendants4. The minister of the ninth Nanda was Áakatäla, who had two sons. The elder was Sthülabhadra and the younger son was called Árïyaka. After the death of Áakatäla, Nanda offered the minisership to his elder son Sthülabhadra, but the latter refused and, perceiving the vanity of the world, took Dikshä or joined the order under Sambhütavijaya5, the sixth pontiff of the Jaina church. The ministership was finally given to his brother Árïyaka who was in the king’s office6.
That the Jainas were powerful in the days of the Nandas is also clear from the Sanskrit play Mudrä Räkshasa, which dramatises the story of Chandragupta’s accession and tells us that the Jainas held a prominent position at that time, and that Chäîakya who was the prime agent in the revolution, employs a Jaina as one of the Chief emissaries7
The Baâali inscription, which G.H. OJHA, records as of the year 84 of Mahävïra Nirväîa Saãvat, proves the existence of the Jainism at Nagri even in the fifth century B.C. during the reign of the Nandas8. K.P. JAYASWAL agrees with G.H. OJHA in the reading, but he refers the year 84 to the Nanda era, which was counted from 458 B.C. and thus the instance inscription seems to be of the fourth century B.C.9 D.C. SIRCAR takes this Baâali inscription to be of the Second or First century B.C. According to him, this inscription, incised during the reign of king Bhägavata of the Áuîga dynasty10, seems to be a record of the pious working of an inhabitant of Mädhyamikä.
- Account of the Greek Writers of Western India
The Greek writers supply very valuable information about the Indian philosophers whom Alexander met. SIRABO mentions two sects of philosophers — one called the Brachmaîes and the other Germanes.11 Brachmanes represent the Brähmaîas and the Germanes, evidently a corruption of Sarmanes, which represents the Sanskrit Áramaîa (a Jaina ascetic). But the question is who these people were. Some say that these are Buddhist saints, but they seem to be Jaina sanits because they have been described as naked, and they are called by the name Gymnosophists. Nakedness is a special characteristic of the Jaina monks. PALINY says that their philosophers whom they call Gymnosophists, are accustomed to remain in one posture with their eyes immovably fixed on the Sun from dawn to dusk and to stand on the burning sands all day long now on one foot and now on the other.1 One ONESLCRITUS says that these sages went about naked, inflicted hardships on themselves and were held in highest honour and when invited, they did not visit any-body but requested the persons concerned to come to them if they wanted to participate in their conversation.12 This description applies to Digambara Jaina monks.
The Greek observers found women studying philosophy along with men. But they all led a life of extreme austerity.2 And as the Brähmaîas did not generally admit their women to their philosophy, these women must have been, therefore, probably, the Sädhvis of the Jaina church.
Among these sages, one Kälnos who accompanied Alexander probably to instruct him in the matters of religion. His real name, according to PLUTARCH, was Sphines; and he received the name Kälnos among the Greeks because in saluting the persons, he used the word ‘Käle‘. It is probably the Sanskrit from Kalyäîa which is commonly used in addressing a person and signifies good, just or distinguished. When he became ill at Pasargadi, this being the first sickness he ever had, he put an end to his life in his seventy third year without heeding the entreaties of the king.13 This type of voluntary death is specially found among the Jainas. The Ratnakaraîda Árävakächära (Chap. 5) of Samantabhadra (about second century A.D.) dilates on sallekhanä which consists in abandoning the body for the accumulation of merit in calamities, famines, extreme old age and incurable diseases.
The Indian sages, according to the Greek writers, have been divided into two categories (1) the Brähmaîas and (2) Áramaîas. The Brähmaîas succeeded by right of birth to this kind of divine wisdom as to a priesthood. They are one family, the descendents of one father and mother. The Áramaîas, on the other hand, are taken from all Indian castes differently from all who wish to give themselves to the study of divine beings.14 These saints were probably Jaina saints, because there was no question of caste restriction in Jainism.
These naked Samnoi practise truth, make predictions about futurity and worship a kind of pyramid beneath which they think the bones of some divinity lie buried.15 This practice is also noticed among the Jainas who used to construct the Stüpas, specimens of which are found at Mathura.
According to the Greek writers, the society was divided into the five classes in accordance with the occupations. Some cultivate the soil; very many follow war and other trades. The noblest and richest manage public affairs, administer justice and sit in the council with the kings. A fifth class devotes itself to the philosophy prevalent in the country which almost assumes the form of religion and the members always put an end to their lives by burning themselves on funeral pile.16
The characteristics and practices of these saints indicate that they were Jaina saints. Jainism was prevalent in western India on the eve of the coming of the Greeks in India. The Jaina monks and nuns were found in such a large number that they caught the attention of the foreigners. If it is in the border provinces, it may have been in existence even in the adjacent region like Rajasthan.
- Jainism Under The Mauryas (324-187 B.C.)
Chandragupta (324-300 B.C.)
The Maurya was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, who seems to have belonged to some ordinary family. He is one of the greatest emperors of India. He is first Indian ruler to bring about the unification of Northern India by his conquests and to rule over such a vast empire. From him actually, a continuous as well as unified history starts and he is, therefore, regarded as the first historical emperor. He is the earliest emperor in Indian history whose historicity can be established on the solid ground of ascertained chronology.We can locate him accurately in both time and space. With the help of Chäîakya known as Kauûilya, he overthrew the Nandas and established the rule of the Mauryas. He liberated North-Western India from the rule of Selecus, the Greek Viceroy of Alexander. He extended his empire by further conquests of Saurarhûra and some regions of South India.
There are Jaina traditions regarding Chandragupta’s association with the South. His conquest of some regions of the South India is also attested by the inscriptions of Aáoka found at some sites. He established an efficient administration as known from the Arthaáätra of Kauûilya and the Megasthaness Indica edited by Mcerindle.
Jain tradition avers that Chandragupat Maurya was a Jain. Both Tiloyapaîîati (600 A.D.) and Räjavalïkathä claim him to be Jain. Jainism was prevalent in his reign. The Jaina monks were frequently seen and mentioned within the empire of Chandragupta not only by Indians, but by Greek historians as well, Megasthenese, the Greek envoy to Chandragupta’s court, mentions of Áramaîas in his empire. He also says that Chandragupta submitted to devotional teaching of the Áramaîas as opposed to the doctrines of the Brähmaîas.17
It seems that Chandragupta was quite young and experienced when ascended the throne in or about 324 B.C. He must have been under fifty when his reign terminated twenty-four years later. When king Chandragupta Maurya was ruling over North India (either from Ujjain or from Päûaliputra), a great twelve years’ famine was foretold in Northern India by the Árutakevalin Bhadrabähu. He was at this time a great sanit of Jainism. When this prophecy began to be fulfilled, the saint led twelve thousand Jainas to the South and settled at Áravaîa Belagolä. At this time, Chandragupta abdicated the throne and accompanied his teacher Bhadrabähu. Bhadrabäu soon died, and Chandragupta survived after him for twelve years, and died in Sallekhanä.
Such famines are possible during this period as known from some very early inscriptions.The Mahasthäna stone plaque inscription18 found in the Bogra District of Bengal records an endowment to the Pañchavargïya Buddhist monks. The Sohgaura copper-plate inscription19 found in the Gorakhpur District of U.P. records a provision of grains and fodders during famines.
The tradition of migration of the great Árutakeval in Bhadrabähu and his disciple, the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta due to famine in the South is corroborated by the late literary and epigraphic evidences. Besides, there are the names of monuments at Áravaîabelagola in the memory of Bhadrabähu and Chandragupta Maurya. The Bôihatkathäkoáa of Harisena dated 931 A.D. Ratnanandi’s Bhadrabähu Charita of about 1450 A.D., the Kannaâa works Munivaãáäbhudaya of C. 1680 A.D. and the Räjavalïyakathä mention this incident. Several inscriptions20 of Áravaîabelagolä refer to this tradition also. The oldest of these inscriptions is of about 600 A.D. Two inscriptions of about 900 A.D. describe the hill at Áravaîabelagolä as having its summit marked by the impress of the feet of Bhandrabähu and Munipati Chandragupta. Two inscripations of the year 1128 and 1169 A.D. are engraved with the names of Bhadrabähu Árutakevalin and Chandragupta. Another inscription of the year 1433 A.D. speaks of Yatindra Bhadrabähu and his disciple Chandragupta. All these agree to the main facts of breaking out famine in Bihar and migration of Jainas towards the South after the death of Bhadrabähu and Chandragupta at Chandragiri hill in the fourth Century B.C. The smaller hill Chandragiri is said to have derived its affiliation from the fact that Chandragupta was the first of the saints who lived and performed penance there. On the same hill is a cave named after Bhadrabähu and also a shrine called Chandragupta Basti, as it was erected by Chandragupta.
Both RICE LEWIS21 NARASIMHACHAR22 who have studied the Jaina inscriptions of Áravaîa Belagolä thoroughly, give a verdict in favour of Jaina tradition. According to both these scholars, credence may be given to the late traditions of migration of the Jainas to the South under the leadership of Árutakevalï Bhadrabähu and his royal disciple Chandragupta Maurya. This tradition also forms one of the links connected with the Digambara—Ávetambara Schism in the Jainas Saãgha. This tradition also shows that Chandragupta Maurya was a Jaina. EDWARD THOMAS23, who has taken into consideration, the Greek accounts comes to the same opinion. HOERNLE24 also accepts the immigration of Árutakevalï Bhadrabähu to the South.
On the other hand, J.F. FLEET25 AND J. CHARAPENTIER26 tried to maintain that this Jaina tradition had no historical basis. According to J.F. FLEET, the name Bhadrabähu of the two Ächäryas is found mentioned in the Digambara Paûûävalïs—one the last Árutakevalï Bhadrabähu and the other Bhadrabähu from which the Paûûävalï of Nandi Ämnäya of the Sarasvatï Gachchha. His disciple was Guptigupta. According to J.F. FLEET’s view, the saint who migrated to the South was Bhadrabähu, and Chandragupta was another name of Guptigupta. J.F. FLEET’s contention is wrong. There is no evidence to assume Guptigupta and Chandragupta as one. There is no reference to famine of twelve years during this time. He is not known to be initiated to monkhood after abdication of the throne.
- CHARPENTIERdiscredits the account of the Digambaras and asserts that Bhadrabähu retired to Nepal in order to pass the reminder of his life in penance, leaving the succession to Sthülabhadra, a disciple of Bhadrabähu’s own contemporary monk, Sambhütavijaya.
Some of the modern Scholars of great reputes and authority have come to the conclusion that Chandragupta can safely be called a Jaina on the Authority of this tradition. The Jaina books (fifth century A.D.) and later Jaina inscriptions, observe K.P. JAYASWAL27, “claim Chandragupta as a Jaina imperial ascetic. My studies have compelled me to respect the historical data of the Jaina writings, and I see no reason why we should not accept the Jaina claim that Chandragupta at the end of his reign accepted Jainism and abdicated and died as a Jaina ascetic.”
To quote V.A. SMITH28, who has ultimately leaned towards Jainism. “The only direct evidence throwing light on the manner in which the eventful reign of chandragupat Maurya came to an end is that of Jaina tradition. The Jainas always treat that great emperor as having been a Jaina, and no adequate reason seems to discredit their belief.” Besides this, H. JACOBI29 tells us, ‘The date of Bhadrabähu’s death is placed indentically by all Jaina authors from Hemachandra down to the most modern Scholiast in the year 170 A.V. And this, according to our caluclation, falls in about 291 B.C. This date of the great pontiff’s Nirväîa exactly coincides with that of Chandragupta, who reigned from 321-297 B.C. Early evidence or evidences for Chandragupta Maurya being a Jaina might have disappeared, but still there are persistent late literary as well epigraphical traditions to prove him Jaina.
Chandragupta Maurya is known to have performed the consecration ceremony of the images and temples. In a village of Ghänghäîï, at a distance of twenty seven Km. frm Jodhpur in Rajasthan, there is an old temple of Pärávanätha. In V.S. 1662, many images were discovered in the tank of this place. By chance, the poet Sundaragaîi went on pilgrimage to this place and saw the inscription on the image and examined it. He is said to have read the inscription by the miraculous power given to him by the goddess Ambikä. He immediately composed the poem on it. According to it, Samräû Chandragupta made the golden image of Pärávanätha and its pratishthä was probably performed through Áruti-Kevalï Bhadrabähu.30 This evidence is of a very late period and so there is much doubt about its correctness.
The Jainas legends tell that all the monks did not migrate from Magadha to the South and some preferred to remain in their old land. Apprehending the danger that could threaten the loss and distortion of the original teachings of Mahävïra Sthülabhadra, who according to Ávetambara tradition, assumed the leadership of the Saãgha in Magadha, summoned a council of Jaina Munis in 307 B.C. for the compilation of the teachings of Mahävïra which were preserved in the Pürvas. Thus, the sacred lore which was in a state of decay, was put in order. The Päûaliputra Council is referred to in the Ävaáyakachürîi of Jinadäsagaîi who flourished in the Second half of the seventh century A.D., and by Haribhadra who lived in the middle of the eight century A.D.
BINDUSÄRA (C. 300-273 B.C.)
Chandragupta Maurya was succeeded by Bindusära, whose reign is important for continued links with the Greek princes. Bindusära followed the faith of his parents. The Jaina tents style him as a Jaina and entitle him as ‘Siãhasena’.
AÁOKA (C.273-236 B.C.)
Bindusära was succeeded by his son Aáoka. After his accession to the throne, Aáoka fought only one major war called the Kaliõga-War. Seeing the cruelty of the war, he adopted Buddhism. Though he professed Buddhism he preached ‘Dhamma‘ based on ehthics but not religious dogmas. He is regarded as one of the greatest figures in history. H.G. WELLS in the Outline of History describes him as ‘the greatest of Kings’ because he tried not only for the material but also spiritual welfare of the people.
It seems that in the beginning, Aáoka followed Jainism, the religion of his ancestors. The Siãhalese tradition says that during the life time of his father, when Aáoka was Viceroy of Ujjain, he developed affairs with a girl of a Áreshûhin named Devï who resided at Vidiáä and whom he married. It is possible that Devi belonged to some Jaina family.
It seems that even after Aáoka became Buddhist, he was more or less inclined towards Jainism. The use of the term ‘Äsinava‘, distinction between it and Päpa and the inclusion of the passions of the Jaina lists—violence, cruelty, anger, conceit and envy are enough to convince any body that in all likelihood, Aáoka has adopted and assimilated some psychological concepts of Jainism.
There are several definite evidences to prove that Aáoka was influenced by Jainism. He emphasised on ‘non-slaughter of animate beings and non-injury to creatures in Pillar Edict-V. In Rock Edict-I, he mentions that many hundred of living beings were formerly slaughtered every day in the kitchen of Priyadaráï, but now only three living creatures were killed daily for the sake of curry. Even this animal is not slaughtered regularly. These three living beings shall not be killed in future. The Pillar Edict VII mentions Nirgranûhas known as Jaina Árävakas. Dharmamahämätras appointed for the propagation of Dhamma by Aáoka were also recruited from the Nirgranthas and the Áramaîas.
When Kuîäla lost his claim to the throne of Magadha on account of his blindness, his son Samprati was declared as the rightful successor by Aáoka. Recently, the historicity of Samprati has been proved because Samprati Vihära after the name of Samprati was existing at Vadamänu in the Krishna-Valley during the second century A.D.31 Under the influence of Suhastin, the leading saint of the Jaina Commuinty under Mahägiri, Smprati was converted to Jainism. He tried to spread Jainism by every means in his power, working as hard for Jainism as Aáhoka had done for Buddhism. He is therefore regarded as a Jaina Aáoka. According to Jaina scriptures, he had decided to rinse his mouth in the moring, only after hearing the news of a new temple having been built. Besides, he got all the old and existing temples repaired and set up into all of them the idols mode of gold, stone, silver, brass and of a mixture of fine metals and performed their ‘Añjanaáaläkä Ceremony i.e. declared them fit for worship. Within three years and a half, he got one hundred and twenty-five thousand new temples built, thirty-six thousand repaired, twelve and a half millions of idols consecrated and ninety-five thousand metal idols prepared.32
Samprati is said to have erected Jaina temples throughout within his empire. He founded Jaina monasteries even in the non-Aryan countries, and almost all ancient Jaina temples or monuments of unknown origin are ascribed by the popular voice to Samprati. It may also be noted that all the Jaina monuments of Rajasthan and Gujrat, whose builder is not known, are attributed to Samprati33. TOD34 attributes an old temple at Kumbhalmera to Samprati. At Nadlai, there is a Jaina temple dedicated to Ädinätha. On the seat of the image is engraved an inscription dated V.S. 1686 which speaks of its being rebuilt by the whole Jaina Community of Nadalai. The temple was originally erected by Samprati35. In the Seventeenth century A.D., Jainas at Nadalai believed that the temple was built by Samprati; so there was an old tradition to this effect. He is said to have celebrated the installation ceremony of the image of Padmaprabha at a place named Gharighäîï, through Ärya Suhasti in V.N.S.-20336.
Samprati is known to have propagated Jainism not only in his kingdom but also in adjacent countries. He sent out missionaries as far as South India to preach Jainism in peninsula where his creed secured widespread popularity and made the regions of Andhra, Dravida, Mahäräshûra and Coorg safe for Jaina monks. According to literary tradition, Salisuka, brother of Samprati Maurya, contributed to the spread of Jainism in Kathiawad. Besides this, Samprati took other steps for the propagation of Jainism. From the Jaina books, it is known that he started Saãgha from Ujjain to Áatruñjaya in the company of Suhasti with five thousand Áramaîas. He is also said to have convoked a council for the propagation of Jaina religion under Suhasti.
This account for the propagation of Jainism by Samprati seems to be hyperbolic but there seems to be some truth in it. The recent excavations37 in the Krishna valley conducted at a Vaddamanu identified with the ancient Place Vardhamäna named after the last Jaina Tïrthaõkara yielded the Jaina remains such as Stüpas, ellipsoidal structures, stone sculptures on pillars, slabs and toraîas confirm the activities of Samprati for the propagation of Jainism. The inscriptions inscribed on potsherds reveal the names of Tïrthaõkaras Vôishabhanätha, Vardhamäna, Aranätha etc. These remains seem to have belonged to the Suõga-Sätavähana period. The names of important Jaina preceptors and their disciples with the details of Gaîas, Gotras and Áäkhäs are found engraved on pottery pieces. The names such as Samprativihära and Jinonavihära are found inscribed. These inscriptions give reference to female devotees. The pillara, Süchïs (cross slabs), Ushaîishas (coping slabs) and the Toraîa contained a variety of religions symbols like Stüpas, Aharmachakra, Ratnatriya, Nandipada, Kevalavôiksha, Svastika and so on.
The remains of the foundation of the oldest Jaina temple have been discovered at Lohänipura, near Patha. Two torsos of the Jaina image were also found at Patna. This proves that Jaina temple and images were worshipped during the Maurya period, in Magadha.
‘Nigaûasa Vihära Dipa’ inscribed on one of the pot sherds found at Kasrawad38 proves the existence of the Jaina monastery. It means that the lamp from Nigaûa’s monastery was used for lighting the rooms. This monastery may be attributed to the Maurya period.
When Ärya Suhastin visited Ujjain in order to worship the image of Jïvanta Svämï, Avanti Sukumäla took the vocation of monkhood from him39. After the death of Avanti Sukumäla, a Stüpa was erected in order to commemorate him and the image of Pärávanätha was installed in it. After some time, the Stüpa became barren, and it was known by the name of Kuâugeávara (God of the Great Forest).
Being a holy place, Ujjain was frequently visited by Jaina saints such as Chaîâarudra, Bhadrakagupta, Äryarakshita and Ärya Äshäâha40. Vajra dwelt at Tumba-vanagräma (Tumain).
After Siãhagiri had taught him the even Aõgas, Vajrasvämi went from Daáapara to Bhadragupta at Avanti (Ujjayini) to learn the twelfth viz. the Dôishûivädaõga. He was the last who knew the complete ten Pürvas, and from him arose the Vajraáäkhä41. Daáapura (Mandsor) is the birth place of the Jaina Saint Äryarkshit who learned from Vajra Svämi nine Pürvas, and a fragment of the tenth, and taught them to his pupil Durbalikäpushpamitra42. The seventh schism in Jainism occurred at this place. Jaina traditions aver that Vajr Svämï and other Jaina pontiffs, obtained liberation in the hills Kunjarävarta and Rathävarta in the neighbourhood of Vidiáä, now known as Bhilsa43.
- JAINISM UNDER THE ÁUÕGAS (187-75 B.C)
PUSHYAMITRA (C. 187-151 B.C.)
Bôihadratha, the last Maurya Emperor, was murdered in the presence of the army by the Brähmaîa Commander-in-Chief Pushyamitra who became the founder of the Áuõga dynasty. The first event of his reign was his confilict with Vidarbha. He had also to face the Greek invasion of Indo-Bactrian rulers Demetrious and Menander. He performed two horse sacrifices. According to the Divyävadäna he was a persecutor of Buddhism. Pushyamitra was succeeded by his son Agnimitra who had the exprience of governing Vidiáä as Viceroy under his father. Agnimitra’s son Vasumitra in his earlier days defeated the Yavanas. The Indo-Greek king Antialkidas of Taxila sent his ambassador Heliodorus, son of Dion (Diya) to the court of the Áuõga ruler Bhägavata or Käáïputra Bhägabhedra. The Käîvas, also Brähmaîas seized power about seventy-two B.C.
Generally, a very common charge has been levelled against the Áuõga king Pushyamitra that he was a staunch Brähmaîa and caused the death of Buddhist and Jaina monks. This assumption is based on the version of the Buddhist text Divyävadäna44 which says that he put the price of one hundred dinäras for the head of single monk. This account of Pushyamitra’s vendetta against the monks seems to be exaggerated because a similar vengeance against the Äjivikas and Nirgranthas is attributed to Pushyamitra in the same tent, where it is stated that he put the price of one dinär for the head of Nirgrantha. He is said to be responsible for destroying monasteries and monks from Magadha to Jullandhara area in the modern Punjab. Täränätha also affirms that Pushyamitra was the ally of unbelievers and himself burnt monasteries and slew monks.
But the above charges for the prosecution of the Buddhists and the Jainas against Pushyamitra Áuõga do not seem to be correct. In fact, the Brähmaîas did not interfere with the Áramaîa religions—Buddhism and Jainism. Neither Buddhism nor Jainism had eclipsed, for some magnificent Buddhist and Jaina monuments were erected in the kingdom of the Áuõgas. Therefore it can be concluded that the Divyävadäna, no doubt, gives a shortsighted view. The Buddhist monuments of Bharhut and Sanchi erected during the sovereignty of the Áuõgas do not bear out the theory that Áuõgas were the leaders of a militant Brähmanism. The causes of persecutions against Buddhism and Jainism by Pushyamitra may be owing to the personal and potitical reasons.
That the Jainas were holding good position in Uttar-Pradesh is also evident from two inscriptions45 of the second century B.C. recovered from Pabhosä near Kauáämbï which are of much historical importance.
No.1 By Äsäâhasena, the son of Gopälï Vaihidarï (i.e. Vaihidara-princess, and maternal uncle of king Bahasatimitra), son of Gopälï, a cave was caused to be made in the tenth year of—- of the Kaááapïya Arhats.
No.2. Caused to be made by Äshäâhasena, son of the Vaihidara (Vaihidara-princess, and) son of king Bhägavata, son of the Tevani (i.e. Traivarîa-Princess, and) son of king Vaãgapäla, son of Áonakäyana (Saunakäyana of Adhichchhatra).
These two inscriptions of the second or first century B.C. are of historical value because they give the pedigree of the early kings of Adhichchhatra, the capital of the once mighty kingdom of Northern Pañchäla. These inscriptions record their dedication by Ashäâhasena from Ahichchhatra for the use of Kasyapïya Arhats. On the basis of these inscriptions, it can be said that the Jaina monks enjoyed royal patronage during the Áuõga period.
Spread of Jainism
Starting from its original home in Magadha, Jainism had slowly spread to different countries like Kaliñga to the South-east, Mathura and Malva to the West and Deccan and the Tamil lands to South. At the same time, it appears to have lost its hold over Magadha, the land of its origin and grew powerful in the West and the South. After some initial success in winning over royal patronage, which was, in part the cause of its rapid growth and expansion, it soon lost its hold in the North, but retained the support of the middle classes, like merchants and bankers, for a long time. This loss of kingly support in the North, was, however, made good by the favour shown to the religion by some ruling families of the Deccan. By the end of the third century A.D., Jainism had taken firm roots throughout India.
- THE CHEDI (MAHÄ-MEGHAVÄHANA) DYNASTY OF KALIÑGA (ORISSA)
The realy migration of the Jainas to the country of Kaliõga can be seen from the famous Khäravela inscription of Udayagiri dated second or first century B.C. As this inscription refers this to the removal of a Jaina image from kaliõga to Päûaliputra by the Magadhan king Nanda, it is proved that Jainism was followed in the fourth century B.C. Here the faith took firm root and flourished for a long period.
The Udayagiri cave inscription of Khäravela may be regarded as the ‘Khäravela Charita’ because it gives information about the events of his life. He belonged to the third generation of the Mahämeghavähana dynasty, and he was an offshoot of the Chedi royal family. He is also knwon to be a descendant of the Aila line. Mahäräja Khäravela is one of the most remarkable figures of ancient Indian History. As this inscription starts with the invocation (Mangalä Charaîa–Namo Arahantänam and Namo-Sava Siddhänam, Khäravela, the Chedi ruler, is proved to be the follower of Jainism.
It is possible to determine the date of Khäravela by properly identifying the contemporary rulers of Khäravela mentioned46 in this inscription. K.P. JAYASWAL and R.D. BANERJI are inclined to assign him to the first half of the second century B.C. while other scholars like D.C. SIRCAR47 place him in the first century B.C. or first century A.D. His title Mahäräja, later script of the inscription, developed Kävya style and sculptures of Mañchapuri prove the late date. The Nanda king is known to have excavated the canal three centuries earlier than Khäravela. As the Nandas held sway over the Magadhan empire in the fourth century B.C., Khäravela, who flourished more than 300 years after Nandaräja, should be assigned to the first century B.C.
Khäravela, while a prince, played different games befitting the young age of the prince with a lovely body and fair brown complexion. He bore the noble and auspicious bodily marks. As to prince Khäravela’s education ability, he became an expert in matters relating to writing, coinage, accounting, administration and procedures.
That Khäravela did marry is beyond any dispute. The very fact that the Mañchapuri cave on the Udayagiri Khaîâagiri was dedicated by the chief queen (Agra-Mahïshi) of Khäravela for the use of Jaina monks in Kaliõga, goes to prove that Khäravela had more than one queen. Again in the seventh year record in the Hathigumpha text, there appears a fragmentary reference to Khäravela’s wife. In the seventh year of his reign, Khäravela’s famous wife of the Vajiraghara obtained the dignity of auspicious motherhood48.
He married a daughter of the greatgrandson of King Hastisiãha, probably of the Laläka lineage.49
Immediately after his accession to the throne, Khäravela launched on a career of a dia-vijaya (conqueror)50. In the second year of his reign, he is said to have sent a large army to the Western countries without even thinking of Sätakraîi who apparently ruled the country to the West of Kaliõga. In the course of his expedition, the Kaliõga army is further said to have reached the banks of the Kôishîä bena (Kôishîä) where the city called Rishika-nagara was threatened. As there is no indication that Khäravela’s army came into conflict with Sätakarîi or that Rishika-nagara formed a part of the latter’s dominions, the Kaliõga king’s calim seems to suggest that friendly relations existed between the two kings and that the Kaliõga army passed to the Ôishika country on the Krishîä through Sätakarîi’s territories without difficulty. But a suggestion that Khäravela’s army attacked a city on the Krishnä in the Southern part of Sätakarîi’s kingdom cannot also be regarded as altogether impossible. King Sätakarîi seems to be no other than an early Sätavähana ruler of that name, very probably Sätakarîi I who is known from the Nänäghäûa inscription of Näganikä. In the fourth year of his reign, Khäravela seems to have occupied the capital of a prince named Vidyädhara. In the Jaina literature, the Vidyädharas are known as a tribal people residing in the Vindhya mountain51.
In the same year, Khäravela also subdued the Räshûrikas and Bhojakas. The Räshûrikas stand for the Maräûhä region, and the Bhojakas probably for the Berar (M.P.) region. In the eighth year, Khäravela destroyed Goradhagiri, a hill fortress in Baräbar hills and attacked the city of Rajagôiha (modern Rajgir in the Gaya District, Bihar)52. The news of these exploits of Khäravela caused so much terror in the heart of Yavana king that he fled away to Mathura. The Yavana ruler whose name is sometimes doubtfully read as Dimitra or Dimata (Demetrius), was probably a later Indo-Greek ruler of the eastern Punjab. It is possible that this contemporary ruler of Mathura of Khäravela was not Yavana ruler Demetrius but a ruler of the Mitra dynasty.
In his eleventh year, Khäravela destroyed the city of Pithuâa, the capital of a king of the Masulipatam region in the Tamilanadu area. Pithuâa53 is probably a coastal city situated somewhere in the South of the Kaliõga country. He threatened the rulers of Uttarapätha (probably North-Western India) in the next year, and also defeated the king of the Magadha people, probably on the banks of the Gangä. The name of the Magadha king is given in Prakrit as Bahasatimita which seems to stand for Sanskrit Bôihatsvätimitra rather than for Bôihaspatimitra as is usually supposed Bôihatsvätimitra, a contempory of Khäravela, seems to be the king of that name mentioned as the sister’s son of Äshäâhasena of the Pabhosä inscriptions54 and as the father of the queen of a Mathura king referred to the Mora inscription. He seems to have been related to the Mitra kings of Magadha whose records and coins have been found in the Gaya District. To avenge the humiliation of Kaliõga during the time of the Nandas and the Mauryas, Khäravela carried away much booty from Aõga and Magadha together with certain Jaina images originally taken away by a Nanda king from Kaliñga. In the same year, Khäravela also defeated the Päîâya king of the Far South.
As regards the extent of Khäravela’s empire, it included Udra, Utkala and Kaliõga. These regions were under his suzerainty, and were directly ruled. His capital was Kaliõganagara which may be identified with Mukhaliõgam or Tosali or Sisupägarh.55
As a ruler, Khäravela thought of the welfare of the subjects and spent large sums of money on their account. Himself a Past-master of music, he often entertained the people by arranging dancing and musical performances as well as festivities and many gatherings. He enlarged an irrigation canal originally excavated by a Nanda king three centuries ago. He ws also a great builder. On one occasion, the capital city of Kaliõga was devastated by stormy wind and the king had to rebuild numerous gates, walls and houses that had been damaged and to restore all the gardens. He built a magnificent place called called the Mahävijaya Prasäda.
Khäravela was a zealous patron of Jainism and he sent missionaries for its propagation. He convened a conference of learned Jainas on the Kumäiï Hill and consolidated the Aõgas or sacred tents of Jainism. As a devout Jaina, he excavated a number of caves in Kumärï hill to provide resident Arhats with accommodation and shelters for resting their bodies. He also constructed caves for the honoured recluses of established reputation as well as for Yatis, hermits and sages, hailing from a hundred directions. He also set up many pillars and shrine posts. Besides, the inscription of the chief wife of Khäravela records a dedication of cave in honour of Arahanta for the use of Jaina monks56.
Though Khäravela was a Jaina, he was like Aáoka tolerant in the matters of religion. The royal epithet Savapäsaîâa Püjaka’ (worshipper of all religious) attests beyond doubt that Khäravela observed the principle of religious, toleration. Similarly, the epithet ‘Savadeväyatana Saãkära Käraka’ (the repairer of all temples of the deities) has no meaning, if there were no worshippers among the people of Kaliõga of those deities at the temples dedicated to them.
Besides the Häthïgumphä inscription, Khäravela’s another inscription at Guîûupalli57 records the construction of steps by a lady disciple Süyananätha, who was residing in the caves58. The Jaina caves of the second century B.C. at Guîûupalli in the East Godävarï District prove that Jainism was very popular during the reign of the Chedis.
Besides there are other inscriptions which prove the popularity of Jainism in Orissa. One inscription59 discloses the name of either a predecessor or successor of khäravela viz. Vakadeva and like the former he is called the king of kaliõga and is represented as belonging to the Meghavähana family. This inscription shows that he too was a Jaina.
A few other inscriptions60 disclose the existence of a few Jaina devotees. One inscription61 yields the name of a prince called Vadhuka who too, was a Jaina votary. Some inscriptions62 probably represent the gifts of common people.
One inscription63 is the gift of the town-judge. Two inscriptions64 are also probably the gifts of important persons. Another inscription records the donation of a servant called Kusuma65.
Jainism also made considerable headway in Kaliõga under Mahäräja Kudepasi and Kumära Vadukha who as successors of Khäravela constructed the main wing of the lower storey and a side chamber of Mañchapuri cave respectively66.
After Khäravela, the history of Orissa enters into obscure phase for some centuries, and it is difficult to determine the condition of Jainism during that period. The same is the condition of Jainism in Päûaliputra. It seems that the Muruîâas were ruling over Orissa and Päûaliputra, and they were attracted by Jainism. A gold coin of the Mahäräja Räjädhiräja Dharmadhara of the third century A.D. has been found at Sisupälagarh in course of the excavation, and according to A.S. ALTEKAR67, he was probably a king of Muruîâa family who controlled Orissa in the post-Khäravela period. The Muruîâas were said to have been the followers of Jainism. But gradually after Khäravela, Buddhism became popular among the people over there. We know from the Däthä Vaãáa that Guhaáiva (C.400A.D.), the king of Kaliõga, was converted to Buddhism from Jainism and all the Nirgrantha Jainas, being driven out from Kaliõga took shelter in the court of Päîâu of Päûaliputra.
The Muruîâas of Päûaliputra were also influenced by Jainism during this period68. The Jaina tradition Bôihatkalpavôitti refers to a Maruîâa king of Päûaliputra who was a pious Jaina whose widowed sister had also embraced the same faith. The Pädalipta Prabandha relates the story as to how Pädalipta cured king Muruîâa of Päûaliputra of his terrible attack.
Viáäkha Muni, the immediate disciple of Bhadrabähu, travelled further in the South in the Chola and the Päîâya lands and propagated Jainism. The existence of Jainism in the region of Tamiladeáa is attested by the existence of ancient relics such as Jaina rock-cut caves and cavern and lithic records of the third century B.C. found here69. One of the rock-shelters at Pugalur (Karür in District Tiruchchirapali in Keral) has two inscriptions of the Second Century A.D. The Jaina sages may have commenced their preaching of the Jaina doctrine in Tamil land in the remote age.
The influence of Jainism is earlier than the infiltration of the Vedic or Brahmanical from the North India. This is suggested by the references to Jainism in the famous Tamil works which belong to the so called Saõ-gham Age (500 B.C. – 500 A.D.), viz Volkäppiyam, Kural Maîimekhali and Áilappadikäram. According to some scholars, the author of Tolkäppiyam was himself a Jaina; that Valluvar, the author of Kural, was likewise a follower of Arhat; that Ilangovaâigal, the author of Maîimekhalaã and the author of Näladiyar were both Jainas. The Kural contains wonderful references to Jainism.
The Jaina teachers like Kuîâakuîâa and Samantabhadra were responsible for the diffusion of Jainism in the South. It seems that the original name of Kuîâakuîâa was Padmanandi, but in course of time this name was pushed into the background and came to be distinguished more prominently on account of his unique personality by characterstic name of the place Kuîâkuîâa which was his domicile. Kuîâakuîde, identified with Kunakoîâla, is in the Gooty Taluk of the Anandpur District now in Andhra state. Kuîâakuîâa lived in the beginning of the Christian era. He became famous as the founder of the Mülasaãgha.
Samantabhadra, who is known to be the great leader of Jaina religion and thought through his works, lived in the second century A.D. He is known to have gone from place to place for the propagation of Jainism and attracted masses. According to the Áravaîa Belagolä inscription70 dated 1050 Áaka era, he beat the drum (literally invited the opponents to refute him) in Päûaliputra, Malwa, Sindh and Ûhakka country (in Punjab), and came to Käñchï in the South and thence to Kaôîäûaka. This statement seems to be based on old traditions.
- JAINISM IN MATHURA REGION (SÜRASENA JANAPADA) (C. 208 B.C. – 200 A.D.)
From the Jaina traditions, it is known that Jainism was prevalent at Mathura, capital of ancient Sürasena-Janapada from very early times. In the beginning, Mathura was governed by the Mitra rulers during the second century B.C. as known from the coins. Afterwards it was ruled over by the Scythian Chiefs, and then supplanted by the Kushänas. Kanishka was undoubtedly the greatest among the Kushäîa rulers. He came to power in 78 A.D. He ruled over a farflung empire with his capital at Peshawar. His vast empire stretched across the Hindu Kush from Bihar to Khurasan in the West and from Khotan in the Terim valley in the North to Konkan in the South. He was a great patron of art and literature. His rule ended about 101 A.D. He was succeeded by Vasishka who possibly ruled jointly with Huvishka.
Though the latter ruled from his capital Mathura, his rule extended in the North-West over Afghanistan. The last great king of the time in India was Väsudeva. The Kushäîa age is regarded as the golden period in Indian history. The Jaina art specimens are found in larger number in Mathura than Buddhist and Brahmanical. It seems that the Jainas contributed to the prosperity of the Mathura region.
According to ASIM KUMAR CHATTERJI, the Therävalï of the Kalpasütra mentioning Áakhäs belong to the third century B.C. but, it seems that they originated much later. They were redacted in cononical literature. The names of these Áakäs are found mentioned in some Jaina inscriptions discovered at Mathura, Ahich-Chhatra etc. in Uttar Pradesh.
The story of Pärávas visit to Mathura is recorded in the Mäyädhammakahäo71, and that of Mahävïra in the Vipäka Sütra72. Regarding the actual introduction of Jainism in the Mthura region, we have a story told in the Paumachariyam of Vimalasüri, a verse text composed about 530 years after the Nirvana of Mahävïra. According to this poem, Jaina religion was introduced in Mathura by the following seven Jaina saints73 Suramantra, Árïtilaka, Árïtilaka, Sarvasundara, Jayamantra, Anilalalita and Jayamitra. The above mentioned seven Jaina saints, we are told, were responsible for the introduction of Jainism not only in Mathura but also in Säketa.74 We are informed by Vimala Suri that there was a temple dedicated to Munisuvrata, the 20th Tïrthanõkara at the town of Säketa75. Apparently, this temple was built a few centuries before Vimala Suri. It is one of the earliest Jaina tmples of Northern India. The Jaina Rishis went to Mathura from Saketa76. Jainism travelled to Mathura from Ayodhyä.
The earliest Jaina inscription from Mathura is of 150 B.C. Jainism got a foothold there by the beginning of the second century B.C. if not earlier. The Jaina canonical writers believe Kosala to be homeland of most of their earlier Jaina Tïrthaõkaras. Some of the seven monks were the teachers of a few Jaina monks mentioned in the inscriptions.
The earliest Jaina inscription77 from Mathura has been assigned to the middle of the second century B.C. by BUHLER. The same inscription78 records dedication of an arch for the temple (Päsädo toraîa) by Sävaka Uttaradäsaka, son of Vachï and disciple of the ascetic Mahärakhita. Chronologically, the next Jaina inscription from Mathura is that which mentions a person calle Gopiputra and his wife Simiträ who belonged to Kauáika gotra79. The important expression of this inscription is the epithet ‘Pothayaáakakälaväla given to her husband Gopiputra ‘black’ serpent to the Poûhayas and Áakas. Poûhayas are mentioned along with the Áakas.
Some other Pre-Kushäîa Jaina inscriptions were discovered in Mathura but majority of them are undated. The most important is the inscription which mentions the Áaka Mahäkshatrapa Áoâäsa80, son of Mahäkshatrapa Rañjuvula. Both Rañjuvula and Áoâäsa are mentioned in the well known Mathura Lion capital inscription, and also the Mora well inscription81 which refers to the Vôishîi heores. Another inscription from Mathura82 records the setting up of a shrine (devikula) of the Arhat, a Äyägo Áabhä, a reservoir (Prapä) and stone slabs (Áiläpaûa in the Arhat temple (Arahatäyatana) of the Nigathas (Nirgranthas) by a few courtesans (Gaîikäs). Another pre-Kushäîa inscription83 records the setting up of a tablet of homage by Áivayaáa who has been described as the wife of a dancer called Phaguyaáa. Another inscription84 refers to Sihanädiaka, son of Vaîika and Koáikï, set up a tablet of homage (äyägapaûa) for the worship of Arhats.
Pre-Kushäîa record85 mentiones a Jaina monk called Jayasena and his female disciple Dharmaghosha. It further records the gift of a temple (Päsäda) by that lady. An inscription86 mention a Árävikä called Lahastinï. It records the dedication of an arch. It refers to the setting up of a tablet of homage (äyägapaûa) by one Arhat, the daughter-in-law of Bhadrayaáas and wife of Bhadranandi87. The another gift of another äyägapûa recorded in an inscription88 by a woman, the wife of one Mäthuraka (inhabitent of Mathura).
The Pre-Kushäîa record mentions Bhagavat Nemesa.89 The god nemesa who is sculptured as a goat-headed deity here is Hariîegamesï of the Jaina cononical texts. This god as we learn from the Kalpa Sütra transferred the embryo of Mahävïra from the womb of Devänadä to that of Triáalä.
A good number of dated Jaina inscriptions of the Kushäîa period are found from Mathura. The earliest of such inscriptions is that which is dated in the year four corresponding to 82 A.D. which falls within the reign of the great Kushuaîa king Kanishka. It mentions a monk called Pushyamitra90 and for the first time in the Jaina records of Mathura, the Gaîa, Kula and Áäkhä of a particular monk are mentioned. These Gaîas, Kulas and Áäkhäs originated after Bhadrabähu, who was a contemporary of Chandragupta Maurya. According to the present inscription, the monk Pushyamitra belonged to the Väraîa Gaîa, Hälakiya Kula and Vajanagarï-Áäkhä. The particular Áäkhä should be connected with the Vôiji country.
A number of Jaina image inscriptions bearing the date of the year 5 of the reign of Kanishka have been found. There are references to the Gaîa Koûiya and a preacher (Vächaka). It is the most popular Gaîa of Mathura. Majority of the inscriptions found from this region mention this particular Gaîa.
The second inscription91 of year 5 mentioning Devaputra Kanishka, records the gift of an image of Vardhamäna by a woman, female companion of Sethiniha. The particular monk belonged to Koûiya Gaîa, Bhamadäsika Kula and Uchenägarï Áäkhä. Uchenägarï Áäkhä was named after the fort of Unchanagar (Buland Shahr). The two other inscriptions92 of the same date refer to the same Gaîa, Kula and Áäkhä. The next inscription93 is dated in the year 7 and mentions Mahäräjädhiräja Devapäla Áähï Kanishka. The Gaîa also like Koliya and Väraîa originated in the second half of the third century B.C.
One inscription94 of the year 9 mentions ‘Mahäräja Kanishka. It records the dedication of an image by Vikaûä, Koliya Gaîa, Sthaniya Kula and Vairï Áäkhä. Another image inscription95 of the year 12 mentions that how carpenters jointly make a gift of an image. The next Jaina inscription96 dated 15 records the dedication of a four-fold (Sarvatobhadrikä) image of Bhagvat by Kumäramitä, wife of Áreshûhin Veni. The inscription97 of the 18 year refers to a Sarvatobhadrikä image and also mentions the Koliya Gaîa and Vaachchaliya Kula. Another inscription98 yields the name of Arishûanemi, the 22nd Tïrthaõkara. The image inscription99 of the year 19 refers to t Tïrthaõkara Áäntinätha. The Koliya Gaîa, Thäîiya Kula and Verï Áäkhä are also mentioned. The two inscriptions100 of the year 20, first dedicated of an image of Vardhamäna – Koliya Gaîa, Sthäniya Kula, the Verï Áakhä – the second inscription101 Koliya Gaîa, Brahmadasiya Kula and Uchenagarï Áäkhä.
There are two inscriptions of the date 22. The first102 records the dedication by Dharmasomä, the wife of caravan leader. The second inscription records the dedication of an image of Vardhamäna.103 There is an inscription of the year 25.104 The inscription of the year 28 mentions the king Väsishka, the successor of Kanishka.105 There are two inscriptions of the year 29. In the first inscription106, the name of the king Huvishka has been mentioned. Another refers to Mahäräja Devaputra Huvishka.107
There is an inscription108 of the year 30. The inscription109 of the year 32 refers to an unnamed perfumer. The inscription of the year 35 records the dedication of an image of Vardhamäna by the perfumer.
The Jaina elephant inscription110 of the year 38 is of great interest. It mentions Mahäräja Devaputra Huvishka and also records the setting up of elephant Naãdiviáäla by the Áreshûhin Rudradäsa for the Worship of Arhats. The Jaina inscriptions111 of the years 40, 44112, 45113, 47114, 49115, 50116 and 52117, are also concerned with donations.
The image inscription of the year 54 records the dedication of an image of Sarasvatï by the worker in metal118. The next inscription dated 60 mentions Mahäräjä, Räjätiräja Devaputra Huvishka. It records the dedication of an image or Ôishabha119. Two inscriptions120 are dated year 62, and the next is dated 74121. An interesting inscription122 of the year 77 records the dedication by one Devila at the temple of Dadhikarîa. The next inscription123 dated 80 mentions Mahäräja Väsudeva.
There are two inscriptions of the year 84. The first inscription124 mentions Mahäräja Räjätiräja Devaputra Áähï Väsudeva. It records the setting up of an image of Ôishabha by several women. The second inscription125 of the year 84 records the gift of an image of Vardhamäna. There are inscriptions of the years 86126, 87127, 90128 and 93129 respectively.
The inscription130 of the year 98 refers to rajña Väsudevasya and two monks Kshema and Devadatta who belonged to Udehikiya Gaîa, the Paridhäsika Kula and Petaputrikä Áäkhä.
A certain perfumer (Gandhika) called Varuîa is mentioned. A few inscriptions of the post-Kushäîa period have also been found from the Mathura region.
The Mathura inscriptions of the early period abundantly prove the tremendous popularity of Jainism from the second century B.C. onwards. From the Paumachariyam of Vimalasurï, it is known that Jaina saints preached Jainism both at Säketa and Mathura. These inscriptions of Mathura show that very few among Jaina devotees came from the so-called aristocratic families. No inscription from Mathura yields the name of any Brämaîa patron of Jainism. From the study of the Jaina inscription of Mathura, it is clear that the followers of Jainism were common people. They belonged to the business community.
R.D. BANERJI edited an interesting image – inscription131 which mentions a monk of Adhichchhatra (i.e. Ahich-chhatra) belonging to Petavämika Kula and Väjanagari Áäkhä. It is was taken by him to be an inscription from Rämnagar, ancient Ahich-chhatra. In any case, this inscription certainly proves that Ahichchhatra was not immune from Jaina influence in the Kushäîa period.
A council was summoned at Mathura under the presidentship of Ärya Skandila between the year 827 and 840 after the death of Mahävïra (i.e. 300-313 A.D. and the scriptural texts were brought into order. This is known as the Mathura version (Vächanä) of the Canons. The Jaina canonical writers believe Koáala to be the homeland seuerd of their earlier Tïrthaõkaras.
It seems that the cult of the sculpture of Jaina Tïrthaõkaras originated a century or two after the Nirväva of Mahävïra. However the traditional belief is that images of Trithaõkara Mahavir were made during his own liketime, which are known as Jeevitswam.The Jaina sculptures of these Jaina Tïrthaõkaras in large number were made from the second century B.C. The Nirväîa sites of most of the Jaina Tïrthaõkaras was in Magadha (Bihar) and of birth in Uttar Pradesh because Jainism was prosperous in these two regions during the second and the third century A.D.
Besides Mathura, Ahichchhatra in Pañchäla Janapada, Kauáämbï in Vatsa and Ayodhyä in Koáala became the Centres of Jainism. Not only traditions but even archaeological and epigraphical sources given some idea about the state of Jainism. Jainism made striking progress in Uttar Pradesh during the first and second century A.D.
From the Paumachariyam, it is known that there was a temple of Muni Suvratasvämin at Säketa. That Säketa was connected with Muni suvrata is proved by the evidence of Vividhatïrthakalpa132. This temple was probably built much earlier here.
That Pabhosä cave was sacred to the Jaina is proved by the discovery of Jaina images, and carvings from there133. Three standing Jaina images cut in rocks, are also to be found there134. There is little doubt that a number of Jaina monks lived in this cave, and most of them were residents of Kauáämbï. This city also yielded a number of Jaina antiquities of the Kushäîa period135. It was the birth place of Padamprabha, the sixth Tïrthaõkar. An inscription136 of the year 12 of king Áivamitra, which mentions three monks Baladäsa, Áivamitra and Áivapälita. The reference to the Kauáämbikä Áäkhä which has been mentioned in the Therävalï also directly proves the early popularity of Jainism in that region.
Árävastï remained associated with Jainism in very early times. It is said to be the birth place of the third Jaina Tïrthaõkara namely Saãibhavanätha. The Therävalï refers to the Árävastikä Áäkhä which originated during this period. The original temple of Sambhavanätha was probably built probably a few centuries before the birth of Christ. It was in ruins when Fahien visited this city. The ruined temple has yielded a good number of Jaina images including those of Ôishabhanatha, and Mahävïra137. The temple of Sambhavaratha at Árävastï was rebuilt several times, and finally it was destroyed during the reign of Alauddïn as we learn from Jinaprabha. That Árävastï afterwards became a famous centre of Digambara religion is evident from the Bôihatkathäkoáa of Harisheîa composed in 791 A.D.
Ahichchhatra (now known as Rämnagar in Bareli District, Uttar Pradesh), Capital of North Pañchäla, was an important seat of early Jaina religion. A number of Jaina images were unearthed at this site. Ahichchhatra remained sacred to Pärávanätha and there was a shrine dedicated to this Tïrthaõkara at this town. Sïlaõka, who flourished in the second half of the ninth century A.D. in the Ächäraõgavritti138, distinctly refers to this shrine. Jinaprabha Süri in his Vividhatïrthakalpa139 gives a graphic and beautiful description of the shrine dedicated to Pärávanätha. Áïlaõka informs that Päôáva was worshipped here as Dharaîïndra. But according to Jinaprabha140, the shrine of Dharaîïîdra was near the original shrine of Päráva. The epigraphic evidence fully supports the Jaina tradition regarding the existence of a shrine dedicated to Päráva at Ahichchhatra. A Kushäîa inscription141 found engraved at the pedestal of an image of Neminätha, bearing the date 50, refers to the shrine of divine Pärávanätha.
A number of Jaina inscriptions of the Kushäîa period have been discovered from this place and at least one of them refers to the city of Ahichchhatra142. The Kushäîa inscriptions from this city contain the following dates – 9, 18, 31, 44 and 74. Most of the Jaina sculptures from Ahichchhatra belong to the Mathura School of Art. The names of Gaîa, Kula and Áäkhä are usually like those of Mathura. The most common Gaîa is Koliya. The image discovered here are generally nude and they belonged to the Digambara temple of Ahichchhatra.
The Jaina inscriptions from Ahichchhatra disclose the names of the Árävakas and monks. The inscriptions with the years 9 (87 A.D.), 12 (90 A.D.) etc. mention carpenters by caste. All these evidences go far to prove the popularity of Jainism at Ahichchhatra in early days.
Another city Kämpilya was intimately connected with Jainism in pre-Gupta period. This place has been indentified by A. CUNNINGHAM143 with Kampil in Farukhabad District, Uttar-Pradesh. As known from the traditions contianed in Jaina canonical texts144, this place was visited by Päráva and Mahävïra. It is believed to be the birth place of the 13th Jaina Tïrthänkara Vimalanätha. It has been mentioned in the Bhagavatï145 and Aupapätikasütra146. The fourth Niîhava Äsamitra who flourished 220 years after Mahävïra’s death, i.e. in the third century B.C. was associated with this town. The Uttarädhyana147, old Jaina canonical text, refers to a certain king Sañjaya, who was a Jaina devotee. This place has yielded a few Jaina inscriptions.
Säõkäsya is identiied by A. CUNNINGHAM with Saõkissa in Farrukhabad District of Uttara Pradesh. The Therävalï of the Kalpasütra refers to the Saõkhäsiya Áäkhä under Chäraîa Gaîa i.e. Värîa Gaîa established during this period. This definitely proves Sänkäáya early association with Nirgrantha religion.
- AVANTI, MAHARASHTRA AND SAURASHTRAS
After the downfall of the Mauryas, India fell a victim to foreign invasions. The early advent of the Áakas into Western Malwa from Seistan Via Sind and Kathiawad, in the second century B.C is known from the Kaläkächärya Kathänaka. After establishing their hegemony in Sauräshûra Kathiawad, they may have penetrated into Malwa. On the basis of traditions, RAJBAI PANDEY148 suggests that there was a ruler named Vikramäditya in Avanti during the first century B.C. He defeated the Áakas who invaded India for the first time in the first century B.C. In order to commemorate this event, he inaugurated a new ear in 57 B.C. called Vikrama Saãvata. He was a great conqueror as well as a patron of art and literature. On the other hand, D.C. SIRCAR149 does not regard Vikramäditya as a historical figure because there is no contemporary evidence for his existence.
It seems that two families Kshataräta and Kärdamakas of the Western Kshatrapas ruled over Western-India as Kshatrapas of Kanishka-I and his successors. Afterwards, they became independent. Nahapäna of the Kshaharäta family became independent, and also conquered some territories. In about 124-125 A.D., he seems to have been defeated by the Sätavähana ruler Gautamïputra Sätakarîi. Chasûana, founder of the Kärdamaka family, established his capital at Ujjain. Chasûana under his grandson Rudradäman defeated the Sätavähana ruler Gautamïputra Sätakarîi and conquered several territories. Sometimes after 130-131 A.D., Rudradäman succeeded to Chasûana as Mahäkshatrapa. From the Junagarh inscription dated 150 A.D., he seems to be a powerful ruler and he claims to have extended his empire by his conquests. These Western Kshatrapa rulers ruled for about three hundred years, till their power was finally crushed by Chandragupta-II.
From the traditions recorded in the Jaina Nibandhas, we know that Jainism was associated with Sauräshûra and Avanti in the first century B.C. The great Jaina saints and scholars like Kälakächärya, lived and propagated Jainism in this area. At this time, it was a living and active religion, and it influenced the life of the people. Some of the Jaina sources150 claim Vikramäditya as a convert to Jainism. It is claimed that Siddhasena Diväkara, having caused the breaking of the phallic symbol Mahäkäla in Ujjayinï, and the appearance of the image of Pärávanätha, enlightened Vikramäditya. According to the Digambara Jaina Paûûävali151, Vikramäditya played as a child for eight years, for sixteen years, he performed sacrifices following a false doctrine; or forty years, he was devoted to the religion of the Jaina, and then reached heaven. It seems that the ancestral and personal religion of Vikramäditya was Áaivism, but he was also under the influence of Jainism and patronised it. The temple of Avanti Sukumäla was probably in existence at Ujjain during this period.
A short Brähmï inscription found in a cave near Pale in Poona District, Mahäräshtra may be assigned to the first century B.C.152 This inscription records that a certain Bhadaãta Idarakhita (Indrarakshita), probably together with some others, caused the cave and a cistern to be excavated. The expression Áähä Kähi Saha occurring towards the end of the record is difficult to interpret. The importance of the record lies in the expression ‘Namoarahaãtänaã‘ which commences the writing. It means obeisance to arahaãtas, and it may therefore be taken as Maõgalächaraîa. In no other record of the numerous inscriptions belonging to pre-Christian period from the caves of Western Mahäräshûra, does this expression find a place. This invocation occurs in a definitely Jaina context in this expression. This inscription proves the existence of Jainism in Maharashtra during the first century B.C.
According to Jaina traditions, Nahapäna, after his defeat at the hands of Gautamïputra Sätakarîi at Bhôigukachchha in 66 A.D., became a Jaina monk known as Bhütabali (C. 66-90 A.D.) after abdicating the throne. Though newly initiated, he might have been considered quite capable for the important task of reducting the canon. He was taught by an eminent Guru Dhara-Sena and was guided in his work by his senior colleague Pushapadanta. He completed the work of Shaûakhaîâägama in C. 75 A.D.153
The Junagarh inscription154 of the grandson of Jayadämana (either Dämayagada or Rudrasiãha-I) belonging to the second century A.D., makes a mention of men who had attained perfect knowledge (Kevalïjñäna), and were free from old age and death (Jarämaraîa). This inscription contains the earliest reference to Jaina monks claiming the attainment of perfect knowledge. This inscription is found in a cave which appears to have been used by the Jaina monks as is indicated by the peculiar Jaina symbols like the Svastika, Bhadräsana, Mïnayugala and others. Of nearly the same date may be the caves found at Dhank in which the sculptures of the Jaina Tirthaõkaras Ôishabha, Päráva, Mahävïra and others have been definitely identified. The Giranar inscription actually refers to the Samädhimaraîa of the Digambara Jaina saint Dharasena, the original author of the Digambara canon, who according to the tradition, resided at Chandraguptä of Girnar-whence the inscription was discovered155.
The Therävalï refers to a Áäkhä called Sauräshûrïya which originated from Ôishigupta, a disciple of Suhastin during this period. A small inscription156 from Giranar in Gujarat bearing the date 58 refers to Pañchänachandra Mürti. The Jaina antiquities discovered from Dhank and Bawa Pyara caves in Gujarat prove that these places were under the influence of Jainism in the early centuries of the Christian era157. The image of Ôishabha, Áänti and Päráva from Dhanka can easily be recognised. The typical Jain symbols from Bawa Pyara caves of Junagarh are generally assigned to the early centuries of the Christian era158.
Bhôigukachchha, one of the oldest parts of India, identified with modern Bharuch in Gujarat, was a popular Jaina centre in the early centuries of the Christian era. The Ävaáyakaniryukti composed in 200 A.D. refers to the defeat inflicted by Ávetämbara Jaina monk Jinadeva on the two Buddhist monks Bhadanta Mitra and Kuîäla at Bhôigukachchha. It is repeated in the Ävaáyaka Niryukti159. Two Jaina Vihäras namely Áakunikä Vihära and Müavasatï existed at Bhôigukachchha.
- THE ÁÄTAVÄHANAS
According to the Puranic traditions, as well as the coins, the Ändhra Sätavähana dynasty began with Simuka who destroyed the remains of the Áuõga power and killed the Käîva king Susarman in 27 B.C. Simuka Sätavähana is also known from the coins. Several Sätavähana rulers are known from the Puräîas but it is only the last nine rulers of the Puranic list whose historicity is supported from coins. It appears from the coins that the Sätavahanas came into prominence as independent rulers only after the fall of Áuîgas and Käîvas. Their capital was Pratishûhäna (Paiûhäna). It is known from the Nasik inscription that Gautamïputra Sätakarîi, one of the later Sätavuahana kings, defeated Mahapäna of the Kshaharäta dynasty and annexed his territory to his kingdom in 124 A.D. Vasishûhiputra Árï Pulumävï, successor of Gautamïputra Sätakarîi, married the daughter of Western Kshatrapa Rudradäman of the Kärdamaka family. Another notable Sätavähana ruler after Vasishûhiputra Pulumävï was Gautamïputra Yajña Árï Sätakarîi (C. 173-202 A.D.) who seems to have conquered back some of the lost territories from the Western Kshatrapas. The Sätavahana dynasty came to an end about 225 A.D.
The Jaina literature contains may references to the Sätavähana kings and to their partonage of Jainism.160 The first Sätavähana ruler Säta or Simuka also known from his coins became a convert to Jainism and built many temples at the capital. The fifty-two stalwart warriors, who were in the court of this king, built Jaina temples in the city after their respective names. The Jaina Ävaáyakasütra refers to Áälivähana of Paiûhäna as a devotee of Jinadeva161. The Ävaáyaka Chürîi of Haribhadra Süri describes how king Áälivähana conquered Barukachchha from Naravähana by inducing him to spend away his treasury on religious activities.162 According to the Prabhävakacharita, Árï Áätavähana built a Jaina Tïrtha where Pädaliptasüri set up his dhvaja163. Another tradition mentions that a certain Sätavähana whose capital was Pratishûhäna requested the Jaina pontiff, to postpone his discourse so that he also could attend it. This may be the same as the tradition that Ächärya Kälaka shifted the day of observance of Paryüáaîa festival at the request of the Sätavähanas.164
The Kälakächärya Kathänaka165 also contains traditions regarding the Sätavähanas. Pratishûhäna was ruled by the Sätavähanas, and Saint named Kälaka was their preceptor. Some Jaina works mention Áaktikumära, son of Áälivähana. This prince is identified with Áaktiárï, son of Sätakarîi and Näganikä, who is mentioned in the Nänäghäû inscription166. It is interesting to note that even later writers like Jinaprabhasür167 of the fourteenth century A.D. spoke about the Sätavähanas in appreciative terms which is only remniscent of the Sätavähanas patronage offered to Jainism.
- FOREIGN INVASIONS, GANDHÄRA JANAPADA AND OTHERS
The early Indo-Bactrian rulers first ruled over Bactria, but gradually, they extended their dominions in the East including Indian territory. The Áakäs occupied Bactria in about 135 B.C. by seizing power from Indo-Bactrians. Then, they gradually extended their supremacy over the Northern and the Western regions of Ancient India by ending Indo-Bactrian rule. After the Indo-Scythians and the Indo-Parthians, the Kushäîas established their supremacy in India. After the disintegration of the Mauryan empire, most of the tribes settled in Punjab, but others moved to Rajasthan and elsewhere, probably under the pressure of foreign invaders.
Jainism penetrated in Gandhära (North-West India) in the early centuries of the Christian era. The Jaina literary tradition168 associates Tamila with Bähubali, a son fo Ôishabha who was believed to be a Jaina Sädhu. We further learn from the Ävaáyakaniryukti169, and the Ävaáyakachürîi170 that Bähubali had installed a Jewelled Dharmachakra at Taxila. The association of Buahubali with Taxila is also mentioned in the Vividhatïrthankalpa171 of jinaprabha.
Takshaáilä was associated with Jainism from early times. JOHN MARSHALL, who first carried out systematic excavation at Takshaálilä, observes Taxila must have been adorned by a vast number of Jaina edifices, some of which were no doubt of considerable magnificence172. According to JOHN MARSHALL, the shrines of blocks F and G in the excavated area of Sirkap were probably Jaina. Since Takshaáilä was one of the greatest cities of ancient India, it is but natural that the Jaina should endeavour to extend the sphere of their indluence in that city. Manadeva, an author of mird century A.D., is reputed to have composed a Áantistava for the resporation of peace and prosperity in the city of Tanila afflicted by the cruel onslaughts of the Turushkars. This fact is also curroborated by archacological discirerias173.
The ancient city of Kapisi identified with Opian in Afghanistan by A. CUNNINCHAM174 had a sizeable Jaina population. Siãhapura was another Jaina centre from early times. It is identified by STEIN175 and A. CUNNINGHAM176 with modern ketas in the Sät Range (Punjab, Pakistan). According to the traditions contained in Jaina canonical texts, Sïhapura (i.e. Siãhapura) was the birth place of Áreyäãsa, the eleventh Tïrthaõkara.
STEIN was successful in discovering a great number of Jaina antiquities from Siãhapura. This scholar opines that the Jaina sculptures of Siãhapura are of better execution than those of Ellora and Ankai. He further informs that even at the time of his visit, this place was looked upon as a sacred by the Jainas177. The Varäõgacharita178 (ed. by A.N. UPADHYE), a work of the seventh century A.D. refers to Siãhapura as sacred to Áreyäãáa.
That Jainism reached Punjab during this period is indirectly proved by the fact that the Theräval refers to the Audambarikä Áäkhä which originated from Rohaîa during this period. This Audambara Áäkhä is linked with the Audambaras, a well-known Punjab tribe.
The Majhamikä branch of the Jaina Saãgha, as mentioned in the Sthivälï of the Kalpasütra179, became famous after the name of this place. Priyagrantha, the second pupil of Susthita Supratibudhe, founded this branch probably in the second century B.C. A Kushäîa inscription in the second century A.D. mentioning Mädhyamikä Áäkhä has been found at Mathura180. This indicates that the Árävakas of Madhyamikä might have migrated to Mathura for their settlement. An inscription of the third or second century B.C., which states that some thing was constructed for the welfare of all living beings, has been discovered at this place181. It may be either of the Jainas or the Buddhists.
- THE GUPTAS (C. 300-C.500)
Among the early Gupta rulers, Chandragupta (C. 311 A.D. – 50) was the powerful ruler because he assumed imperial title of Mahäräjädhiräja, and it seems that he started the golden coinage. He also owed his imperial status by matrimonial alliance with the Lichchhavïs. Chandraguptas-I’s son Samudragupta (C. 350-70 A.D.), an extensive conquerov, made his influence felt over the rulers of the South-eastern coast as well as over the rulers beyond his frontiers in the North-West. Samudragupta’s son Chandragupta-II (C.376-414 A.D.) extended still further the boundaries of his empire, by annexing Gujrat and Kathiawad to his empire by defeating the Áakas. Chandragupta II’s son Kumäragupta-I (C.415-50 A.D.), who is known to have performed the Aávamedha sacrifice, must have extended the empire by his new conquests.
Skandagupta (455-67 A.D.), son of Kumäragupta-I, was also engaged in military affairs. There was a serious invasion of the Hüîas during his time and a deadly conflict took place. He was, however, able to drive back the invasion. Soon after Skandagupta, the empire began to decline. By the time of Buddhagupta (C.495-500), the Western part of the empire was lost, and after him, it remained confined to Bihar, Bengal and some parts of Orissa, and ultimately it went into oblivion by 543 A.D. The Hüîas became very powerful, and they invaded India under Toramäîa and Mihirakula. The Later Guptas (C.500-C.605 A.D.) ruled over after the Imperial Guptas. Rämagupta is known to have issued local coins, and an inscription with the title Mahäräjädhiräja was discovered at Vidisa. Some scholars regard him as the ruler of the Imperial Gupta dynasty while others a local ruler of the fifth century A.D. governing Vidiáä.
Jainism was not prosperous during the Gupta period in the North for want of kingly support. It is further confirmed by absence of any reference to it in the description of the Chinese traveller Fahien. But there are indications that it continued as indicated by a couple of inscriptions of the Gupta period. Literary evidences also prove the existence of Jainism.
Though Gupta rulers were followers of Vaishnavism, they were tolerant towards Jainism. The Udayagiri cave182 inscription of 425-26 A.D. corresponding to the reign of Kumäragupta records the installation of an image of the Tïrthaõkara Pärávanätha by Áankara, the disciple of saint Goáarman, who was the ornament of the image of Ächärya Bhadra. This inscription was found inside the cave which may have been a Jaina temple during the Gupta period. It seems that the region round Vidiáä was a stronghold of Jainism. Some remains of the Gupta period have been discovered at some sites in Madhya Pradesh. At Sirpahari, a hill near Nachna, is found a group of Jaina sculptures of the Gupta age. Two rock-cut reliefs at Gwalior, one showing Tïrthaõkara standing in meditation (Käyotasargamudrä) and the other representing a Jina meditating in the Padmäsana posture, also seem to be of the Gupta period183.
An inscription184 of 433 A.D. of Mathura during the reign of Kumärapäla I, records that an image was set up by Sämäâhyä, the daughter of Bhaûûibhava and the house-wife of the ferryman, Grahamitrapilat at command of Dattilächärya, of the Koliya Gaîa and the Vidyädharï Áäkhä. A disciple of this monk named Sämäâhya built an image (Pratimä) under the command of the said Guru. The Vidyädharï Áäkhä referred to here, is found mentioned in the Theravälï of the Kalpasütra as Vijjäharï. Another inscription185 from Mathura dated in the year 299 of an unknown era refers to the erection of an image of Mahävïra and a temple (devakula) by Okhä, Sarika and Áivadinä.
The next important inscription deted 461 A.D. belonging to the tranquil reign of Skandagupta was discovered at Kahum 69 km. from Gorakhpur. This place was known as Kakubha. From this inscription, it is known that a person named Madra, who traced his descent from one Somila and who had equal respect for dvija, guru and Yati, established the stone pillar of five Adikôitris Tïrthaõkaras, (probably Ädinätha, Áäntinätha, Neminätha, Pärávanätha and Mahävïra)186. This inscription appears to be a Digambara Jaina record. Besides, there are remains of the Jaina temples and shrines in the neighbourhood of this inscription.
A copper plate inscription187 of the Gupta year 159 (478 A.D.) from Paharpur, Bangladesh is one of the most interesting Jaina records of the Gupta period. This inscription records an endowment for the worship of Arhats to a Vihära in Vaûagohälï which was presided over by the disciples of Nirgrantha preceptor Guhanandin, belonging to the Pañchastüpa Section (Nikäya) of Benaras. Vaûa-Gohälï may be the Goälbhiûä. This grant records that a Brähmaîa and his wife deposited three dinäras with the city council to secure one Kulaväpa and four Droîaväpas of land situated at four different villages all lying in the Dakshiîäãáaka Vïthi and Nägiratta Maîâala for the maintenance of worship with sandal, incense, flowers, lamps etc. The Jaina Vihära at Vaûa-Gohälï mentioned in this inscription must have stood at the original site of the present temple at Pahärpur. The donation of a Brähmaîa couple for the worship of Jinas, as recorded here, is noteworthy for it bespeaks of the religious toleration of the people. The unspecified reigning sovereign with the title Paramabhaûûäraka mentioned in the inscription dated 478 A.D. was Buddhagupta.
An inscription181 of early Gupta character, near Son Bhandar cave at Räjgôiha, refers to a Jaina Muni called Vaïradeva who is given the epithet Ächäryaratna. The lower half of a small naked Jaina image still can be seen cut-out of the rock close to the inscription. Another small mutilated inscription189 on a Neminätha figure in the early Gupta script has been found from Rajgir. This inscription refers to Mahäräjädhiraja Chandra who may be either Chandragupta-I or Chandragupt-II. This image of Neminätha in black basalt is one of the earliest Jaina images of the Gupta period. The Gupta inscription190 engraved on the pillar at Ahichchhatra mentions Ächärya Indranandin and also refers to the temple of Päráva.
Three stone images of Jaina Tïrthaõkaras of the fourth of fifth century A.D. were discovered at Vidiáä. From the inscriptions191 of these imgaes, it is clear that they were made by Mahäräjädhiräja Rämagupta at the preaching of Chelukshamaîa, son of Gokyäntï, and pupil of Ächärya Sarppasena Kshamaîa, who was the grand pupil of the Jaina teacher Kshamächärya. It seems that Rämagupta, a local ruler of Vidiáä region, a follower of Jainism installed Jaina images.
The evidence192 of the Kuvalayamälä composed by Uddyotanasüri in 778 A.D. shows that King Toramäîa, who ruled at the town of Pavvaiyä situated on the bank of Chandrabhägä (Chenab) in the Uttaräpatha, was a disciple of Harigupta, born in the Gupta family. We are further told that the city could boast of a great number of scholars, apparently Jaina Sädhus. This city cannot be properly identified but it was certainly in Punjab. Harigupta is described as a scion of the Gupta family. This Harigupta is further described as the Guru of Mahäkavi Devagupta who is apparently mentioned also in the Mahaniáïtha193. The Mahäniáïtha194 refers to one Ravi Gupta who should be placed in the fifth century. The Guru of Agastyasiãha, the author of the Daáavaikälikachürîi was Ôishi Gupta195 who belonged to Koliya Gaîa and Verasämi Áäkhä196. Pavvaiya, the capital of Tormäîa, was a great centre of Jainism in the Gupta period. The Kuvalayamälä mentions that the grand-disciple of Devagupta namely Yajñadatta, who evidently flourished around 600 A.D., adorned the Gurjaradeáa with Jaina temples.
In the Gupta period. Gujarat was an important centre of Jainism. An earlier council was summoned under Nägärjuna at Valabhi in the fourth century A.D. in order to bring the scriptures in order. Lastly, the council of Valabhï met under Devardhi Gaîin Kshamäáramaîa (Vïra 980-513 A.D.) and the Jaina canon was written down in book form. This is known as Valabhï version (Vächanä) of the canons. In spite of the absence of royal patronage, Jainism continued to prosper in Gujarat. An old manuscript of the Viáeshävaáyakabhäshya197 of Jinabhadragaîi discovered in the Jaisalmer Bhaîâära informs that this work was conposed at Valabhï in 609 A.D. during the reign of Áiläditya.
There are other evidences to show that Jainism was in a flourishing condition during the reign of the Maitraka-Valabhï kings. A few images198 have recently been discovered from the ruins of Valabhï which have been assigned to the sixth century A.D. It has also been suggested199 that Jinabhardra Vächanächärya mentioned in the sixth century image inscription from Akota (Gujarat) is to be identified with Jinabhadragaîi, the famous Jaina Scholar, who was probably a native of Valabhï.
The Vividhatïrthankalpa200 refers to the fact that there was a shrine dedicated to Chandraprabha at Valabhï before the destruction by the Muslims in 787 A.D.
In the non-Jaina texts of the Gupta period, there are frequent references to the Jainas. Bhäsa201, Subandhu202, and Bäîa203 frequently refer to the Jainas. It appears from Subandhu’s Väsavadattä that the Digambara Jainas were looked upon as the bitterest rivals of Hindu philosophers. In the Kädambarï, Bäîa openly praises the Jainas for their magnanimity. There are references to the Jainas in the Bhägavata204 Brahamäîâa205 etc. Varähamihira refers to the mode of fashioning of Jaina image in the Bôihat Saãhitä206. The Vasudevahiîâï is surely a product of the Gupta period207. Daõâin in the Daáakumäracharita also refers to Jainism.
- POST GUPTA PERIOD
There is a paucity of Jaina records of the post-Gupta period. It seems that Jainism continued to exist without any further progress. The Chinese pilgrim Yuan Chwang, who came to India in the second quarter of the seventh century A.D., gives an account of Buddhism along with that Jainism. Jainism was prevalent in pockets in different parts of the country. Some ruling chiefs of Gujarat were followers of Jainism.
- ACCOUNT OF YUAN CHWANGS
From the account of Yuan Chwang’s visit in the second quarter of the seventy century A.D., it is clear that Jainism was prevalent at the different sites such as Käpiáï208, Siãhapura209 Räjagôiha210, Puîâravardhana211 and Samataûa212. It appears from the account of the Chinese pilgrim that the Digambara Jainas were more popular in India than the Ávetämbaras in his days. The only reference to the Ávetämbaras that we get in his narrative is in connection with the description of Siãhapura. It appears that during the time of Yuan Chawang’s visit, there was large Jaina centre during his visit. He saw many Digamaras on the Vipula mountain practising austerities incessantly. The account of Yuan Chwang shows that great popularity of Jainism in Puîâravardhana and Samataûa, the two provinces of ancient Bengal. At both those places, the pilgrim noticed numerous Digambaras. The Pabhasä cave, near Kauáämbï was visited by Yuan Chwang213 in the seventh century A.D.214. Yuan Chwang215 noticed numerous Digambaras and shrines in the three Southern States of India, namely Chola, Draviâa and Mo-lo-ku-ta (Malakuûa). At the time of Yuan Chwang’s visit (629-645 A.D.), the cities of Päûalïputra and Vaiáäli were in ruins. The followers of the Nirgranthas were numerous216. Masarh, a village near Arah was visited by Yuan Chwang, who has refered to the place as Mahasolo and mentions in his account that he found there a temple of Pärávanätha with eight Jaina images217.
From the well known Jaina temple-complex at Sonagiri (Datia District, Madhya Pradesh) has been discovered an epigraph of the seventh century A.D. which directly proves the great antiquity of the Jaina centre. It refers to a Jaina devotee called Vadäka who was the son of Singhadeva.
Jainism began to develop round about the region of Ujjain during this period. The Paûûävalïs218 of the Mülasaãgha tell that the first twenty-six pontificates took place in Bhedalapura. According to the four Pattavalis219, Bhadalapura is in Malwa, while the fifth Paûûävalï tells us more corrcetly, that it was in the South. After that, the twenty-seventh pontiff transferred his seat from Bhadalapura to Ujjain, as is evident from all the Paûûävalïs. From Ujjain, Maghachandra II, the fifty-third pontiff, shifted his seat to Baran in Kotah District in 1083 A.D. From Sarasvatï Gachchha and Balätkära Gaîa originated, and they were mentioned along with Mülasaãgha220. Thus, it is clear that Jainism must have prospered by the efforts of those Jaina saints. Siãhanandi is also known as the Bhaûûäraka of Malwa221.
The region of Ujjain at this time became such a great centre of Jainism that people took it Vaiáälï from its ancient name Viáälä. Jaina authors began to associate the incidents of the life of Mahävïra with Ujjain. Vardhamänapura now known as Badnawar was founded after the name of Vardhamäna.
In the temple of Vasantagadh, in Sirohi District, a pair of brass images of Ôishabhadeva has been found underground on which is incised an inscription222 of 687 A.D. This inscription mentions that one Droîoraka Yaáodeva had the Jaina image built by the architect Áivanäga. This is the earliest Jaina image so far discovered in Rajasthan.
From Orissa, a number of Jaina inscriptions, belonging to this period have been found. The earliest of such inscriptions is that of a Sailodbhava grant, belonging to the seventh century A.D. This inscription223 mentions one Jaina Muni called Prabhuddhachandra and his Guru Arahadächärya Näsichandra. This proves the existence of Jainism in Orissa in the seventh century A.D. There is another seventh century inscription224 found from Ratnagiri hills (Cuttack-District) which is a Jaina record. It refers to the installation of Jaina images and points to the existence of the early Jaina establishment on these hills.
Jainism developed in Gujarat during the post-Gupta period. The great city of Valabhï was an important centre of Jainism. The city was well known for its celebrated shrine of Chandraprabha. There was also a famous temple at this great twon, dedicated to Mahävïra. Another town of Gujarat which was associated with Jainism was Bhôigukachchha. The great Áakunika Vihära of this town was one of the greatest and most celebrated Jaina shrines of Western-India. Several Jaina texts225 refer to this Vihära which was apparently built in the Gupta period. The Vyavahärabhäsya226 describes Bhôigukachchha as a place sacred to the Jainas.
The Chäpas of Gujarat were sincere patrons of Jainism. According to the Jaina writers, Vanaräja of Pañchäsara, who later founded the city of Aîahilapura, was the earliest prince of this dynasty. One Chäpa king Vyäghramukha was another prince of this dynasty ruled around 628 A.D. Vanaräja was helped by his Jaina Guru Áïlaguîa-Süri in his attempt to carve out an independent kingdom in 746 A.D. Vanaräja became a patron of Jainism, and a number of Jaina shrines were founded during his reign in his kingdom. On the suggestion of Áïlagaîa Süri, he constructed the temple of Pañchäsara in which he helped the image of Pärávanäth227. He also invited the Jaina merchants from Árïmäla and other places of Marudharadeáa to settle in Päûûana, by affording to them many facilities.228
Jainism spread in Rajasthan during the eighth century A.D. by the efforts of the great scholar named Haribhadra Süri who was the Guru of king Jitari of Chitor. In his work, Samaraich Chakahä,229 he throws some light on the condition of Jainism. We are told how was the minister caused presents to be distributed and a festival to be celebrated in the Jaina temple in honour of the forthcoming ordination of his son, Sikhin. When the day fixed for it came round, he was carried in a palanquin with great pomp. The rivalry between Jainism and Buddhism was very keen in his time. Haribhadra Süri wrote the Dhurtäkhyäna230, in the eighth century. Vïrasena learnt the Shaûkhaõâägama and the Kashayäpräbhôita from Elächärya at Chitor, and after that he wrote the Dhavlä and a protion of the Jayadhavalä in the ninth century in the South231. The caves on Patharaghati hill were the abodes of the Jaina ascetics in the sixth and the seventh centuries. There are paintings of the seventh and eighth centuries.232 There are rock-cut sculptures on the Kuluha hill and pair of foot-prints cut into the rock of the Jaina Tïrthaõkaras on the top of Akaslochana hill in Hazaribagh District. The inscriptions found on the hill, however show that some of the ruins would date about seventh or eighth century A.D.233. There are evidences to prove that Jinasena, author of the Padmapuräîa, lived in Bhadripura (Bhandil), Päûaliputra and Champä234.
A number of ancient antiquities identified to be of the sixth century to ninth century A.D. have been excavated from Chausa in Buxar Sub-division. These antiquities include about twenty images of Jaina Tïrthaõkaras – Neminätha, Ôishabhanätha and others, and a Dharma Chakra. These relics are now preserved in the Museum of Patna235.
- RECORD OF THE MUSLIM VISITORS ABOUT JAINISM IN WESTERN INDIA
Some information about Jainism is available in the writings of the Muslim travellers who visited Western India in about the eighth or ninth century A.D. Unfortunately, they were not enlightened observers and suffered from a confusion and ascribed evey image, temple and sage to Buddhism which is not necessarily correct. The image of Buddha became so popular with them that even the temple of the Sun was believed to be that of Buddha by Biladuri236. Even the European scholars who translated their works, could not distinguish between Jainism and Buddhism.
Abu Zaidul writes : “In India, there are persons who in accordance with their professions wander in the woods and mountains and rarely communicated with the rest of mankind. Sometimes, they have nothing to eat but herbs and fruits of the forest. Some of them go about naked, others stand naked with the face turned to the Sun, having nothing on but panther’s skin. In my travels, I was a man in the position I have described, sixteen years afterwards, I turned to that country and found him in the same posture. What astonished me was that he was not melted by the heat of the Sun237. Nakedness is the creed found among the Jainas though it was not unknown among the Hindus. Most probably, some of them were Jaina saints.
Asaral Bilad, an author of the 13th century, was not a traveller but he compiled his work from the writings of the earlier travellers. He on the information derived from Misorbin Muhalhil, author of Ajaibuldan, writes that in the city named Saimur, near Sindhu, there lived infidels who do not slaughter animals nor do they eat flesh, fish or eggs, but there are persons who eat animals that have fallen precipices or that been gored to death but they do not eat at once that have died a natural death.238 This type of information indicates that there were two kinds of people namely Buddhists and Jainas.
DECCAN (C. 300-600 A.D.)
Jainism received great royal support in the South from the various ruling dynasties of the Deccan during this period. At this time, Jainism was more popular in the Southern states than in those of the North. Many royal families of the Deccan, their ministers and small chieftains showed decided inclination towards Jainism. Although in some cases, it is difficult to prove that the rulers were actual converts to this faith, there is ample evidence to show that they were quite liberal in their help and patronage, which accounts for much of the prosperity of Jainism in this part of the country.
- THE GAÕGAS OF TALKAD
The Gaõgas established their rule in Southern Karîäûaka around the fourth century A.D. They are called Western Gaõgas or Gangas of Mysore. Their earliest capital was located at Kolar, but later on it was transferred to Talkäd. One of the notable early Ganga kings was Durvinita. Another great Gaõga monarch was Árïpurusa (C. 726-76 A.D.). During the eighth and ninth centuries A.D., the Gaõgas were greatly harassed by the aggressive activities of the Eastern Chälukyas of Veõgi, the Rashûrakütas of Malkhed and other neighbours.
The Gaõga kings of Mysore were intimately associatded with Jainism239. A later tradition makes Konguîivarma, (C. 350-400 A.D.) the founder of the Gaõga family, a disciple of a Jaina teacher, called Siãhanandina, and suggests that all his successors were followers of the faith. A later ruler, Annita (C. 500-540 A.D.) is said to have been brought up by a Jaina sage called Vijayakïrti. At the preaching of Paramäharta Vijayakïrti240, he donated a village to the Jaina temple of Uranüra, and to the another temple one-fourth of the government custom. Another inscription241 records the endowment of land to the Jaina temple of Yävanika Saãgha by the king Avinita. The famour Digambara author Püjyapäda is associated with another king of this family, called Durvinita (C. 570-600 A.D.) The inscriptions of such Gaõga kings as Avinita, Áivamära (670-713 A.D.) and Árïpurusha (C. 725-788 A.D.) record gifts to Jaina monks and building of Jaina temples, along with other giving donations to Brahmanic temples whatever be the personal religion of these rulers, their patronage to Jainism is quite apparent. An inscription242 of the seventh century A.D. of the time Áivamära records the endowment of land by the king and others. The inscription243 of the eighth century A.D. mentions donation of two villages to a temple by some officials.
- THE KADAMBAS (C. 340-600 A.D.)
The Kadambas established their kingdom in Northern Karîätaka in the fourth century A.D. after defeating the early Pallavas. Mayüraáarman founded this kingdom with Vaijayantï or Banaväsï as the capital. Among the successors of Mayüraáarman Käkustha-Varman was important. During his reign, the Kadamba dominion and influence grew considerably. The next noteworthy Kadamba king was Ravi Varman, who made Halsï (Belgaum District) his capital, and successfully fought against the Gaõgas and the Pallavas. The rise of the Chälukyas of Vätäpi, then, dealt a severe blow to the ambitions of the Kadambas.
The Kadamba rulers of Vijayanti or Banaväsï are often regarded as of Jaina persuasion. They showed unusual favour towards Jainism, probably the religion of a large section of their subjects. There are several records of these rulers giving donations to Jaina monks, erecting Jaina temples and giving other help to the different sections of the Jaina community. These records of the Kadamba rulers show that the Jaina community was flourishing under their benevolent patronage and that many high officials and rich land-lords of the country were devout followers of this religion. Building temples, feeding groups of monks, worship of the Jaina images and celebration of festivals formed the time-honoured mode of showing religious zeal.
The first king of this dynasty, who definitely showed special favour for the Jainas, was Käkusthavarman whose Halsigrant (Belgaum District, Karnataka) is dated in the 80th year (G.E., 400 A.D.) of the Paûûabndha of his successor Mayüraáarman244. Some grant was issued from Paläsikä (Halsi) by Käkusthavarman who is represented as the Yuvaräja of the Kadambas. By this grant, a field in the village called Kheûagräma,which belonged to the holy Arhats, was given to the general Árutakïrti as a reward for saving the prince.245 Käkusthavarman’s son was Áäntivarma whose son was Mrigeáva Varma. Several grants of Mrigeáva Varmä are connected with the Jaina religion. It the third year of his reign, he donated the land for Abhisheka and worship.246 In the fourth year of his reign, he made a gift of a village named Kälavaõga.247 It was divided in three equal portions; the first was meant for the temple of Jinendra. The second portion was concerned with the Saãgha of the Ávetämbaras and the third for the use of the Nirgrantha-Mahäsramaîas. It is evident from this inscription that the Jinendra temple mentioned here, was the joint property of the monks of both the sections. In the eighth year of his reign, he gave to the holy Arhats, thirty-three nivartanas of land for the Yäpanïyas, Nirgranthas and Kürchakas.248
Mrigeávavarma had three sons namely Ravivarma, Bhänuvarmä and Áivaratha. His successor Ravivarmä ruled from 478 to 513 A.D., According to the inscription249, Jayakïrti, grandson of Senäpati Árutakïrti by the order of Ravivarmä donated ancestral Kheûaka village to Kumäradatta and other main Ächäryas of the Yäpanïya Saãgha for the welfare of his parents. According to the second inscription250, Damakirti, son of Árutakirti, donated four Nivartanal and after taking it from his master Ravivarmä for the welfare of his mother. As known from the third inscription251, in the eleventh year of Ravivarmä’s reign, his younger brother Bhänuvarmä after acquiring fifteen Nivartana land from Paîâara Bhojaka, donated it to Jinendra. The reigning period of Ravivarmä is from 418 to 513 A.D.
The successor of Ravivarmä was his son Harivarmä. Two inscriptions of his reign are available. The first inscription records the grant of the village of Vasuntaväûaka, in the District of Suddikundüra, to a Jaina Sect, by Harivarmä in the fourth year of his reign252. Harivarma, in the fourth year of his reign at the preaching of Áivaratha donated the village Vasantuväûaka for the worship and alms to the Saãgha in the temple built by Mrigeáa, son of Senäpäti Siãha. Chandrakshänta was made head of the Varisheîächärya Saãgha by the Kürchakes253. As known from another inscription254 at the request of Sendraka king Bhanuvarmä, that ruler donated the village Bharade for the second Áramaîa Saãgha named Ahirishûha, Harivarmä ruled over 513 A.D. to 534 A.D.
There is one more branch of the Kadambas who revolted against the main branch255. One inscription belonged to the time of Krisêavarmä256. There is mention of Yuvaräja (prince) named Pritaõgaya Devaräja mentioned in the inscription. He was the ruler of Triparvata, and was follower of Jainism. He donated some land to the Yäpanïya Saãgha for the worship, repairs etc. of the temple. The second inscription records the grant of a village Harivarmä, in the fifth year of his reign, at the request of king Bhänuáakti of the family of the Sendrakas257.
- WESTERN CHÄLUKYAS OF VÄÛÄPI (MODERN BADAMI)
The Chälukya power had a modest beginning under Jayasiãha and his son Raîaräga. The latter’s successor, Pulakeáin I, who came to the throne about the middle of the sixth century A.D. was, however, a figure of some note. He made Vätäpi his capital. The next member of the dynasty was Kïrtivarman. He defeated the Mauryas of North Konkan as well as the Kadambas of Banaväsï (North Kanära) and the Nalas. When Kïrtivarman died, his younger brother Maõgalaräja or Maõgaleeaa is said to have taken Revatïdvïpa (Modern Reâi, Ratnagiri District) and subjugated the Kalchuris of Northern Dekkan. Pulakáin II (620-642 A.D.) found himself in possession of a big kingdom. After restoring order in his territories, he launched conquests which brought the Kadambas, the Gaõgas of South Mysore, the Mauryas of Konkan, the Läûas, the Mälavas and the Gurjaras under his control. He also defeated the Pallava ruler, Mahendravarman, in the South and entered into friendly relations with the kingdom of the far Southern Kingdoms for a whole century. Though they established their authority over them in the end, they had to bow before the rising power of the Räshûrakütas by the middle of the eighth century A.D.
The followers of Jainism enjoyed the respectable position under the the Western Chälukyas who were of generous outlook. During the reign of Raîaräga, his Saîâraka feudatory named Durgaáakti donated the land to the famous Áankhä Jinalaya of Puligere258. The grant259 dated 489-90 A.D. of the reign of Pulakeáin I mentions a feudatory of his Sämiyära of the Rundranila-Saindraka family who was his Governor for the Kuhuîâi, District. It then purports to record that Sämiyära built a Jaina temple at the city of Alaktakanagars, which was the chief town of a circle of seven hundred villages in that District, and, with the permission of the king, made grants of certain lands and villages to the temple on the occasion of an eclipse of moon.
The inscription260 of the early Chälukya king Kïrttivarmä-I engraved on a stone tablet at the village of Äâur records the grant of a field for the dänaáälä or hall for the distribution of charity and other puroses, of a Jinälaya or Jaina tempe which had been built by one of the Guamuîâas or village headman. This inscription also records that, while Kirttivarmä was reigning as supreme sovereign, and while a certain king Sind was governing the city of Päîâipura, Doîagämuîâa and Elagämuîâa and others, with the permission of king Mädhavatti, gave to the temple of Jinendra, for the purpose of providing the oblation, unbroken rice, perfumes, flowers etc., eight mattals of rice land, by the royal measure, to the west of the village of Karmagalür. The inscription is not dated but the style of characters leaves no doubt that it belonged to the early Chälukya king Kïrttivarmä I.
Kirttivarman I who ruled up to 597 A.D. was succeeded by his brother Maõgaleáa Recently, a new inscription261 of his reign has been discovered which proves the popularity of the Jaina religion during his time. The inscription is undated but refers to Maõgalaraja, who is no other than Maõgaleáa of the Badami branch and it should therefore be assigned to C. 600 A.D. It records a grant of land to a Jaina monastery by the Sendraka chief Raviáakti of Kannaáakti. From the Aihole inscription262 dated 634 A.D. written by Ravikïrtti, it is known that with the generous support of his patron Pulikeáin-II of Badami, Ravikïrtti founded a Jaina shrine. The poet Ravikïrtti was not only a sincere and dedicated Jaina, but also one of the celebrated men of letters of his time. A Jaina cave at Badami and another at Ahihole belong to the early Chälukya period. Ayaîa Mahädevï, the queen of Kubja Vishîu Vardhana, junior brother of Pulikeáin-II, made the gift of the village for the benefit of a Jaina tample. King Sähasatuõga, the patron of Akalaõka, appears to have been identified with the Western Chälukya emperor Vikramäditya-I (642-81 A.D.), and successor of Pulakeáin-II.
There are also a number of grants professing to be from Chälukya kings like Vinayäditya, Vijayäditya and Vikramäditya giving gifts to Jaina teachers and for the building of temples. A long stone tablet from Lakshmeávara has several interesting inscriptions.263 The inscription dated 686 A.D. of the reign of Vinayäditya264 records a grant to an Ächärya of Mülasaãgha änvaya and Devagaîa sect. Another part of the same stone tablet dated in the 34th year of Vijayäditya265 mentions that the grant was made for the benefit of the temple of Áankha Jinendra at the city of Pulikara, the present Lakshmeávara. Another inscription dated 734 A.D. of the time of VikramädityaII266 records that Áankhatïrtha of the city of Pulikara and the temple called white Jinälaya (Dhavala Jinälaya) were embellished and repaired and that certain land was given for maintaining the worship of Jina.
The stone inscription267 dated 751-52 A.D. of Kïrttivarman II Satyäáraya discovered at the village Aîîigeri in Navalgunda Taluka of Dharwar District records the construction of a Jaina temple by Kaliyamma who was holding the office of the headman of Jebulageri and the erection in fornt of a sculpture by a certain Koîâiáulara-Kuppa whose name was Kïrttivarman Gosäi.
There are some epigraphs of Tamil Nadu, Kerala etc. which are not connected with any ruling dynasty. One inscription dated about sixth century A.D., has been discovered from Tirunätharkunru268 in Ginger Täluk of South Arcot. It records the fast unto death (niáidikä) in fifty seven days by Chandranandi Äsiriyar. A great Jaina saint named Ajanandi did every thing to make Jainism popular in the States Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala in South India during the eighth century A.D. He was responsible for fashioning a number of images in different parts of the Southern states of India. His name is mentioned in short epigraphs found from Vallimalai in Chitoor District of Andhra Pradesh and from Anaimala, Aivarmalai, Alagaramalai, Karuõgälkkuâi and Uttampaliyam in Madurai District. His name is also found in the natural cavern at Eruväâi in Tinnevelly District near Chitral in Keral.
NORTH INDIA (C. 800 – 1200 A.D.)
After the fall of the Guptas and the death of Harsha, there was political vacuum. The Rajputs seem to have appeared in the eighth century A.D. The period from eighth to the twelfth century A.D. in North and Western India, is called the Rajput period. Old Kshatriya dynasties disappeared and new ones with uncertain origin came into existence. The theory of Agnikula story of the Rajputs mentions the Pratïhäras, the Chauhänas, the Parmäras and the Chälukyas. The Gurjara Pratïharas, were chronologically the earliest and historically the most important of the Rajput dynasties. Besides there were other Rajput dynasties such as the Chandellas, Kalachuris, Tomaras, Kachchhapaghäûas, Guhilas and Räshûrakütas. It seems that these Rajput dynasties might have descended from the foreigners, Brähmaîas, tribal people etc. One common factor among these Rajput dynasties is that they belonged to the ruling clans. Though these Rauputs were followers of Brahmanical religion, they patronized Jainism. As a result, Jainism made striking progress in their respective kingdoms.
- THE IMPERIAL PRATÏHARAS
The earliest settlement of the Imperial Pratïhäras like the other Rajput clans was Rajasthan. The first important ruler of this dynasty was Nägabhaûa I (C. 730-756 A.D.) who defeated the Arabs. Vatsaräja who ascended the throne about 778 A.D. was the first to attempt the building of an empire in North India. Vatsaräja was succeeded by his son Nägabhaûa-II who retrieved the fortunes of the family. The rulers of Ändhra, Saindhava, Vidarbha and Kaliõga succumbed to him, and he defeated Chakräyudha, the lord of Vaõga. He forcibly seized the forts of the kings of Änarta, Mälava, Kiräûa, Turuska, Vatsa and Matsya. He shifted his capital from his homeland Kanauj in 815 A.D. Mihira Bhoja gradually rebuilt the empire by his conquests of the territories in Rajasthan, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. Mihira Bhoja was succeeded by his son Mahendrapalä-I who ruled till about 909 A.D. He extended the empire over Magadha and North Bengal. His records have also been found in Kathiawar, East Punjab and Awadh.
Jainism flourised in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat under the Imperial Pratïhäras. There is a temple of Mahävïra at Osia, constructed in the time of Vatsaräjä269. Uddyotana Süri informs that he completed the Kuvalayamälä in 778 A.D. in the Ôshabhadeva temple of Jalor which was adorned with a large number of Jaina shrines. Another place called Agäsavana, which was probably situated not far from Jalor, was adorned with a large number of Jaina temples. That Jainism was in a flourishing conditions is further proved by an inscription discovered from Osia and is dated 956 A.D. Kakkuka was the Pratïhära ruler of Mandor near Jodhpur. He was a Sanskrit scholar and patron of Jainism. From the Ghaûiyälä inscription of 861 A.D., it is clear that he constructed a Jaina temple.270
Under the advice of Bappabhaûûisüri, Nägabhaûa-II also known as Äna spent much money on setting up Jaina temples and images. He built a Jaina temple at Kanauj, 100 cubits high, and erected a golden image of Mahävïra. He also set up an image of Mahävïra at Gwalior, 23 cubits and is further said to have built Jaina temples at Mathura, Aîahilaväâa, Modhera etc.271 It is known that various Gachchhas originated in the North with the disciples of Uddyotana Süri who remained attached with this area because he died in about 937 A.D on a pilgrimage which he had undertaken from Mälavadeáa to Áatruñjaya to worship Ôshabha. Mihira Bhoja also patronized Jainism under the influence of Nennasüri and Govindasüri, the disciples of Bappasüri.
Ujjain remained the seat of the Bhaûûärakas of the Mülasaãgha during this period as known from the Paûûävalïs272. It was during the time of the Pratïhära ruler Vatsaraja that Jinasena-II composed the Harivarãänsapuräîa in 783 A.D. at Vardhaãänapura identified with modern Badnawar in Ujjain District. Ächärya Harisheîa,273 who belonged to the Puîîäûa Saãgha, composed the Kathakoáa in 931 A.D. at Vardhamänapura now identified with Badnawar. Devasena274 wrote the Daráanasära at Dhära.
Davagarh, Gyaraspur, Baâoh-Pathari, Ahar and Indor (District Guna) became great centres of Jainism where Jaina temples were built and images were installed in them.275 From the inscription of 982 A.D. engraved in the Äûhakhambhä at Gyaraspur, it is known that some pilgrims visited this place.
Several places of Uttar Pradesh were connected with the Jaina religion during this period. There is a celebrated group of Devgarh temples276 in Jhansi District. Majority of them came into existence in this period. The important inscription of Devgarh dated 862 A.D. of the time of Pratïhära Bhoja277 has been found in the temple Áäntinätha. The inscription proves that the shrine of Áäntinätha existed before 862 A.D. Devagarh was known formerly as Luachchhägira. In further mentions that Mahäsämanta Vishîuräma who had the tittle Pañchamahäáabda given to him by Paramabhaûûraka Mahäräjädhiräja Parameávara Árï Bhojadeva. The inscription which is incised on a pillar of the temple further refers to one Árïdeva who was the disciple of Ächärya Kamaladeva. Another inscription278 deated V.S. 1016 mentions Tribhuvanakïrti, a disciple of Devendrakïrti who was a disciple of Ratnakïrti of the Sarasvatï gachchha of Mülasaãgha. A third inscription279 of the ninth century A.D. from this place refers to a Jaina Muni called Nägasenächärya.
In the literary texts composed during this period, Mathura is repeatedly mentioned as a celebrated Jaina centre. The Bôihatakalpabhäshya280, composed in the eighth century A.D. refers to the Jaina shrines in residential areas of Mathura. The Bôihat Kathä Koáa281 of Hariseîa describes Mathura as Jinayatanamaîâitä i.e. abounding in Jaina temples. This text was composed in 931 A.D. Jinaprabha282 informs that in 768 A.D., the great Ávetämbara Savant Bappabhaûûi established an image of Mahävïra at Mathura. This is also confirmed by the evidence of the Prabandha Koáa.283 According to Devasena (895 A.D.), Rämasena established Mathura Saãgha at Mathura.284 This shows that Mathura continued as a favourite resort for both the Ávetämbaras and the Digambaras. A few Jaina inscriptions of this period have been discovered at Mathura. Several old cities of Uttar Pradesh like Ahichchhatra, Kämpliya, Käáï, Säõkäáya, Árävastï, Kauáämbï etc. remained centres of Jainism, and Jaina images of this period have been discovered from these sites. These ancient remains point out that Jainism was popular in this region during this Pratïhära period.
- BAÂA GURJARA PRATÏHÄRAS OF ÔÄJORAGRH
Jainism made marked progress during the reign of the Baâa-Gürjara Pratïhäras Rajorgarh, situated forty-five km. to the South-West of Alwar in Rajasthan. Jaina saints performed penances in some caves the traces of which are visible in the hills. By their inspiration, their followers constructed maginificent temples and placed images in them. An inscription dated V.S. 979 (923 A.D.) of the reign of king Sävaûa records the construction of the temple as well as the installation of images of Áäntinätha therein at Räjyapura by Sarvadeva, son of Dedullaka, and grandson of Arbhaûa (of caste) of Dharkaûa family.285 Three life-size Jaina figures are all standing upright.286 There are also two highly ornamented gaps besides numerous broken figures all apparently Jaina. In one of the ruined temples, there is a colossal Jaina figure thirteen feet nine inches with a canopy of two feet six inches over head which is supported by two elephants.287 The whole height of the sculpture is 16‘, 3”, and its breadth six feet. It is known as Nowgazä, and it is said to have been by Bhaiãsä Mahäjana during the reign of some Baâa Gurjara ruler.
- THE CHAHAMÄNAS
The Chahamänas, claiming descent from the Agnikula Rajputs, became independent in Ajmer towards the end of the ninth century A.D. Different branches of the Chahamänas ruled over different parts of Rajasthan such as Áäkambharï, Ranthambhor, Näâol, Jälor and Chandrävatï of the several branches of the clan, the most important was that of Áäkambharï or Sambhar. Ajayaräja founded the city of Ajayameru or Ajmer. Another famous member of the dynasty was Vigraharäja IV Vïsaladeva (1153-1164 A.D.). He conquered Gujarat, and captured Delhi from the Tomaras. The greatest monarch of this dynasty was Pôithvïraja III ( 1179 A.D.). He was the lord of territories of Sambhar and Delhi. He asserted his superiority over Räjä Jayachandra with Kanauj as his capital. Both Pôithvïräja and Jayachandra were defeated towards the close of the twelfth century A.D. by Muhammed Ghori.
JAINISM UNDER THE CHAUHÄNAS
By the influence of the Jaina Ächäryas, the Chauhäna rulers also patronized Jainism. Pôithvïräja I is known have been ruling in 1105 A.D.288 He had golden cupolas put on the Jaina temples of Raîthambhor.289 This besides proving his mastery of Raîthambhor testifies to his liberal views in matters of religion. His son and successor was Ajayaräja. Though he was a devotee of Áiva, he paid due respect also to the followers of Jaina sects. He permitted the Jainas to build temples in the newly founded city of Ajmer, presented a golden Kalaáa to the temple of Pärávanätha290 and acted as a judge in the religious discussion between the Ávetämbara teacher Dharmaghoshasüri and his Digambara opponent Guîachandra. He was succeeded by his son Arîoräja, also known as Ännaladeva, before 1133 A.D. He was a contemporary of Jinadattasüri whom he held in great respect. He visited him at his seat and granted a suitable site to his followers for the construction of a big Jaina temple291. Jinadattasüri died and was also cremated Ajmer in 1154 A.D. After Dädä Jinadattasüri, the place came to be known as Dädäbärï or the garden of Dädä. After that, in a number of towns in Rajasthan, the Jaina merchants renamed their gradens as Dädäbärïs in respectful memory of the great saint.
After Arîoräja, Vïsaladeva Vigraharäja ascended the throne in about 1152 A.D. In religious matters, he followed the foot-steps of his forefathers. For Jainas, he built Vihäras, participated in their religious ceremonies and on the representation of one of their religious teachers, Dharmaghoshasüri, prohibited the slaughter of animals on the Ekädaáï day.292 After him, Pôithvïräja II became the ruler. It is known from the Bijolia inscription of 1169 A.D. that Pôithvûräja II endowed the temple of Pärávanätha at Bijoliä with a village called Morakuri to meet its recurring expenses. Pôithvïräja II was succeeded by his uncle Someávara, son of Arîoräja. He earned through his personal valour the biruda of Pratäpalaõkeávara and with a desire to gain heaven endowed Pärávanätha on the bank of the Revä wih a village named Revänä in absolute charity.293 After the Tomaras, the Chauhänas occupied Delhi. The Chauhäna ruler Someávara was patron of Jainism. When he came to Delhi from Ajmer, a rich Jaina named Devapäla accompanied him. Both made pilgrimage to the holy place Hastinäpura. Devapäla installed the standing image in 1176 A.D.294 After Someávafa, his son Pôithvïräja III became the emperor who ruled from 1179 A.D. He liked religious discussions and therefore, in his royal court, a debate was held in 1182 A.D. between Jinapatisüri and Paîâita Padmaprabha, Chaityaväsï to Upakeáagachchha in which Jinapatisüri emerged victorious.295
A branch of Chauhänas ruled from Näâol in Marwar from 960 A.D. till 1252 A.D. Aávaräja of this dynasty was a feudatory of the Solänkï emperor Kumärapäla. He accepted Jainism and patronized it. He gave commands for the strict observance of ahiãsä in his kingdom on certain days. He made over to his son Kaûukaräja the villlage of Seväâï as Jägïra which was famous for the temple of Vïranätha, the 24th Tïrthaõkara. The inscription of Seväâï of 1110 A.D. of the time of Aávaräja records a grant of barley equal to one häraka from every one of the wells arahaûa belonging to the villages of Padräâä, Medraãchä, Chhechhaâiyä and Meddaâï for the daily worship of Dharmanäthadeva in the temple of Samïpäûï by the Mahäsähaîïya Uppalaräka (the great master of stables). The second stone inscription of Seväâï of 1115 A.D. records that Kaûukaräja made an annual grant of 8 drammas to Thallaka, the son of Bähaâa, on the Áivarätrï day for the worship of Áäntinatha in the Khattaka (niche) of Yaáodeva, the grandfather of the donee.296
Mahäräja Räyapala also patronized Jainism. The Näâaläï stone inscription of 1132 A.D. records a grant made by Rudrapäla and Amôitapäla, sons of Mahäräja Räyapala along with their mother, Räjñï Mänaladevï. The gift consists of two palikäs of oil out of the share due to the royal family from each oil mill. The recipients were the Jaina ascetics in the outside of Näâülaâägika297. The Näâaläï stone inscription of 1138 A.D. refers to the reign of Mahäräja Räyapäla over Naâülaâägika and then records the gift of one twentieth part of the income derived from the loads leaving or entering Näâülaâägika by the Guhila Ûhäkura Räjadeva for the the worship of Neminätha298. The third Näâaläï stone inscription of 1143 A.D. is of the reign of Mahäräja Räyapäla when Räula Räjadeva was the Ûhäkura of Naâülaâägika. It records some benefaction of the temple of Mahävïra.299 The fourth inscription of 1143 A.D. of his place of the reign of Mahäräja Räyapäla records that Räula Räjadeva made a grant of one Viãáopaka from the Pailas (coin) according to him and two palikäs from the bales of oil due to him from every ghäîaka to this temple300.
Mahäräja Älhaîadeva, feudatory of Kumärapäla, obtained Kiräûaküpa, Läûarhaâa and Áivä in 1152 A.D. through the favour of his master. He also extended patronage to Jainism. He on the Áivarätrï day in 1152 A.D. thinking the granting of security to animals to be the highest gift issued injunctions for the increase of his spiritual merit and fame to the Mahäjanas, tämbülikas and other subjects, forbidding the slaughter of living beings on the 8th, 11th and 14th days of both the fortnights of every month in the three towns named above and threatening with capital punishment those who killed or caused others to kill living beings.301 The Brähmaîas, priests, ministers and others were also ordered to respect this edict of non-slaughter. And amongst these, he who commits the sin of taking life should be fined five drammas, but if the sinner be one attached the king, he should be fined one dramma only. We know from the Näâol grant that Älhaîa and Kelhaîa were pleased to give to the Räjapurta Kïrtipäla 12 villages, appertaining to Näâaläï. In 1160 A.D. after bathing at Näâaläï and worshipping the Sun and Maheávara, Kïrtipäla granted a yearly sum of two drammas from each of his twelve villages to Jina Mahävïra at Näâaläï.302 This he had done either voluntarily or on the request of the Jainas. The Näâol grant of 1171 A.D. registers that Mahäräja Älhaîdeva of Näâüla worshipping the Sun and Iáäna and making gifts to Brähmaîas and Gurus, granted to the Jaina temple of Mahävïra in the Sanderaka Gachchha at the holy place (Mahasthäna) of Näâüla a monthly sum of 5 drammas to be paid from the custom house (Sulkamaîâapikä) in the Näâulatalapada.303
Kelhaîadeva, the son of Älhaîadeva, also contributed to the progress of Jainism. The Saîâeräva stone inscription of 1164 A.D. in the reign of Kelhaîadeva records that Aîhalladevï, the queen mother, granted one plough of land to the Tïrthaõkara Mahävïra, Mülanäyaka of the Saîâeraka Gachchha.304 The Lälräi stone inscription of 1176 A.D. of the reign of Kelhaîadeva states that the Räjaputras Läkhaîapäla and Abhayapäla, the owners of Siîäîava and sons of Kïrtipäla, made grant conjointly with the queen Mahibaladevï in the presence of the village Pañchakula for celebrating the festival of the god Áäntinätha. The grant consisted of barely weighing one Bäraka as used as the country of Gurjarätra from the well of the village Bhaâiyäuva.305 The second Lälräï stone inscription of the same time speaks of the Räjaputras Läkhaîapäla and Abhayapäla as the owners of Saãnäîaka. It then records that the cultivators Bhïvaâä, Äsadhara and others granted for their spiritual merit four seers of barely from the (field) called Khäâisïra to the Tïrthaõkara Áäntinätha in connection with the festivals of the Gurjaras.306 The second Saõâeräva stone inscription of 1179 A.D. of the reign of Kelhaîadeva of Näâüla records the gift of a column and house to the Tïrthaõkara Pärávanätha, worshipped at Saãâeraka (Sanderäva) in the Bhukti of the queen Jälhaîa by Rälhä and Pälhä. Those residing in the house must pay four ‘draelas‘ to the God.307
Kïrtipäla removed the Chahamäna capital from Näâol to Jabälipura. Jainism made much headway even under the reign of Chahamänas of Jabälipura. The Jälore stone inscription 1182 A.D. of the reign of Mahäräja Samarasiãhadeva, son of Mahäräja Kïrtipäladeva and grandson of Mahäräja Älhaîa records that Maîâapa was constructed by the seûha Yaáovïra of Árïmäla family who was joined in this work by his brother and all the members of the Goshûhï.308 Yaáovïra became the minister of Udayasiãha, the successor Samarasiãha. Another inscription of Jälore records that the temple of Pärávanätha built by Kumärapäla was rebuilt in 1185 A.D. by the Bhaîâärï Yaáovïra in accordance with the orders of Mahäräja Samarasiãhadeva of the Chahamäna family.309 The inscription of 1245 A.D. referring itself to the reign of Chahamäna king Chächigadeva specified the contribution of 50 drammas to the Bhaîâära of Mahävïra of the Chandanavihära by a Teliä Osaväla called Narapati.310 Another inscription of 1275 A.D. records the gift of one Narapati to the temple of Pärávanätha in the reign of Sämantasiãha.311
We thus see that under the liberal patronage of the Chauhäna rulers, Jainism acquired a hold in the Marwar, Ajmer, Bijoliä and Sämbhar regions of Rajasthan. Both Jainism and Hinduism continued to flourish side by side. There was no spirit of rivalry on intolerance. The kings used to worship both Hindu gods and Jaina Tïrthaõkaras at the same time and used to participate in the affairs and functions of both the religions.
THE CHAUHÄNAS OF CHANDRAVUAÂA
The Chauhäna ruler Chandrapäla established a principality outside Rajasthan at Chandraväâa, modern Firozabad, Uttar Pradesh in the last quarter of the tenth century A.D. His Diwän Rämasiãha and king himself were followers of Jainism. After constructing Jaina fort at Chandraväâa, thy built the Jaina temple in 996-999 A.D., and installed the image of Chandraprabhu in it. The Chauhäna rulers of this dynasty namely Chandrapäla, Bharatapäla, Jähaâa and Balläla were either Jainas or partons of Jainism. Their ministers were followers of Jainism. Amôitapäla, a Ministers of Abhayapäla constructed the Jaina image at Chandraväâa. Soâüsähu Minister of Jahaâa, got the Bhavishyadattakathä written in Apabhraãáa in 1173 A.D. There was another branch of this Chauhäna dynasty at Asälikheâa in Etawa District of Uttar Pradesh. Several images of this period were discovered at this site. Even Jaina images of this period were found at Kauáämbhi and Jalso in Allahabad District were discovered.312
2.2 THE PARAMÄRAS
Although Malwa was the centre of Paramära power, minor branches of the clan ruled over Chandrävati and Abu, Banswara, Jaor and Kiräâu. Välkapati Muja (973 A.D.) is known to be the well known ruler of the Paraãära dynasty of Malwa. He combined the rare combination of military ability and constructive statesmanship. He is said to have vanquished the Kalachuri ruler of Tripuri. Besides, he made the Läûas, Karîäûas, Cholas and the Kerals bow to his head. He was badly defeated by the Chälukya Tailapa II. In about 1000 A.D., Bhoja became the ruler, and ruled up to 1055 A.D. He is the most famous and greatest Paramära ruler of Malwa. Under him, Paramära imperialism reached its zenith, and Malwa rose to its greatest glory and renown. This dynasty continued in the hands of undistinguished rulers until Ala-ud-dïn-Khaljï conquered Malwa in the beginning of the fourteeth century A.D.
That Jainism made considerable progress in Malwa during this period is clear from literary and archaeological evidence. Though the ruling chiefs were followers of Brahmanical religion, they took an active interest in the development of Jainism. They patronized Jaina scholars, and promoted Jainism in their kingdom. Jaina saints converted a large number of people. Jaina temples were built, and images were placed in them. There were also the Jaina holy places of pilgrimage.
The Jaina Ächäryas Amitagati, Mahäsena, Dhanapäla and Dhaneávara, were patronized by Väkpati Muñja. Amitagati, who belonged to Mäthura Saãgha, was the disciple of Mädhavasena Süri and grand-disciple of Nemisheîa. Mahäsena was of the Läâa Bägaâa Saãgha, and he was the pupil of Guîakarasena, who was the pupil of Jayasena. Mahäsena was the Guru of Parpaûa who was the Mahattama of Sindhuräja. Mäîikyanandi, the author of Parïkshämukha, probably lived during his reign at Dhära. His predecessors are Padmanandi, Viáhnunandi, Viávanandi, Vôishabhanandi, Ramanandi and Trailokyanandi. They might have been living in the area of Malwa.
The great Jaina writer Prabhächandra was honoured by Bhojadeva. Dhanapäla wrote his Tilakamañjarï at the request of Bhoja who conferred on the author the title of Sarasvatï. Under his influence, Bhoja is said to have inclined towards Jainism. From the Dubkunda inscription of V.S. 1145 (1088 A.D.), it is known that Áäntisheîa defeated the learned scholars in discussions in the court of Bhoja. Surächärya also adorned his court. Devabhadra also perhaps received the favour and patronage of Bhoja.
The famous Jaina Ächäryas, Jineávarasüri and Buddhisägara of Dhäranagarï, must have lived during Bhoja’s time. Another contemporary Jaina poet was Nayanandi, who composed his Sudaráana Charita in 1043 A.D., while staying in the Jinavaravihära of Dhära. Árïchandra, pupil of Árïnandi, who under Bhojadeva of Dhära, wrote the Puränasära, and commentaries on the Padmacharita of Ravisheîa, and the Mahäpuräîa of Pushpadanta. Nemichandra Saidhänika wrote the Laghudravya Saãgraha at Äáramanagara (Keshoräipätan) during the reign of Bhoja, when Árïapäla was Mäîâalika.
The inscription engraved on the pedestal of a colossal image of a Jaina Tïrthaõkara in the old Jaina temple at Bhojapura, refers to Chandrärdhamauli (i.e. the God Áiva), and its consecration by the Jaina householder Sägarnandin, through the Jaina monk Nemichandra Süri, in the reign of Bhojadeva. While installing the Jaina image, it invokes the god Áiva in its beginning and thus it goes to show that the person who installed the image was equally devoted to both these faiths. Bhoja was succeeded by Jayasiãhadeva, who was also patron of Prabhächandra.
The Jaina temples at unascribed to the eleventh and twelfth centuries, appear to have been built during the reign of the later Paramära kings of Malwa. This is confirmed by the two inscriptions of Udayäditya, and a Sarpabandha inscription of Naravarman.
The inscription of V.S. 1157 on the pedestal of an image of the Jaina Tïrthaõkara Pärávanätha at Bhojapura records that it was installed by Chillna of the Vemaka family during the reign of Naravarman. An inscription of 1134 A.D., in the Jaina temple of Sheragarh, records how a great festival of the Jaina Tïrthänkara of Neminätha was celebrated at the new Chaitya during the reign of Naravarman. Devapäla ordered the ratnatraya (images of three Tïrthaõkaras – Áäntinätha, Kuntanätha, and Arahanätha), and performed their installation ceremony in association with his son, parents, relatives and goshûhïs at Koáavardhana. His ancestor Mähilla had migrated to Malava from Süryäárama.
Jainism gradually became a powerful force because of the literary, missionary and reformist activities of the Jaina scholars and saints in the Paramära dominions. Dharasena lived in Dhära, and his disciple was Mahävïra, a learned Ächärya, well-versed in different branches of Jainism, and who received the patronage of king Vindhyavarman. When Äáädhara migrated to Dhära from Mäîâalgarh in about 1192 A.D., he was taught by Mahävïra. Äáädhara, was a profound scholar of Jainism. He lived for a long time, to the middle of the thirtheenth century A.D., and wrote a number of books on Jainism. He mentions five kings during his lifetime viz., Vindhavarma, Subhaûavarma, Arjunavarma, Devapäla and Jaitugideva. Probably, his father Salakhaîa, was Sandhivigrahika (Minister of peace and war) of Arjunavarman, and Äáädhara’s son also served the same ruler in some capacity. Äáädhara has been highly praised by the great poet Bilhaîa, who was also the Saãdhivigrahika of Vindhyavarmadeva, and Bäla Sarasvatï Mahäkavi Madana learnt Kävyaáästra under his guidance. Äáädhara left a number of Jaina disciples, such as Viáälakïrtti, Arhadäsa and Devachandra, who advanced the cause of Jainism by their literary contributions.
In 1197 A.D., (V.S. 1264), Jinapati Süri visited Dhära and propagated Vidhimärga in the temple of Áäntinätha. In the middle of the thirteenth century, Devadhara seems to have been the head of a Jaina monastery at Ujjain. He died in V.S. 1327 (1270 A.D.) in Malwa, and thirteen days later, his appointed successor, Vidyänandasüri, also passed away at Vidyäpurï. After that, the brother of the latter, Dharmakïrtti Upädhyäya, received the Süripada under the name of Dharmaghosha. He died in V.S. 1357 (1300 A.D.).
The considerable progress and growing popularity of Jainism is reflected in the remains of numerous images found at Gandhawal, Badnawar, Ün, Ujjain etc. The holy places of Jainism existing before the fourteenth century A.D. are known from the Vividha-tïrth of Jinaprabhasüri, who mentions Kuâuãgeáwara of Ujjain, Abhinandanadeva at Maõgalapura, Supäráva at Daáapura and Mahävïra of Bhäilasväãi Gaâha. The Áäsanachatustriãáatikä of Madanakïriti also refers to Abhinandana Jina of Maõgalpura and the image of Bävangajä of Badwani as Bôihaddeva. Jayänanda, in the Praväsagïtikä mentions Lakshmï, which is situated in the forest near Nimbära. There is a holy place named Tälanpur in Dhära District. Once inscription dated V.S. 1022 on an image bears the name Tuõgipattan. The Präkrit Nirväîa Käîda, which seems to be wrongly attributed to Kundakunda, refers to Chülagiri, Pävägiri and Siddhavaraküûa. Chülagiri is identified with Bavänagajä of Badwani and Pävägiri with Üî. The remains of Jaina temples and images of the eleventh and twelfth centuries have been discovered both at Bävanagajä and Üî.
Some inscriptions engraved on the images throw light upon the Jaina Saãghas and their Ächäryas, who performed the installation ceremony of images. The Mulasaãgha and its Ächärya Ratnakïrtti has been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1323. This Saãgha has also been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1230 found at Badnawar. The Mäthura Saãgha is known from the inscriptions of the twelfth century engraved on the Jaina images discovered here. Kalyäîakïrtti of the Vägaâa Saãgha is known to have installed images at Vardhanäpura now known as Badnawar, in V.S. 1308. The Läâa Vägaâa Gachchha (Käshûhä Samgha) is also mentioned in the Jaina image dated V.S. 1325 found at Tälanpur. The temple of Áäntinätha existed at Badnawar, as is known from the inscription of V.S. 1229. Khaîâela gachchha, which originated from Khandela in Rajasthan, has been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1325. The Mäthura Saãgha and its Ächäryas, are known from the inscription of V.S. 1308. There is an image at Badnawar installed by the teachers of the Punnäûa Saãgha.313
Jainism : The Parmara rulers of Äbü also patronized Jainism like other Räjaputa rulers. An inscription of 967 A.D. in the Jaina temple at a village named Diyäîä in Sirohi state records that during the reign of Kôishîaräja, the image of Vïranätha was set up by Vardhamäna belonging to the Vishûita family314. This inscription is very important as it determines the date of Kôishîaräja also. He was the Paramära ruler of Äbü, son of Araîyaräja and grandson of Utpalaräja. This is the oldest in cription of the Paramära rulers of Äbü.
There is an inscription in the temple of Mahävïra at Jhäâoli which records that the wife of Paramära king Dhärävarsha named Árigäradevï gave land to the temple in 1197 A.D.315 An inscription of 1243 A.D. records a grant to the temple of Pärávanätha during the reign of Älhaîasiãha, king of Chandrävatï316. In 1288 A.D., during the reign of Mahäräja Vïsaladeva, Säraõgadeva of Chandrävatï, the Paramära Thäkuras namely Árï Pratäpa and Árï Hemadeva of the village Dattäîï gave two pieces of land to meet the expenses of the temple of Pärávanätha.317 Suhhaâasiãha, the son of Rävala Mahïpäladeva, gave 400 drammas to this temple for performing some religious function. From the inscription of 1334 A.D. at Diyäîä, we know that the king Tejapäla and his minister Küpa constructed a cistern and gave it to the temple of Mahävïra.318
23 THE CHÄULUKYAS
As the Chäulukyas conquered Äbü, this dyansty became associated with the Agnikula story. The Chäulukya dynasty of Aîahilapäûaka identified with modern Päûan in Gujarat was founded by Mülaräja. The next important figure was Bhïma-I, nephew of Mülaräja’s grandson Durlabharäja who ruled for about forty-two years from C. 1021 A.D. to 1063 A.D. When Sultän Mahmüd Ghazõi withdrew, he recovered his capital and revived the Chaulukya power. Bhïma-I was followed by his son Karîa, who could not achieve anything substantial despite a long reign about thirty years (C. 1063-93 A.D.). Karîa’s successor was Jayasiãha Siddharäja. He was the most striking personality among the rulers of Aîahilawäâa, and he ruled from 1093-1145 A.D. After the death of Jayasiãha, the throne was seized by his distant relative Kumärapäla. He was an energetic man, he pursued a policy of active militarism. The later Chaulukya monarchs were not important.
JAINISM IN GUJARAT
Gujarat was a flourishing centre of Jainism throughout the Chaulukya. The Jaina influence at the court of the Chaulukya kings of Gujarat may be traced from the time of the very founder of the dynasty. A Jaina temple, known as Mülabastikä, is said to have been constructed by Mülaräja himself at his capital Aîahilapäûaka or Aîahilaväâa. According to the Kathakosha of Árïchandra, Mülaräja had for his legal adviser (dharma-stänasya Goshûhikah) one Sajjana of the Prägväûa family of Aîahilaväâa and Árïchandra, the disciple of Sahasrakïrti, whose spiritual predecessors were Árutakïrti and Árïkïrti in the line of Kundakunda, composed the work for the instruction of the family of Sajjana’s son Krishîa. The prestige that this line of spiritual teachers enjoyed in the political world of the period is indicated incidentally in the praáasti, where Sahasrakïrti is described as “the sinless teacher whose supreme lotus feet were worshipped by eminent kings like Gäõgeya, Bhojadeva and others.” The reference is presumably to the Kalachuri king of Chedi and the Paramära king of Malwa.
During the reign of Bhima-I, his minister Vimala of the Prägväta family built, at abu the most magnificent Jain temple of Ädinätha. Indian craftsmanship of the age has found its best expression here, and the temple, for its rich delicate carving, grace, and beauty, is considered to be unique in the world. The temple was completed in A.D. 1031, i.e. within seven years of the demolition of Somanätha by Mahmüd of Ghazni. The Kharatara gachchha-paûûävali records that minister Vimala of the Porwäâ caste captured the parasols of thirteen Sultäns, founded the town of Chandrävatï, and built the temple of Ôishabhadeva on the Arbudächala. These activities of Vimala which, of course, had the approval of his royal master, Bhïma, were probably a reaction to the Muslim vandalism exhibited at Somanätha and other places.
Jainism became more dominant at the Chaulukya court during the reigns of Siddharäja and his successor Kumärapala. The latter actually accepted Jainism under the influence of “the most learned man of his time,” the celebrated Hemachandra (A.D. 1088-1172), and under his inspiration and guidance enriched Gujarat with Jain shrines to an enormous extent. During his reign, Gujarat became a stronghold of Jainism, in respect of followers as well as institutions, for all time to come. The secret of this success was not any fanatic zeal, but the promotion of understanding between different faiths, which is the corner-stone of Jainism and was particularly emphasised by Hemachandra in word as well as in deed. The continuity of the faith and the prosperity of the followers are attested by the temple of Neminätha built in the vicinity of Ädinätha temple at Äbu, mentioned above, by Tejapäla of the Porwäâ family, who was a minister of the chaulukya king Somasiãhadeva. It was completed in A.D. 1230. In its beauty of sculptural decoration, it is only comparable to the Ädinätha temple. To these were added numerous Jaina shrines and other structures during the twelfth and the thirteenth century, the fame of which gave the place its new name Devala-väda or Delwäâä. Besides Äbu, Áatrunjaya and Girnär in Kathiawad received particular attention of the rulers and merchants, whose bounty is reflected in the huge and beautiful temples which have since been adorning their peaks. The Chintämaîi Pärávanätha temple at Khambhäta was built about A.D. 1108 and repaired in A.D. 1295. It records names of several devotees from Malwa, Sapädalaksha, and Chitraküûa, who endowed the temple from time to time.319
The successor of Jayasiãha was Kumärapäla who gradually came under the influence of Hemachandra and at last, embraced Jainism. He took various steps for the propagation of Jainism; and in certain respects, he made his state a model Jaina state. He not only himself renounced the joys and pleasures prohibited by the Jaina scriptures but also induced his subject to follow his path. He issued an ordinance for the protection of animal life; and it was applied most strictly throughout his empire. The Dvyäáraya-Kävya says that in Pälideáa in Rajasthan the Brähmaîas were forced to use corn instead of flesh in sacrifice and the ascetics who used to wear antelope skin found it hard to procure it. Merutõga in the Yükävihäraprabandha also mentions that a simple minded merchant of Sapädalaksha was given the punishment of building the Yükävihära at his cost for committing the offence of crushing a mouse.320
- JAINISM UNDER THE RÄTHORAS OF HAÛHÜNDÏ
Haûhündï (Hastikundi) is a place near Bijapur in Marwar. The Räthoras ruled here during the tenth century A.D. Generally, they were the followers of Jainism. Vidagdharäja, son of Harivarman, at the preaching of Väsudevächärya, built a temple of Rishabhdeva here and also made a gift of land to it. His son Mammaûa made a grant for this temple. His son was Dhavala who also renovated the Jaina temple built by his grandfather and helped in every way to glorify Jainism. He in conjuction with his son made a gift of a well called Pïppala. Dhavala renounced the world in his old age after having placed his son Balaprasäda on the throne. The goshûhï of Hastikuîâï also renovated this temple. After its restoration, the installation ceremony of the image was performed Áäntibhadra, the pupil of Väsudevächärya, in 1053 A.D.; and several Árävakas participated in it. These Rashûraküûas weighed themselves in gold and distributed it among the poor as charity.321
25 THE YADUVAÃÁÏ OR SÜRASENA KINGS OF BAYÄNÄ OR ÁRÏPATHÄ
The kingdom of Yaduvaãáï or Áurasena dynasty comprised the old Bharatpur state and the Mathura District. The king Jaitapäla as known from the traditions may be placed in the first half as known from the traditions may be placed in the first half of the eleventh century. His successor was Viajayapäla mentioned in the Bayana inscription dated 1044 A.D. His successor was Tahanapäla who was followed in succession by Dharmapäla, Kuõvarapäla and Ajayapäla (1150 A.D.) Haripäla was successor of Ajayapäla. Haripäla was succeeded by Sahanapäladeva (1192 A.D.). Sahanapäla’s successor seems to have been Kuõvarapäla. Anaõgapäla ascended the throne after Kuõvarpäla. Anaõgapäla was followed in succession by Pôithvïpäla, Räjyapäla and Trilokapäla, the last of whom may be placed at the end of the thirteenth century A.D.
JAINISM UNDER THE SURASENAS
Sürasenas ruled over the region now included in Bharatpur state from the 6th century to the 12th century A.D. Jainism developed much here at this time. Some of the Sürasena rulers accepted and patronized it. Several images are known to have been installed here. The Jaina Ächäryas visited it and some of them also had their Chaturmasa here. They cannot have their residence anywhere. They stay for some time.
As Jainism was prevalent in Mathura in early times, it may have been in existence here also. But old monuments were destroyed by the Muslims. The earliest trace of Jainism here is known from the tenth century A.D. Pradyumnasüri who was the contemporary of king Allaûa of Mewar was honoured in the courts of Sapädalaksha and Tribhuvanagriil322. Ghanesvarasüri was initiated to Jaina monkhood by Abhayadevasüri, pupil of Pradyumnasüri. Ghaneávarasüri was famous as Kardamabhüpati of Tribhuvanagiri. Whether Kardama was his name or title, it is not known. He founded Räjagachchha. He founded Räjagachchha. He is said to be a contemporary of the king muñja of Malwa who died in 997 A.D.323 This Kardamabhüpati may be identified with the ruler pôithvïpäladeva alias Bharatôipaûûa mentioned in the Thäkardä (Dungarapur) inscription of Anaãgapäladeva of 1155 A.D.324 This inscription mentions the four princes, namely, pôithvïpäladeva alias Bharatôipaûûa, his son Tribhuvanapäladeva, his son Vijayapäla and his son Sürapäladeva. The family to which they belonged is not mentioned but they seem to be the Sürasena rulers. The inscription of 994 A.D. on the image of a Jina found at Bayänä says that it was caused to be made in accordance with the instructions of Sürasena of apparently the Vägaâa Saãgha by three brothers Siãhaka, Yaáoräja and Nonnaika.325 The pedestal of a Jaina image with the inscriptions of 994 A.D. and one Digambara Jaina image of Mahävïra with head missing bearing an inscription of 1004 A.D. have been discovered at Kaûarä.326
Durgadeva, the Digambara Jaina poet, finished the Risûasamuchchaya at Kumbhanagara ruled over by Lakshmïniväsa in the fine temple of Áäntinätha in 1032 A.D.327 Kumbhanagara may be identified with Kämä near Bharatpur. As regards the king named Lakshmïniväsa, he may be identified with Lakshmaîaräja, the son of Chitralekhä, mentioned in the Bayänä inscription of V.S. 1012.328 The Bayänä stone inscription of 1043 A.D. contains the name of Vishîusüri and Maheávarasüri, the Jaina teachers of the Kämyakagachchha of the Ávetämbaras, and records the death of Maheáverasüri during the reign of prince Vijayapäla.329 Vijayapäla is said to have rebuilt and added to the fort and to have named it after himself as Vijayamandiragaâha. The Kämyakagachchha originated from Kämä in Bharatpur state and remained confined only to this area. The mention of the city of Árïpathä in the inscription clearly points out that the ancient Sanskrit name of Bayana was Árïpathä. Jaina images with the inscription of 1136 A.D. have been discovered at Narolï in Bayana Tehsil.330 These images prove that they were consecrated at the same time.
The last Áurasena ruler of Bayänä was Kumärapäla who came to the throne in about 1154 A.D. He was preached by the Jaina monk Jinadattasüri. The ceremony of placing the golden Kalaáa and flag on the temple of Áäntinätha was performed here by Jinadattasüri with great rejoicings.331
The two disciples of Jinapatisüri, namely, Jinapälagaîi and Dharmaáïla-gaîi, used to study with Yaáobhadrächärya of this place. After getting information from Jinapatisüri, they went on pilgrimage along with the Saãgha of Tribhuvanagiri and met their teacher along with the other Saãgha in 1188 A.D.332 Vädidevasüri who lived in the latter half of the 12th century defeated some learned scholar in the fort of Tribhuvanagiri.333 An old temple of Upakeáagachchha was also there.334 All these facts indicate that Jainism was flourishing under the Sürasenas in this area at this time.
26 THE TOMARAS OF DELHI
The Tomaras ruled the Haryana country from their capital Delhi. About this time, the Tomaras of Delhi must have acknowledged the supremacy of the Pratïhara Bhoja. Vajraûa, Jajjuka and Goga were probably connected with Delhi. In the tenth century A.D., the Tomaras came into conflict with the Chahamänas of Áäkambhari. The Tomaras continued to rule from Delhi till the middle of the twelfth century A.D. when they were overthrown by the Chahamäna Vigraharäja Vïsaladeva-III.
The Tomara rulers were liberal towards Jainism. Naûûhalasähu, a minister of Anaõgapäla III (1132 A.D.), was rich, and a pious Jaina Árävaka. He built several Jaina temples in Delhi and other places. He gave patronage to poets and scholars, and got many Jaina Kävyas written in Apabhraãáa.335
27 THE KALACHURIS
The Kalachuris rose into prominence under Kokalla I who founded a kingdom at Tripuri in Dähala i.e. Jabalpur region. The next important ruler has been described as conqueror and assumed the title of Vikramäditya. Lakshmïkarîa, son and successor of Gäõgeyadeva, was the most powerful personality among the Kalachuri rulers. He dominated Northern India during the greater part of his long reign from 1041 to 1072 A.D. His successors were weak, and therefore, they were dislodged from their position.
Jainism : That Jainism flourished during the Kalachuri period is shown by the Bahuriband stone inscription of Gayäkarîa and other archaeological remains. This inscription records that one Mahäbhoja, son of Sädhu Sarvadhara, eracted a temple of Áäntinätha. The inscription further notes that the white canopy over it was built by Sütradhära. The image of Áäntinätha was consecrated by the Ächärya Subhadra who belonged to the line of Deáïgäna in the kämnäya of Chandrakara Ächärya. A large number of Jaina sculptural remains of this period have been found at Tripuri, Bilhari and Karitalai. Another important stronghold of Jainism was Sohagpur. At Jura too, fragments of Jaina images have been located. Images of the Jaina Tïrthaõkaras have been discovered at Arang, Sirpur, Malhar, Dhanpur, Ratanpur and Padmpur, those at Malhar are colossal.336
28 THE CHANDELLAS OF JEJÄKABHÜKTI (BUNDELKHAND)
According to traditions, the Chandellas attribute their descent to the union of the moon (Chandra) with a Brähmaîa damsel. It seems that the Chandellas sprang from the aboriginal stock of the Bhars or the Gonds. They rose from the position of feudatories of the Gurjara-Pratïhäras under the leadership of their ruler Dhaõga (954-1008 A.D.) Becoming independent, he carried on war against his eastern and western neighbours. He successor Vidyädhara (1017-29 A.D.) fought against Mohammad Ghaznï. Before their decline, they were considered to be the paramount power over the Paramäras of Malwa and the Kalachuris of the Narmada region.
Jainism flourished greatly under the patronage of the Chandella rulers by the efforts of merchants who constructed Jaina temples and installed images in them. The Khajuraho inscription dated 953-954 A.D. in the temple of Pärávanätha records a number of gifts and endowments of gardens by one Pähila who claims to have been held in esteem by king Dhaõga. The devotion of the Grahapati family to which Pähila belonged is also evidenced by Áäntinätha image inscription of V.S. 1132 in which it is found that during the reign of Kïrttivarman, the image of Áäntinätha was installed by a group of his hereditary Ministers viz., Pähilla and Jiju. They were disciples of Väsavachandra. One image inscription dated 1147-48 A.D. refers to Paîidhara, his sons Áreshûhin Trivikrama, Älhaîa and Lakshmïdhara of Gôihapati family. Another idol or image was installed by Sälhe, the son of Pähilla in 1157-58 A.D. during the prosperous reign of Madanavarman, and sons of Sälhe were Mahegîa, Mahichandra, Árïchandra, Jinachandra and Udayachandra. Khajuraho has a few Jaina shrines and a large number of Jaina image of the tenth to the twelfth century A.D.
The site of Mahobä has so many Jaina shrines; some of them are dated in the reign of the Chandella kings Jayavarman (1117 A.D.), Madanavarman and Paramardin (C. 1163). The inscription dated 1180 A.D. of the reign of Parmardin records the construction of a Chaitya of Áantinätha at Madaneáa-Sägarapura (i.e. Ahar) by Jahad and Udayachandra, the sons of Áresûhin, Galhaîa, the son of Ralhaîa, the son of Ratnapäla, the son of Devapäla of Grahapati family and resident of Vanapura. Päâäáäha is known to have performed the installation cermony of the three Jaina images Áantinätha, Kunthunätha and Arahanätha in V.S. 1236 at Thubona, Aharajï, Bajarangagarh, and Manahardeva. Dudhai has yielded half-a-dozen foundation inscriptions referring to prince Devalabdhi, grandson of the famous Chandel king Yaáovarman. Remains of several Jaina images and temples were unearthed at Deogarh also known as Kïrttigiri after king Kïrttivarman (C. 1070-1090 A.D.). Sonagiri, Aharjï, Droîagiri and Nainägiri (Reáandïgiri) were Jaina pilgrim places as known from the Präkôit Nirvänakäîda, and several Jaina images of the Chandella period were also discovered at these places.337
Mahoba, Kälañjara, Devagarh, Karagata, Bänapura, Chandapurä, Dudhai and Sairona were great dwellings of wealthy Jainas in Uttara Pradesh during the reign of the Chandellas. Several Jaina temples and images were built here. The Digambara Jaina saints and scholars such as Kamaladeva, Árïdeva, Väsavachandra, Áubhachandra, Guîabhadra visited this region for the propagation of Jainism. In 1063 A.D., Sahaáraküûa Caityälaya was built during the reign of Chandella ruler Kïrttivarman. In 1907, a Jaina temple was constructed at Devagadh. Several Jaina images were installed in 1112 at Mahoba during the rule of Jayavarmä. The image of Neminätha in 1154 and of Sumatinätha in 1156 were constructed by Rüpakara Lakhana. The famous wealthy Árävaka Ratanapäla and his sons built the temple and performed the installation ceremony in 1163 A.D. Áreshûhï Mahipati of Grahapati caste constructed Neminätha Jinälaya and performed its installation ceremony. During the time of Chandella Paramäla (1165-1203 A.D.), several Jaina temples and images were built. A Jaina temple was built at Mahoba in 1167 A.D. by the king himself. Jaina images of the time of Chandella Vïraverman (1274-1278 A.D.) were discovered. Päâäáäha (Bhaãsäáäha), famous trader of this time, built several Jaina temples338 in this region.
29 THE KACHCHHAPAGHÄÛAS
There were three branches of the Kachchhapaghäûa family ruling from Gwalior, Dubkund and Marwar respectively. The earliest known chief of Gwalior branch is Lakshamaîa. In or before 977 A.D., Mahäräjädhiräja Vajradäm, son of Lakshamaîa established his supremacy over Gwalior by defeating the pratïhära ruler of Gwalior. The earliest known ruler of the second branch is Arjuna with his capital at Chandobha (Dubkund). Three generations of the kings of the third branch are known. In the first half of the thirteenth century A.D., the Vajrapäla or Jajepalla dynasty established its supremacy over Marwar. Chähaâadeva was the greatest of the kings in the region of Gwalior, Chanderi, Marwar and Nälava during this period.
Jainism : Jainism made striking progress during this period under the Kachchhapaghäûas, the Pratïhäras and the Yajvapälas. The rulers of these dynasties were followers of Brahmanical religion, but they took interest even in the progress of Jainism. The inscription of 1077 A.D. on the pedestal of Jaina image records the installation of Jaina image in the time of the Kachchhapaghäûa ruler Mahäräjädhiräja Vajradäman of the Gwalior branch. From the Dubkund stone inscription, it is known that encouraged by the teaching of the Jaina monk Vijayakïrti of the Läûavägaûa Gaîa, some Jaina Árävakas (Laymen) constructed Jaina temple, and the Kachchhapaghäta ruler Mahäräjädhiräja of the Dubkund branch made some donation of land and others in favour of this temple in 1088 A.D. There is a memorial of Jaina pillar dated 1095 A.D. of the Great Devasena of the Käshûhä Saãgha at Dubkund. The sites such as Sihonia, Manaharadeva and Sonagiri, became centres of Jainism during the rule of the Kachchhapaghäûas because remains of several Jaina temples and images have been discovered.
There is mention of the name of pilgrim in the inscription dated 1056 A.D. and the name of pilgrim Devachandra in the inscription dated 1077 A.D. of the Jaina temple at Badoh in Vidisha District.
Chanderi, Büâhïchanderi, Thubon, Bhamon, Devagarh etc. developed as great centres of Jainism under the Pratïhäras of Chanderi, and later on under the Yajvapälas of Marwar. Some images installed by Aneáäha in 1226 A.D. have been found at Khaîâäragiri. The Narwar inscription of 1262 A.D., records the construction of Jaina temple by Jaitrasimha, officer of the Yajvapäla ruler Äsaladeva. Nägadeva is known to have installed the image in the Jaina temple.339
- THE PÄLAS AND THE SENAS
After the death of Áaáärika, there prevailed an anarchy for about a hundred years in Bengal. In order to remove anarchy, the notable men of the region elected Gopäla as their ruler who founded the Päla empire in 750 A.D. The greatest king of the Päla dynasty was Gopäla’s son Dharmapäla who ruled from about 770 to 810 A.D. The tripartite struggle for the mstery of Kanauj among the Pratïhäras, the Rashûraküûas and the Pälas started at this time. At first, the Pratïhära ruler Vatsaräja defeated Dharmapäla. After his departure, Dharmapäla made himself the master of Northern India and held a Darbar at Kanauj after placing another king on the throne. Son, the Pratïhära ruler Nägabhaûa II defeated Dharmapäla. Dharmapäla’s son Devapäla excelled his father in his military expolits. During the reign of forty years, he occupied the position of paramaount ruler in North India. His direct rule may not have extended beyond Bengal and Bihar. It did not take long for the Pälas to decline after Devapäla in the twelfth century A.D. Before the advent of the Muslims, the Senas of Bengal built up their power in the twelfth century A.D., and finally destroyed the power of the Pälas.
Jainism began to decline gradually under the Pälas and the Senas in Bengal and Bihar. The Jaina record of the Päla period has been discovered from Baragaon. The inscription belongs to the 24th year of the reign of Räjyapäla who ruled in the first half of the tenth century A.D. The object of the inscription is to record the visit of Vaidanätha, son of Manoratha of the merchant family to the temple. Besides, there are some Jaina idols of this period found at Nalanda.340
Two idols of Jaina Tïrthaõkaras have been discovered at Baniya. An image of Mahävïra (in black Basalt stone) of the Päla period was discovered at Vaiáälï. Several images relating to Jaina cult have been discovered from Räjgôiha.
Twenty-nine bronzes were discovered at Alaura in District Dhanbad of the period ranging from ninth to eleventh century A.D. The Shahbad District has several images of Jaina Tïrthaõkaras. The Chausa hoard also contains the statues not latter than tenth-eleventh century A.D. There are several Jaina idols at National Museum, New Delhi of the tenth or eleventh century A.D.341
One big and beautiful Jaina image was discovered at the village named Surahara in Dinäjpur District (Bengal). A few other Jaina images were also found from this site. Jaina were also known from Mäladäh District, Bengal. These images prove that there was some influence of Jainism in North Bengal during this period.342
The name of famous Somadeva, author of the Yäáasatilakashampü, is mentioned in an inscription dated Áaka year 888. As he has been described as belonging to the Gauâa Saãgha, he seems to be originally a Jaina saint from Bengal. Jainism was known at this time and Jaina monks were held in esteem. Somadeva in his work refers to a Jaina shrine of Tämralipta, the ancient port of Southern Bengal. With the decline of Jainism in Bengal in the tenth century A.D., the monks of this state naturally sought asylum in other parts of the country.343
31 KEÁARÏ DYNASTY OF ORISSA
Two Digambara Jaina inscriptions have been discovered from Udayagiri-Khaîâagiri caves. They belong to the tenth century A.D. and were inscribed during the reign of Udyotakeáarï of the Keáarï dynasty of Orissa. The first inscription344 discovered in the cave called Lalitendu Keáari’s cave was incised in the fifth year of the reign of Udyot Keáarï and refers to the repair of the old Jain temples. It also preserves the name of a Digambara saint called Yaáanandi. This inscription refers to the Udayagiri-Khaîâagiri hills as Kumärï Parvata which reminds us of the Kumärï Parvata of Khäravela’s record. There is also a literary reference to this hill. In the Bôihat Kathä Koáa345 of Harisheîa, composed in 931 A.D., there is mention of Kumäragiri of Oâravishaya. It is the same as Kumäragiri or Kumärïgiri.
The second inscription346 of the eighteenth year of Udyota Keáari’s reign mentions Áubhachandra, the disciple of Kulachandra belonging to the Deáïgaîa and Äryasanghagraha Kula. The Deáï Gaîa is also known from inscriptions found from different places in Karîätaka and Madhya Pradesh347. Another inscription found from the same hill refers to the above mentioned Munis.348 These inscriptions prove that Jainism continued to survive in Orissa up to the tenth century A.D. Afterwards, it gradually almost disappeared.
- PUNJAB, HIMACHAL PRADESH AND HARYANA
Only a few evidences regarding the existence of Jainism in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana are known. An important inscription349 from Kangra, Himachal Pradesh mentions the names of two Jaina saints, belonging to Räjakula Gachchha, which is probably the same as Räjagachchha. A certain Siddharäja is described as a disciple of Süri Amalachandra, a pupil of Abhayachandra Süri. Siddharäja’s son was Dhäîga and Dhäîga’s son Chashûaka. The wife of Chashûaka was Ralhä and the two sons were born of her and both of them were devoted to the law of Jaina. The elder was called Kuîâalaka and the younger Kumära. We are told that they were responsible for the construction of the image of Pärávanätha. This inscription seems to be dated 854 A.D.350
One Árävaka Ratna (Rayana) from Kashmir founded a Maîibimba of Neminätha351 in 932 A.D. on the sacred hill of Raivataka. This shows that there were a few Jainas in Kashmir in the tenth century A.D. Archaeological evidences352 prove that Jainism was not entirely known in some places of Kashmir. Recently, a few Jaina images belonging to the eighth and ninth century A.D. have been discovered from Punjab353. We have later Jaina inscriptions from the Himalayan areas which show that Jainism somehow lingered in those areas till a very late period.
Sindhudeáa included roughly the present District of Multan, Muzaffargarh and Montogomery. One of the chief centres of Jainism in the region was Multan. In V.S. 1169, Jinadattasüri of the Kharataragachchha spent rainy season (Chaturmäsa) here. The Komala Gachchha was already in existence in Multan. The relations between the followers of the Kharataragachchha and those of the Komala Gachchha were not cordial.354
33 THE RASHÛRAKÜTAS
The term ‘Räshtraküûas’ means designated officers in charge of divisions called ‘Räshûras’. The kingdom of the Räshûrakütas was founded by Dantidurga who overthrew the Chälukyas in 750 A.D. and fixed his capital at Mäîyakheûa or Malkheâ near modern Sholapur. The Räshtrakütas soon dominated the entire area of Northern Mahäräshûra. They also engaged with the Pratïhäras for the overlordship of Gujrat and Malwa. Although their raids did not result in the extension of the Räshûraküûa empire to the Ganga valley, they brought rich plunder, and added to the fame of the Räshtraküûas. The Räshûraküûas also fought constantly against the Eastern Chälukyas of Veõgï (modern Andhra Pradesh) and in the South against the Pallavas of the Käñchï and the Päõâyas of Madurai. Probably, the greatest rulers were India III (914-922 A.D.) and Kôishîa III (934-965 A.D.). After the defeat of Mahipäla and the Sack of Kanauj in 915 A.D., Indra III was the most powerful ruler of his times. He was engaged in a struggle against the Paramäras of Malwa and the Eastern Chälukyas of Veõgï. He also launched a campaign against the Chola rulers of Tanjore. After the death of Kôishîa III, the other Räshûraküta feudatories rose up and made themselves independent. This marked the end of the Räshûraküûa empire.
The Räshûraküûa period seems to be the most flourishing period in the history of Jainism in the Deccan. This period produced a galaxy of Jaina authors and preachers. They took active part in the education of the masses. Several Maûhäs were established by the Jainas to the dwellers of which food and medicines were provided, and provision was also made for the Jainas. Many of the Räshûraküûa rulers were not only great patrons of but even showed distinct inclinations towards Jainism. Many of the feudatories and officers of the Rashûrakütas were Jainas. According to A.S. ALTEKAR355, it is very probable that at least one third population of the Deccan of this period was following the gospel of Jainism.
It has been suggested on the basis of a Áravaîa Belagola inscription dated 1229 A.D. that Akalaõka, the great Jaina philosopher, was patronized by Danti durga356. The earliest Räshûraküûa Jaina inscription comes from Áravaîabelagola.357 It refers to the reign of Raîävaloka Kambayya, son of Dhruva and elder brother of Govinda III. This prince was the eldest son of Dhruva and was the governor of Gangväâï under his illustrious father. The inscription records a grant and proves Kambayya’s (Stambha) affection for the Jaina religion. The Mana plates358 dated Áaka 724 also shows that the prince had a soft corner for the Jaina religion.
Govinda III, the younger brother of Stambha and the successor of Dhruva, was probably an admirer of the Jaina religion. The Kadamba plates359 dated 814 A.D. refer to the regin of Prabhütavarsha who is no other than Govinda III. Arhakïriti was successful in removing an evil influence of Saturn on Vimaläditya, who was the sister’s on of Chäkiräja, the ruler of the entire province of the Ganges. It is clear from the inscription that Vimaläditya was Chälukya chief under Chäkiräja, the supreme Räshûraküta Governer of Gaõgäväâï. The grateful Vimläditya and his uncle Chäkiräja were pleased to give an entire village called Jäkamaõgala for a Jaina temple at Áiägräma which was in the western side of Mänyapura.
The success or of Govinda III viz. Amoghavarsha I, who ascended the throne in 814 A.D., was one of the greatest patrons of the Jaina religion in the ninth century. There existed a Jaina shrine in Nasik District which was named after him. A broken slab inscription dated 859 A.D. of the reign of Amoghavarsha refers to a Jaina shrine constructed by one Nägalüra pollabe and therefore it was known as Nägula Vasedi. This inscription records the gift of land made as a lifetime document for the temple by several villagers. The gift was received on behalf of the temple by Näganandin Ächärya of the Singhavura gaîa. According to the Konnur stone inscription360 dated 860 A.D. of the reign of the same king in Nawalgund Taluk in Dharwar District, emperor Amoghavarsha I while residing at Mänyakheûa, at the request of his subordinate Baõkeáa (Baõkeya) in recognition of the important services, rendered by him granted the village of Teleyur and some land of other villages for the benefit of a Jaina sanctuary founded by Baõkeya at Kolanara to the sage Devendra, who was disciple of Trïkälayogïáa, belonging to the Pustaka Gachchha, Deáïya Gaîa and Müla Saãgha. It is interesting to note that the opening verse of the inscription invokes the blessing of both Vishîu and Jinendra. This reveals the spirit of Jainism.
A number of literary works very clearly prove that Amoghavarsha was a converted Jaina. Guîabhadra, the author of the Uttarapuräîa and a contemporary of Amoghaversha I asserts that his preceptor Jinesena was a Guru of that celebrated Räshûraküûa monarch361. That Amoghavarsha was believer in the doctrine of Syädväda is also repeated in the Gaîita-sära362. Saõgraha of Mahävïrächärya, who was an exact contemporary of that monarch. Amoghavarsha himself in his Praánotararatnamäla363 pays homage to Vardhamäna.
A few contemporary Jaina writers have clearly shown their pious Zeal for this great Räshûraküûa King. Áäkaûäyana, a contemporary Jaina grammaniam wrote a commentary on his own grammatical work and named it as Amoghavôitt. This shows his respect for that Räshûraküûa monarch. Jinasena himself is full of praise for this great Räshûraküûa monarch. Another contemporary Jaina writer viz Ugraditya, the author of the medical treatise Kalyäîakäraka364 which was composed on Mt. Rämagiri refers to the fact that he delivered a discourse on the uselessness of meat diet in the court of Árïtuõga-Vallabha Mahäräjädhiräja who is no other than Amoghavarsha-I. A few verses of the Kaviräjamärga are in praise of Jine365. Two famous Digambara commentaries namely Dhavalä and Jayadhevatä were named after Amoghvarsha I who was also as Dhavala and Atiáaya Dhavala. So much was the influence of Jainism on him that he had abdicated his thine more than once.
King Amoghavarsha’s son and successor was Kôishîa II. He appointed Guîabhadra as the preceptor of his son Kôishna II; so if not a full-fledged Jaina, he was at least a patron of Jainism. In the Mulaguîâa inscription366 dated 902 A.D., we are told during the time of Kôishîa II, his governor Chikärya, son of Chandrärya, the Governor of Dhavala-Vishaya of Varavaiáya caste constructed a lofty temple of Jina at the town of Mulaguîda. His younger brother Arsärya, described as proficient in a few Ägama made an endowment for the maintenance of the Jinälaya built hy his father.
Krishîa II was probably the patron of Guîabhadra, the author of the Uttarapuräîa. This work was completed by Guîabhadra’s disciple Lokasena in the reign of Kôishîa II. Lokasena’s patron was Lokäditya who was Governor of Bänkïpura in Vanaräsï under that Räshûraküta king. This Lokäditya was a patron of Jainism as we learn from the praáasti of the Uttarapuräîa367. Guîabhadra himself claims that Kôishîa II was his disciple368. An inscription from Áravaîabelagola369 connects a Jaina Saint called Paravädimalla with one Kôishîaräja identified with the Räshûraküûa monarch. There is another Jaina inscription370 dated 902 A.D. mentioning Lokäditya and his overlord Kôishîa II.
The next king Indra III also had some fascination for the Jaina religion. From the Dähavulapädu pillar inscription371 it is known that Árïvijaya, general of king Indra III, voluntarily resigned this world and became a Jaina-ascetic. From the same place, another Jaina inscription372 of Indra III has been discovered. One more Jaina inscription373 of the reign of Indra III dated 916 A.D. discovered from Karajgi Täluk of Dharwar District, Karnataka, records the grant of a village called Vutavura by the Mahäsämanta Leîâeyarasa. An important Jaina inscription of Indra III was found from Nasik District. An inscription of C.900 A.D. from Belgaum District Karîätaka States that a Jaina Saint called Neminätha, the preceptor of Maîichandra, was like a moon in the Ocean, which was the dynasty of the Räshûraküta’s374 kings of his times. Evidently, this Jaina monk was held in highest esteem by the Räshûraküûa kings of his time.
For the reign of Govinda IV, there are two Jaina inscriptions375 dated 925 A.D. and 932 A.D. both discovered from the modern Karîätaka state. The first dated 925 A.D. refers to a Jinälaya built by one Nägayya376. It also refers to another Jinälaya called Dhora Jinälaya at Baõkäpura with the preceptor Chandra-Prabha Bhaûära as its head. This Jaina priest is described as administering a village called Pasundi (modern Asuîâi), which probably shows that the village was an endowment for this Jaina temple377. The second inscription dated 932 A.D. discovered from Adoni Taluk of Bellary district, refers to a Jaina temple, built by queen Chandi Yabbe, wife of Kanhara, the Governor (mahäsämanta) of Sindavädi, 1000. We are told that this queen constructed a Jaina temple at Nandavara and made suitable provision for its maintenance. This inscription also refers to a Jaina Guru called Padmanandin. This Kanhara is the prince Krishîa III who at this time, was a Governor under his cousin Govinda IV.378
Krishîa III was one of the greatest members of the Räshûraküûa dynasty. Two inscriptions of his reign have been discovered from the holy Kopbal area in Raichur District of his reign. The earlier one379 dated 940 A.D. refers to Akälavarsha Kannardeva and he was no other than Kôishîa III. The second inscription380 dated 964 A.D. found near Kopbal is an important Jaina record. It reveals the existence of a feudatory king of Räshûraküûa called Áaõkaragaîâa II who erected a Jaina shrine called Jayadhïra Jinälaya which was apparently named after him, Jayadhïra being one of his titles. This chief is mentioned in the Ajitatïrthaõkara puräîatilakam381 of the Kanarese poet Ranna, who wrote this work in 993 A.D. According to that poet, Áaõkaragaîâa was a great Jaina patron. From the combined testimony of epigraphy and literature, it appears that this Räshûraküûa Governor was a great promoter of Jainism in Karîäûaka during the tenth century. It appears from the title Rattarameru given to him in this inscription that Áaõkaragaîâa was of the Räshûraküûa extraction. We further learn from this epigraph that another Räshûraküûa feudatory namely Raûûaya, of Chälukya lineage, donated some land for the temple erected by Áaõkaragaîâa II, and Näganaõdi Paîâita Bhaûära received the endowment on behalf of the temple.
A few other Jain inscriptions of the reign of Kôishîa III are known. One such inscription382 has been discovered from Tirumalai hill near Polür (N. Arcot) in Tamil Nadu, which records the gift of a lamp made to the Yaksha on the sacred Tirumalai hill by a servant of the queen of Kôishîa III. More than a dozen Jaina epigraphs and a number of Rock-cut Jaina figures have been discovered from the same hill. There is another Jaina inscription383 of the time of Kôishîa III found from Naregal in the Roî Täluk of Dharwal District. According to this, the wife of Gaõga Bütuga II called Padmabbaresi, constructed a Jaina temple at Naregal, and in 950 A.D., the grant of a tank to the charity house, attached to the temple, was made by a subordinate chief called Namayara Märasimghayya.
The celebrated Jaina poet Somadeva wrote the Yaáastilakachampu during the reign of this great Räshûraküûa monarch in the Áaka era year 881. Another Jaina literary figure namely Indranandi Yogindra composed his Jvälämälinïkalpa384 at Malkheâ in Áaka era year 861 during the reign of Kôishîa III.
There are a few Jaina inscriptions of the reign of Khoûûiga, the brother and successor of Kôishîa III. An inscription from Chitaldurg District 908 A.D. mentions the fact that Jakki Sundarï, the wife of Pandayya, a Chälukyan feudatory of Khoûûiga built a Jaina temple, for which her husband gave a grant.385 Another inscription, praising, the Jaina religion, of his reign has been discovered from Dharwar District386.
The last prominent name in the Räshûraküûa dynasty is that of king Indra IV. An inscription from Áravaîa Belgola387 dated 982 A.D. shows that he died like a true Jaina. It also bestows lavish praise on him, and we are told that as a believer in the doctrine of Mahävïra, he never spoke a lie.
34 UNDER THE PALLAVAS
The Pallavas seem to be descended from the Näga chieftains who were the vassals of Sätavähana chieftains. The rise of the Pallavas in the Deccan is connected with the breck of Sätavähana empire, and very soom, they occupied Kanchi. A new Pallava dynasty was then founded by Siãhavishîu. He extended his sway up to the Käverï at the cost of the Cholas, and is further said to have defeated the Päîâyas, Kalabhras and the Mälavas. Siãhavishîu was succeeded by his son Mahendravarman I. A few years after his accession, there began a deadly and long drawn struggle between the Pallavas and the Chälukyas for supermacy in the South. After the death of Mahendravarman I, his son Narasiãhavarman I ascended the throne about the beginning of the second quarter of the seventh century A.D. He is one of the most striking personalities among the Pallava potentiates. He successfully repulsed the onslaughts of Pulakeáin II. He also sent two naval expeditions to Ceylon in support of Mänavarma, a claimant to the throne. In about 655 A.D., Parameávara Varman I ascended to the throne. During his time, the old enmity between the Pallavas and the Chälukyas revived, and as usual both sides claim victories for themselves. Then, Narasiãhavarman II succeeded in about the last decade of the Seventh century A.D. His reign was marked by peacs and prosperity. Narasiãhavarman was succeeded by Parameávaravarman II. When Parameávarvarman II died, his kingdom was involved in civil war. People eventually chose as king a popular prince named Nandivardhana who ruled for sixty-five years. During the reign of Nandivarman, there was a renewal of the Pallava-Chälukya animosity. The last important sovereign was Aparajitavarman ( 876-895 A.D.).
Jainism was in flourishing conditions in Tamil Näâu during the Pallava period. Siãhavishîu was a patron of the Jainas. There is also reason to believe that Pallava Mahendravarman I himself was a Jaina in his early life388. However, it is evident from the Mattaviläsa-prahasana that Mahendravarman I became a Áaiva under the influence of Appar, the noted South Indian Áaiva philosopher. After his conversion, this king became a persecutor of the Jaina. The earliest Pallava inscription connected with Jainism probably belongs to the reign of Parameávaravarman I (670-695 A.D.) and it was found at Nalajanampadu389 in Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh. The Parameávara Pallaväditya of this record is identical with Parameávara I and he is described here as meditating on the feet of the supreme master, the Lord Arhat.
A few Jaina Pallava inscriptions of the reign of Nandivarman II Pallavamalla (730-800 A.D.) are known. A rock inscription390 from Kil-Sattamangalam dated in the 14th year of that king in Wandiwash Taluk of North Arcot District in Tamil-Nandu records an endowment of seven Kalañju of Gold by Andai Ilaiyar Pavaîandi of the village for feeding ascetics excluding the manager of the monastery. From the same site, two more Jaina inscriptions of the reign of the same king have been discovered. Both the epigraphs are dated in the 56th year of Nandivarman II. One of them391 records an endowment of seventeen Kalanju of gold to a palli called Pavanandivar (named after the ascetic) for the merit of Püîâit Muppavai. The Jaina saint Pavanandi may be identified with the person of the same name the author of the Naîîul, a Tamil grammatical text392.
Another Jaina shrine is mentioned in an inscription found from Agalur, Giõgee Täluk of South Arcot District. This is dated in the 50th year of Nandivarman II393. An undated inscription394 which has been assigned to this king was discovered from Kanchi in Chingleput District and records the gift to an Arhat temple. This epigraph, it is interesting to note, mentions an Ächärya Äjivikadaráana, who probably cured Lokamahädevï, the queen of Narasimhavarman II.
The next Jaina Pallava inscription395 belongs to the reign of Kampavarman, who is identified with Dantivarman, son of Nandivarman II who ruled in the last half of the ninth century A.D. This inscription is dated in the sixth year of Kampavarman’s reign. This record gives a very clear idea regarding a Jaina complex of the Pallava period. The inscription records the renovation of the temple, addition of mukhamaîâapa and the gift of a big bell to the Palli by Madevi, the wife of Käâagadiyariyar396. It appears that this entire temple-complex was possibly called Palli. It had a main shrine, dedicated to Jina, with a maîâapa in front, a subsidiary shrine of Yakshï and the monastery (Päli) where the Jaina monks lived. This Palli is there called the temple of Tïrthaõkara Vimala. This epigraph records the sale of land by one Baladevapidäran, a disciple of Árï Nandidevar for the maintenance of a perpetual lamp in the temple.
The Nulamba Pallavas, who came into the limelight during the ninth and tenth centuries A.D., ruled in parts of modern Karîäûaka and were feudatories of the Western Gaõgas. Three inscriptions of the time of Nolamba Mahendra are connected with the Jaina religion. The earliest epigraph dated 878 A.D. discovered from the fort at Dharampuri in Tamil Nadu records a grant397 to a Jaina temple. The second Jaina inscription398 of his reign bears the date Áaka 815 corresponding to 893 A.D. It records that two citizens called Chaîâiyaîîa and Nandiyaîîa after receiving the gift of the village of Müllapalli from the king donated it to Kanakasena Siddhänta, the pupil of Vinayasena Siddhänta of the Pogarïya Gaîa, Senänvaya and Mülasaãgha for the repirs of the basadi at Dharmapuri. The inscription further informs that the basadi was originally built by the two above mentioned citizens who are described as sons of the Setti of Árimaõgala. Dharamapuri was known in ancient times as Tagaâüru399.
The third Jaina inscription of Mahendra’s reign has been found from Hemävatï in Anantapur District of Andhra Pradesh. This damaged stone inscription400 records some donations to a local Jaina temple by Mahendra and his son Ayyapa. Another Jaina inscription401 of this Ayyapa has been found from the same site which contains the second inscription of his father Mahendra. It records the fact that Ayyapadeva, presented the village called Budugüru to Lokäyya, who was the younger brother of Dasayya and who is described as the illuminator of the doctrine of the Arhats. And this Lokäyya presented it to the Jaina basadi built by Nidhiyaîîa, apparently the same temple, mentioned in Mahendra’s inscription of Áaka 815. This stone epigraph proves that Mehendra and his son were patrons of Jainism. The undated inscription of Ayyapa is assigned402 to the early tenth century A.D. It should also be pointed that Mahendra’s epigraph of Áaka 815 begins with an invocation to Jinendra403.
A Bäîa records of about the ninth century A.D. found from Vallamalai (North Arcot) which records the setting-up of an image of Devasena, the pupil of Bhavanandin and the spiritual preceptor of the king404.
- THE IMPERIAL CHOLAS
The Chola empire, which arose in the ninth century, covered a large part of the Peninsulars. The Chola rulers overran and conquered Árï Lanka and the Moldiva Islands as well. For some time, their rule also extended over Kaliõga and Tungabhadrä doab. They had a powerful navy, and made their influence felt in the country of South-East Asia. The Chola empire undoubtedly marks a climax in the history of South-India.
The founder of the Chola empire was Vijayalaya who was at first a Pallava feudatory. He captured Tanjore in 850 A.D. and fought the Pandyan kings. By 897 A.D., the Cholas were strong enough to defeat and kill the Pallava king and conquered the entire Toõâamaîâala. The Cholas had to struggle hard against the Räshûraküûas. In 949 A.D., the Räshûraküûa king, Kôishîa III defeated the Chola king, Paräõtaka – I and annexed the northern part of the Chola empire. This was a serious setback to the Cholas, but they rapidly recovered after the downfall of the Räshûraküta empire.
The greatest Chola rulers were Räjäräja (985-104 A.D.) and his son Räjendra I (1012-1044 A.D.). Räjäräja I turned his attention towards the Päîâyas, the Cheras and their ally, the ruler of Árï Laõkä. He destroyed the Chera navy at Trivandrum, and attacked Quilon. He, then, conquered Madurai and captured the Päîâyan king. He also invaded Árï Laõkä and annexed its Northern-part to his empire. Räjendra-I carried forward the annexationist policy of Räjäräja by completely over running the Päîâya and Chera countries, and including them in his empire. The conquest of Árï Länkä was completed. The Chola power began to decline after Räjendra Chola. At the beginning of the eleventh century and the beginning of the twelfth century A.D., the Päîâyas recovered their lost territory from the Cholas and at the same time, new powers like the Hoysalas and Käkatiyäs established their independant kingdoms.
A good number of inscriptions, connected with Jainism belonging to the Chola period show that the Jainas were present almost everywhere in the vast Chola empire. The imperial Cholas were followers of Brahmanical religion, they were somhow tolerant in the matters of religion. The earliest Jaina-inscription of the time of the Imperial Cholas belonging to the reign of Äditya I (871-207 A.D.) was discovered from Veâal in Arkonam Täluk of North Arcot District405. This epigraph records an undertaking given by the lay disciples at Viâal alias Mädevi-Arandaimaõgalam in Singapura Näâu to protect and feed along with her lady pupils Kanakvïra Kurattiyär, a woman ascetic and disciple of the teacher Guîakïrttibhaûûäraka. This epigraph, dated in the 14th regal year of Äditya (Räjakeáarïvarman) further refers to the dispute between 500 male pupils and 400 female ascetics. It was evidently a very big Jaina establishment. It further appears that the female ascetic, mentioned in this epigraph, was the daughter of an influential person. An earlier epigraph from the same site belongs to the reign of Nandivarman II406, where the Jaina temple complex is called Vidär-Palli-Mädevi Arandaimangalam, mentioned in the epigraph of the time of Äditya was another name of Viâäl. An earlier Jaina inscription407 dated in the second year of Räjaáekharavarman probably also belongs to the reign of Äditya I. It was found from Tirunagesvarman on the Southern bank of the Käverï. It registers gifts made by merchants in Kumärmarataîâapuram to meet the cost of reparis to the enclosure called Manukumäramärtaîâan and the Gopura of Miläâiyarpalli. From another epigraph, it appears408 that Kumäramärtaîâan was a surname of the Pallava king Nandivarman II.
Of the reign of Paräntaka I (907-955 A.D.), there are several inscriptions. The first epigraph409 is dated in the third year of Paräntaka I was found from Toîâur in Gingee Täluk of South Arcot District. It records the endowment of a village with two gardens and wells as Pallichchandam to the Jaina teacher Vachchirsiõga IIamperumänaâigal at parambür and his disciple by the Chief Vinnakovaraiyan Vayiri Malaiyan. There is another Jaina epigraph410 of the same year from Tirakkot in Wandiwash Täluk in North Arcot District. It records a gift of 200 sheep for the Jaina temple called Maisitta Perumballi at Áridaîâapuram in Ponnur Näâu by one Era Nandi alias Naratoõga Pallavariyam of Nelveli, which is probably situated in Tanjore District411. The same Jaina shrine is also mentioned in another Tamil record of the tenth century.
There is an epigraph412 of the fourth year of Paräntaka found from Polur Täluk of North Arcot District. This inscription records a gift to the Jaina temple of this place by two persons recruited from Karîäta country. The gift was made for feeding a devotee and for daily offering to Palliyälvär i.e. Jaina Tïrthaõkara. A somewhat later Chola inscription413 (dated in the 12th year of Rajendra I) refers to the fact that in the earlier time a Pallava queen had made provision for the burning of a perpetual lamp in the Jaina shrine of this hill.
An inscription414 of about 945 A.D. of the reign of Paräntaka I found from Villäpakkam in North Arcot District refers to the sinking of a well by one nun called Paûûini Kuratti Aâigal. As the very name signifies, she was an eminent lady teacher. According to the same source, she was a disciple of a saint called Arishûanemï Bhaûärar of the Jaina establishment of Tiruppänmalai. It is known from the inscription that the Jaina residents of the place had organised themselves and constituted a representative council of twenty-four members to look after their interest.
A number of Jaina inscriptions belonging to the immediate successors of Paräntaka I are known. The most important of such inscriptions is the copper plate record415 from Pallankovil situated in Tirutturaipundi Täluk of Tanjor District. The inscription discloses the existence of a Jaina temple (Palli) founded by Áaletti Kuâiyan. The name of the shrine is given as Sundaraáolapperumballi, apparently named after Sundara Chola, the grandson of Paräantaka I. The gift provided for the maintenance of Chandranandi Bhaûäro alias Mundidevar of Nandisaãgha who most probably presided over the Jaina establishment to which male and female ascetics were attached. Since the temple was named after Sundara Chola (956-973 A.D.), it seems to have been built in the third quarter of the tenth century A.D. In this connection, we should also refer to the Udayendiram plates of Hastiamlla416, according to which the Digambara Jainas had an ancient Pallichchandam comprising two paûûis of land which were specially excluded from the gift of the village of Kadaikkottür made in the reign of Paräntaka I.
At Sirrämur in South Arcot District, an inscription of the seventeenth year of a Räjakeáari (probably Sundara Chola 956-973 A.D.) records the provision of a lamp in the Maîâapa of the temple of Pärávanätha in which the scripture was expounded417. So far as the reign of Räjaräja I (985-1014 A.D.) is concerned, we have already referred to a Jaina inscription of his time. There is another Jaina inscription418 of the eighth year of his reign which mentions one Läûaräja Vïra Chola, who was a tributary of the Chola king. At the request of his wife, he assigned to the god Tiruppanmalai certain income derived from the village Kuraganapäâi (modern Kurambadi, near Arcot town). The Chola feudatory is described as a worshipper at the holy feet of the god Tiruppamalai. Kundavai, the elder sister of Räjaräja I had strong afffection for the Jaina religion.
- THE PÄÎÂYAS OF MADURÄ
The Päîâyas ruled the Southern extremity of the Indian peninsula along the east-west. Its capital was Madurä. Kuâuõgon or his son Märavarman Ayanisulämaõi came into conflict with the Pallava ruler Siãavishîu. The next notable Päîdya king was Arikeáarï Märavarman (C. 650 A.D.) identified with Neâumaran. During the reign of Arikeáarï Märavarman and his successors, Kuchchadayan, Raîadhira (C. 800 A.D.), Märavarman Räjasiãha I and Nedunjaâayan Varaguîa I (C. 765-815 A.D.), the Pandya suzerainty continued to expand on all sides at the expense of the Cholas, Keralas and other neighbours. His son and successor Árï Mara-Árï Vallabha (C. 815-62 A.D.) distinguished himself by defeating the king of Ceylon as well as a combination of the Pallavas, Gahcas and the Cholas, etc. at kuâomukku. The Cholas, the Pallavas and the Gaõgas together gained a decisive victory over the Päîdya monarch Varaguîavarman or Varaguîa II about 880 A.D. Besides this heavy blow, the Pänâyas had to face another serious complication owing to the rise of the Cholas. Thus, the Päîâya kingdom lost its independence, and it had to suffer the Chola yoke from about 920 A.D. to the commencement of the thirteenth century.
Of course, the ruling family was not extirpated, and from time to time, it made serious attempts to throw off the Chola suzerainty. The uprising headed by Vïra Päîâya was putdown. The Päîâya territories thus became a mere province of the Chola empire. But despite this control, the Päîâvas continued to revolt. Soon the Cholas sank fast into insignificance, and the Päîâyas gradually regained much of their lost glory and importance. The accession of Jaûavarman and Kulaáekhara in 1190 A.D. may be regarded as a turning point in the fortunes of the Päîdyas. From now on, their recovery began and for a century or more they dominated the political stage in Southern India. During the reign of Jaûävarman, Kulaáekhara’s successor, Märavarman Sundara Päîâyal (C. 1216-38 A.D.), the Cholas had to recede further into the background. In the time of Märavarman, Sundara Päîdya II (C. 1238-51 A.D.), the Chola-Päîâya-Hoysala relations remained almost unchanged. The next ruler, Jaûävarman Sundara Päîâya (C. 1251-72 A.D.) was however, a vigorous personality, and he raised the Päîdyas to the pinnacle of their power. He finally crushed Chola authority in the South, occupied Käñchï and subdued the Chera country, Kongudeáa and Ceylon. There was a fratricidal struggle between his illegitimate son, Vira Päîâya and the legitimate Sundara. Taking advantage of this situation, their territories were conquered by the Kholjis.
Jainism was prevalent during the rule of the Pandyas. The earliest Jaina inscription419 of this dynasty comes from Chitaral in the former Travancore State. The record in Tamil language and Vaûûeluttu characters, belongs to the 28th year of the reign of Varaguîa I (C. 765-815 A.D.)420 alias Neâuñjadayan. The epigraph belongs to the last quarter of the eighth century A.D. It records a gift of golden ornaments known as the holy hill of the Chäraîas, made by the lady teacher Guîandängi Kurattigal, disciple of Arishûanemi Bhaûära of Perayakkuâi. Two more inscriptions of the reign of this king are known and both come from Ramanathapuram District. They make mention421 of Trukkäûûämpalli which seems to have been a Jaina temple at Kurandai, an important Jaina centre422 at Venbunäâu.
There is a historically important Jaina inscription of the reign of Veraguîa II. This is the Aivarmalai stone inscription423 found from Palni Täluk of Madural District. The epigraph is incised above the natural cave on the Aivarmalai hill, so well known for its Jaina relics. Unlike most of the Päîâyan epigraphs, it yields a definite date, viz., Áaka 792 corresponding to 870 A.D. which according to the epigraph, was the eighth regnal year of Varaguna II. It registers a gift of 500 Käîam of gold by Áäntivïro Kkuravar of Kälam, the disciple of Guîavïrakkura Vaâigal for offering to the images of Päráva Bhaûära (i.e. Pärávanätha) and of the attendant Yakshïs and for the feeding of one ascetic. The inscription, therefore, indirectly proves that the temple complex of this hill, dedicated to Päráva, existed before the date of this inscription. Another important Päîâyan Jaina inscription is dated in the 20th year of Saâayan Märan424 identified by some with Räjasiãha II (C. 900-920 A.D.), although Sastri, it appears, believes that he was a different person425. The inscription was discovered from Uttamapaliyam in Periyakulam Täluk of Madurai District. The epigraph is much damaged but definitely refers to a Jaina shrine of this hill, known for its Jaina antiquities. The Päîâyan king Räjasiãha II is said to have endowed several Jaina temples426 which proves that he was a Jaina patron.
- THE WESTERN GAÕGAS
The Western Gaõga rulers were great patrons of Jainism. Nïtimarga I (853-870 A.D.) and his second son Bütuga were devout Jainas. Marasiãha (880-900 A.D.) was a disciple of Ajitasena, and was a staunch Jaina. He actively supported the renowned Jaina scholars, mäintained the Jaina doctrine, caused basadis and mänastambhas to be erected at several places, and, after abdication, ended his life by Sallekhanä. His minister Chämuîâaräya, one of the triumvirate of the special promoters of Jainism, was a brave general and possessed several exceptional virtues including liberality. Nemichandra and Ajitasena were his preceptors. He gave many endowments for the love of Jainism; caused the collosal image of Gommaûa to be set up at Áravaîabelagola; constructed a basadi on Chikkabetta at Áravaîa Belagola and patronized the Kannaâa author Ranna. His example was followed by his successors and feudatories.
- THE LATER CHALUKYAS
The age of the Räshûrakütas (754-974 A.D.) was immediately followed by that of the later Chälukyas. It is alleged that they persecutted the Jainas but there are instances to prove that they also patronized Jainism. We read that Jailapa II had strong weakness for Jainism, and patronized Ranna Kaviratna, the author of Ajita-puräîa, who received the title ‘Kavichakravartin’ from the king. Tailapa’s son Satyäáraya constructed a monument (nisidhi) in honour of his Jaina guru. One of his successors Jayasiãha III, caused a basadi to be constructed at Balipura. Members of the royal family, high State officials, vassal Kings and feudal lords, sometimes, followed Jaina faith, and were either Árävakas or Árävikas. Some of the Eastern Chälukyas were Jainas of patrons of that religion and made pious endowments to that faith. Three records of Ammaräja II speak of Jainism as a very popular religion in the tenth century. A Kannaâa inscription at Rämatïrtham, near Vizianagram of the reign of king Vimaläditya (1022 A.D.) states that Trikälayogin Siddhäntadeva Muni, Ächärya of Deáïgaîa, who was a guru of the king, paid respects to the Rämatirtham hill which was regarded as the place of pilgrimage by the Jainas.
- THE WESTERN CHALUKYAS
Tailapa, the founder of the Western Chälukya dynasty, was the patron of the great Kannaâa poet Raîîa. The next king Satyäáraya received spiritual guidance from a Jaina teacher named Vimala Chandra Paîâitadeva of the Dräviâa Saãgha. Many other kings of this dynasty such as Jayasiãha II, Someávara I and II, and Vikramäditya IV, showed favour to the Jaina faith by patronizing Jaina writers and giving lands to Jaina teachers and Jaina temples.427
40 THE ÁILÄHÄRAS
There are three branches of the Áilähära family known to history. The oldest Áilähära house ruled over South Konkan from the last quarter of the eighth century A.D. The second family held sway over Northern Konkan for roughly four centuries. The third Áilähära branch established its authority about the commencement of the eleventh century A.D. in Kolahapur and the Districts of Satärä and Belgaum. This family enjoyed more independence and one of its kings, Vijayärka or Vijayäditya, is said to have helped Vijjana or Bijjala in bringing about the downfall of the last Chälukya sovereign. The most notable monarch of the line was, however, Bhoja (C. 1175-1210 A.D.) after whom the kingdom was conquered by Singhaîa, the Yädava prince.
The tutelary deity of the Áilähäras was Mahälakshmï, but they also extended patronage to Jainism as known from the literary and inscriptional records of the age. There is a shrine of Arhat at Irukuâï by Gaîâaräditya. He built another temple of the Jaina Tïrthaõkara Neminätha at Ajurikä (modern Äjre in Kolhapur District) and named it Tribhuvanatilaka which was one of his own birudas.
Several other Jaina temples erected at different places in the Áilähära Kingdom find mention in the records of the age. Thus, there was a temple of Pärávanätha at the village Havina Herelige (modern Herla), which was built by one Väsudeva, the Haâapavala (betel-box carrier) of Áamanta Kämädeva, who owed allegiance to the Áilähära king Vijayäditya.428 Another temple of Pärávanätha was at Maîdalur (modern Madur, Kolhapur District). At the request of maternal uncle Sämanta Lakshmaîa, king Vijayäditya granted some land to the disciple Arhannadi Siddhäntadeva of Mäghanandi Saiddhäntika, who officiated as the pontiff of the temple429. A third temple of Pärávanätha was built at Kavaâegolla by Nimbadevarasa, a Sämanta of Gaîâaräditya. It received several donations of rates and taxes from the famous merchant guild of the age, viz., the Vïra-Baîañjas of Ayyävole (modern Ahihola in the Bijapur District).
Nimbadevarasa was a brave Sämanta of the Áilähära king Gaîâaräditya. He was as devout as he was brave. His construction of a temple of Pärávanätha at Kavuâegolla has been mentioned. He erected two more Jaina temples in Kolhapur. Nimbadeva, a Sämanta of Gaîâaräjaditya, built the Chaityalaya.430 Nimbaradeva was a lay disciple of the Jaina Muni Mäghanandi of Kundänvaya. Nimbadeva claims that he had obtained the boon of the Jaina goddess Padmävatï. He erected another temple at Kolhapur and named it Rüpanäräyaîa which was a Biruda of his suzerain Gaîâaräditya. This is explicitly stated in an inscription, at the Jaina Vasati at Teradäl in the former Sängli State.431 Nimbaradeva belonged to the Sarasvatïgachchha, the Deáïyagaîa and the Mülasaãgha, and was of the ämnaya (line) of Kundakundachärya. He placed his Guru Mäghanandi Saiddhäntika in charge of the temple of Rüpanäräyaîa, a famous centre of Jainism. It is mentioned in several records of the age. It is now called the temple of Mänastambha.
Mäghanandi Siddhäntika was a great ascetic, highly venerated for his learning and piety. According to the Terädäl inscription432, he preached the principles of Jainism to all people and was saluted by the Áamanta Nimba.
Mäghanandi is also greatly extolled in an inscription at Áravaîa Belagola.433 He was the prince of ascetics. He had several powerful lay disciples as well as the Áamantas Kedäranäkarasa, Nimbaradeva and Kämadeva.434 Several of his religious disciples are mentioned in inscriptions of the period such as Árutakïrti, Traividya, Gaîâavimuktadeva435, Mäîikyanandi, Pandita436 and Arhanandi Siddhäntadeva.437
Mäghanandi is said to have founded a tirth (holy-place) in Kolhapur. He was evidently the founder of the Maûha at Kolhapur which became a powerful centre of Jainism in that period. When Nimbadeva erected the temple of Pärávanätha, he placed Mäghanandi his Guru in charge of it. The temple was known as Rüpanäräyana, a biruda of Sämanta Nimbadeva’s suzerain Gaîâaräditya. Later Mäghanandi appointed Árutakïrti-Traividya as the priest of Rüpanäräyaîa.438 The latter also was a learned man.
The temple of Rüpanäräyaîa became the centre of Jaina religious activities in that period. Árutakïrti-Traividya, though the priest of the Rüpanäräyaîa temple in Kolhapur, received gifts of rates and taxes levied on commodities sold in the market of Kavaâegolla for the benefit of the temple of Pärávanätha at that place.439 This shows that the affairs of the temple were controlled from the centre at the Rüpanäräyaîa temple in Kolhapur.
Another disciple of this Mäghanandi Saiddhäntika viz. Mäîikyanandi Pandita is mentioned in another stone inscription placed in the courtyard of the Rüpanäryaîa temple at Kolhapur.440 He was the priest of the Chaityälaya of Pärávanätha erected probably at Hävina-Harilige (modern Herle in Kolhapur District) by one Värideva, the betel-box carrier of Sämanta Kämadeva. The inscription records the gifts of a field and a house in favour of the temple.
Another disciple of Mäghanandi Saiddhäntika, viz. Arhanandï Saiddhäntadeva is known from the stone inscription originally belonging to the Jaina Vasati of Pärávanätha at Bamani,441 a village near Kägal in the Kolhapur District. The temple had been erected by one Chaudhore-Kämagävuîâa, and the gift of a field together with a flower-garden was made in its favour by king Vijayäditya at the request of his maternal uncle Sämanta Lakshmaîa for the spiritual benefit of the latter’s family.
Another temple dedicated to the Tïrthaõkara Chandraprabha was built by Nemagävuîâa at the instance of Nägaladevï, who was probably the mother of Gaîâaräditya. It was at Hävina-Herilige, modern Herle in the Kolhapur District. Like the Rüpanäräyaîa temple of Kolhapur, it was named after a biruda of Gaîâaräditya, viz. Tribhuvanatilaka, Its priest Áantivïra-Siddhäntadeva, was a disciple of Bälachandra-Vrati who is glorified in the Neminäthapuräîa of Karîapärya, and who was patronized by Lakshmïdhara, a minister of the Áilähära king Vijayäditya. The inscription at Herle records the grant of one Mattara of land and a garden for the worship of the Tïrthaõkara Chandraprabha. It is dated in 1118 A.D. The gifts made to the Jaina priests who were disciples of the Jaina Muni Mäghanandi Saiddhäntika will show what influence the centre of Jainism exerted on the religious life of the adherents of that religion in the territory of the Kolhapur Áilähäras.
Mäghanandï Saiddhäntika was venerated beyond the dominion of the Áilähäras of Kolhapur. Goõka, who was a feudatory of the Chälukya Emperor Vikramäditya VI, erected a temple of Neminätha, called Goõka Jinälaya after him at Teridäla, modern Terdäl in the former Sängli state.442 The inscription set up near the temple states that Goõka invited the venerable Mäghanandï Saiddhäntika of Kolhapur, the preceptor of Áamanta Nembhadeva evidently for the consecration of the temple. The Terdäl inscription mentions several disciples of the Mäghanandi Saiddhäntika. The last mentioned Vardhamäna received the grant made to the Goõka Jinälaya.
Not only kings and Sämantas but ordinary people also erected Jaina temples, some of them are whom from inscriptional records. An inscription of the image of Pärávanätha at Honnur near Kägal in Kolhapur District records certain gifts made by Áilähära brothers Balläla and Gaîâaräditya for the temple erected by Bamma-gävüîâa, the chief of a District.443 At Shedhal in Belgaon District, there was a Jaina temple erected by the Koûûaligas of the place. A stone inscription discovered at the place records certain rates and taxes voluntarily granted to the temple by the local guilds and also some more levied on the marriage performed locally.444
Some of the Munis connected with those Jaina Vasatis were engaged in literary activities.445 There is a controversy among scholars about authorship of some works by Árutakïrti-Travidya, the disciple of Mäghanandï Saiddhäntika. There is however incontrovertible evidence about the literary activities of two other Jaina authors who flourished in the Áilähära dominion in that age. One of them was Karõapärya, the author of the Kannaâa work Neminäthapuräîa. The other Jain author who flourished in this period was Somadeva, the author of the Áabdärîavachandrikä, a commentary on the Jaina Vyäkaraîa-Áabdärîava. He completed his work at Äjurika (modern Äjare, Kolhapur District) in the Jinälaya called Tribhuvanatilaka built by the Áilähära king Gaîâaräditya in 1205 A.D. He flourished in the reign of the last Áilähära king Bhoja II who he glorifies at the end of his work.446
- THE HOYSÄLAS OF DVÄRASAMUDRA
The Hoysälas emerge into prominence about the beginning of the eleventh century A.D. During the reign of Bittiga Vishîuvardhana (C. 1110-1140 A.D.) the Hoysälas attained a position of some importance in the politics of Southern India. He transferred the capital from Veläpura (modern Belür, Hasan District) to Dvärasamundra (Halebid), and made himself independent of the Chälukyas. He established his authority over an extensive territory. The next noteworthy ruler of this dynasty was Vishîuvardhana’s grandson, Vïra-Balläla I (C. 1172-1215 A.D.) who was the first to style himself Mahäräjädhiräja. Vira-Balläla I’s son and successor, Vïra-Balläla-II or Narasiãha II, however met with some reverses at the hands of the Yädava Singhaîa. The last Hoysäla monarch was Vïra-Balläla-III. About 1310 A.D., his kingdom was ravaged by the Muslem hosts under Mal-ik Käfür, who after plundering Devagiri, advanced against the Hoysala capital. It was sacked and king made a prisoner.
The founder of the Hoysäla dynasty owed his greatness to the benedictions of a Jaina saint. A Jaina saint Vardhamäandeva is said to have been foremost in the management of the affairs of the Hoysälas, probably during the reign of Vinayäditya. The next two kings had Jaina saints as their spiritual teachers. All these kings made grants to Jaina temples and settlements. Though Vishîuvardhana, the most celebrated glorious Hoysäla ruler later on became Vaishîava, he continued to benevolent and generous even towards Jainism. In 1125 A.D., he paid his devotions to the Jaina saint Árïpäla Traividyadeva, built a Jaina Chaitya, and made suitable grants for repairs of the Jaina temples as well as for the maintenance of Jaina saints. According to another stone inscription at Belur 1129 A.D., he made a gift to the Malli Jinälaya. In 1133 A.D., he granted a village to the Pärávanätha temple in the capital itself, Dvärasamudra, and to commemorate his recent victories, he named the god as Vijaya Pärávanätha and his own son as Vijaya Narasiãha. His queen Säntaladevï, a great dancer in the temple, continued to be a staunch devotee of Jainism all through her life, and made several donations to the Jaina temples. Her spiritual guide was Prabhächandra Siddhäntadeva the disciple of Meghachandra Traividyadeva. She died by the Jaina form of renunciation called Sallekhanä in 1131 A.D.447
Some of the most outstanding ministers and commanders of the Hoysalas were also staunch devotees of the Jaina faith. Amongst them was Gaõgaräja, who built several Jaina temples, repaired many more and generously endowed numerous Jaina institutions. His wife Lakshmïmatï died in accordance with the rules of Jaina Sallekhaõa, and her noble husband commemorated her by an epitaph at Áravaîa Belgola. Other commanders of Vishîuvardhana, who subscribed to the Jaina faith and served it properly, were Boppa, Punisa, Maniyana and Bharateávara whose devotion to Jaina teachers and acts of piety were recorded several inscriptions at Áravaîa Belagola and other places. Vishîuvardhana’s successor Narasiãha I paid a visit to Áravaîa-Belagola and endowed the Chaturviãáati bagadi built by his illustrious general Hulla, by the grant of a village. The later Hoysäla kings were also patrons of Jainism. Two of them, Vïra Balläla II and Narasiãha III, had Jaina saints as their spiritual ancestors, and these and others erected Jaina temples and made rich endowments to them.
- FEUDATORIES AND HIGH OFFICIALS
It was not only these predominant royal houses that patronised Jainism, but the faith was adopted by several feudatory chiefs and small rulers in the land as well. For example, the Säntaras, who ruled over that part of Karîäûaka which roughly corresponds with the modern Tïrthahalli Taluk and its surrounding country, where the followers of Jainism from the very beginning. Bhujabala Säntara erected a Jain temple in his capital Pomburcha and granted to his guru, Kanakanandideva, a village for its maintenance. In A.D. 1081 Nagularasa, the minister of Vïra Säntara, is described as ‘a fortress to the Jain Dharma’. The later chiefs also built numerous Jain temples and shrines and endowed them suitably with lands and tolls. In A.D. 1173, Vïra Säntara is described as ‘a bee at the lotus feet of Jaina’. Later on, however, the Säntaras adopted the creed of Vïraáaivism, and this affected the progress of Jainism in that region to some extent. During the thirteenth century the capital of the Säntaras was shifted to Kalasa, and later to Karkala in Tuluva. Where they, in spite of their new faith, continued to be benevolent towards Jainism.
The Käõgalvas, who ruled over north Coorg and the Arkalgud Täluk in the south of the Hassan District of Mysore, and emerged into prominence during the eleventh century, were great patrons of Jainism. The Kängalva rulers constructed Jain temples and made grants for their maintenance till the beginning of the twelfth century, when their fortunes declined consequent upon the expulsion of the Cholas by the Hoysälas from the land.
Similarly, the Chängalvas of the Changanäâ (roughly corresponding with the Hansur Täluk in Mysore State), although Áaivite by profession, were benevolent towards Jainism, as is clearly proved by epigraphic records of A.D. 1091 and 1100 which make mention of the construction of Jain temples and donations for the same, particularly to some of the “sixty-four basadis in the city of Hanasoge or Panasoge (in the Yedatore Täluk of Mysore), reputed to have been built by Räma the son of Daáaratha.” We possess numerous records, both dated and undated, and ranging between A.D. 1000 and 1300, of solitary rulers and noblemen, in addition to those of persons of the merchant class and others, who built temples, installed images, performed worship and made endowments for perpetual service of divinity and piety, and who even ended their lives by the renunciation of all worldly attachments and by observing fasts in strict accordance with the Jain faith. Jain temples, shrines, images, Samadhis and epitaphs, strewn all over the South, amply testify to the fact that during this period the Jain religion was extremely popular and constituted a living faith of all classes of people from royalty to peasantry, inspiring them to deeds of piety and philanthropy during life, and affording them solace and hope in death.
- THE KÄKATÏYAS OF WARANGAL
The Käkatïyas were at first feudatories of the Later Chälukyas, after whose decline, they rose to power in Telingana and exercised authority there. The earlier seat of Käkatïya government was Anmakoîâa or Hanumänkuîd, but subsequently Warangal became the capital. The first prince to bring the family into prominence was Prolaräja, one of whose records is dated 1117-18 A.D. He distinguished himself in warfare against the Western Chälukyas and ruled for a long time. After the reign of Rudra (C. 1160 A.D.) and his younger brother, Mahädeva, the latter’s son, Gaîapati, ascended the Käkatïya throne in 1199 A.D. He was the most powerful monarch, and he continued to rule for sixty-two years. He is represented to have successfully measured swords with the kings of Chola, Kaliõga, Seuîa (i. e. Yädava ruler) Karîäûa, Läûa and Valanäâu. Gaîapati was able to win these achievements owing perhaps, to the weakness of the Chola sovereign and the confused political situation in the Southern India in the second quarter of the 13th century. Being without an issue, Ganapati was succeeded by his daughter Rudôaãbä in C. 1261 A.D. After a reign of nearly thirty years, Rudräãbä, was followed by her grandson, Pratäparudradeva. Pratäparudradeva was the last great king of the Käkatïya dynasty, and he had to submit to the yoke of the Moslems during the Southern raid of Malik Käfur. Thenceforward, the Käkatïyas began to sink into insignificance and eventually their kingdom passed into the hands of the Bahmani Sultans of the Dekkan.
The Käkatïyas started their career in the Telugu country when Jainism enjoyed royal patronaga under the Räsûraküûas. In Teliõgäîa particularly, the Chälukyas of Memulaveâa extended full patronage to that religion as evidenced by their monuments and literary works like Yaáasatilaka and Ädipuräîa which were written by their court poets Somadeva and Pampa. The early Käkatïyas were not far removed from that period. Their association with the myth of Mädhava-varman stated in the Siddheávara-Charitra indicates their affiliation to Jainism in the early days. Beta I is stated in his Sanigram inscription to have made a gift to the Yaddhamalla Jinälaya. The Banajipet inscription of Meâarasa I records a gift to a Jaina basadi by Käkatïya Beta II. The Padmäkshi temple inscription of Prola II dated A.D. 1117 records the construction of Kadalaläya basadi and endowments to the same by his minister’s wife Mailama and Medaräja II.
The Garuâa symbol, which adorned their banner till the time of Pratäparudra, alluded to in Pratäparudrïya of Vidyänätha does not indicate their strong attachment to Vaishîavism, as there is little evidence in that regard. It is quite possible that it may indicate some Jaina symbol like the Garuâa of Áantinätha, the sixteenth Tïrthaõkara.
It may not be out of place in this connection to co-relate two identical statements occurring in the Govindapuram epigraph and the Telugu Chronical Siddheávara-Charita. According to the former, certain Mädhava-Chakravartin who is stated to be the founder of the Polavasa family of chiefs, acquired his military strength consisting of eight thousand elephants, ten crores of horses and innumerable soldiers by the grace of Yaksheávarï at the command of Jina. The same in Siddheávara-Charitra, is stated that Mädhavavarman, the founder of the Käkatïya family. acquired an army comprising thousands of elephants and lakhs of horses and foot soldiers by the grace of the Goddess Padmäkshï. The Däkshärama inscription of Durga, son of Prola II mentions Mädhavavarman as the founder of the Käkatïya family. The goddess Padmäkshï on the hill near Anumakoãâa is beyond all doubt a Jaina deity although it is present worshipped as a Áaiva goddess. The image of this goddess situated amidst the images of Jaina Tïrthaõkaras can not be believed to be a Áaiva goddess. The original Jaina deity was gradually transformed into a Áaiva goddess to suit the Áaiva leanings of the latter Käkatïyas. The said Jaina myth itself is recast into a Áaiva one. The goddess might have been originally Padmävatï, the Yaksheávarï or Áäsanadevï of Pärávanätha, the twenty-third Tïrthaõkara. While editing the inscription of Prola II set up before this temple, H. KRISHNA SASTRI expressed the view that the Kadalaläya basadi mentioned in it must have been dedicated to Kadalaläya, the Kaîaââa name for the goddess Ambikä or Padmävatï. All this leads us to the conclusion that the early members of the Käkatïyas were the followers of Jainism. It is not unreasonable to believe that the Jaina goddess on the Anumakoãâa hill was set up by Garuâa-Beta or Beta I and called it Käkatï as stated in the Gudur-epigraph that Kämavasäni by reinstating Garuâa Beta established Käkati.
That Jainism was patronized even by the later Käkatïya members is evidenced by the renovation work conducted by Rudra’s minister Gaõgädhara to the Jaina Vasati on the Padmäkshï hill as stated in his epigraph at Hammakonda.
A Jaina poet named Appayärya states in his Jinendra-Kalyäîä bhyudaya that he completed his work during the reign of Käkatïya Kumära Rudradeva, that is Pratäparudra. This is also an indication that Jainism flourished in Andhra till the end of the Käkatïya period.
To illustrate the general tendency of the society towards Jainism during this period, we have an inscription at Bekkallu, Jangaon täluk, datable to Rudra’s reign. Certain Mallireââi is stated to have constructed twenty-one temples for Áiva, although Jainism was his family religion. It is interesting to note in the record a specific statement in Telugu prose as well as verse that the four Samayas Áaiva, Vaishîava, his own Jaina and Buddha were mere causes for disbelief (Saãsaya-hetu), but the god in all faiths or Samayas was only one and that with such strong belief he constructed all those temples for the god Áiva.
It is evident that the people at large in those days were following the four religions without prejudice to each other.448
- THE KALACHURIS OF THE SOUTH
Among the Kalachuris of the South, Bijjala was important. Bijjala and his sons held the Chälukya crown for some years and Bijjala was forced to addicate in 1167 A.D. His brief tenure of rule was marked by the rise of the liõgäyat or Vïra-Áaiva Sect. Bijjala is said to have persecuted the Liõgäyats which ultimately led to the loss of his life. Thereafter all his sons ruled in quick succession till 1183 A.D., But none of them had the ability to take full advantage of their father’s usurpation. However, they succeeded in keeping up the hostilities against Hoysala Balläla II (1173-1220 A.D.). In 1183 A.D., the Kalachuri power was swept away by the Chälukya Someávara IV, son of Taila III.
Seven Jaina inscriptions of the Kalachuri period are known. The earliest inscription449 is dated 1159 A.D., and it records the donation to some Jaina Ächärya by the Senäpati. This inscription is of the time of Bijjala. The name of this ruler has been mentioned in the four inscriptions450, ranging from 1161 to 1168 A.D., and they describe the charities by local officials to the Jaina Ächäryas. The last two inscriptions451 dated 1173 A.D. and 1175 A.D. respectively belong to Sovideva and they mention donation by local persons. Though Bijjala was the persecutor of the Liõgäyats, he was tolerant towards Jainism as known from Charities during his reign.
- THE YÄDAVAS OF DEVAGIRI
The Yädavas were a feudatory family when the Räshûrakütas and the Chälukyas held sway in the South. The first noteworthy figure in the dynasty was Bhillam V who taking advantage of the confusion, fixed his capital at Devagiri, modern Daulatabad. Bhillan’s successor was his son Jaitugi (1191-1210 A.D.). The Yädavas gradually extended their power among their contemporaries. Singhana, son of Jaitugi, was the most energetic personality and during his rule C. 1210 to 1247 A.D., he is represented to have conquered many lands. Singhana was succeeded by his grandson Kôishîa (C. 1247-60 A.D.). Kôishîa was followed by his brother Mahädeva (C. 1260-71 A.D.) who conquered some conutries. It was during the reign of Rämachandra that the Muslem army led by Alauddin Khilji, the then Governor, marched towards the South and suddenly invaded Devagiri in 1294 A.D. Rämachandra had to conclude a humiliating treaty with Alauddin Khilji.
There are fifteen Jaina inscriptions of the Yädavas of Devagiri. Among them, the earliest inscription452 is dated 1230 A.D. of the time of Singhaîa. It describes some charities to the Jaina temple. There are three Jaina inscriptions453 which describe charities to Jaina temples by three Mahäpradhänas Prabhäkaradeva, Malla and Bïchiräja. These inscriptions range from 1245 to 1247 A.D. There are four Jaina inscriptions454 of the reign of Kanharadeva, of which three are concerned with charities and one with Samädhilekha (Cenotaph-Inscription). Three Jaina inscriptions455 belong to king Mahädeva, and those are dated 1265 and 1269 A.D. There are monuments of Samädhimarana. There are four inscriptions of the king Rämachandra which belong from 1285 to 1297 A.D.456 The first inscription describes the construction of Jaina temple by Sarvädhikarï named Mäyadeva. The second is a cenotaph inscription, and the third one mentions charities to the temple. The fourth inscription refers to the repair of one temple by the son of the minister of Mahämaîâaleávara Tïkamadeva. These inscriptions reveal the activities of Jainism in the Yädava kingdom of Devagiri.
There was colonial and cultural expansion in South-East Asia because of the encouragement of sea voyage by the traders of the South during the Early Medieval period. The cult of Áaivism was dominant during this period, and next came Vaishîavism. Buddhism was also popular. Even there were some traces of Jainism in Kamboj. Jayavarman VII, who ruled over Kamboj in the twelfth century A.D., was first Buddhist but afterwards, he became a follower of Jainism.457 It indicates that there were some followers of even Jainism here during this period.457
- CHATTERJI, B.R. : Indian Cultural Influence in Kambodia, P. 125.
- JINESHWAR DAS : Angokora Ke Pañchameru Mandira.
JINESHWAR DAS is of the view that Panchameru and Nandïávaradvïpa described in the Jaina, Püjäs (Jinabhäratï-Saãgraha, pp. 340-343) were Jaina temples of Angaveru and Nandïávaradvïpa of Angakoroväûa. A few inscriptions out of 900 in the French Library of Pandecheri may be related to Jainism in Indonesia. Half Padmäsana and Näga images of these temples might be related to the Jaina Tïrthaõkaras. The places in the neighbourhood of Angakora might be the birth-places of the Jaina Tïrthaõkaras. In the National Central Museum of the capital of Kambodia, there are Jaina images. These views do not seem to be correct. These temples and images were not actually concerned with Jainism but Buddhism.
- THE AGE OF CONFLICT
INVASION OF MAHMUD GHAZNI (998-1030 A.D.)
Mahmud Ghazni ascended the throne at Ghazni. In India, his image is only that of a plunderer and a destroyer of temples. He is said to have made seventeen raids into India. The raids of Mahmud into India were aimed at plundering the rich temples and cities of Northern India. From the Punjab, Mahmud raided Nagarkot hills and Thanesar near Delhi. His most daring raids, however, were against Kanauj in 1018 A.D. and against Somanätha in Gujarat in 1025 A.D. In the campaign against Kanauj, he sacked and plundered both Mathura and Kanauj and returned via Kalinjar in Bundelkhand loaded with fabulous riches. Mahmud marched from Multan across without entering any serious resistance on the way, in order to raid the fabulously rich temple of Somanätha. This was his last campaign in India outside Punjab. He died at Ghazni in 1030 A.D.
These raids of Mahmüd Ghazni brought great destruction to Jainism. While invading India, Mahmüd Ghazni also passed through Rajasthan and destroyed the cities on the way. In 1009 A.D., Mahmud Ghazni led an army against Näräyaîa situated in the heart of Hind. The king of this place fought bravely in defence of his country, but was defeated. The Sultan ruthlessly broke the idols and returned to Ghazni with large booty including the elephants and horses. This place had great commercial importance, and had become the emporium of foreign articles of central Asia as well as that of the indigenous ones. This place has been identified by A. CUNNINGHAM with Narayanapura near Alwar, and other scholars also followed him.459 This identification appears to be doubtful because Narayanpura is not known to be Näräyaîa in the tenth or eleventh century A.D. At this time, it was a prosperous town, inhabited by rich merchants. The discovery of early medieval Jaina images (of the tenth and eleventh centuries) from under the ground of this place proves that it was invaded by Muslim forces. The ruler, who seems to have come into clash with Muhmüd, was Chauhäna ruler Govindaräja II, son of Durlabharäja of Áäkambharï which is only at a distance of 13 km. from Naraina. Firishta also states that Mahmüd also came to Somanätha via Sambhar.460
In his invasion in 1024 A.D., he decided to advance along the Rajasthan desert route to reach his destination. In course of his journey, he destroyed the cities en route. He first reached Lodorva. At the time of the Muslim invasion of Mahmüd Ghazni, the temple of Chintämaîi Pärávanätha of Lodorva was probably destroyed. Afterwards, it was repaired by Khïmasï and his son Pünasi as known from a Praáasti of the Áatadala Pärávanätha Yantra written by Sahajakïrti in 1618 A.D.461 Sanchor and Chandrävatï were also plundered by his forces on his way to Somanätha. Mahmud also destroyed the Jaina temples and images of these places. Some of the Jaina temples of these two places were renovated. While invading Mathura and Kanauj, Mahmüd destroyed the Jaina temples of these cities also.
We learn from the Tabqat-i-Näsiri and Tärikhi-Firishta that Muhammad Bahlin whom Bahram Shah of Ghazni had appointed the Governor of his dominions in Hindustan in 1112 A.D., captured and fortified the town of Nagaur. A Muslim Sufi Saint named Hamiduddani Raihani settled at Nagaur either earlier or later than 1112 A.D. He was highly influenced by Jainism and became its follower. The remains of his tomb and his residence are still found at Nagaur.462
THE TURKISH CONQUEST OF NORTH INDIA
In 1173 A.D., Shahabuddin Mohammad (1172-1206 A.D.) also known as Muizzuddin Mohammad ascended the throne of Ghor. Muizzuddin, proceeding by way of Gomal pass, conquered Multan and Uchch. In 1178 A.D., he attempted to penetrate into Gujarat marching across Rajasthan. But the Gujarat ruler completely routed him in a battle near Mount Äbü, and Muizuddin. Muhammad was lucky enough in escaping alive. A battle between the two ambitious ruler Muizzuddin and Muhammad and Prithvïräja was inevitable. The conflict started with rival claims for Tabarhinda (Bhatinda). In the battle which was fought at Taram in 1191 A.D., the Ghori forces were completely routed and Muizzuddin Muhammad’s life was saved. The second battle of Tarain in 1192 A.D. is regarded as one of the turning points in Indian history. The Turkish armies captured the fortress of Hansi, Saraswati, Samana and Ajmer. The Tomara ruler of Delhi was ousted and Delhi was made a base for further Turkish advance into the Ganga valley. Delhi area and eastern Rajasthan passed under the Turkish rule. Aibak defeated Bhima II, the ruler of Gujarat and Anhilwara, ravaged and plundered and a number of other towns. Thus the battles of Tarain and Chandawar laid the foundation of Turkish rule in North India. He occupied the powerful forts of Bayana, Gwalior, and conquered Kalinjar, Mahoba and Khajuraho from the Chandella rulers.
As a result of the invasions of Muhammad Ghori from time to time, Jainism suffered greatly. The Muslims destroyed Jaina temples and images. People left their cities and towns, and went to the safer places for security. From the Upakeáagachchha-Prabandha463, it is known that the Muslim army of Muhammad Ghori destroyed Osia in 1195 A.D. This Muslim invasion compelled the people to leave their homes and hearths in panic to other places for safety. From a Praáasti of the Dharmämôita tïkä of Äáädhara, it is known that he left Mandalgarh for Dhäränagarï because of the Muslim invasion.464 Sambhar, Näâol, Narhad etc. were also affected badly as a result of the defeat of the Chauhänas.
In 1196 A.D., Muhammad Ghori defeated the Sürasena ruler named Kunwarapäla of Bayana and placed it under the command of Bhäuddïn Tughril. Käynä and Tahangarh also suffered greatly by this invasion. The Muslims destroyed Hindu and Jaina temples and on their ruins erected a large number of mosques. He invited the Muslims for settlement by providing all kinds of facilities at these places and the Jainas were forced to migrate. From a Praáasti of Jinadatta Charita465 written in 1218 A.D., it is known that the poet Lakshmaîa left Tribhuvanagiri (Tahangarh) for Krishîaviäsa. The Dhaidin Kä Jhoãparä, originally a Jaina temple and Sanskrit College was converted into mosque.466
The Áiva shrine of Hanumäna temple at Jambholi in Jaipur District was originally, a Jaina temple of Chandra Prabha. One inscription467 engraved on the stone beam of this temple contains five verses composed by Pandita Nishkalankasena, the brother of Aklaõkasena in praise of Chandraprabha Jina, and some pontiffs whose names are given – Amôitasena, Samyamasenasüri, Brahmasena and Yogasena. The last pontiff is described as one whose feet were worshipped by the Turushkas.
A Khalji officer Bakhtiar Khalji was appointed in charge of some of the areas beyond Benaras. Taking advantage of confusion, he made frequent raids into Bihar. He had attacked and destroyed the famous Nalanda University and the Vikramaáilä University. Then he marched with an army towards Nadia, the capital of the Sena kings of Bengal which was rich owing to internal resources and flourshing foreign trade.
Jainism suffered a great setback from the invasion of Muhammad-bin-Bakhtiar, who captured Bihar and Bengal. He razed many Jaina temples to ground, massacred their communities and burnt their manuscripts. Owing to these attacks, Jainism generally suffered in number of its adherents. Many of the beautiful Mohammaden mosques in India have woven into their fabric stones from Jaina shrines which the ruthless conquerers had destroyed. All that the victorious Muhammedans had to do was to make slight structural alterations in the temples and buildings.468
- THE DELHI SULTANATE (1200-1400 A.D.)
Muizddin Muhammad Ghort was succeeded by Qutbuddin Aibak, a Turkish slave who played an important part in expansion of the Turkish Sultanate in India after the battle of Tarain. It also enabled the Delhi Sultanate to develop on its own. In 1210 A.D., Iltutmish (1210-36) succeeded Aibak. He must be regarded as the real consolidator of the Turkish conquets in north India. The most serious threat to Iltutmish came from Chingiz Khan, the great Khan of the Mangols but he returned. Iltutmish led an expedition to Bengal in 1225 A.D. and defeated its ruler. In 1232-34 A.D. he conquered Gwalior and Malwa.
Iltutmish nominated his daughter Raziya to the throne in 1236 A.D. In order to assert her claim, Raziya had to contend against her brother as well as against powerful Turkish nobles, and could rule only for three years. Her rule marked the beginning of struggle for power between the monarchy and the Turkish chiefs sometimes called the ‘forty’, Nasiruddin Mahmud, a younger son of Iltutmish, secured the throne in 1246 A.D. with the help of Balban who was made Naib (Deputy). After getting rid of many of his rivals gradually, he ascended the throne in 1266 A.D. He established the centralized government and tried to increase the prestige and power of monarchy. To deal with the elements of lawlessness in the neighbourhood, he adopted a policy of blood and iron. Balban died in 1286 A.D. He was undoubtedly one of the main architects of the Sultanate of Delhi. By raishing the power of the monarchy, Balban strengthened to Delhi Sultanate. But even he could not fully defend northern India against the inroads of the Mangols.
The Delhi Sultanate Muslim rulers adopted a certain religious policy against the non-Muslims. They used to collect a special tax, Jizyä from the non-Muslims. Most of the Muslim rulers collected a pilgrimage tax at holy places of religious faiths. Old temples were not to be repaired nor new temples built. Public worship of idols was forbidden. It is difficult to say definitely how for this injunction was enforced and obeyed by the non-Muslims including even the Jainas. During the Delhi Sultanate period, several Jaina temples were built, and numerous images were installed in them. There were Jaina scholars who pursued their literary activities. Several copies of Jaina manuscripts were written for presenting them to the Jaina Bhaîâäras. A few Jaina officers were employed on high posts by the Sultanas.
THE SLAVE DYNASTY
The Muslims under Sultan Iltutmish brought great destruction to Jainism in the regions of Rajasthan and Malwa. This fact is known to us from the Nemi Jina Charita of the poet Dämodara written in V.S. 1287 at Salakshîapura during the reign of the Paramära ruler Devapäla.469 At this time, Iltutmish was the emperor of Delhi. Dämodara left Gurjaradeáa (Rajasthan) and settled in Mälavadeáa. Madanakïrti, author of the 13th century A.D., in his work Áäsanachatustriãáatikä.470 informs us how the invasion of Iltutmish brought destruction to the holy place of Abhinandana of Maõgalapura in Mälavedeáa.
After the Bharas, the Chauhäna ruler Chandrapäla founded his kingdom at Chandrawad (Firozabad). He himself, his ministers, and successors became the followers of Jainism. At the time of Chauhäna ruler Balläla of Chandrawada, his successor was Ähavamalla (1257 A.D.). His father’s minister Soâüs, elder son of Ratnapäla (Kalha) was the Nagaraseûha, and his younger brother Kôishîäditya (Kanha) was the Chief Minister and Senäpati. This warrior fought several successful battles against the Sultans of the Slave Dynasty. He got several Jaina temples constructed in the Chandraväâa Kingdom. A Jaisaväla Jaina poet named Lakshmaîa, from Tribhuvanagiri wrote the Aîuvrataratanapradïpa in 1256 A.D. Áivadeva, nephew of Kôishnäditya became Nagaraseûha after his father Ratnapäla. This Jaina family of many generations consisting of rich-millionaires and high officials was the pillar of the Chandravada kingdom of the Chauhänas. It is said that fifty-one ceremonies of installation of images were performed in this Chandraväâa kingdom of the Chauhänas.471
THE KHALJIS (1290-1320 A.D.)
Jalaluddin Khalji (1290-96 A.D.) ruled only for a brief period of six years. He was the first Khalji ruler of the Delhi Sultnate who clearly put forward the view that the state should be based on the willing support of the government.
Alauddin Khalji (1296-1314 A.D.) came to the throne by treacherously murdering his uncle and father-in-law, Jalaluddin Khalji. To overawe his opponents, he adopted methods of utmost severity and ruthlessness. He tried to extend his empire by conquests. Gujarat passed under his control. Then, he turned his attention to the consolidation of his rule over Rajasthan. The first to invite his attention was Ranthambhor of Hammïradeva Chauhäna. He is credited with having won victories against Räjä Bhoja of Dhar and the Räîä of Mewar between 1309-11 A.D. His general Malik Käfur led two campaigns in South India against Warangal and Dwarsamundra respectively. His ablest general Zafar Khan defeated the Mangols and dispersed them. The most important experiment undertaken by Alauddin Khalji was his attempt to control the markets.
During the reign of Alauddin Khalji, the multimillionaire of Delhi was Pürîa Chandra Agrawal. At the advice of the emperor, he requested the Digambara Mädhavasena to visit Delhi from the south and established the seat of the Käshûhä Saãgha in Delhi472. This line of the Saãgha continued among the Agrawals of India. The Paûûa of Nandi Saãgha was established in Delhi, and the seat of Sena Saãgha by Prabhakara. Allauddïn was greatly influenced by the Digambar saint Madhavasena473.
Lalitakïrti, author of the Sanskrit commentary of the Mahäpuräna, was the Paûûadhara of the Käshûhä Saãgha, Mäthura Gachchha and Pushkaragaîa. He was expert in several Mantras and Tantras. Being pleased with Lalitakïrti, Alauddin gave him thirty-two firmans.474 Copies of these firmans are found in the Granthbhaîâäras of Kolhapur and Nagaur. Alauddin Khalji is known to have been influenced by the teachings of Jainaprabhasüri. The well known Ûhakurra Feru who was the mint master of Alauddin Khalji and wrote the Dravyaparïkshä, belonged to Delhi. He accepted the teachings, propounded by the monks of the Kharatara Gachcha.
THE TUGHLAQS (1320-1412 A.D.)
Ghiyäsuddin established a new dynasty called Tughlaq which remained in prominence till 1412 A.D. The Tughlags provided three competent rulers – Ghiyasuddin, his son, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1324-51 A.D.) and his nephew Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-87 A.D.). the first two of these rulers ruled over an empire which comprised almost the entire country. The empire of Firoz was smaller but even it was almost as large as that ruled over by Alauddin Khalji. After the death of Firoz, the Delhi Sultnate disintegrated, and north India was divided into a series of small states. Although the Tughlaqs continued to rule till 1412 A.D., the invasion of Delhi by Timur in 1398 A.D. may be said to mark the end of the Tughlaq empire, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1324-51 A.D.) is best remembered as a ruler who undertook a number of bold experiments and showed a keen interest in agriculture. The most controversial step which Muhammad-Bin Tughlaq undertook after his accession was so called transfer of the capital from Delhi to Deogiri. His another step at this time was the introduction of the token currency.
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was deeply read in religion and philosophy, and had a critical and an open mind. He conversed not only with the Muslim mysties, but also with Brahmanical yogis and Jaina saints. He honoured the Digambara Jaina saint Prabhächandra. From the Bähubali Charita Praáasti475 written in 1397 A.D. by Dhanapäla, it is known that Prabhächandra defeated his opponents in discussion, and pleased the heart of Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaq. This poet was the disciple of the Bhaûûäraka Prabhächandra, and accompanied his master to Chandraväâa for pilgrimage. Vasädhara got composed the work Árävakächära-Säroddhära476 from the Bhaûûäraka Padmanandi of Delhi, Paûûahara of Prabhächandra. Väsadhara has been mentioned as Lambakañchuka (Lamechu) in this work. From a Praáasti of the work Purushärthänuáäsana written by the poet Govinda, it is known that one of his concestors named Amarasiãha was the officer of the emperor Muhammad, and earned name and fame.
Muhammed bin Tughlaq also respected the Ávetämbara Ächärya Jinaprabhasuri477. The Ávetämbaras established their seat in Delhi. Jinaprabhasüri obtained the firmän from the emperor, and he started with Saãgha on pilgrimage to Mathura, Hastinäpura etc. At that time, the Jainas have been mentioned in the Persian Chronicles as Mayüragäna (Sarävagan). A temple of Mahavïra was built around 1328 A.D. under the patronage of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq478. Jinaprabha with the help of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq repaired the Tïrth of Kanyänayana.479
After his accession, Firoz Tughlaq was faced with the problem of preventing the imminent break-up of the Delhi Sultnate. He adopted the policy of trying to appease the nobles, the army and the theologians and of asserting his authority over only such areas which could be easily administered from the centre. He therefore made no attempt to reassert his authority over south India and Deccan. He led two campaigns into Bengal, but was unsuccessful in both. Bengal was, thus lost to the Sultanate. Even then, the sultanate continued to be as large as it was during the early years of Alauddin Khalji. Firoz led a campaign against the ruler of Orissa, and one against Kangra. He desecrated the temples and gathered a rich plunder, but made no attempt to annex Gujarat. His largest campaigns were to deal with rebellions in Gujarat and Thatta.
Firoz Tughlaq was a benevolent ruler, and took a number of humanitarian measures for the improvement of the society. Being of such a nature, he was also impressed by Jainism. From a praáasti of the Holïreîukä Charita480 by Jinadäsa, it is known that Haripati, a devotee of Padmävatï was honoured by Firoz Shah. Haripati was well-versed in the science of Medicines. There is mention in the Arädhanä Pañjika481 that at the request of Firoz Shah, Prabhächandra, after wearing red clothes gave Daráana in the inner-apartment (Antehpura). Sähu Villä, son of Sähu Narapati, of Agrawäla caste of Hissar was respected by the Emperor Firoz Shah Tughlaq.482 Marahapäla of the Agrawäla caste got a copy of the Dravyasaãgraha written in V.S. 1416 at Yoginïpura (Delhi) when Firozshah Tughlaq was no ruling. This is the oldest copy of the Dravyasaãgraha written in V.S. 1416.483 Firoz Shah Tughlaq also invited the Mayüragana Panditas for deciphering the inscriptions engraved on the Aáokan pillars located in Delhi.484
For nearly fifteen years after the invasion of Timur, there was no regular Sultan’s government at Delhi. From 1414 to 1450 A.D., Khizr Khan and his three successors administered Delhi and fluctuating territory adjoining it. Khizr-Khan claimed to be a Sayyid or a descendant of the prophet, and hence some historians designate this dynasty founded by him as the Sayyid dynasty.
Sultan Buhlul Lodi may truly be described as the first Afghan Sultan. Buhlul was succeed by his son Nizam Khan who took the title of Sikandar Ghazi. Sikandar Lodi (1489-1517 A.D.) seems to be the most important Sultan. He tried to establish efficient administration. His main aim was to control Chandravad Asäïkheâä, Kerahal etc. of the Chauhänas and Bhadairiya kings of Atera, Hathikanta etc. and to preserve the revenue income of the Doab. He encouraged learning by giving grant to scholars. Sikander died in 1517 A.D. and his oldest son Ibrahim became the king. When Ibrahim attempted to suppress revolt among the nobles, there was widespread dissatisfaction. Finally, in 1523, Babur marched against Ibrahim. Ibrahim was defeated and salïn in the field of panipat in 1526 A.D.
Several Jaina temples were built and numerous images installed in them during the Sayyid period and the Lodi period at several sites in Northern India. It seems that the Sayyid and Lodi Sultans gradually became weak. The Hindu rulers became powerful. There was great influence of the Jainas in the administration. They led Säãghas to holy places and got the copies of the manuscripts written.485 Sähu Chhaju of Banasala Gotra and of Agrawala caste got the Prakrit Hemaáabdänuáasana written at Hissar in V.S. 1414 for presentation.486
Devagadha became a great centre of Jainism during this period. Saãghapati Holichanda was rich, liberal and religious, and got several Jaina temples and images prepared at this place in 1424 A.D. through Basantakïrti and Padmanandi. His teacher was Áubhachandra. His sons, grandson and Árävakas participated in the religious functions. The consecration of Jaina images was performed here in 1436 A.D. The Jaina images installed by Jïvaräja Päpaâïväla through Bhaûûäraka Jinachandra at the place Muîâäsä during the reign of king Áiva Siãha have been discovered throughout India. It seems to be impossible that such a number of Jaina images can be installed by Jïvaräja Päpaâïväla during the reign of Áiva Siãha of Muîâäsä, a ruler of small State. It seems that the inscription of V.S. 1548 continued to be stamped on later images for a long period without any significance.
The effect of the Muslims on the Jaina religion at this time is seen in two ways known as idol-worshippers and non-idol-worshippers. The idol-worshippers among the Jainas began to manufacture images in large number. With the impact of the Muslim culture, some sections of the Jainas began to denounce idol worship with great vehemence. The sects of non-idol worshippers arose during this period as follows – Loõkäáähäs Loñkägachchha. Täraîapantha of Täraîasvämï in Madhya Pradesh, Áravaîapantha by Kaâuvaáäha in Gujrat and these new sects were called Sädhumärgis, and were against image worship and temples.
THE TOMARA RULERS OF GWALIOR
Because of the Muslim rule in Delhi, the Tomaras migrated to the region of Gwalior. First they established their small principality at Etah. Gradually, the Tomaras became powerful under their ruler Vïrasimhadeva and occupied the fort of Gopädrï in 1394 A.D. Thereafter Gwalior remained the capital of the Tomara rulers : Vïramadeva (1402-23), Gaîapatideva (1423-25 A.D.), Düõgarendradeva (1425-59 A.D.), Kïrttisiãhadeva (1459-80 A.D.), Kalyäîamalla (1480-86 A.D.), Mähasiãha (1486-1516 A.D.) and Vikramasiãha (1516-1523 A.D.). Ultimately, the Lodi Sultan Ibrahim of Delhi uprooted this ruling dynasty of Gwalior.
During the Tomara period, Jainism became a great cultural and dynamic force. This period is regarded as the golden age in the history of Jainism of this region. Padmanäbha Käyastha wrote the Yaáodhara Charita during the reign of Vïramadeva by the inspiration of the Minister Sähu Kuáaräja Jaisaväla.487 Sähu Kuáaräja was devoted to Jainism, and he built the Jaina temple of Chandraprabha in Gwalior. Ächärya Amôitachandra wrote the Tattvadïpikä in V.S. 1469 in Gwalior when Viramadeva was ruling over Gwalior.488
Jaina Temples and caves were built, and innumerable Jana images installed in them during the reign of Düõgarasiãha and Kïrttideva. Kamalasiãha, the Chief Minister of Düõgarasimha, erected a huge image of Ädinätha in V.S. 1497, and its consecration? ceremony was performed by Raidhü. Besides Kamalasïãha, Khela Brahmachärï, Asapati Sähu, Saãghapati Nemadäsa and Saãghapati Sahadeva installed several images here. These rock-cut sculptures are unique in Northern India as well as for their number and their gigantic size. As the Árävakas led pilgrimage to holy places, they assumed the title of Saãghapati. The Árävakas of this place belonged to the Agraväla, Khandelaväla, Poraväla and Golälära castes.
Riidhü, who has written more than thirty works in Prakrit, Apabhraãáa, and Hindi, was a great poet. Kamalasiãha and his father Khemasiãha inspired him for writing these works. The father of Asapati was also the minister of Düõgarasiãha.
THE SULTANS OF MANDU
Annexed by Alauddin Khalji in 1305 A.D., Malwa continued to be governed by Muslim chiefs under the authority of Delhi till it became independent. Dilawar Khan became independent of Delhi Sultanate in 1401 A.D. In 1436 A.D., Mahãüd Khan founded the dynasty of the Khalji Sultans of Malwa. Mahmud Khalji was the ablest of the Muslim rulers of Malwa. He extended the limits of his kingdom. He also fought against Räîä Kumbha of Mewar and Ahmad Shah of Gujarat. He was succeeded by his eldest son Ghiyasüddïn and then his second son ascended the throne under the title of Mahmüd II. He appointed Medanï Rai as minister in order to control the Muslim nobles. Bahädura Shäh of Gujarat captured Mäîâu in 1531 A.D. About 1535 A.D., Mallü Khän established an independent sovereignty in Malwa under the title of Qädir Shah. Malwa was conquered by Mughal generals from Bäz Bahädur in 1561-62 A.D. The establishment of the independent kingdom of Malwa by Dilawar Khan Gauri also attracted the Jaina merchants to come to Malwa. The new Sultan also felt the need of financial help for economic prosperity of his kingdom and encouraged the Jainas to come and settle in his kingdom.
With the accession of Hoshang Shäh and reestablishment of the authority after release from Gujarat captivity, the policy of encouraging the Jainas in Malwa seems to have received particular attention of the Sultan. The revenues of the state could be realised only after the harvest or when they were due, whereas the Sultan required ready cash earlier. Sultan Hoshang seems to have recognized in the Jaina financiers a source for supply of cash and the Jainas also found in the state a sound place for investment. Thus, the extension of the royal patronage towards the Jainas led to their activaity in Malwa. To restore confidence of the Jainas, Hoshang Shah honoured them by associating them with his government. The Jainas had a reputation for their honesty in handling cash. Hoshang Shah appointed Nardeva Sonï as his Bhaîâärika (treasurer) and associated him in his council. Naradeva had become famous for his charities, as his son Sangräm Singh Soni mentions that his charities knew no bounds and all returned to their places after receiving full satisfaction from Naradeva.
Mandan, another Jaina of the Árïmäla caste, became well known in the reign of Hoshang Shäh. Mandan was a successful businessman and earned a good deal of wealth through his business. While he extended his charities and lavishly donated for the establishment of Jaina monasteries, he neither neglected his business nor failed to assist Sultan Hoshang Shah with his financial aids. Sultan Hoshang Shah also in return honoured him.
Mahmud Khalji I continued the policy of extending patronage to the Jains, and during his reign, the religious activities of the Jainas took greater impetus. Mäîâu became one of the centres of rich Jaina merchants who lavishly subscribed for the transcription of Jaina Kalpasütras. Many Jaina temples also seem to have been constructed during this period. It is, of course, difficult to ascertain whether this patronage to the Jainas was purely motivated by the desire of the Sultan to get financial help from the Jainas and to encourage trade and commerce or it was an outcome of the policy of religious toleration extended by the Sultan towards his subjects. The outcome of these rich merchants setting up their business houses in the capital of the kingdom, was certainly a flourishing state of trade and commerce of the kingdom.
During the reign of Mahmud Khalji, we find Sangram Singh, son of Nardeva Soni, occupying the same position that his father had enjoyed during the reign of Hoshang Shah. That Sangram Singh enjoyed the confidence of Sultan Mahmud is borne out from the Praáasti of Buddhisägara. Sangram Singh accompanied Mahmud-Khalji in his Deccan campaigns and completed his Buddhi Sägar at Pratishûhänapura (Paiûhän) on the Godävarï, where he seems to have gone for a holy dip in A.D. 1463. Sangräm Singh, on his part, for retaining the favour of the Sultan did not fail to praise him in his composition.
In one of the copies of the Kalpasütra, we find mention of another Jaina family flourishing in the capital during the reign of Mahmud Khalji I. In his family, Jasavïra became quite prominent. He visited many of the places of Jaina pilgrimage and distributed charity everywhere. He set-up fifty-two Saãghapatïs and was himself honoured with the title of Saãgheáavara. Jasavïra was also associated with the government. He held an important post in the principality (Jägïr) of Shähzädä Ghiyath Shah.
It seems that the Jaina merchants had unchecked access to all the kingdoms where they used to go either for trade or for pilgrimage, and it is not unlikely that they used to bring information about the internal condition prevailing in the kingdoms, they visited, and supplied them to their rulers. We find that in 1454 A.D., Jasavïra visited Mewar and also the court of Räîä Kumbha where he was honoured by the Räîä. It may be mentioned here that these were the years of trouble for Räîä Kumbha while Mahmud Khalji was constantly pressing for the conquest of Mandalgarh. From 1454 A.D. to 1457 A.D., Räîä Kumbha remained engaged with the Rathors and Mahmud Khalji conquered Mandalgarh. Jasavïra, having his business set up in Mandu, visiting the court of Räîä Kumbha with whom the Mandu Sultan had no cordial relations, and subsequent successful attack on Mandalgarh by Mahmud Khalji following the return of Jasavïra, are all circumstances which create suspicion that Jasavïra might have supplied the information of Räîä Kumbha’s troubles with the Rathors.
Ghiyath Shah not only continued the policy of his father but seems to have encouraged them still more. That the Jainas were happy and prosperous in his reign is borne out from the praises that have been lavished on Mandu in the Praáasti of the Kalpasütra transcribed in A.D. 1198. The Jainas had become more closely associated with the administration and received various titles from Sultan Ghiyath Shah. Punjaräja (Munja Baqqnal) was made wazir of the Khalsa lands and was given the title of ‘Mafar-ul-Mulk’, a title which Puñjaräja has mentioned in the Praáasti of the commentary.
Towards the later part of the reign of Ghiyath Shah, it seems that these prominent Jainas had started meddling in politics and also that there existed some kind of rivalry among the Jainas. Thus, we find Siva Das Baqqual siding with Shähzädä Nasir Shah while Muñja Baqqal (Puñjaräja) siding with partisans of Shahzada Shuja at Khan and Rani Khurshid. But in this contest, both of them lost their lives. The former being executed by the order of the Sultan and the latter being assasinated by the partinsans of Nasir Shah. The accession of Nasir Shah, however, does not seem to have altered the position of the Jainas who continued to enjoy the royal favour. Sangräm Singh Soni (Naqd-ul-Mulk) retained his position throughout the reign. With the accession of Mahmud Khalji II, the political atmosphere in the capital as well as in the kingdom considerably changed, and the Jainas also gredually lost their position. The Muslim nobles did not like the influence exercised by this section, and as Firishta says, the amirs being apprehensive that they might not become too powerful, assasinated Basant Rai and procured order from the new Sultan for the explusion of Sangram Singh Soni. With the exit of Sangram Singh Soni, the influence of the Jainas in the court also declined. The Jainas on their part also lost interest in the kingdom of Malwa as they found the political condition not conducive to their trade, and the state no more a safe place either for investment or for stay.
Besides, their interest in trade and commerce and accumulation of wealth, the Jainas were very much devoted to their relegion. They patronized the Jaina places of pilgrimage and lavishly donated for the construction of Jaina temples and establishment of Jain monasteries. Their spirit of charity, led them to render financial assistance to the people in distress, particularly in times of scarcity. Thus, we find Jasdhir, son of Jasvir helping the distressed people of Malwa by distributing their requirements in 1485 A.D.
As a result of the policy of the Malwa Sultans of patronizing the Jainas and granting them full religious freedom, the rich Jaina merchants very soon set up Jinälayas (temples) in many places out of which special mention may be made of Mandu, Dhar, Ujjain, Ashta (Äáä Nagar), Hoshangabad and Mandsaur. The extent to which the Jainas enjoyed religious freedom can be imagined from the poetical composition, Maîâapächala Chaitya Paripäûï consisting of twenty-three verses, which was written about 1493 A.D. by Khemräja. The work mentions that there were twenty-two temples containing about five hundred and sixty-two Jaina images. The same work mentions that the temples of Neminätha at Hoshangabad contained twenty-four images.489
- THE MUSLIM RULE IN GUJARAT (14TH-15THCENTURY A.D.)
Alauddin annexed Gujarat in 1297 A.D. In 1401 A.D., Zafarkhan assumed formal independence in 1401 A.D. Ahmed Shah made himself the Sultan and ruled for thirty years, and may well be regarded as the founder of the independent kingdom of Gujarat. In 1414 A.D., he defeated Rai Maîâalika of Girnar and captured the fort of Junagarh. He built the magnificent city of Ahmedabad. The next great ruler of Gujarat was Mahmud Begarha. He was called Begarha on account of his capture of two forts (beggrha) Junagarh and Champaner in Kathiawar. He was by far the most eminent ruler of his dynasty. Begarha came into conflict with Portuguese but was obliged to make peace with them. Between 1511 and 1526 A.D., Gujarat had three insignificant Sultans. The latest notable Sultan was Bahadur Shah (1526-37 A.D.). He overran the territories of Mewar and stromed Chittor in 1539 A.D.
JAINISM IN THE 14TH CENTURY
The Jainas did suffer by the Muslim conquest of Gujarat. But even in these hard times, they maintained their trade and temples, obtained permission to repair old Jinälayas (temples) or built new ones and served very faithfully, the goddess of learning, by contributing to Sanskrit, Prakrit and Gujarätï literature very generously.
It is true that the Muslim rulers were not in favour of erecting new temples, but at times, they gave their consent to the erection of new temples or did not object to the repair of old ones. In V.S. 1366 (1309-10 A.D.), Jeáala Shäh of Khambhat erected a temple to Ajitanäth, the second Tïrthaõkara and Samarasiãha or Samara Shäh repaired the temple of Ädinätha on the Áatruñjaya Hill, when the image of the Tïrthaõkara was destroyed by the Muslims in V.S. 1369 A.D. (1312-13 A.D.).
Samarasiãha who repaired the temple of Ädinätha on the Áatruñjaya Hill belonged to Upakeáa Vaãáa and Vesata Kula. His elder brother Sahajapäla erected a temple of twenty-four Tïrthaõkaras in Devagiri in the Deccan. His next elder brother Sahana took up his abode in Cambay and won name, fame and glory by his good deeds, Aîahilaväâa was Samarasiãäs domicile of choice. Samarasimha was a well known jeweller in the old capital of Gujarat. He exercised great influence at court. When he came to know that Ädinätha’s temple on the Áatrañjaya Hill was destroyed by the Muslims, he paid a visit to Alapakhäna, the Subä of Gujrat and obtained a ‘firmäna’ to repair or rebuild the temple. The Suba had also given necessary instructions to Malek Ahidara, his subordinate in this connection.
When the Jainas came to know of Subäs firmäna, they gave a rousing reception to Samara Shäh and advised him to set up a new image of Ädinätha on the Áatruñjaya Hill. Samara Shäh sent his men to the king of Äräsana with presents. The king was a strict vegetarian and a firm believer in the principles of Jainism, so he consented to give the required marble from his mine without any charge. Marble was taken in carts to Palitänä, sixteen clever sculptors were sent from Anhilaväâa to Pälitänä to prepare the image. Bälachandra Muni was to supervise the preparation of the image.
When the sculptors completed their work, good news was sent to Samara Shäh at Aîahilaväâa. Samara Shäh, then, made up his mind to make a pilgrimage too the holy hill in the company of the Jaina congregation to set up the image of Ädinätha in the newly constructed temple. Invitations were sent to the Jainas of far off places.
Among the Jaina monks who made the pilgrimage to the holy hill in the company of Samara Shäh were Vinayachandra Süri, Ratnäkarasüri of Bôihadgachchha, Padmachandra Süri of Devasürigachchha etc. Among the prominent Jainas who joined the congregation were Saãghapati Jaitra and Saãghapati Kôishîa, Haripäla, Devapäla, Landhaka, son of Sthiradeva of Vatsakula, Pralhädana Soni, Sodhäka and Devaräja who had won name and fame as a great donor. Alapakhäna, Suba of Gujarata, who had granted permission to rebuild the temple, gave ten guards to protect the congregation.
The congregation started from Anahilapäûaka and went to Pälitänä via Serisä (Near Kalola Mehasäna District), Sarkhej (near Ahmedabad) and Dholkä. At Serisä, Samara Shah worshipped Pärávanätha and held a festival for eight days. He was given a fabulous welcome by the Jainas and Thäkurs of the villages on the way. He spent money freely and was very hospitable to the Jainas who had joined the congregation.
There were no big inns in those days; so when the congregation reached Pälitänä, Samara Shah pitched tents on the banks of Lalitäsara, erected by Lalitädevï, wife of Vastupäla. About this time, Sahajapäla from Devagiri and Sähaîa from Khambhat came to Pälitäna with congregation. Samarä Shäh’s joy knew no bounds when he saw his brothers. He paid his respects to the Jaina monks who had come with the congregation from Cambay. Among the prominent persons who had accompanied Sähana were Sangana, brother of Pätäka Mantrï, Lälä Simhabhaûa, Vijala, Madana, Molhaka and Ratnasiãha. Samara Shäh gave all the pilgrims a very warm welcome.
In V.S. 1381 (1315 A.D.), Samara set up the image of Ädinätha in the completed temple on the holy hill. Sachikädevï was the Kuladevï or family deity of Samarä Shäh. Mahipäladevï, who gave marble from his mine without taking any charge, was the king of Äräsana, and Äsädhara was the uncle of Samara-Áäha. The honour of performing the ceremony at the time of setting up the images is shared by Siddhasüri of Upakeáagachchha and Ratnäkarasüri of Tapägachchha.
A festival was held by Deáala, Samarä Shäh’s father to celebrate this event. Sumptuous dishes were served to the Jaina congregation for several days. Jaina monks and nuns were given clothes. Beggars were feasted. Samara Shäh lived in Pälitänä for 20 days and made arrangements for the maintenance of the temple. Several servants were appointed to look after the gardens from which flowers were supplied to the temple for the worship of Jina.
From Pälitänä, Samarä Shah went to Giranara with the congregation and worshipped Neminätha. Here Samarä received the good news of the birth of a son lived for ten days. From Giranära, he went to Devapattana where he was given a rousing reception by the king. The congregation paid a visit to the well known Somanätha temple and adorned it with a five colour-flag. This event shows that the Jainas were not hostile to Brahmins, but were generous enough to adorn a Áiva temple with a flag.
Samara Shäh held the ashûähnikämahotsava or a festival for eight days at Devapattana and went to Ajär to worship Pärávanätha. From Ajär, the congregation went to Kodinär and worshipped Ambikädevï. Deáala, Samara’s father, adorned Ambika’s temple with a flag. The congregation then went to Div where the king received Samara Shah and Haripäla, a multimillionaire, stood a feast. As tahnikä-mahotsava was held, and the beggars were given alms.
From Div, the congregation went to Aîahilaväâa via Pätdi, Sankheávara and Harij. The Jaina Saãgha of Aîahilaväâa gave a rousing reception to Samarä Shäh when he entered the capital in V.S. 1371. Five thousand persons were invited to dinner. Saãghapati Desala is said to have spent 27.70 lac coins in rebuilding the temple of Ädinätha. In V.S. 1375 (1318-9 A.D.), Desala again made a pilgrimage to the holy hill with seven Saõghapatis and 2000 persons, and spent eleven lakhs. According to the Näbhinandanoddhära-Prabandha, emperor Gyäsuddïn was much pleased with Samarä Shah and highly honoured him. At Samarä’s request, the emperor set free the lord of Paîâudeáa. The king who invited Samarä Shäh to Delhi was Gyasuddin Tughlak whose dates A.D. 1320-25 show that he was a contemporary of Samarä Shah.
According to the Prabandha writer, Samarä Shah was appointed as the Suba of Telangadeáa where he set free many prisioners and obliged many chieftains. He adorned Urangalpura with Jaina temples, invited many Jaina families to settle there and won name, fame and glory as a Suba. This account of Kakkasüri, though unconfirmed is not unreliable, because he was a ‘Guru’ and contemporary of Samarä Shäh.
About V.S. 1369 (1312-13 A.D.), the temples of Vimala Shah and Tejapäla were destroyed by the Muslims. When the Jainas came to know of this, they undertook the work of repairing the temples. The Vimalavasahï was repaired by Vijada, son of Dhanasiãha of Maîâor and his brothers. The Pratishûhä was performed by Ghanachandra Süri. In the Güdhanaîâapa, the statues of Gosala and Guîadevï, the grand-father and grand-mother of Vijada respectively and of Mahanasiãha and Minaladevï, the parents of Laligasiãha. These statues were set up in the year V.S. 1378 (1322 A.D.) when the ‘Pratishûhä of the temple was performed.
Tejapäla’s temple was repaired by Pethaâa Sanghavï, son of Chandasimha in V.S. 1378 (1321-22 A.D.) when he had come on a pilgrimage to Mount Abu with the Jaina congregation.
There was a famine in Gujarat in V.S. 1376-77. So Bhïma gave away large sums of money in charity. This Bhïma was probably Bhïmashah who erected Bhïmasiãhaprasäda at Mount Abu.
In V.S. 1394 (1337-1338 A.D.), Mantrï Bhäîaka, son of Mantrï Jagasiãha and grandson of Mantrï Abhayasimha, set up an image of Ambikädevï in Vimalavasahï of Mount-Abu.490
JAINISM DURING 1400-1450 A.D.
The first half of the 15th century is known as the Somasundarayuga in Jaina history because Somasundarasüri was a very prominent monk of this period. During his time, the Jainas of Gujarat glorified Jainism by building new temples, repairing old ones, setting up new images of Tïrthänkaras, opening libraries, helping the poor and the needy and by performing many other pious and religions deeds.
In Prahalädanapura (modern Pälanapura), there was a Baniä named Sajjana who had rendered glorious and meritorious services to Jainism by his pious and meritorious deeds. In Vaâanagara, there were three wealthy Jaina brothers named Devaräja, Hemaräja and Ghatasiãha. Devaräja held a festival with the consent of his brothers. In Idar, there was a rich man named Vatchharäja who belonged to Ukeáakula. He won name and fame in the state by the his excellent character. Govinda, son of Vatchharäja, repaired the Kumärapäla’s temple on the Täraõga hill. A great festival was held on this occasion.
When Somasundarasüri came to Karîävatï, Guîaräja, a favourite of king Ahmad Shah, gave him a warm reception and held a festival. Chäco made a pilgrimage to the holy places of Jaina and built a Jaina temple. Ahmad Shäh was well disposed to Guîaräja; so he honoured him on this occasion by giving him presents. Somasundara had accompanied Guîaräja in his pilgrimage of 1420-21 A.D.
Some of the religious deeds of Somesundarasüri are known. He performed the installation ceremony of temples and images at Devakulapäûaka in 1428 A.D., Räîakapura in 1439-40 A.D., Chitrakula and Giranära. Copies of Jaina Ägamas were made with the advice and consent of Süri.
Somasundara Süri promoted literary activities. He had several pupils, Guîaratnasüri, Munisundrara Süri, Jayachandra Süri, Bhuvanasundarasüri, Jinakïrtisuri, Ratnaáekharasüri and Jinamanâanagaîi. Merutuõgasüri had disciples namely Mäîikya-Sundara and Mäîakyaáekhara Süri. Besides the monks, some Jaina Sravakas also served literature. Of these Maîâanamantrï is very well known; he was a very learned man and patronized learning and the learned.
Besides monks, Jaina nuns rendered useful service. A famous nun of this period was Dharmalakshmï Mahattarä. Jainas also contributed to architecture in this period. Pittalahara or Bhïmaáä has temple on mountain Äbu was built by Bhïmaáäha.491
JAINISM IN THE LATER HALF OF THE 15TH CENTURY
In 1450 A.D., Mahäräîä Kumbhakarîa repealed the pilgrim tax which was collected from the Jaina pilgrims on Mountain Äbü. In 1451 A.D., king Mäîâalika of Junagarh proclaimed amärï. Loõkä Shäh believed in Jaina scriptures but was against idol worship. In 1453 A.D., Säharäja built a temple of Vimalanätha on Giranära. He made pilgrimage to Áatruñjaya and Girañara.
Lakshmïsägara was a prominent Jaina monk of this period. Several pious and religions deeds were performed in his time. Gaâaräja Mantrï of Ahmedabad built a Jaina temple in Sojitra and the Pratishûhä was carried out by Somadevasüri.
Dhanyaräja and Nagaräja of Devagiri came to Gujarat, pleased king Mahmüd, made a pilgrimage to the Áatruõjaya hill Gaâaräja Mantrï set up an image of Ädinätha in the Bhïmavihära or Pitalahara on Mountain Äbü.
Iávara and Paûûa Sonï built a temple of Ajitanätha in Idar and its Pratishûhä was performed by Lakshmïsägara in 1476-77 A.D. Ujjala and Käga went on pilgrimage to Jïräpallï.
Saubhägyaharshasüri glorified Jainism in Gujarat. About this time, three monks of the Añchlagachchha rendered meritorious services to Vïraáäsana-Bhavasägarasüri, Siddhänta-Áagara Áuri and Guîanidhänasüri. Among the well known temples of this period, we may mention Kharataravasahï on mountain Abu and Karmaáähäs temple on Áatruñjaya hill. In 1445-46 A.D., Parvata Árïmälï of Aîahilaväâa copied many books at the suggestion of Jayachandrasuri of Tapagachchha. Several Jaina monks492 of this period493 are known.
51 THE VIJAYANAGARA KINGDOM
Vijayanagara had a series of capable and enlightened rulers who made it a powerful and wealthy state in the South. Among them were Harihara II. Revaräya I, Devaräya II and Kôishîadevaräya. Kôishnadevaräya was a competent ruler and a general. He often led his army in person. In 1512 A.D., he took Raichur fort without much difficulty. He defeated the king of Orissa. Under Kôishîadeva Räya, the kingdom of Vijayanagar emerged as the strongest military power in the South. He maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese. He took active interest in the affairs of the state. During his reign, the city of Vijayanagar was at the height of its glory and prosperity.
Vijay Nagara kingdom was established in 1346 A.D. Though kings of this kingdom were Champions of Brahmanical religion, they followed the policy of religious toleration. During the reign of king Harihara Räya, the Taâatäla Pärávanätha boundary dispute arose between the Jainas and Árï Vaishîavas (Bhaktas). The royal judgement494 by king Bukka Räya in 1368 A.D. shows that he was not committed to any religious creed, but by his equity, he had saved religion from persecution. By royal decree, Bukka Räya appointed twenty guards for the God at Áravaîa Belagola, and thereby the Jaina religion was saved and its prestige was guaranteed in the Vijayanagara kingdom. This settlement proves beyond doubt that the assurance given to them by king Bukka Räya in 1368 A.D. had come to stay. All questions especially those of the privileges and beliefs of communities should be settled in the presence, and with the approval of the leaders of both the parties, and the sanction of the state obtained at the end.
The kings and queens, and members of the royal family gave unstinted patronage to the cause of Jainism.495 Bhïma Devï, the queen of Deva Raya-I, was a Jaina herself. Her spiritual guru was Paîâitächärya, and in about 1410 A.D., he caused an image of Áäntinäthasvämï to be made in the Mangäy basadi at Áravaîabelagola. Queen Bhïmadevï may have been responsible for the generous attitude of king Deva Räya I towards Jainism. The next monarch Devaräya II (1419-1446 A.D.) continued the tradition of early Vijayanagara rulers of bestowing patronage on the Jaina institutions. In 1424 A.D., he made over the village of Varaõga in Tuluva to the basadi of Varaõga Neminätha of the same place. Kôishîa Deva Räya made no distinction between the different faiths in his empire. His large-hearted benevolence was primarily responsible for the gifts he made to Jaina temples.
General Irugappa was a trusted general, a clever engineer and a successful minister of king Harihara Raya II. He built a basadi in the capital. An inscription in this city tells that Bukkavve, the queen of Harihara Räya II, gave a gift to the basadi built by general ‘Irugappa in 1937 A.D. Irugappa continued to serve also in the reign of Deva Räya II. An inscription dated 1526 A.D., records the construction of Pärávanätha basadi in the capital by Reva Räya II. Thus the Emperors of Vijayanagara Kingdom were the protectors of Sakalavrîäárama Dharma.
Much of the splendour of Jainism is seen in the capitals of provincial viceroys rather than in the great city of Vijayanagara itself. There were two classes of feudatories who actively supported Jainism.496 One class consisted of the great feudatories like the Kongälvas, the Changälvas, the Säluvas of Sangïtapura, the kings of Gerasoppe and the Bhairrasa obeyars of Kärkala. Other lesser feudatores of the type are the lords of Bäguñjisime, Nuggehalli and others. In addition to these, mention must be made of the marked exertions of feudal ladies for the cause of Jainadharma.
As patronized by monarchs and their provincial Governors, Jainism became popular among people even in cities, towns and villages of the Vijayanagara empire. Áravaîabelagola, Kopana, Muâabidre, Kärkala, Belur etc. became the centres of Jainism. The influx of the northern Jaina merchants into the Vijayanagara empire during the 14th century and earlier is noticed.
There are some inscriptions throwing light on the promotion of Jainism by private efforts during the reign of the monarchs of the Vijayanagara kingdom. An inscription dated 1355 A.D. records the erection of Jina image during the time of king Harihara497. The two inscriptions of the time of king Bukka are dated 1357 and 1376 A.D.498 In the first inscription, there is mention of the Senäpati Baichaya. The second is cenotaph inscription. The commander-in chief Isaga of the king Harihara II constructed Jaina temple.499 The commander in-chief Nemaîîa500 of king Mädhava of Goa who was subordinate to this king, gave some donation to the Pärávanäth temple in 1935 A.D. In the same inscription dated 1935 A.D., there is reference to the construction of a Jaina temple by the Minister Immaâibukka, son of Daîâanäyaka Baichaya.501 There are two inscriptions of the time of Bukka II.502 One records the consruction of Áäntinätha temple and in other, there is mention of Samädhimaraîa. There are two inscriptions of the reign of king Devaräya.503 The first dated 1412 A.D. describes the agreement of the boundaries between the two temples. The second of 1424 A.D. mentions the donation of the village Varäõga to Neminätha temple by the king. One inscription504 describes the donations during the time of king Malikärjuna in 1450 A.D. to a temple. One inscription dated 1509 A.D. of the time of Kôishîadeva Mahäräya mentions the temples free from taxes.505 The inscription506 dated 1515 A.D. mentions how the land of the temple of Varäõga was prepared for agriculture. King Achyutadeva assigned the income of some taxes for worship to the image507 Rämaräjya gave some land in charity to a Jaina temple in 1545 A.D. during the reign of Sadäáiva508. A Jaina scholar gave some charity in 1619 A.D. in the reign of king Rämadeva. Arasappoâeya, subordinate ruler of Sadäáivaräya gave some donation to Pandita Chärukïrti.509
52 THE MUGHALS
The Jaina Acharyas impressed the Mughal Emperors by their teachings. They were of high character because they wanted nothing and also possessed nothing. As a result, the Mughal Emperors became gradually liberal in their views. They prohibited the slaughter of animals on certain days. They abolished Jizyä tax and pilgrimage tax. They gradually stopped the destruction of temples and images, and new temples were built. Several copies of the manuscripts were written. The Jaina merchants gave monetary help to the Mughal emperors and Subedärs in the time of need. These rulers employed the Jainas in administration on responsible posts. Jainism prospered greatly during the reign of the Mughals.
BABUR (1526-1530 A.D.)
Babur’s advent into India was significant from many points of view. Kabul and Qandhar became integral parts of an empire comprising North India. By dominating them, Babar and his successors were able to give to India security from external invasions and economically strengthened India’s foreign trade. The conquest of Babar against Ibrahim Lodi in the battle of Panipat in 1526 A.D. broke the back of Lodi power and brought under Babar’s control the entire area up to Delhi and Agra. In the battle of Kanwah (1527 A.D.), Babur got victory against Räîä Sanga. Babur ruled in India for five years to 1530 A.D.
That Babur continued the prevailing religious policy of the Muslim rulers is clear from the fact that he destroyed the Jaina idols at Urva near Gwalior.510 Even then, the Jainas tried to preserve their religion by writing literary works. From the Praáasti of the Brihat Siddha Chakra Püjä,511 it is known that the poet Vïru wrote it in Rähetasapura in V.S. 1584 during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Babur. The poet Mahindu wrote the Áäntinätha Charita512 at the inspiration of Agrawäla Áadhhäraîa in Yoginïpura in V.S. 1587 during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Babur. A temple of Pärávanätha of Rohitaka was in existence during the time of Emperor Babur in V.S. 1584 and 1586. The temple was under the supervision of the Digambara monks of the Käshûhä Saãgha.513
Humayun succeeded Babur in 1530 A.D. at Agra. His empire included Kabul and Gandhar. He also occupied Lahore and Multan. He distributed the territories of his empire among his brothers. He had to fight against Shershah of Gujarat, and Sherkhan of Bengal and Bihar. The battle of Kanauj was decided in favour of Sher Shah against the Mughals. Ultimately, Humayun took shelter at the court of Iranian king, and receptured Qandhar and Kabul with his help in 1545 A.D. In 1555 A.D., following the break up of the Sur empire, he was able to recover Delhi. He did not live long to enjoy the fruits of the victory. He died from a fall from the first floor of the library building in his fort at Delhi.
There is no doubt that Shershäh was a remarkable figure, and he ruled over the empire which extended from Bengal to the Indus. In the West, he conquered Malwa and almost the entire Rajasthan. He established a sound system of administration in his brief reign of five years. Sher Shah was succeeded by his second son, Islam Shah, who ruled till 1553 A.D. Most of his energies were occupied with the rebellions raised by his brothers and with tribal feuds among the Afghans. These and the ever-present fear of a renewed Mughal invasion prevented Islam Shah from attempting to expand his empire. This provided Humayun the opportunity he had been seeking for recovering his empire in India. In two hotly contested battles in 1555 A.D., he defeated the Afghans and recovered Delhi and Agra.
While invading Rajasthan in 1543 A.D., Sher Shah conquered Ranthambhor. From a Praáasti of the Holireîukä Charitra514 written in 1551 A.D., it is known that the great physician Rekha was welcomed by Sher Shah for his vast knowledge in the science of medicines. Shershah gave Ranthambhor to his son Salim Shah in Jägïra. In his time, Kadirkhän was administrator of this place. The rulers of the Sur dynasty, though followers, of Islam, were tolerant in religious matters. During their reign, the copies of the Jinadatta Charitra515 and the Holireîukä Charitra516 were written respectively in 1549 and 1551 A.D. by the Árävakas for presentation to Lalitakïrti who visited this place.
Akbar’s first phase of contest was with nobility, and he was crowned in 1556 A.D. at the age of thirteen. During Bairam Khan’s regency, the territories of the Mughal empire had been expanded. Apart from Ajmer, the most importent conquests during the period had been of Malwa and Garh Kataõga.
Following the conquest of Gujarat, Akbar found time to look at the administrative problems of the empire. He introduced reforms in the system of land revenue administration. The organization of local government remained the same. He reorganised the central machinery of administration on the basis of the division of power between various departments, and of checks and balances. He maintained cordial relations with the Rajputs by matrimonial alliances. He put down rebellions, and there was further expansion of the Mughal empire.
Akbar followed the policy of religious integration and introduced Dïn-Ilähï. In 1575 A.D., Akbar built a hall called Ibadat Khana at his new capital Fathepur Sikri. To Ibädat Khäna, he invited the people of all religions – Christians, Zoroastrians, Hindus, Jainas and even atheists.
Akbar’s relations with Jaina teachers lasted for at least twenty years from 1578 to 1597 A.D. inclusive. He seems to have been converted to Jainism to some extent by the influence of the teachings of these Jaina teachers. Being impressed with Jainism, he issued several firmans for the propagation of Jainism. Literary works were written by Jaina scholars in praise of Jainism. Jaina temples were built in his time, and copies of the Jaina manuscripts were written for presentation.
Abul Fazal, friend and minister of Akbar, has mentioned the names of Jaina scholars in the Ain-i-Akbari. Among them, the most important is Hiravijayasüri. In 1582 A.D., when Akbar heard of the lofty virtues and deep learning, he ordered the Viceroy of Gujarat to request him to visit his court. He reached Fatehpur Sikri where he was accorded royal reception. After much discussion upon the problems of religion and philosophy first with Abul Fazal, the Muslim luminary of the age, and then with Akbar, he paid a visit to Agra. He persuaded the Emperor to issue various commands in accordance with Jaina doctrine. At the close of the rainy season, he returned to Fatehapur Sikri. Fishing in the great lake called Däbar, at Fatehpur Sikri was prohibited. The title of ‘Jagad Guru or world teacher, was conferred on the Süri, who quitted the capital in 1584 A.D. From the inscription517 by Hemavijaya dated 1593 A.D. in the porch of the eastern entrance of the Ädinätha temple of Áatrunjaya hill, it appears that Hïravijaya persuaded the Emperor in 1592 A.D. to issue an edict forbidding the slaughter of animals for six months, to abolish the confisaction of the property of the deceased persons, the Surjijiya tax and Áukla, to set free many captives, snared birds and animals, and to present Áatruñjaya to the Jainas. Similar inscription518 dated 1587 A.D. is found at Bairat, ruled by Indraräja, an official of Akbar.
Hïravijaya left Áäntichandra Upädhyäya behind him at court. Late in 1587 A.D., when Áantichandra desired to return to Gujarat, the Emperor gave his fïrmäns abolishing the Jizyä tax on non-Muslims, and prohibiting the slaughter of animals to a large extent. The forbidden days were extended so as to comprise half the year.
Bhänuchandra continued to reside at court. His pupil Siddhichandra composed a commentary on the latter half of the Kädambarï of Bäîa. He had the reputation of being able to do 108 things at a time, and so secured from Akbar title of ‘Khush-faham’ or intelligent. From he colophon to the commentary on the Kädambarï by Siddhachandra, we learn that his teacher, Bhänuchandra had taught Akbar 1,000 names of the Sun, and had obtained from the emperor in 1593 fïrmans abolishing the tax on pilgrims to the holy hill of Áatruñjaya at Pälitänä, and directing that all the sacred places should be made over to Hïravijayasüri. Vijayasena Süri was, then, invited to the court, which continued to reside ordinarily at Lahore until 1596 A.D. He vanquished 363 learned Brähmaîas in formal debates to Akbar’s satisfaction and so earned the title of Sawai.519
While Akbar was holding the court at Lahore, he heard the fame of Jinachand Süri and wanted to hear him. He summoned Mantrï Ávara Karmachandra Bachchhävata and requested him to invite the sage to his court. When Jinachandra Süri reached Lahore in 1591 A.D., he was courteously received by the Emperor. On the advice of Karmachandra, Akbar gave the title of ‘Yugapradhäna’ or chief of the Age to Jinachandra. At the persuaion of Áuriji, Akbar gave protection for a year to all animals of the sea adjoining Khambat the place of pilgrimage. Hearing of the destruction of the Jaina temples at Dwarka, Jinachandra prevailed upon Akbar to issue an imperial firmän for the protection of the Jaina holy places such as Áatruñjaya, Pälitänä and Giranära. The necessary order was sent to Äzamkhän, the Subedär of Ahmedabad. The places of pilgrimage were put in charge of Karmachandra.
Some Jaina idols are said to have been broken in Gujarat, though Akbar later on sent a firmän to the governor asking him to protect the Jaina temples from further injury. A cartload of idols was removed from the temples by Mughal officer and was yielded up to a Jaina on payment of money some time after 1578 A.D. Such seem to have been the case and continued to be the popular prejudices against the Hindus.520
Besides inscriptions, firmäns etc., Akbar’s contemporary Jaina scholars521 praised Akbar, and his reign. Päîâe Räjamalla (1575 A.D.) has written in the Läûïsaãhitä “Emperor Akbar has obtained the merit by stopping the Jaziyä. He never spoke the violent words. He lived far away from the animal violence. He stopped gambling and drinking because they destory his senses, and he goes to the wrong path. Päîâe Jinadäsa in the Jambüsvämï Charitra (1585 A.D.) praised his wise policy and good reign. The poet Parimala in the Árïpäla Charitra (1594 A.D.) praised the Emperor, “He made attempts for the protection of cows. He described the beauty of Agra. He lived in the company of Jaina scholars, and organised scholarly seminars. Vidyä Harsha Süri mentions it in the Añjanäsundarïräsa (1604 A.D.). He stopped the slaughter of animals such as cows, buffaloes and goats. He set free captives from prisons. He respected Jaina saints. He promoted the charitable and meritorious works. The great poet Banärasïdäsa writes in the Ätmacharita, “When he heared the news of the death of Emperor Akbar at Jaunpur, he became unconscious. The shock prevailed in the whole public”. The Portuguese Jesuit named Pinherio522 has written, “Akbar became a follower of Jainism. He followed Jaina doctrines. He remained involved in Ätmachintana (thinking) and Ätma-bodha (knowing). He issued directives for the stoppage of drinking, meat and gambling. V. SMITH523 and other scholars are of the view that Akbar had regards for Jainism and Jaina teachers.
Áaha Toâara, who was the mint master of Akbar in Agra, renovated the old Tïratha of Mathura. He built 514 new Stüpas in place of the broken old Stüpas and established twelve dikpälas. He performed their installation ceremony in 1573 A.D. with the Chaturvidha Samgha. He constructed the beautiful Jaina temple at Agra in 1594 A.D. He got the Jambusvämï Chariu written from Räjamalla Päîâey in Sanskrit, and from Jinadäsa in Hindi.524
Säha Nänu was the Prime-Minister of Mänasiãha, Kachchhavaha ruler of Amber who was deputed as the Governor of Bangadeáa by Akbar. It seems that Säha Nänu had to visit Bengal several times in connection with his duties towards his Master. He got the Yaáodhara Charitra525 written in V.S. 1659 at Akachchhapura (Adbara Pura), near Champänagarï in Bañgadeáa from Bhaûûäraka Jinänakïrti in the Ädinätha temple. He built twenty Jaina temples of the Tïrthaõkaras at Sammeda Áikhara and led pilgrimage to this holy place several times.
JAHANGIR (1605-1627 A.D.) AND SHÄH JAHÄN (1628-1658 A.D.)
The first half of the 17th century in India was, on the whole, an era of progress and prosperity. During this period, the Mughal empire was ruled by two capable rulers, Jahangir (1605-1627 A.D.) and Shahjahan (1628-1658 A.D.). In southern India too, the States of Bijapur and Golconda were able to provide conditions of internal peace and cultural growth. These Mughal rulers consolidated the administrative system which had developed under Akbar. They maintained the alliance with the Räjpüts and tried to further broaden the political base of the empire by allying with powerful sections such as the Afghans and the Marathas. They embellished their capitals with beautiful buildings. The Mughals played a positive role in stabilizing India’s relations with neighbouring Asian power such as Iran, the Uzbeks and the Ottomon Turks, thereby opening up greater avenues for India’s foreign trade.
No doubt, the Jaina teachers Mänasiãha and Bälachanda enjoyed royal hospitality under Akbar. But as Mänasiãha made prophesied that Jahängir’s reign would not extend behind two years, Jahängïr became angry with Mänasiãha and issued orders for the expulsion of the Jainas from the imperial territories. It was due to the political motives, and it was soon withdrawn by Jahangir.526
Generally, Jahangir followed the religious policy of his father. He prohibited the most eating and the slaughter of animals in his dominions on certain days. He awarded the title of Yugapradhäna to Yati Mänasiãha. He took interest in the philosophical discussions with the Jaina teachers. Several new Jaina temples were constructed during his reign. There was freedom to celebrate religious functions, people led pilgrimage to holy places. Räjä Bhäramala, Hïrananda, Mukïma etc. were favourites of the Jaina Emperor. Banärasïdäsa was the tutor of the Naväb Chinakalïchakhan of Jaunpur in Hindi and Sanskrit. Hïrananda was the great jeweller, and with the royal permission, he led Saãgha to Sammeda Áikhara. He also invited Jahängir and his courtiers to his residence. He also performed the installation ceremony in Agra through Labdhivardhana Áuri. Sabalasimha Mothiya was another millioniaire in the reign of Jahangir. The other businessmen of Agra were Säha Bandïdäsa Tärächanda Sähu etc. Anilustrated, Vijñaptipatra was sent to Vijayasena in 1610 A.D. on behalf of the Jaina Saãgha of Agra. In 1618, Jaina Árävakas like Banärsïdäsa led pilgrimage to Ahichchhaträ and Hastinäpura.
Bañarasïdäsa was Musähiba of Shahjahan and used to play chess with him. During this period, Banärasïdäsa himself, Bhagavatïdäsa, Päîâe Hemaräja, Päîâe Rüpachand, Päîâe Harikôishîa, Bhaûûäraka Jagatabhüshaîa, Kavi Sälivähana, Yati Lüîasägara, Pôithïpäla, Vïradäsa, Kavi Saghäsa, Manoharaläla, Khaâagasena, Räyachandra, Jagajïvana etc. enriched Jaina literature. There is depiction of the life of the Jainas, trade and administration in the Ardhakathänaka (1641 A.D.) of Banärasïdäsa. It is important from the historical point of view. This work informs about the pilgrimage of the people to the holy places of Ayodhyä, Väräîasï, Mathura, Hastinäpura and Ahichchhaträ. Among the Jainas, Agravälas, Osvälas and Árïmälïs were living in Agra. Agra, Firozabad, Jaunapura, Khairabad, Shahjahanpur, Allahabad, Meerut, Etawa, Kola (Aligarh), Saharanpur, Varanasi etc. were good centres of Jainism.527
AURANGZEB (1658-1707 A.D.)
Aurangzab reversed Akbar’s policy of religious tolerance and thus undermined the loyalty of the Hindus to the empire. This, in turn, led to the popular uprisings which sapped the vitality of the empire. His suspicious nature added to his problems. He got the throne after imprisoning his father and extended his empire by his conquests.
Aurangzeb was a fanatic and an intolerant. There was no freedom to the Jainas in his reign as before. Even then Upädhyäya Yaáovijaya, Änandaghaîa, Devabrahmachärï, Bhaiya Bhagavatïdäsa, Jagataräya, Áiromaîidäsa, Jïvaräja, Lakshmïchandra, Bhaûûäraka, Viávabhüshaîa, Kavi Vinodïläla etc. earned name as literary figures during this time. Vinodïläla, a native of Allahabad wrote the Ásïpälacharitra in 1690 A.D.
Tärächandra, Diwan of Alaphakhan of Fatehapura got the translated of the Sanskrit work Jañänärîava in Brajabhäshä in 1671 A.D. Sonapäla and Kuõvarapäla the wise business men, hailed form Agra, to settle in Patna. They built the Jaina temple at Mirzapur. The ancestor of Hïravanda Áäha of the family of Jagat Seûha was also a native of Agra but settled at Patna in 1661 A.D.528
- JAINISM DURING (1707-1857 A.D.)
After the death of Aurangzeb, the decline of the Mughal empire began suddenly. There were dreadful invasions of Nädirshäh Durrani and Ahmad Shah Abdali. The Marathas and the Sikhs started looting. The Sübedars of the provinces became independent, from the Mughals. It is known as the dark period in Indian history. In 1722 A.D., Sädatkhän was appointed Subedär of Oudh. His treasurer Keáarï Siãha on Agrawäla Jaina accompanied the Subedar from Delhi to Luknow. In 1724 A.D. he got repaired the five Jaina temples at Ayodhya and tried for the development of this Tïrtha. Bachchharäja Nähaûä the main Jeweller of Nawab Asafudaulä (1775-1797 A.D.) awarded him the title of ‘Räjä’. At this time, Jinaakshayasüri established his seat in Yatichhatta of Lucknow and also built the temple of Pärávanätha. Räjä Bachchharäja Nähatä and Árävakas of Lucknow invited the Bhaûûäraka Jinachandra Süri by sending him the illustrated Vijänaptipatra. The royal treasurers Räjä Harasukharäya and his son king Suganachandra of Delhi renovated the Hastinäpura Tïrtha in 1800 A.D. and built the vast Digambara Jaina temple. They constructed Jaina temples at other places. Sähu Hïräläla of Allahabad constructed the Jaina temple at Prabhäsa hill, hear Kauáämbï in 1824 A.D. Seûha Maîiräma built the Jambüsvämï temple on Chauräsï Tïlä at Mathura. Bhaûûäraka Viávabhüshaîa, Pandita Jinadäsa. Pandita Hemaräja (Etawa), Buläkïdäsa (Agra) Dyänataräya (Agra) etc. lived during this period.529
Even during the reign of the Muslims, Jainism continued to develop. Temples were constructed, and numerous images were installed in them. Copies of the manuscripts were made. The Jaina Árävakas led Saãghas to holy places. Some of the Muslim rulers were highly impressed by the teachings of Jaina monks, and held them in high esteem. The Jaina Árävakas were sincere and faithful citizens of the Muslim Kingdoms. Some of them became great financiers of the Muslim rulers and also acted as ministers. They even fought in battle-fields as generals. There are several instances that the Muslims rulers gave protection to the Jaina temples instead of destroying them. They gave facilities to the Jainas to practise their religion.
- JAINISM IN THE DIFFERENT FORMER STATES OF RAJASTHAN
Jainism was in existence in the different parts of Rajasthan in early times. Even the formation of the states, it continued to flourish under the patronage of their rulers. Temples were constructed and images were placed in them with great ceremony. The Jaina monks enjoyed the greatest respect and regard of both the kings and the masses of these states. Such was the dominance of Jainism that some rulers and most of the people began to observe the doctrine of Ahiãsä.
JAINISM UNDER MEWAR RULER : Jainisn enjoyed the patronage of several Mewar rulers. Such was the powerful hold of Jainism that some of the rulers, though not Jainas, constructed Jaina temples and installed images in them. They gave them charities of different kinds. They invited the Ächäryas and offered them royal reception. Influenced by their discourses they issued an ordinance for the observance of the doctrine of Ahiãsä. The Jaina ministers also constructed several beautiful Jaina temples.
Räîä Bhartôibhaûûa was ruling in 943 A.D.530 He founded the town of Bhartôipura after his name. He built the Guhilavihära and placed the image of Ädinätha in it through Büdägaîi of Chaitrapurïya Gachchha.531 The minister of his son king Allaûa constructed a Jaina temple at Äghäûa in which the image of Pärávanätha was installed by Yaáodeavsüri of the the Saîâeraka Gachchha in the 10th century. Jinaprabodhasüri was a contemporary of Mahärävala Kshetrasiãha of Chittore.532 When Jinaprabodha suri came to Chittore, Brähmaîas, ascetics, the chief among the Räjaputras, Kshetrasiãha and Karîaräja all combined to receive the Ächärya there in about 1277 A.D.533
Samarasiãha, the ruler of Mewar and his mother, Jayatallädevï were greatly influenced by the discourses of Devendrasüri and became his devotees. Probably, it was due to his advice that Jayatallädevï, queen of lord Tejasiãha of Medapäûa and Chitraküûa constructed the temple of Pärávanätha as we know from the Chittoragarh inscription of 1278 A.D.534 It also states that Mahärävala Samarasiãha Deva, the adornment of Guhilaputra family, granted land to the west of the temple for a monastery to Pradyumnasüri with some endowments. Another inscription of the time of the Guhila king Samarasiãha records the grant of land to a Jaina temple belonging to the Bhartôipurïya Gachchha for the spiritual welfare of his mother, Jayatallädevï, who received religios instructions from Sädhvï Sumalä.535 Besides, being encouraged and advised by Sürïjï, Samarasiãha had also issued an ordinance prohibiting the slaughter of animals in his kingdom. This ordinance also refers to the fact that the people would abstain from taking wine and would strictly follow the rules of justice and religion. Tejäka, son of Räîä, accompanied by his wife, Ratnadevï and his son, Vijayasiãha set up a Jaina image for the welfare of Jayatallädevï as we know from the inscription of 1306 A.D. on the image in the temple of Pratäpagarh.536
Guîaräja, the cashier of King Maukala, built the temple of Mahävïra by his master’s orders in 1428 A.D.537 At Nägdä, there is a temple of Pärávanätha which was constucted by a certain trader of the Poraväla caste in 1429 A.D. according to the inscription.538
After Räîä Maukala, his son Kumbhakaraîa became the ruler who was a great supporter of Jainism. Not only many images and temples were built and installed in his reign but he himself also built the most remarkable Jaina temple at Sädaâï.539 The Jaina Kïrtistambha at Chittore was built by Punnasiãha, the son of Jïjä of the Bagheraväla caste, at the persuasion of his daughter in the 15th century.540 That Mahäräîä Kumbha permitted the construction of a Jaina Kïrtistambha inside the fort is a concrete and umistakable evidence of his respectful attitude towards Jainism. The famous Chaumukha temples of Raîapura and Kamalagaâdha were constructed in his reign. The inscription of 1434 A.D. engraved on a loose stone lying in a Jaina monastery at Deläväâä in the Udaipur State records that during his victorious reign, 14 tanakäs were allotted for the worship of Dharma-chintämaîi temple.541 In Adbhudajï temple at Nägdä, a colossal image of Säntinätha was set up in 1437 A.D. by a merchant named Säraõga in his reign.542 The inscription of 1448 A.D. on a pillar in the Jaina temple now known as Singärachaurï at Chittore records the erection of a temple of Jaina Tïrthaõkara Säntinätha by Bhaîâärï Veläka, son of Säha Kelhä, the treasury officer of Räîä Kumbakaraîa.543 An inscription engraved on the image lying in the Jaina temple at Vasantagadh states that the image lying in the Jaina temple at Vasantagadh states that the image was set up in the Vasanatapura Chaitya by Bhädäka, son of Dhansï, and was consecrated by Muni Sundarasüri in 1453 A.D.544 An inscription of 1461 A.D. engraved on the pedestal of a big brass image of Ädinätha at Achalagarh on Mt. Äbü records that while Mahäräjädhiräja Kumbhakaraîa was ruling at Kumbhalameru, the image was made at Dungarapur during the reign of Rävala Somadäsa and brought to Äbü by the Saãgha of Tapägachchha.545
Jainism continued to flourish in the reign of Räîä Räyamala who was the son of Räîä Kumbha. An inscription from Udaipur of 1499 A.D. speaks of the erection of temples dedicated to Mahävïra, Ambikä and so forth in the victorious reign of Räîä Räyamala.546 From the image inscription of Ädinätha at Nädläï, it is known that the ceremony of the installation of the image was caused to be made by Sïhä and Samadä whose grand-father Säyara had previously rebuilt the subsidiary cells through the orders of Pôithvïräja, the eldest son of Räyamala, the ruler of Mewar.547
Mahäräîä Pratäpa, the greatest hero among the Rajputs, wrote a letter to Hïravijaya suri requesting him to visit Mewar for propounding the Dharma. This letter written in the old Mewärï in 1578 A.D. is a very important document in the history of Jaina religion.548 This shows that though incessantly engaged in warfare for the defence of his homeland against the imperial aggressions of Akbar, Pratäpa, the indomitable hero, did not ignore the nourishment of his own soul, as also of those of his people. The fact that the invitation was extended to the greatest Jaina saint of the period indicates the catholicity of his views and his love of Jainism. A long inscription, in Märawärï language, of 1602 A.D. records a grant made apparently by Amarasiãha who was the son of Mahäräîä Pratäpa.549
Jainism enjoyed special royal patronage in the reign of Mahäräîä Jagatasiãha. The image at Nädol550 and Nädläï551 have been installed by Jayamala and the whole Saãgha respectively in 1629 A.D. Hearing the virtues of Ächärya Mahäräja Devasüri, Mahäräîä Jagatasiãha invited him to spend his chäturmäsa (four months of rainy season) at Udaipur through his Prime Minister, Jhälä Kalyäîasiãha. Devasüri acceded to the request and came to Udaipur where he was welcomed with military honours as known to us from the Digvijayamabäkävya.552 Impressed by his preaching, the king became his firm devotee. He had prohibited the collection of customs revenue from the large congregation of the people held every year at Varakänä. He also issued an ordinance for the stoppage of the catching of fish or any other living creature from the Picholä and Udayasägara lakes of Udaipur, destruction of animals during the month of birth of Mahäräîä and during the Bhädrapada month every year and destruction of animal life on the coronation day of the Mahäräîä. He also ordered the repair of Jaina temples built by Kumbhä Räîä on Machinda-durga. Besides this, he worshipped the image of Ôshabhdeva in the temple of Udaipur.553
The Jaina religion continued to enjoy the royal support even afterwards. The Chief Minister Dayälaáäha of Mahäräîä Räjasiãha built the beautiful Jaina temple at Räjanagara and performed the consecration ceremony in 1675 A.D. through Vijayasägara during his victorious reign.554
JAINISM IN THE STATES OF DUNGARAPUR, BANSWÄRÄ AND PRATÄPAGARH : These three states comprised the Vägaâa region. Jainism enjoyed patronage and prospered under the rulers of these states. In their service, there were several Jaina ministers. They constructed a number of temples and celebrated the consecration ceremony of the images with pomp and show which attracted large crowds. Some manuscripts were also prepared under their patronage. So popular was Jainism for some time there that even oilmen and people of similar castes observed the doctrine of ahiãsä out of respect for the Jaina population.
The existence of Jainism in this region as early as the 10th century is known to us from an inscription of 994 A.D. engraved on the Jaina image ‘Jayati Árï Vägaûa Saãghaê’. The capital at that time was Vaûapadra known at present as Baroda. The faith continued to thrive in this region which is indicated by the various evidences discovered there. On the rock of an ancient temple of Pärávanätha at this place, there are engraved figures of twenty-four Tïrthaõkaras. The inscription of 1307 A.D. on it tells us that it was installed by Jinachandrasüri of the Kharatara Gachchha.555 The image of Keáariyäjï at Dhuleva in Mewar was carried from this place.556
The ancient name of Dungarpur was Girivara. It was founded in about 1358 A.D. We know from the Praväsagïtikätraya of Jayänanda written in 1370 A.D. that in his days, there were five Jaina temples and about nine hundred Jaina families living there.557 In 1404 A.D. Prahaläda, the minister of Rävala Pratäpasiãha, constructed a Jaina temple.558 After that, Jainism continued to prosper during the reign of Gajapäla. We have copies of the four manuscripts written in his reign, namely, the Pañchaprasthäna-vishamapada-vyäkhyä 1423 A.D., Dvyäárayamahäkävya Saûïka 1428 A.D., Dvitïyakhaîâagranthä-gratriaya-Sakalagranthä 1429 A.D. and Kathäkoáa of 1430 A.D.559 From the inscription of 1469 A.D. on the wall of the Jaina temple of Äntrï, it is clear that his chief minister Säbhä built the temple of Áäntinätha and established an alms-house at Äntrï in 1438 A.D. In that temple, he set up brass images of Áäntinätha.560 After Gajapäla, his son Somadäsa became the ruler. An inscription of 1461 A.D. engraved on the pedestal of big brass image of Ädinätha at Achalagarh on Mt. Äbü records that it was made at Dungarpur during the reign of Rävala Somadäsa and brought to Äbü by the Saãgha of Tapä Gachchha; and Säbhä with wife Karanäde and their sons, Sälhä and Mälhä set up the image. The consecration ceremony was performed by Lakshmïsägarasüri of Tapägachchha.561
After Säbhä, his son Sälhä became the chief minister of king Somadäsa. He gave liberal charities and in 1464 A.D. fed two thousand people everyday evidently at the time of famine.562 He repaired the temple of Pärávanätha at Giripura. He erected a Maîâapa and Devakulikäs in the temple built by Säbhä at Äntrï. He also set up there an image of Marudevi seated on an elephant. The consecration ceremony of this newly built protion was performed by Somavijayasüri in 1468 A.D. He started to construct a big Jaina temple at his native place Thänä at a distance of five miles from Düngarpur but it was not completed.563 From the Praáastis of manuscripts, it is known that Siddha-Hema-bôihadvôitti VIII, Árï Sukumäla-svämia baritram and Kävyakalpalatäkavisikshavôitti were written during the reign of Rävala Somadäsa.564 There is also the monument of the Jaina saint of his time.565 The consecration ceremony of the Jaina images was performed in 1462 A.D., and 1473 A.D. during his reign.566
The son of Rävala Somadäsa was Gangadäsa who was succeeded by Udayasiãha. There is an inscription of 1514 A.D. engraved on the wall of Jaina temple of Áäntinätha at Naugämä (Banswara state) which states that it was built by the sons and grandsons of Dosï Champä of the Humbaâa caste during the reign of king Udayasiãha.567 That Jainism continued to thrive even in later times in the Dungarpur and Banswara states is evidenced by the images of the later period discovered here.568
Even in the Pratäpagarh State, the Jaina religion was in a flourshing condition. There are several inscriptions of the 14th or 15th century found on the images in the Jaina temples of Deoli, Jhänsadi and Pratäpagarh.569 The inscription on the back of a brass image in the Jaina temple at Deoli of 1316 A.D. records Thäkura Kheûäka, resident of the town Dhandhaleávaravärakü and of Áïmäla caste had the image of Pärávanätha set up for the spiritual welfare of his father Thäkura Phämphä and mother Hänsuladevï570. Even afterwards, Jainism continued to make phenomenal progress. An inscription, engraved on a slab built in the wall of a Jaina temple at Deolï, of 1715 A.D. records that the oilmen of the town agreed to stop working their mills for 44 days in a year at the request of Säraiyä and Jïvaräja of the Mahäjana community in the reign of Mahärävala Pôithvïsiãha.571 Another inscription in the temple of Mallinätha at Deolï of 1717 A.D. records that when Mahäräjädhiräja Mahärävala Pôithïsiãha was ruling at Devagarh and Pahäâasiãha was his heir-apparent, the temple of Mallinätha was built by Singhavï Vardhamäna, son of Singhavï Árïvarsha and his wife Rukmi.572 In the reign of Mahärävala Sämantasiãha, the temple of Ädinätha was built by Dhanarüpa, Manarapa and Abhayachandra in 1781 A.D.573 A grand ceremony of the consecration of the images was also performed at Pratäpagarh in 1867 A.D.574
JAINISM IN THE KOTAH STATE : Jainism was prevalent in very early times in the region now included in the Kotah State. Padmanandi composed the Jambüdïvapaîîatti at Bärä. From this work, we know that Bärä was full of the Árävakas and Jaina temples. This city was in Pariyätra governed by a king named Áakti or Áänti who possessed noble character and true knowledge.575 This Bärä may be identified with Bärän in Kotah state. It was a centre of Jainism in the past as some old Jaina temples are still found here. It also remained the seat of the Bhaûûärakas of the Mülasaãgha at this time.576 This ruler may be identified with Saktikumära of Mewar who ruled in 977 A.D. at Äghäûa.577 The kingdom of his grandfather Bhartôipaûûa II seems to have extended on the south-east up the border of Pratäpagarha.578 His son and successor Allaûa was also a powerful ruler. Afterwards, Áaktikumära obtained the glory and consolidated his kingdom.579 His kingdom might have included some portion of Kotah state.
At Sheragarh, three colossal Jaina images were set up by a Rajaput Saradära in the eleventh century A.D. At present, these images are housed in a dilapidated building. From the inscription on the images, it is known that the city at that time was known as Koshavardhana.580
There are the Jaina caves of the 8th or 9th century A.D. situated at a distance of three miles from Ramagarh. This place is fifty-three miles north-east of Kotah. In early times, it was known as Árïnagara. The hill is covered with a thick forest infested by tigers and lions and other wild life. Several Jaina monks like the Jaina monks of Ellorä passed their time in isolation from busy towns and were devoted to a life of meditation and contemplation. Near the caves, there are several statues of Jaina Tïrthankaras.
At Atru, a railway station on the Kotah-Bina railway and situated now in Kotah district, there are the ruins of several beautiful Hindu temples and also those of two exquisite Jaina temples. The inscriptions discovered in the Hindu temples show that they were constructed in the 12th and 13th centuries of the Christian era when the Paramäras of Dhärä were ruling over this area. It will not be unsafe to conclude that the Jaina temples are contemporary of the Hindu edifices; and under the liberal policy of the Paramäras of Dhärä, they existed side by side with the Hindu temples for the worship of Jaina community which was quite large at Atru at this time.
Twelve miles from Atru to the east is situated the ruined town of Kôishîaviläsa popularly known as Viläsa on the bank of a small river known as Pärvatï. There are found a number of dilapidated Jaina and Hindu temples which seem to have been of the 8th to the 11th century A.D.
About 25 miles further east from Viläsa, there is an old town of Áahäbäda. Five miles from this town is a mound near the tank. At both these places, there are the ruins of both Jaina and Hindu temples which indicate that the followers of Brahmanical religion and Jainism lived in peace and amity in this region.
In 1689 A.D. at Chändakheâï, near Kahänapura, during the reign of Aurangzeb when his Sämanta Kishorasiãha Chauhäna was ruling at Kotah, Kôishnadäsa, a very rich merchant of the Bagheraväla caste, constructed a Jaina temple of Mahävïra and celebrated the installation ceremony of the temple as well as images with his wives and sons.581 At this time, Aurangzeb was in the south where Kishorasiãha was serving him faithfully. Even then repeated explanations were demanded as to why the temple was being built against the express imperial policy. But the local authorities continued to send evasive replies because they knew that the emperor’s end was nigh.
JAINISM IN SIROHI STATE : In Sirohi State too, Jainism made marked progress. Its rulers patronized it beyond any shadow of a doubt. Temples were built and images were placed in them. Some of the rulers invited the religious Ächäryas and followed their instructions both in letter and spirit.
This area was a centre of the Jaina religion. The Kälandarï inscription of 1332 A.D. records a fast unto death by the members of a whole Saãgha.582 They all gave up their worldly existence by abstaining from food. The names of those who thus immortalized themselves are given. This record bears an eloquent testimony to the deep and passionate faith of the people in the doctrines of Jainism in the 14th century A.D.
Jainism continued to grow and expand under the rulers of Sirohi. The inscription of 1408 A.D. in the temple of Mahävïra at Pindwäâä records the installation of Vardhamäna during the reign of prince Sohaja.583 The fact that Räyamalla constructed the monastery of Ôishabha in the reign of Räisiãha in 1542 A.D. is known to us from the inscription engraved on a slab in the temple of Ôishabha about three miles from Äbü Road station.584 In 1546 A.D. during the reign of Durjanasäla, two shrines for the merit of Lachhalade585 and Tejapäla586 respectively and in 1565 A.D. in the reign of Udayasiãha, two shrines for the merit of Bäi Goraõgade587 and Lakshamï588 were constructed in the temple of Mahävïra at Pindwäâä.
While going to Fatehapur Sikri on the invitation of Akbar, Hïra-vijayasüri stayed at Sirohi where he was welcomeed by king Surtänasiãha. The king took a vow to refrain from drinking, hunting, flesh-eating and irregular sexual life. He also abolished some taxes on the advice of the Sürï.589 An inscription on the temple of Sirohi tells us that the temple of Chaturmukha was built in the city of Sirohi during the reign of Mahäräja Räjasiãha, son of Suratänasiãha in 1577 A.D.590
In the reign of Akhairäja, Dharmadäsa erected the pädukä of Siãhavijaya with the chaturvidha Saãgha in 1662 A.D. at Vïraväâä.591 It is the ancient name of Brämhaîaväâä. In 1664 A.D., Udayabhäna592 and Jagamäla593 celebrated the consecration ceremony of the images Ädinätha and Áïtalanätha respectively in his reign. At the same time, the whole Saãgha performed the installation ceremony of the image of the Kunthunätha at the place, Peáuvä.594
In the year 1714 A.D, Pïûha established the Pädukä of the Süri in the reign of Mänasiãha.595 During the same reign in 1730 A.D., Bhaûûäraka Chakreávarasüri with other saints celebrated the installation ceremony for the good of others at Maâära.596 In 1819 A.D., king Áivasiãha gave the amount of taxes imposed on animals and land in the village Bämaîaväâa as Jägïra to the Jaina temple.597
JAINISM UNDER THE RULERS OF JAILSALMER : Jainism flourished very well under the Bhaûûi Rajaputs in the medieval period in Jaisalmer. Owing to its location in the heart of the desert, this place remained safe and secure from the Muslim invasions. Several beautiful temples were built and numerous images were placed in them with great celebration. Even the kings also took much interest in the religious affairs by participating in various ceremonies. The pädukäs of several Jaina Ächäryas were installed. The árävakas led the Saãghas to the places of pilgrimage. The Áästra-bhaîâäras were founded for the preservation of the manuscripts here.
The former capital of Jaisalmer was Lodorva. In about 994 A.D., there was a king named Sägara in whose time Jineávarasüri, pupil of Vardhamänasüri of Kharatara Gacchha, came to this place. By his good wishes, two sons namely Árïdhara and Räjadhara were born, who constructed the temple of Pärávanätha here.598 This temple was renovated in 1618 A.D. by Seûha Thäharüáäha.599
Jainism had a stronghold at Vikramapura (now called Bïkamapura) in Jaisalmer state from the early times. Specially, Kharataragachchha remained dominant here. Ächäryas of this Gachchha visited this place from time to time and performed various religious functions. In about 1111 A.D., Jinavallabhasüri visited Vikramapura.600 Jinapatisüri was born in 1153 A.D. at this place. He was initiated to monkhood in 1160 A.D. and was placed on paûûa in 1166 A.D. here. He initiated several persons to monkhood here from time to time. In 1175 A.D., he performed the installation ceremony of the stüpa of bhäîâägärika Guîachandra-gaîi.601 The Árävakas of this place participated in the Saãgha led by Abhayakumära to the holy places with Jinapatisüri from Aîahilapaûûaîa in about 1185 A.D.602
Jaisalmer was made the capital after the destruction of Lodorva. In 1283 A.D., Jinaprabhodhasüri visited Jaisalmer. He was warmly received by Mahäräja Karîa with his army. At his request, Sürijï spent his rainy season.603 Here also, during the reign of King Lakshmaîasiãha, the temple of Chintämaîi Pärávanätha was constructed on the preaching of the Ächärya Jinaräjasüri in 1416 A.D.604 The image of Pärávanätha brought from Lodorva was placed in this temple. After the construction, the building was named Lakshmaîaviläsa. It indicates the love of the subjects towards the king under whom their religion must have flourished.
The successor of Lakshmaîa was Vayarasiãha. In 1436 A.D., Päsaâa with the members of his family set up an idol of Supärávanatha in the temple of Chaintämäîi during his reign.605 Säha Hemaräja and Punä constructed the temple of Sambhavanätha in 1437 A.D. during his reign.606 The festivities in connection with the consecration ceremony took place in 1440 A.D. when Jinabhadra put three hundred idols of Sambhavanätha and of others. Even King Vayarasiãha took part in the festivities. In his reign, Säha Lolä with the members of the family set up the image of Pärávanätha in the standing pose in 1440 A.D.607
Chächigadeva was the son of Vayarasiãha. He became the king in about 1448 A.D. In his reign, Sajäka.608 Sachoharäja609 and Sajjä610 celebrated the consecration ceremony of Nandïávarapaûûikä, Áatruñjaya Giranärävatära Paûûikä and Nandïávarapaûûikä respectively through Jinachandrasüri in 1461 A.D.
Jainism made striking progress also during the reign of Devakarîa. Kheûä of Sänkhavälechä gotra and Pañchä of Chopaâä gotra constructed the two temples namely of Säntinätha and Ashûäpada respectively in 1479 A.D. during his reign.611 There was some sort of matrimonial alliance between these two rich persons. Sanghavï Kheûä with his family made pilgrimage to Satruñjaya, Giranära and other Tirthas many times. He also performed the consecration ceremony of the famous Tapapaûûikä of the temple of Sambhavanätha. Even in 1479 A.D., Dhanapati of Pättana celebrated the pratishûhä of Áäntinätha bimba during his reign and established it in the Pärávanätha temple.612 In the same temple, in 1479 A.D., Hemä613 and Bhïmasï614 made Jinavarendra Paûûikä in his time. The image of Marudevi was also erected at this time in the temple of Ôishabha.615
The Jaina religion continued to progress in the time of the later rulers of Jaisalmer. During the reign of Bhïmesena in 1593 A.D., the Pädukä of Jinakuáalasüri was erected by Saãghavï Päsadatta.616 The consecration ceremony of the pillar of Pärávanätha temple was also performed in 1606 A.D.617 In 1615 A.D. during the victorious reign of Kalyäîadäsa, Jinasiãhasüri built the pädukä of Jinachandrasüri.618 Even in 1616 A.D., Mantri Toâaramala constructed the door of Upäsara.619 In 1621 A.D., Jinasiãhasüri came to Jaisalmer and celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Chintämaîi Pärávanätha brought from Lodorva and placed it in the temple named Lakshmanavihära.620 In the reign of Buddhasiãha, Gangäräma with his family installed the images at the preaching of Tattvasundara-gaîi in 1712 A.D.621 In the reign of Akhaisiãha in 1749 A.D. and in 1755 A.D., the Püjyapädukä of Jinaudaisüri were erected by his disciples.622
Mülaräja also patronized Jainism. In 1768 A.D., the stüpa of Jinayuktasüri was constructed.623 The Saãgha established the stüpa of Jinakuáalasüri in 1783 A.D. through the discourses of Jinachandrasüri.624 In 1786 A.D, the thamba pädukä was erected and its consercration ceremony was celebrated by Pt. Rüpachandra.625 The pillar was erected over the remains of Paîâita Árï Vardhamäna in 1784 A.D.626 The whole Saãgha constructed the temple of Rishabhadeva and its installation ceremony was celebrated by Pt. Rüpachanda in 1804 A.D.627 In 1818 A.D., the pillar was raised on the remains of Jinachandrasüri.628
Mülaräja was succeeded by Gajasiãha. During this reign, the initiation ceremony of Jinaudaisüri Ächärya was performed by saãgha in 1819 A.D.629 Fascinated by the discourses of Jinamahendrasüri, Gumänachanda, Saväiräma and Maganïräma with their wives, sons and daughters went out on pilgrimage to Abü, Áikharajï etc. in 1834 A.D.; and there they organized feasts, worship, chairty and rathayäträ function.630 Encouraged by Jagaviáäla Muni, the desolated pädukä of Jinaharshasüri was repaired by the Osvälas who consecrated it through Mahärävala Gajasiãha.631 In 1840 A.D., Saãghavï Gumänamala with the members of the family, for personal merit, repaired the old Jaina temple near Amarasägara and installed in it the image of Adinätha.632 The pädukä of Jitaraõgagîi, pupil of Jinachandra, was placed by Jinamahendasüri in 1844 A.D.633
Raîajïta Sïãha was the successor of Mülaräja in whose reign, Jainism made further progress. Inspired by the discourses of Jitaraõgagaîi, the Saãgha constructed the temple of Ädinätha in 1846 A.D. and its installation ceremony was performed by Muni Düõgarsï.634 Amarasägara, the Sthuãgha Pädukä was put up by Jinamuktisüri in 1860 A.D. and it was consecrated through Sähiba Chandra.635
JAINISM IN JODHPUR AND BIKANER STATES : Jainism flourished in Jodhpur and Bikaner states under the patronage of the Räûhoâa rulers. During their reign, temples were constructed and images were installed in them. These Räûhoâa rulers had deep reverence for Jaina saints, and they often used to pay visits to them. The official reception was accorded to them on the occasion of their visit to their capitals.
The Jaina religion was quite popular at Nagara, three miles from Jalsola which was ruled by the descendants of Mallinätha, ruler of Kheâa, the old capital of Jodhpur state. The Räûhoâa rulers of this place were liberal in their outlook; and therefore, Jainism flourished exceedingly in their reign. Jaina temples were built and repaired. In 1459 A.D., Govinda Räja gave donations to the temple of Mahävïra on the advice of Modaräja-gaîi during the reign of Raâuâa.636 The inscription of 1511 A.D., in the temple of Ôishabha of the reign of Räula Kushakaîa records the erection of raõgamaîâapa of Vimalanätha temple by the Saãgha of Vïramapura.637 The nalimaîâapa of Säntinätha was completed in 1577 A.D., when Räula Meghavijaya was the king.638 The inscription of 1580 A.D. records the repairs of the temple when Räula Meghavijaya was reigning and Parama Bhaûûäraka Árï Hïravijayasüri was the Pontiff who visited the court of Akbar.639 In the reign of Räula Teja Siãha, the Saãgha repaired the temple of Áäntinätha.640 The inscription in the temple of Ôishabhadeva records some reconstruction in 1610 A.D. when Räula Teja Siãha was reigning and Bhaûûäraka Vijayadevasüri was the pontiff.641 The Jaina community of this place constructed a chatushkikä in the temple of Mahävïra in 1621 A.D. through the favour of Näkoâä Pärávanätha in the time of Räula Jagamala.642 In 1624 A.D. a nirgama-chatushkikä together with three windows was constructed in the temple of Pärávanätha by the Jaina community when Räula Jagamala was ruling.643
The Räûhoâa rulers of Jodhpur State followed the policy of religious toleration, so Jainism prospered under their rule. In 1612 A.D., during the reign of Sürya Siãha, Vastupäla with his wife and son celebrated the installation ceremony of the image of Pärávanätha644 at Käpaâä in 1621 A.D. when Gaja Siãha was ruling.645 This inscription is important in so far as it points out to the fact that Käpaâä, the portion of Sirohi state at that time, was under the possession of the Räthoâa ruler of Jodhpur. Most probably, it came under their sway when Surtäna Siãha was reduced to submission by Sürya Siãha. It is clear from the inscriptions that new images were set up in the temples of Ädinätha, Mahävïra and Pärávanätha by Jayamalla in 1626 A.D. during the reign of Gaja Siãha at Jälor.646 The images were also installed at Mertä647 and Pälï648 in 1629 A.D. during hls reign. The inscription on the image of Mertä says that Bäi Pürnämnyä with his sons installed the image of Sumatinätha. From the inscription on the image of Pärávanätha at Pälï, we learn that, when Gaja Siãha was reigning and Amara Siãha was the heir apparent, this place was held by Chauhäna named Jagananätha, son of Jasavanta. The image was caused to be made by two brothers namely Dunigara and Bhakara, residents of Päli itself and belonging to the Árïmäla caste. It seems that the Chauhäna ruler Jagananätha of Päli acknowledged suzerainty of the Räûhoâa rulers of Jodhpur and patronized Jainism or at least allowed it to flourish in his state.
In 1737 A.D., in the reign of Mahäräja Abhai Siãha, when Bakhata Siãha and Bairï Säla were ruling over Märoûha, a great ceremony of the inauguration of the temple of Säha and the images was held.649 This function was performed by Räma Siãha who was the dïväna. This inscription is of great historical significance as it indicates that Märoûha then was not an independent unit but came under the possession of the Räûhoâas of Jodhpur. In the reign of Räma Siãha, son of Abhai Siãha, Giradhara Däsa constructed the temple at Biläâä in 1746 A.D.650 In 1767 A.D., a rathayäträ function was held with great rejoicings during the reign of his feudatory ruler named Hukama Siãha, a Meratyä Räjapüta when Bhaûûäraka Vijayakïrti visited Märoûha.651
Bïkäjï with his followers left Jodhpur and founded Bikaner in about 1488 A.D. He and his successors showed respect towards Jainism and its ascetics. Mahäräjä Räya Siãha, who was contemporary to Akbar, became a disciple of Jinachandra Süri. At the request of his minister Karama Chandra, he brought 1050 Jaina images of Sirohi from Akbar in 1582 A.D. which were looted by Turäsanakhän and thus saved them from destruction.652 This is evidently an exaggerated account. Turäsankhän had probably nothing to do with Akbar. He might have been a local fanatic chief who indulged in iconoclasm. Karama Chandra celebrated the Yugaprdhänapadotsava of Jina-chandra Süri at Lahore in which Mahäräjä Räya Siãha with Kuãvara Dalapata Siãha participated and presented many religious manuscripts to Suriji.653 Mahäräja Räya Siãha had good relations with Jinasiãha Süri who was the Paûûadhara of Jinachandra Süri. In his reign, Hammïra with the members of his family established the image of Neminätha in 1605 A.D.
Karîa Siãha became the ruler in 1631 A.D. Jainism continued to grow during his reign. He granted land for the construction of the Jaina Upäsara. The relations of Mahäräjä Anüpa Siãha with Jinachandra Süri and the Jaina poet Dharmavardhana were intimate and cordial. The poet Dharmavardhana Süri composed a panegyric in Räjasthäni language on the coronation ceremony of king Anüpa Siãha who was a renowned patron of art and literature. Between Jinachandra and the several rulers of Bikaner such as Mahäräjä Anüpa Siãha, Jorävara Siãha, Sajana Siãha and Gaja Siãha, there was a considerable correspondence. Mahäräja Sürata Siãha became the ruler in about 1765 A.D. He was devoted to Jaina saints. He used to regard Jñänasägara as the Avatära of Näräyaîa. He granted land for the construction of a number of Jaina Upäsaras. He had very great respect for Dädäsähiba and gave the land of 150 bïghäs to meet the expenses of the worship of Dädäji.654 He was succeeded by Mahäräjä Ratana Siãha in 1828 A.D. He continued to show respect towards Jaina teachers and Jainism.
JAINISM IN JAIPUR STATE : The Jaina religion also prospered under the Kachchhävä rulers of Jaipur who extended patronage to it. About fifty Jainas acted as dïvänas in the State, and under their patronage various copies of the Jaina scriptures were prepared; a large number of temples were constructed; and the consecration of the images was celebrated. At the same time, Jainism flourished in the different parts of the Jaipur State in the Jägïradrärïs of several powerful thäkuras.
Jaipur State remained the stronghold of the Jaina religion in the medieval period. In 1538 A.D., during the reign of Karama Chanda, a copy of Bhavishyadattacharitra was written.655 Copies of the Päîâavapuräîa656 and Harivaãáapuräîa657 were written in the temple of Neminätha in 1559 A.D. during Bhäramala’s rule. After Bhäramala, Bhagaväna Däsa became the ruler. In his time, the copy of the Vardhamänacharitra was written at Mälapurä.658
Jainism continued to develop in the reign of Mäna Siãha. In his reign, the copy of the Harivaãáapuräîa was written in the temple of Ädinätha at Mälapurä in 1588 A.D.659 In his time, Thäna Siãha of Khaîâelaväla caste led the Saãgha to Päväpurï in Bihar where he performed the installation ceremony of the Shoâaáakäraîa Yantra in 1591 A.D.660 The inscription of 1605 A.D. on the large pillar states that during the reign of emperor Akbar and his feudatory Mäna Siãha, the pillar was erected by Bhaûûäraka Chandrakïrti residing at Champävatï661 known as Chätsu. The two copies of the Harivaãáapuräîa were written in 1604 A.D. and 1605 A.D. respectively at Räjamahala662 and Saõgrämapura663 (modern Sängäner) in his reign. The inscription of 1607 A.D. ponints out that the consecration ceremony of the images on a large scale was celebrated at Maujamäbad by Jetä with his sons and grnadsons when Mäna Siãha was ruling.664
Jainism also continued to develop even in the reign of Mirzä Räjä Jaya Siãha. There is an inscription of 1654 A.D. engraved on a slab in the Digambara Jaina temple of Godä at Sängänera of the time of the emperor Shähjahän and Räjä Jaya Siãha.665 The inscription in the Jaina temple at Amber says that the Chief Minister, Mohana Däsa, of Jaya Siãha of Khaîâelväla caste built the temple of Vimalanätha at Ambävatï (Amber) and adorned it with golden kalaáa. It further mentions that in 1659 A.D., when Mahäräjädhiräja Mahäräjä Jaya Siãha was ruling at Ambävati as a great feudatory of emperor Shähjahän, some additions were made to the temple by the Chief Minister of Mahäräja Jaya Siãha.666
Sawäi Jaya Siãha, the celebrated scholarly ruler of Jaipur, was served by three Jaina dïvänas namely Räma Chandra Chhäbarä, Rävä Kôipä Räma and Vijaya Räma Chhäbrä. These statesmen tried their best for the propagation of the Jaina religion. Räma Chandra constructed the Jaina temple at Shähabäda midway between Jaipur and Rämagaâha. He and his son Kiáana Siãha participated in the function of the Paûûa ceremony of the Bhaûûäraka Devendrakïrti. It is described in the Jakarï of Bhaûûäraka Devendrakïrti, composed by Nemichanda.667 Räva Kôipä Räma also took a keen interest in religious affairs. He built a Jaina temple at Chätsu. The big Jaina temple in the Chaityälaya for worship in his house. Besides, he participated in the function of the paûûa ceremony of the Bhaûûäraka Mahendrakïrti and sprinkled water over his head. This is written in the Jakarï of Mahendrakïrti composed by Pt. Akhai Räma.668 Vijaya Räma got the Samyaktvakaumudï written and presented to Pt. Govardhana in 1740 A.D.669 The copy of the Karmakäîâasaûïka was also written in his reign.670
Even during the troubled reign of Sawäi Mädho Siãha, the Jaina religion continued to thrive. He was also served loyally like his father by several Jaina statesmen. Bäla Chandra Chhäbarä became the Chief Minister of Sawäi Mädho Siãha in 1761 A.D. Before him, an intolernat Brähmaîa, named Syäma Räma had destroyed many Jaina temples. Bäla Chandra gave a new life to Jainism. He renovated the old Jaina temples and constructed several new ones. In 1764 A.D., Indradhvaja Püjä Mahotsava was celebrated at Jaipur by the efforts of Bäla Chandra who had a great influence in the State. The State provided all help and facilities for this function.671 Dïväna Ratana Chanda Áäha built a Jaina temple and participated in Indradhavaja Püjä Mahotsava. Nanda Läla constructed the Jaina temples at Jaipur and Sawäimädhopura. He also celebrated the installation ceremony of the images on a large scale as advïsed by Bhaûûäraka Surendrakïrti in the reign of Pôithvï Siãha in 1769 A.D. at Sawäimädhopura.672 Dïväna Keáarï Siãha Käsaliväla built the beautiful Jaina temple of Siramoriyä at Jaipur. Kanhaiyä Räma built the Jaina temple known as ‘Vaiddyonkä Chaityälaya’ at Jaipur in the time of Mädho Siãha.
Räja Chandra Chhäbarä, son of Bäla Chandra, served Jagata Siãha as his Chief Minister. He was a man of religious inclinations. He led the Saãgha to many holy places. He was, therefore, given the title of Saãghapati. He performed the Yantra Pratishthä at Junagada as advised by Bhaûûäraka Surendrakïrti in 1801 A.D.673 On the instruction of the same Bhaûûäraka, in 1804 A.D., he performed the consecration ceremony of the images on a large scale at Jaipur.674 Bakhata Räma also remained the Dïväna of Jagata Siãha. He took much interest in matters of religion. He built the Jaina temple in Choâärästä at Jaipur which is known as the temple of Yati Yaáodä Nandajï. He constructed the Jaina temple at Durgäpurä known as the temple of Roâapurä. This name was given after the name of his friend. A Jaina temple was constructed by him at Anatapurä near Chätsü which was given to him as a Jägïra for his salary.
Jainism flourished in different parts of the Jaipur State, which were ruled by small feudatory rulers. In 1694 A.D., during the reign of Vijaya Siãha, Jesä Jobanera with his sons set up the images.675 He seems to be the feudatory chief of Jobanera. The inscription of 1653 A.D. points out that during the reign of Shähjahän, when Arjuna Gauâa was ruling over Mälapurä, Saõghï Näâä, Bhïkhä, Sambhu and Läla Chanda performed the installation ceremony of the big Daáalakshaîa Yantra.676 This inscription is historically important as it points out that Mälapurä, once under the rule of the Kachchhävä rulers of Jaipur, came under the control of Arjuna Gauâa, the ruler of Märoûha.
Jainism was also prevalent at Reväsä. An inscription of 1604 A.D. records that during the reign of emperor Pätisha Akbar and his subordinate Chief Mahäräjädhiräja Räyasäla of Kachchhäväha family, the temple of Ädinätha was constructed by Säha Jitamala and his brother Nathamala, the two sons of Devïdäsa, the Chief Minister of Räyasäla. Devïdäsa belonged to a Khaîâelaväla family. The inscription further states that the temple was built under the advice of Yaáakïrti belonging to Mülasaãgha.677
Bairat in the time of Akbar was ruled by his official Indraräja. The inscription of 1587 A.D. engraved on the wall of the temple of Pärávanätha states that Indraräja, a Árïmäla baîiyä, erected this temple of Vimalanätha.678 which was named both Mahodaya Prasäda and Indra Vihära.
The Jaina religion was also in existence in the kingdom of Todaraisingh which was ruled by the Solaõkï rulers. The old name of Todaraisingh was Takshakagaâha. In 1536 A.D., Saãghavï Kälu celebrated the consecration ceremony of the images at Äõvä near Uîiyärä, during the reign of the Solaõkï ruler Süryasena.679 The two copies of the Yaáodharacharitra were written separately in 1553 A.D.680 and 1555 A.D.681 when Räva Rämachandra was ruling over Todaraisingh. In 1607 A.D., Nänu got the copy of the Ädinätha-puräîa written in the temple of Ädinätha of this place when Mahäräjä Jagannätha was ruling.682 Vädiräja, the minister of the king Räja Siãha of this town, wrote the Väghaûälaõkärävachüri Kavichandrikä in 1672 A.D.683
Chätsu was a centre of Jainism in early times. Copies of manuscripts such as the Samyaktvakaumudï684 in 1525 A.D., Räjavärtika685 in 1525 A.D., Chandraprabhacharitra686 in 1526 A.D., Shaûpähua687 in 1537 A.D., and Upäsakädhyayana688 in 1556 A.D. were written here. The praáastis of these manuscripts are important from historical point of view. It is known from the praáasti of the Chandraprabhacharitra that Chatsu was under the possession of Räîä Saõgräma Siãha and his feudatory Räva Räma Chandra of Todaraisingh was ruling there. After that, it came under the control of the Räûhoâa ruler Vïramade, the ruler of Mertä, as is known to us from the praáasti of the Shaûpähuâa. Finally, king Bhäramala of Amber began to rule there as seen from the manuscript of Upäsakädhyayana written in his reign.
An inscription689 of 1726 A.D. states that during the reign of Chühaâa Siãha, Hôidaya Räma performed the installation ceremony of the images at Bänsakhoha, a place near Jaipur. Chühaâa Siãha seems to be a petty ruler of this place.
JAINISM IN ALWAR STATE : Some inscriptions of the 11th or 12th century A.D. on the pedestal of the Jaina images and some Jaina monuments have been discovered at the places such as Ajabgaâha690, Naugämä691 and Räjagaâha.692 They indicate that Jainism existed in this region in early medieval period when it was ruled over by the Gürjara Pratïhäras. Even afterwards, during the reign of Khänzädäs, Jainism remained associated with this region in the 15th or 16th century A.D. These Khänzädäs were originally Hindus who were converted to Islam during the reign of Firoz Tughluq in the 14th century A.D. By nature, they were tolerant and showed great regard towards Jainism.
Alwar became the place of pilgrimage in the medieval times and it was visited by several pilgrims. In the Tïrthamäläs693 written in the medieval period, it has been described as a holy place of Rävaîa Pärávanätha. It means that Rävaîa worshipped the image of Pärávanätha at this place. It, therefore, began to be called Rävaîa Pärávanätha Tïrtha. It is all legendary but it indicates the importance of Alwar as a centre of religion. It appears that the town Päränagar nar Alwar derived its name from the Jaina Tïrthaõkara Pärávanätha. As extensive Jaina ruins abound in Päränagara, it may be possible that this place was associated with the Jaina Tïrthaõkara Pärávanätha in early times.
As Alwar remained the holy place of Jainas in medieval times, Jaina scholars and saints resided at this place and carried on their literary activities.694 Some works such as Maunaekädasïstavana in 1567 A.D. by Sädhukïrtï Vidagdhamukhamaîâaîâanaupäï by Lälachandra in 1625 A.D. Mahïpäla-chupäï in 1821 A.D. by Vinayachandra have been composed in Alwar. Some copies of the manuscripts such as the Haãsadüta, Laghu-Saãghatrayï in 1543 A.D. and Laghu-kshetrasamäsavôitti in 1642 A.D. by Áivachandra, Devakumärachavôitti in 1546 A.D. have been prepared in Alwar. Even at Tijärä695 and Bahädurapura,696 several copies of the manuscripts were written during the reign of the Khänzädäs in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Temples were constructed and images were installed in them during the reign of the Khänzädäs in the 15th and 16th centuries. A Jaina inscription of 1516 A.D. records the construction of an Adinäthachaitya at Bahudravyapura by Árïmäla Saãgha and the installation of an image therein was made by Ächärya Puîyaratna Süri.697 In 1531 A.D. a Árävaka of Upakeáa caste belonging to Alwar installed the image of Sumatinätha through Siddha Süri.698 Bhaûûäraka Bhüshaîa of the Käshûhä Saãgha performed the installation ceremony of an image at this place in 1619 A.D.699 An inscription of 1628 A.D. engraved on a slab of stone built into the wall of a Jaina temple, now used as a house by a Thäkura at Alwar, records the construction of a temple of Rävaîa Pärávanätha and consecration of his image by Hïränand suri of Osaväla caste originally of Delhi and then at Agra.700
1) EI, XX, PP.71 FF, SIRSAR, D.C.:, Select Inscriptions, pp. 213-221
1)2) AV, pp. 691-692
1)3) Ibid p. 693
1)5) Ibid pp. 693-695
1)6) Shah, J. Chimanlal: Jainism in North India, p 130
1)7) V.A> Smith; Oxford History of India, p 75
1)8) Bharatiya Prachin Lipimala pp. 2-3
1)9) JBROS, XVI, pp. 67-68
1)10) Ibid, XXXVII, p. 38
1)11) McCrindle: Ancient India, p. 68; F.N.1
1)12) Ibid. p. 72
1)13) Ibid. p. 73
1)14) McCrindle: Ancient India, p. 169
1)15) Ibid. p. 183
1)16) Ancient India as described by Megasthenese and Arrian, p. 136
1)17) B. K. Tiwari; History of Jainism in Bihar, p. 83
1)18) E. I. , XXI, p. 85, IHQ, 1934, p. 57
1)19) EI, XXII, p. 2; IHQ, X,pp. 45 ff.
1)20) RICE, Lewice, Mysore and Coorg from the Inscriptions; NARASIMHACHARYA: Inscription of Sravana Belagola
1)21) Mysore and Coorg from the Inscriptions Sravana Belagola
1)22) Inscriptions of Sravana Belagola
1)23) Jainism or the Early Faith of Asoka, p. 23
1)24) IA, XXI, p. 23
1)25) IA, p. 156; EI, IV, pp. 22-34, 239; JRASB, 1909, p.23
1)26) Cambridge History of India, I, p. 165
1)27) JBORS, III, p. 452
1)28) V.A. Smith: Oxford History Of India, pp. 75-76
Early History of India, p. 154
29) SBE XXII Int. p. XIII.
There are also other references in the Jaina Literature which goes to show that Chadragupta was or had become a Jaina.
JACOBI: Parisishthaparvan, pp, 61-62
30) Bhagwan Parsvanatha Ki Parampara Ka Itihasa, p. 273
30)31) Arhant Vachana, Vol. V, pp. 25, 49-58
30)32) T. L. Shah: Ancient India, II, pp. 293-294
30)33) B. K. Tiwari: History of Jainism in Bihar, pp. 105-107
30)34) Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, II, pp. 779-780
30)35) NJL, I , No. 856
30)36) Bhagwan Parsvanatha Ki Parampara Ka Itihasa, p. 273
30)37) Arhant Vachana, Vol. V, pp. 35, 49-58
30)38) IHQ, XXV, pp. ff.
30)39) IA, XI, p. 246
30)40) Jain Tirth Sarva Sangraha, p. 322
30)41) IA, XI, p. 247
30)43) Jaina Tirth Sarva Sangraha, II, p. 318
30)44) Chapter XXIX, p. 134
30)45) EI, II, pp. 240-244, Luder’s List no. 904-905
30)46) EI, XX, pp. 71-78
30)47) The Age of Imperial Unity, pp. 215-216
30)48) An Early History of Orissa
30)49) Luder’s List No. 1346
30)50) The Age of Imperial Unity, pp. 213-214
30)51) A. C. Mittal; An Early History of India, p.322
30)52) Passage of the Hathigumpha Inscription may also suggest that Kharavela killed a king named Goradhagiri and plundered his capital Rajagriha
30)53) A. C. Mittal: An Early History of India, p.322
30)54) EI, II, pp. 240-244
30)55) An Early History of Orissa
30)56) Luder’s List No. 1346
30)57) R. Subrahmanyam: Guntupalli Brahmi Inscription of Kharvela, 1958
30)58) BL. S. Hanumantha Rao: The Religion in Andhra, pp. 142-143
30)59) Luder’s List No. 1347
30)60) Ibid no. 1348-1353
30)61) Ibid no. 1348
30)62) Ibid no. 1349 and 1350
30)63) Luder’s List No. 1351
30)64) Ibid no. 1352 and 1353
30)65) Inid No. 1344
30)66) Jain Journal Mahaveer Jayanti Special, p.170
30)68) Prabandha Chintamani of Merutunga. The Murunda king is said to have been residing in Pataliputra
30)69) U. P. Shah and M. A. Dhaky; Ed. Aspects of Jaina Art and Architecture, p. 215
30)70) JSLS, I, No. 54 p. 102
30)71) Para 156
30)72) Ibid 26
30)73) 89.2 ff
30)74) 89.2 ff
30)75) p. 248
30)76) Ch. 89
30)77) EI, II, p. 195
30)78) IB XIV (i); Luder’s List No. 93
30)79) Ibid, I, p. 396, no.33, Luder’s List No. 94
30)80) EI II p. 199, No. 2
30)81) Ibid, XXIV, p, 104
30)82) CHJ, P.50
30)83) EI, II, p. 200. No. 5, Luder’s List No. 100
30)84) Ibid, P. 207, No. 30, Ibid no. 105
30)85) Ibid, p. 199, Ibid No. 99
30)86) EI, I, p. 390, No. 17, Luder’s List No. 108
30)87) Ibid, II, p. 207, No. 6, Luder’s List No. 103
30)88) Ibid, II, p. 200 No. 6, Ibid
30)89) Ibid, II, p. 200, No. 6; Ibid no. 101
30)90) Ibid, II, p. 201, No. 11; Ibid No.16
30)91) EI, I, p. 38; Luder’s List No. 18
30)92) Luder’s List No. 19-20
30)93) EI, I, p. 391 No. 19, Luder’s List No. 21
30)94) Luder’s List No. 22
30)95) EI, X, pp. 110, F. No. 4; Luder’s List No.
30)96) Ibid, I, p. 382 No. 2, Luder’s List No. 24
30)97) Ibid, II, p. 202 No. 13, Ibid, No. 25
30)98) Ibid, II, p. 202 No. 14, Ibid, No. 26
99) Ibid, I, p. 382, F. No. 3, Ibid, No. 27
100) Luder’s List No. 28-29
101) EI, I, P. 383 F. No. 4
102) Ibid, I, P. 395, No. 29, Luder’s List No. 30
102)103) EI, I, P. 391, No. 20, Luder’s List No. 31
104) Ibid, I, p. 394, No. 5, Ibid, No. 32
104)105) PHAI, P. 476
106) EI, I, p. 385, No. 6, Luder’s List No. 34
106)107) Ibid, II, p. 206, No. 26, Luder’s List No. 35
106)108) JUPHS, X, Pt. I, No. 2
106)109) EI, II, p. 206, 203, No. 6, Luder’s List No. 37
106)110) Ibid, I, p. 385, No. 7, Ibid, No. 39
106)111) I A, XXXIII, P. 40, F No. 10, Ibid, No. 41
106)112) EI, I, p. 387, no. 9, Ibid, No 42
106)113) Ibid, p. 387, No. 10, Ibid, No. 44
106)114) Luder’s List No. 45
106)115) EI, IV, p. 244, F
106)116) Luder’s List No. 49-51
106)117) EI, II, p. 203, No. 18, Luder’s List No. 53
106)118) EI, I, p. 391, No. 21, Luder’s List No. 54
106)119) Ibid, I, p. 386, No. 8, Ibid, No. 56
106)120) Luder’s List No. 57-58
106)121) EI, X, p.115, F, Luder’s List No. 59
106)122) IA, 33, p. 102, No. 33, Ibid, No. 63
106)123) EI, I, p. 392, No. 24, Luder’s List No. 66
106)124) JASB, N. S. V, P. 276
106)125) EI, XIX, p. 67, No. 4
106)126) EI, I, p. 388, No. 12, Luder’s List No. 70
106)127) Luder’s List No. 71-72
106)128) EI, II, p. 205, No. 22, Luder’s List No. 73
106)129) Ibid, II, p. 205, No. 23, Ibid, No. 74
106)130) IA, 33, p. 108, No. 33; Ibid, No. 77
106)131) EI, X, p. 123, No. 16; Luder’s List No. 170D
106)132) SJS, p. 86
106)133) JRAS, 1898, pp. 516, ff
106)134) ASC, XXI, pp. 1-3
106)135) ASI, 1913-14, pp.262 ff
106)136) CHJ, pp. 91-92
106)137) JRAS, 1908, p. 1102
106)138) P. 18
106)139) SJS, A. X, p. 14
106)140) Ibid, X, p. 14
106)141) CHJ, p. 13, p. 93
106)142) EI, X, p. 120; Luder’s List No. 107d
106)143) CAG, p. 413
106)144) NAYA, 157, UPA 35
106)145) P. 2348
106)146) Pp. 278 ff
106)147) SBE, 45, p. 80
106)148) Vikramaditya of Ujjayini
106)149) Ancient Malva and the Vikramaditya Tradition, pp. 128-136
106)150) The Pattavali Samuchchaya, pp. 46, 106
106)151) IA, XX, p. 247
106)152) EI, XXXVIII, pt. V, pp. 167-168
106)153) JSHI, (100BC-900AD), p.112
106)154) EI, XVI, p. 241; Luder’s List No. 966
106)155) JSHI pp. 112-113
106)156) CHJ, p. 96, ASI, XVI, p. 357
106)157) H.D. Sankaliya; Archeology of Gujarat, p. 53, p. 166 ff, JRAS, 1938, pp. 427f
106)158) Ibid, pp. 166 ff
106)159) II, p. 2001
106)160) Jainism in South India and Jaina Epigraphs, p. 101, JBBRAS, X, p. 133
106)161) JBORS, XVI, PP. 200-201
106)162) IHC, 1954, pp. 43-44
106)163) Religion in Andhra, p. 147
106)164) IA, pp. 247 f
106)165) Kalakacharya Kathanaka (SGS)
106)166) Select Inscriptions, I, p. 190, Note 1
106)167) JBBRAS, X, p. 132
106)168) ASI, 1914-15, pp. 39 ff
106)169) VS, 322
106)170) I, p. 180
106)171) SJS, p. 72
106)172) ASI, 1914-15, p. 2
106)173) JSHI, p. 149
106)174) CAG, pp. 21 ff; See also S.N. Majumdar’s Note in P. 671 of The Same work
106)175) Vienna, Oriental Journal, 1890, IV, pp. 80 ff and 260 f
106)176) CAG, pp. 142 ff
106)177) Vienna Oriental Journal, pp. 80 ff
106)178) Ed. A.N. Upadhye, 27, 82
106)179) SB, XII, p. 293
106)180) EI, II, p. 205
106)181) URI, p. 54
106)182) CII, III, No. 61
106)183) Jaina Art and Architecture, pp. 129-131
106)184) EI, II, No. XIV (39); CII, III, p. 258
106)185) JRAS, 1896, pp. 578 f; Luder’s list No. 78
106)186) IA, pp. 125-127
106)187) EI, XX, pp. 59-61
106)188) ASI, 1905-06, p.98, fn. 1
106)189) Ibid, 1925-26, pp. 125 f
106)190) ASC, I, pp.263, ff
106)191) Journal of Oriental Institute, Baroda, XVIII, p. 247
106)192) See Colophon of that tent edited by A. N. Upadhye
106)193) J.C. Jain: Prakrit Sahitya ka Itihasa, p. 147
106)195) Colophon, Vs. 2
106)196) Punyavijaya: Introduction Vol. 6 of the Brihat kalpasutra
106)197) Jain Sahitya ka Brihad Itihasa, Vol. III, pp. 130 ff; Puratana Jaina Vakya Suchi, Introduction, P. 145
106)198) Jaina Art and Architecture, I, p. 135
106)199) Ibid, p. 138
106)200) SGS, X, p. 129
106)201) Avimarakam, 5th Act
106)202) Vasvadatta, pp. 157, 174, Etc.
106)203) Kadambari, P. 160
106)204) V. Chs. 4 ff
106)205) P. 87. See also Bhavishya, I, 43, 36
106)206) 57, 45
106)207) Jain Prakrit Sahitya ka Itihasa, p. 381
106)208) Watters: On Yuan Chwang’s Travels in India, I, p. 123
106)209) Ibid, I, p. 251
106)210) Ibid, II, p. 154
106)211) Ibid, II, p. 184
106)212) Ibid, II, p. 187
106)213) Ibid, I, p. 371 f
106)214) Ibid, II, p. 224, 226, 228
106)215) JLS, V, No, 5; Indian Epigraphy (Annual Report, 1962-63, P. 381)
106)216) Tiwari, B. K.: Jainism In Bihar, pp. 161-162
106)217) Roy Chaudhary P. C.: Jainism In Bihar, p. 80
106)218) PR, 1983-84, IA, XX, 2a, XXI, p. 58
106)219) JSAI, P. 391
106)221) JSAI, p. 371
106)222) APJLS, No 365
106)223) EI, XXIX, pp. 38 ff
106)224) IAP, 1954-55, p. 29; ARIE, 1954-55, No. 448
106)225) Jain Sahitya ka Brihad Itihasa, VI, pp. 131, 363, 438
106)226) Ibid, p. 219
106)227) Prabandha Chintamani, p. 12, Puratana Prabandha Samgraha, p.12
106)228) Prabandha Chintamani, Vanaraja-Prabandha, p. 15
106)229) Samarichchakaha, Introduction p. LIII, Text P. 187-188
106)230) SJS, XX,
106)231) JGPS, p. 90 (Introduction)
106)232) Tiwari, B. K.: Jainism in Bihar, p. 168
106)233) Ibid, p. 169
106)234) Ibid, p. 235
106)235) Roy Chaudhary: Jainism In Bihar, p. 80
106)236) History of India as told by its own people Vol. I, p. 504
106)237) Ibid, p. 6
106)238) Ibid, p. 97
106)239) Salatore, B. A.: Medieval Jainism with Special Reference to the Vijaya Nagara Empire, pp. 7 ff
106)240) JSLS, III, 94
106)241) Ibid, IV, No. 20
106)242) JSLS, IV, No. 24
106)243) Ibid, IV. No. 48
106)244) Successors of the Satavahana, Etc. P. 255, 9a, VI, p. 23
106)245) JSLS, III, No. 96; IA, VI, pp. 22-32
106)246) Ibid, III, No. 97
106)247) Ibid, III, No. 98
106)248) JSLA, III, No. 99, 9a, VI, pp. 22-32
106)249) Ibid, III, No. 100
106)250) Ibid, III, No. 101, IA, VI, pp. 25-32
106)251) Ibid, III, No. 102
106)252) EI, IV, pp. 140-142, p. 30 XXV
106)253) JSLS, III, No. 103; 9a VI, p. 30
106)254) IB, No. 104
106)255) IB, No. 101
106)256) IB, No. 105
106)257) EI, XXVI, p. 31
106)258) JSLS, III, p. 109
106)259) JSLS, III, p. 107, IA, VII, pp.209-220
106)260) JSLS, NO. 107; IA, XI, pp. 68-69
106)261) IAR, 1968-69, p. 47
106)262) EI, VI, p. 7, JSLS, No. 108
106)263) IA, VII, pp. III, ff
106)264) Ibid, p.112; JSLS, No. 111
106)265) Kielhorne List No. 37, JSLS, No. 113
106)266) IA, VII, pp. 106 f; JSLS, No. 114
106)267) EI, XXI, pp. 204-206
106)268) SII, XVII, No. 262
106)269) ASI, 1908-09, p. 108
106)270) JRAS, 1895, p. 516
106)271) The age of Imprial Kanauj, p. 289
106)272) PR, 1883-84, IA, XX, XXI, p. 58
106)273) BBDJT, p.278
106)274) Catalogue of Sanskrit and Prakrit Manuscripts in C.P. and Berar, p. 652
106)277) EI, IV, pp. 309-310
106)278) Ins. No. 148
106)279) JSLS, V, No. 26
106)280) 2.1; See Story No. 12
106)281) SJS, X,
106)282) Vividha Tirthakalpa
106)283) P. 41
106)284) Prakrit Sahitya ka Itihasa, p. 321
106)285) IA, 1961-62, P. 82
106)286) ASC, XX, p. 122
106)287) Ibid, pp. 125-129
106)288) ARRMA, Year 1934, No, 4
106)289) Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Pattana Bhandaras, p.316
106)290) Janamana Year 1, No. 1, p. 4
106)291) Kharatara-Gachchha-Brihadgurvavali, p. 16
106)292) Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Pattana Bhandaras, p.370
106)293) EI, Vol. XXIV, p. 84
106)294) JUPJ, P. 13
106)295) Kharatara-Gachchha-Brihadgurvavali, p. 25-33
106)296) EI, Vol. XI, pp. 30-32
106)297) Ibid, pp. 34-35
106)298) EI, XI pp. 37-41
106)299) Notice by Kielhorne EI, Vol. IX, p. 159
106)300) Edited by Kielhorne EI, Vol. IX, pp. 63-66; Reedited by Ram Karan, IA, Vol. XI, p. 146
106)301) EI, Vol. XI, pp. 43-46
106)302) Edited by Kielhorne EI, Vol. IX, pp. 66-70
106)303) Ibid, p. 63-66; Reedited by Ram Karan, IA, Vol. XL, p. 146
106)304) EI, Vol. XI, pp. 46-47
106)305) Ibid, p. 49-50
106)306) Ibid, pp. 50-51
106)307) Ibid, pp. 51-52
106)308) EI, Vol. XI, pp. 52-54
106)309) PSAS, WC., 1908-09, p. 55
106)313) KMPTA, Vol. II, pp. 503-505
106)314) APJLS, No. 486
106)315) APJLS, No. 311
106)316) ARRMMA, 1909-10, No. 22
106)317) APJLS, No. 55
106)318) Ibid, No. 490
106)319) R.C. Majumdar: Struggle for Empire, Vol. V, pp. 427-429
106)320) Prabhanda Chintamani, p. 110
106)321) MJI. Pt. I, No. 898
106)322) Peterson’s Reports 3, pp.158-162
106)323) Jaina Sahitya no Samkshipata Itihasa, pp. 197-198
106)324) ARRMA, Year 1915-16, p. 3
106)325) PRAS. Wc., 1909-10, p. 52
106)326) ARRMA, 1909-10, No. 1- 2
106)327) Singhi Jaina Series, Vol. 21, (Introduction)
106)328) EI. Vol. 22, p. 120
106)329) IA, Vol. 21, p. 57
106)330) PRAS, WC., 1920-21, p. 116
106)331) Kharataracgachchha Brihadgurvavali P. 19
106)332) Kharataracgachchha Brihadgurvavali P. 34
106)333) Bhartiya Vidya, Vol. 2, Part 1, p. 62
106)336) K. C. Jain: MPTA, II, p. 410
106)337) K. C. Jain: MPTA, II, p. 453
106)339) KMTA, II, P. 563
106)340) B. K. Tiwari: Jainism in Bihar, p. 169
106)341) B. K. Tiwari: Jainism in Bihar
106)342) Tulasi Pragya, Vol. VI. No. 10, pp. 6 f
106)343) CHJ, pp. 171-172
106)344) EI, XIII, pp. 165 f
106)345) 61-67 (ed. By A. N. Upadhye)
106)346) EI, XIII, pp. 165 f
106)347) JSLA, IV, pp. 7 ff
106)348) Ibid, IV, No. 95
106)349) EI, I, P. 120
106)351) Puratana Prabandha Samgraha, p. 97; SJS, X, p. 9 (Vividha Tirthakalpa)
106)352) Annual Progress report of the Archaeological Deptt. Jambu and Kashmir, 1917-18, p. 7; 1918-19, p. 3
106)353) CHJ, I, p. 170
106)354) Jain Journal Mahavira Jaayanti Special, pp. 195-196
106)355) Altekar, A. S. The Rashtrakutas and Their Times. P. 313
106)356) EC, II, No. 67
106)357) Ibid, no. 25
106)358) EC, IX, No. 61
106)359) EI, IV, pp. 332, ff, ; IA, XII, pp. 11 f
106)360) EI, VI, pp. 25 ff
106)361) ACHJ, p. 204
106)364) JSHI, pp. 204 ff
106)365) Mysore Gazetteer, II, p. 741
106)366) EI, XIII, pp. 190 ff; JSS, II, No. 177
106)367) Saletore, B. A. : Medival Jainism with Special reference to the Vijaya Nagar Empire, p. 89
106)368) Ibid, p. 39
106)369) EC, II, no. 67
106)370) Medival Jainism, p. 207; JSLS, IV, no. 76
106)371) EI, X, pp. 147 ff
106)372) ASI, 1905-06, pp. 121 f
106)373) IA, XII, 1928-29, p. 125
106)374) ASI, 1928-29, p. 125
106)375) The age of Imperial Canauj, p. 13
106)376) Bombay Karnataka Inscriptions, I, pt. I, No. 34
106)377) A. R. of South Indians
106)378) Desai, Jainism In South India, p. 149
106)379) JSLS, III, No. 48
106)380) Ibid, No. 46
106)381) Desai, Jainism In South India, p. 370
106)382) A. R. South Indians Epigraphy, APP. B. No. 65
106)383) Bombay Karnataka Inscriptions, vol I, pt. I, No. 38
106)384) Desai, Jainism In South India, p. 48, Jainism and Karnataka Culture, p. 34
106)385) Mysore Gazetteer, II, p. 769-770
106)386) JSLS, IV, No. 87
106)387) EC, II, ( Reviced Ed. ) No. 133
106)388) Desai: Jainism In South India, p. 34
106)389) The Periyapuranam Refers to the destruction of Several Structural Monuments of the Jaina’s at Chudealore by Mahendravarman I, SEC 9a, 40, p. 215;The Classical age, p. 260
106)390) EI, XXVII, pp. 203 ff, Nellore Inscriptions, p. 676
106)391) A. R. on Indian Epigraphy, 1968-69, p. 60
106)392) Ibid, p. 6
106)393) A. R. on Indian Epigraphy, p. 6
106)394) Ibid, 1954-55, p. 360
106)395) The age of Imperial canauj, pp. 165 ff
106)397) CHJ, p. 213
106)398) EI, X, pp. 54 ff
106)399) Ibid, X, p. 64
106)400) SII, IX, pt. I, No. 19
106)401) EI, X, p. 70
106)402) Ibid, p. 65
106)403) Ibid, p. 68
106)404) Ibid, IV, pp. 141 f
106)405) SII, III, pt. 3, no. 92, SII, XIII, No. 245
106)406) A. R. South Indian Epigraphy, 1909, app. B-82
106)407) SII, III, pt. 3 No. 91
106)408) A. R. South Indian Epigraphy, 1907, No. 199
106)409) SII, 19, No. 80
106)410) Ibid, No. 51
106)411) SII, p. 25
106)412) Ibid, XIX, No. 89, SII, III, No. 97
106)413) Ibid, I, No. 68
106)414) A. R. South Indian Epigraphy, 1900, app. B. 53
106)415) A. R. on South Indian Epigraphy, 1961- 62, pp. 4-5
106)416) SII, II, p. 287 (No. 7b)
106)417) CHJ, p. 216
106)418) EI, IV, p. 137
106)419) Travancore Archeological Series I, p. 193
106)420) SASIRI, The Pandyan Kingdom, pp. 36 ff
106)421) A. R. on Indian Epigraphy (Madras), 430-431 of 1914
106)422) Desai, Jainism In South India, p. 62
106)423) SII, XIV, No. 22, EI, XXXII, pt. 337 ff
106)424) SII, XIV, No. 69
106)425) SASIRI: The Pandva Kingdom, p. 74 f
106)426) Ibid, p. 84
106)427) The Struggle for Empire, p. 429
106)428) EI, III, pp. 207 f
106)429) Ibid, III, pp. 211 ff
106)430) An REP and Ep. 1945-46, p. 40
106)431) IA, XIV, p. 23
106)432) E.P. Carn, II, Introduction, p. 61
106)433) E. P. Carn, II, Introduction, p. 17
106)436) EI, III, pp. 207 f
106)437) Ibid, p. 211
106)438) EP Carn, II
106)439) EI, XIX, pp. 30 f
106)440) EI, XIX, pp. 30 f
106)441) Ibid, III, pp. 207 f
106)442) IA, XIV, pp. 14 f
106)443) AI, XII, p. 102
106)444) An REP. Ind. EP, 1953-54, p. 31
106)445) Mahivira and His Teachings, pp. 294-296
106)446) Ibid, pp. 287-296
106)447) The Struggle for Empire, p. 429-430
106)448) The Kakatiyas, pp. 272-274
106)449) JSLS, IV, No. 251
106)450) Ibid, No. 256, 260, 261, 262
106)451) Ibid, No. 267, 270
106)452) JSLS, IV, No. 336
106)453) Ibid, No. 328, 329 and 330
106)454) Ibid, No. 334, 336, 337, and 339
106)455) Ibid, No. 340, 341, 344
106)456) Ibid, N0. 352, 354, 355, 359
106)457) Chatterji, B. R. : Indian Cultural Influence in Kambodia, P. 125
106)458) Jineshwar Das:Angokora Ke Panchameru Mandira, ……..
106)459) The Struggle for Empire, P. 10; See also The Sultanate of Delhi by A. L. Srivastav, p. 49; Aurelstein Locates this place in the salt range in the Punjab; See AREV, p. 40
106)460) The Salt for Empire, p. 23 (FN. 13)
106)461) NJI, No. 2543
106)463) Lahara, II, No. 8, p.14
106)464) JSLI, P. 344
106)465) AK, VIII, p. 400
106)466) Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 51
106)467) IAR, 1970-71, p. 52
106)468) History of Jainism in Bihar, p. 179
106)469) PJPI, II, p. 194
106)470) Ibid, pp. 403-405
106)472) JUPJ, p. 16
106)473) JGPS, I, p. 21
106)474) PJPI, II, p.60
106)475) JGPS, II, p. 19
106)476) PJPI, II, p. 29
106)478) CHJ, No. 290, pp. 356-357
106)479) Ibid, no. 127, p. 314
106)480) JGPS, I, No. 45
106)481) PJPI, II, pp. 432-434
106)482) Ibid, II, p. 459-476
106)483) Ibid, Adhyay, 4
106)484) JUPJ, p. 16
106)485) PJPI, II, pp. 523-524
106)486) PUPJ, p. 6
106)487) JGPS, I, p. 5
106)488) Ibid, I, p. 6
106)489) Upendra Nath Day: Medival Malva, pp. 422-428
106)490) C. B. Shah: Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 170-198
106)491) C. B. Shah: Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 199-223
106)492) Soma dharmagani (1446-48), Somadeva (1447-48), Gunakarasuri (1447-48), Charitravardhana (1448-49), Udayaadharma (1450), Sarvasundarasuri (1453-54), Sadhusoma (1455-56), Sayaraja (1457-58), Ganasagarasuri (1460-61), Subhasilagani (1461-62), Pratishtha Soma (1467-68), Siddhasuri (1474-75), Sadhuvijaya (1488-89), Kamalasamyama (1492), Udayasagar (1489-90), Indrahamsagani (1497-98), Siddhantasara (1513-14), Ganasara (1522-23), and Hridayasaubhagya (1534-35)
106)493) C. B. Shah: Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 224-259
106)494) Saletore, B. A.: Medival Jainism with Special reference to the Vijayanagar Empire, pp. 289-291
106)495) Saletore, B. A.: Medival Jainism with Special reference to the Vijayanagar Empire, pp. 310
106)496) Saletore, B. A.: Medival Jainism with Special reference to the Vijayanagar Empire, pp. 313
106)497) JSLS, IV, no. 393
106)498) Ibid, no. 394-396
106)499) Ibid no. 403
106)500) Ibid no. 402
106)501) Ibid no. 404
106)502) Ibid no. 406, 415
106)503) Ibid no. 425-434
106)504) Ibid no. 440
106)505) JSLS, IV, No. 456
106)506) Ibid, IV, No. 457
106)507) Ibid, IV, No. 467
106)508) Ibid, IV, No. 503
106)509) Ibid, IV, No. 520
106)510) Memories of Babur, II, 340
106)511) JGPS, I, p. 64
106)512) Ibid, II, No. 87, PJPI, pp. 525-526
106)513) CHJ, No. 219, p. 339
106)514) JGPS, I, pp. 65-66
106)515) ACTR, p. 334
106)516) JGPS, I, No. 45, p.32
106)517) EI, II, p. 59, No. XIII
106)518) PRAS WC, 1909-10, pp. 44-45
106)519) Smith: Jainas at the Court of Akbar (The Bhandarkar Commemoration Volume) pp. 265-276
106)520) The Religious Policy of the Mughal Emperors, p. 15
106)521) JUPJ, p. 22
106)522) JUPJ, p. 23
106)523) Ibid, p. 24
106)524) Ibid, p. 24
106)525) JGPS, I, No. 11, p. 112
106)526) The Religious Policy of the Mughal Emperors, p. 66-67
106)527) JUPJ, pp. 22-23
106)528) JUPJ, p. 25
106)529) JUPJ, p. 25-27
106)530) ARRMA, Year 1914, No. 1
106)531) Jaina Satya Prakasha, Year 7, Bipotsavanka, pp. 146-147
106)532) Jaina Sahityano Samkshipta Itihasa, p. 193
106)533) Kharataragachchha Brihadgurvavali, p. 56
106)534) ARRMA, Year 1922-23, No. 8
106)535) ARRMA, Year 1922-23, No. 9
106)536) ARRMA, Year 1921-22, No. 3
106)537) Madhyaprant, Madhyabharata aur Rajputane ke Prachina Jaina Smaraka, p. 137
106)538) PRAS WC., 1904-05, p. 62
106)539) History of Indian Architecture, p. 240
106)540) Anekanta Year 8, No. 3, p. 139
106)541) ARRMA, Year 1923-24, No. 7
106)542) PRAS WC, 1905, p. 61
106)543) ARRMA, Year 1920-21, No. 10
106)544) Ibid, Year 1923-24, no. 8
106)545) Ibid, Year 1925-26, no. 8
106)546) PRAS. WC., 1905-06, p. 60
106)547) PRAS. WC., 1908-9, p. 43
106)548) Rajputane ke Jaina Vira, pp. 341-42
106)549) PRAS. WC., 1907-08, p. 48-49
106)550) PRAS. WC., 1908-09, p. 46
106)551) Ibid., p. 43
106)552) Singhi Jaina Series, Vol. 14, Introduction)
106)553) Rajputane ke Jaina Vira, pp. 341
106)554) Keshariyaji Tirthaka Itihasa p. 27
106)555) Dungarpura Rajyaka Itihasa, p. 1
106)556) Dungarpura Rajyaka Itihasa, p. 15
106)557) Mevar Rajyaka Itihasa, p. 42
106)558) Sri Maharavalarajata Jayanti Abhinanadan Grantha, p. 397
106)559) ARRMA, Year 1915-16
106)560) Sri Maharavalarajata Jayanti Abhinanadan Grantha, p. 398
106)561) ARRMA, Year 1929-30, No. 3
106)562) ARRMA, Year 1925-26, No. 8
106)563) Dungarpura Rajyaka Itihasa, p. 58
106)564) Sri Maharavalarajata Jayanti Abhinanadan Grantha, p. 399
106)565) ARRMA, Year 1929-30
106)566) Dungarpura Rajyaka Itihasa, p. 70-71
106)567) ARRMA, Year 1916-17, No. 5
106)568) Ibid, 1914-15
106)569) ARRMA, Year 1921-22
106)570) Ibid, 1921-22, No. 6
106)571) Ibid, 1934-35, No. 17
106)572) ARRMA, Year 1934-35, No. 18
106)573) Ibid, No. 20
106)574) Sanvat 1834 Maghshukla 6 Shri Pratapagadh Nagare Shri Kundkundadi Param Digambar Updeshat Pratishthit Idam Jinabimbam Idam Jinabimbam
106)575) Jugal Kishore Mukthar: Fixes the time of this work to be the 8th Century A. D. See Puratana Jainavakyasuchi, p. 67
106)576) IA, Vol. 21, p. 57
106)577) Ibid, 38, p. 186
106)578) ARRMA, 1916, p. 2
106)579) IA, Vol. 32, p. 186
106)580) Kotah Rajya ka Itihasa, P. 28
106)581) Inscription on Yantra in the Jaina Temple at Jaipur
106)582) PRAS. WC, 1916-17, p. 63
106)583) ARRMA, 1909-10, No. 3
106)584) Ibid, 1924-25, No. 10
106)585) APJLS, No. 379
106)586) Ibid, No. 380
106)587) Ibid, No. 383
106)588) Ibid, No. 384
106)589) Surisvara aura Samrat Akbar, p. 188
106)590) APJLS, No. 250
106)591) Ibid, No. 298
106)592) Ibid, No. 243
106)593) Ibid, No. 257
106)594) APJLS, No. 504
106)595) Ibid, No. 101
106)596) Ibid, No. 103
106)597) Ibid, No. 304
106)598) NJI, Pt. III, No. 2543
106)599) Ibid, No. 2544
106)600) Kharataragachchha Brihadguruvavali, p. 13
106)601) Kharataragachchha Brihadguruvavali, p. 24
106)602) Ibid, p. 34
106)603) Ibid, p. 58
106)604) NJI, Pt. III, No. 2112
106)605) Ibid, No. 2114.
106)606) Ibid, No. 2139
106)607) Ibid, No. 2145
106)608) Ibid, No. 2116
106)609) Ibid, No. 2117
106)610) Ibid, No. 2119
106)611) NJI Pt. III, No. 2154
106)612) NJI. Pt. III, No. 2120
106)613) Ibid, No. 2404
106)614) Ibid, No. 2406
106)615) Ibid, No. 2400
106)616) Ibid, No. 2494
106)617) Ibid, No. 2595
106)618) Ibid, No. 2497
106)619) Ibid, No. 2447
106)620) Ibid, No. 2498
106)621) Ibid, No. 2501
106)622) Ibid, No. 2508-2509
106)623) Ibid, No. 2503
106)624) Ibid, No. 2502
106)625) Ibid, No. 2510
106)626) Ibid, No. 2511
106)627) Ibid, No. 2575
106)628) Ibid, No. 2504
106)629) Ibid, No. 2504
106)630) Ibid, No. 2530
106)631) Ibid, No. 2585
106)632) Ibid, No. 2524
106)633) Ibid, No. 2499
106)634) Ibid, No. 2518
106)635) Ibid, No. 2542
106)636) NJI, No. 931
106)637) PRAS. WC., 1911-12, p. 54
106)640) Ibid, 1911-12. p. 54
106)644) NJI, No. 773
106)645) Ibid, No. 981
106)646) PRAS, WC., 1908-09, p. 55
106)647) NJI, No. 783
106)648) PRAS WC., . 1907-08, p. 45
106)649) Inscription on a pillar in the temple of Marotha which is at a distance of six miles from Kuchamana Road station.
Samvat 1794 Mahasudi 13 Aditvare Maharotha Nagare Maharajadhiraja Arbhasinhaji Tata Prasadita Rathoda Shri Bastrasinh Bairisal Rajye Shri Moolsamghe Nandyamnaye valatkaragarane Sarswatigachchhe Kundkundacharyanvaye Mandalacharyam Shri Ratnakirti Tatpatte Mandalacharya Shri Anantkirti Amanaya Khandelvalen Gotrena Shah Girdhar Tatputra Shah Ramsinh Tasya Tatputra Daultiram Sahib Ram, Gangaram Shah Ramsinh Bimbam Pratishtha karapit.
650) NJI, No. 937
650)651) Samvat 1824 ka miti Ashadhsudi 10 dine Shrimad Bhattaraka Shri Vijaykirti Maharaj Maharotha Nagare madhye Chaturmas Kiyo. Maharaja Shri Vijaysinhji tatprasadat Medatyaraji Shri Harisunhaji, Raja Shri Yashvantsinhji, Raja Shri Salimsinhji, Raja Shri Deepsinhji, Samarsinhji, Jeevansinhji, Hukamsinhji, Rajya pravartamnae – Shri Rathyatra Uchchhava Bhalibhanti Panchayata kiya.
650)652) Bikanera Jaina Lekha Samagraha, p. 27 (Introduction)
650)653) Ibid, p. 7
650)654) Ibid, p. 8-11 (Introduction)
650)655) PS, p. 148
650)656) Ibid p. 126
650)657) Ibid p. 77
650)658) Ibid p. 170
650)659) Ibid p. 73
650)660) Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration
650)661) ARRMA, 1927-28, No. 11
650)662) PS, p. 72
650)663) Ibid, P. 72
650)664) Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration
650)665) ARRMA, 1925-26, No. 11
650)666) Ibid, 1933-34, No. 13
650)667) Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration (Gutaka No. 189. In the temple of Patodi at Jaipur)
650)668) Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration (Gutaka No. 189. In the temple of Patodi at Jaipur)
650)669) Copy of this manuscripts in Amerabhandara
650)670) PS, p. 7
650)671) Viravani p. 29-30. An invitation letter was sent to different places for Indradhvaja Pooja Mahotsava.
650)672) Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration
650)673) Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration
650)674) Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration
650)675) Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration
650)676) Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration
650)677) ARRMA, 1934-35, No. 11
650)678) PRAS. WC., 1909-10, pp. 44-45
650)679) Viravani IV, pp. 109-110
650)680) PS, p. 168
650)681) Ibid, p. 163
650)682) Ibid, p. 89
650)683) JGPS., No. 141
650)684) PS, p. 63
650)685) Ibid, p. 54
650)686) Ibid, p. 99
650)687) Ibid, p. 175
650)688) Ibid, p. 94
650)689) Enter Hindi Text with English Transliteration
650)690) ARRMA, 1918-19, Nos. 4, 9, 10
650)691) Ibid, 1919-20, Nos. 3, 4
650)692) Archeological Survey Reports, XX, p. 124
650)693) Jaina Satya Prakasha, X, p. 99
650)694) Aravali, I, No. 12
650)695) Sri Prasasti Samgraha, pp. 96, 108, 115, 125
650)696) Ibid, p. 35 and 54
650)697) Archeological Survey Reports, XX, p. 119
650)698) NJI, No. 1464
650)699) Bhattarakasampradaya, No 686
650)700) ARRMA, 1919-20, No. 15