JAINA MONKS, STATESMEN AND ÁRÄVAKAS1
Almost simultaneously with the nirvï¿½ï¿½a of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra his chief disciple (Gaï¿½adhara), Indrabhï¿½ti Gautama, attained Kevala-jï¿½ï¿½na and after his own nirvï¿½ï¿½a was succeeded by Sudharma, and the latter, in his turn, by Jambu Svï¿½mi. The total period allotted to these three gurus is 62 years (i.e., 527-465 B. C.). All the three were, like Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, Arhat Kevalins and they attained nirvï¿½ï¿½a.Both the Digambara and the ï¿½vetï¿½mbara accounts are in perfect agreement as to their respective names, character and total period.
After the three Kevalins came the five ï¿½rutakevalins, one after the other. The Digambara accounts allot to them a total period of 100 years, whereas the ï¿½vetï¿½mbara accounts that of 116 years. The names of the first four gurus are different in the two traditions, but they are in full agreements as to Bhadrabï¿½hu I being the last guru of this group. They do not differ as regards the twelve-years famine that took place in Magadha in his times nor as regards the consequent emigration of the Jaina Saï¿½gha under his leadership. But while the Digambara tradition states that the Saï¿½gha migrated to the South, ï¿½vetï¿½mbara tradition says that Bhadrabï¿½hu went to Nepal. The origin of the great schism, which later on developed into Digambara and ï¿½vetï¿½mbara sects, is ultimately traced to this event.
In the ï¿½vetï¿½mbara tradition, after Bhadrabï¿½hu’s departure Sthï¿½labhadra assumed the leadership of the Saï¿½gha in Magadha. After the famine was over he convened a council at Pï¿½ï¿½aliputra, at which the remnant of the Sï¿½gha left behind in Magadha tried to put in order the sacred lore. In M.E. 827-840 (or A.D. 300-313) a second council was convened at Mathura under the presidentship of ï¿½rya Skandila at which whatever could be gathered from different monks was fixed in the form of the canon. Simultaneously, another council was held at Valabhï¿½ by Nï¿½gï¿½rjuna Sï¿½ri and it also made a similar attempt. But the two versions disagreed in many points and hence no redaction took place. Finally, in M.E. 980 (or 993), i.e., in A.D. 453 (or 466,) at another council at Valabhï¿½ held under the chairmanship of Devarddhigaï¿½i an attempt to reconcile the different readings of the former councils was made and the available texts were finally written down.1
In the Digambara tradition, after Bhadrabahu I came one after the other 33 successors of Mahavira and they took 683 years in all It is believed that the original canonical knowlege lasted only up to the end of this period. About this time the redaction of the surviving canonical knowlege was undertaken by the Digambara Acï¿½ryï¿½s. A part of the traditional (canonical) knowlege was redacted by Dharasena., Puspadanta and Bhutbali and another by Gunadhara, ï¿½ryamankhu and Nagahasti.
Dharasena may be safely assigned to circe A.D 40-75 Puï¿½padantï¿½ to circe A.D. 50-80 and Bhutlabali to circa A.D. 66-90 and the competition of the Saï¿½khandagama to circa A.D. 75. Gunadhar who wrote Kaï¿½ï¿½ya-pahuda may be safely assigned to about (circa A.D. 25), Aryamankhu to circa A.D. 50 and Nagahasti circa A.D. 130-132. Thus within hocy a century (A.D. 25-75) the surviving Digambara canonical knowlege was finally reduce is writing.
Jainism prospered in India because of the vast canonical literation and the dedicated activities of the ideal Jaina monks, trï¿½sted statesmen and devoted ï¿½rï¿½vakas.
Jaina monks were not only great scholars but also they possessed high character. Whatever they preached, they practised in their lives. They preached ethics and a spiritual way of life. They wandered from place to place for the propagation of Jainism. They preached in the language of the masses. As these saints were ever moving about and were reticent about biographical details, very little is known about their personal lives. Some Jainas also acted as trusted statesmen of kings and emperors. They were truthful and sincere. They were generally honest in the performance of their duties. Some ï¿½rï¿½vakas who were rich, were devoted to their religion. They constructed temples and installed images in them. They led Saï¿½ghas to holy places. They got prepared copies of the manuscripts for presentation to the monks. They were so much enlightened that they exercised check on the monks if they deviated from the teachings of Jainism.
- JAINA MONKS
- KUNDAKUNDÏ¿½CHÏ¿½RYA: Kundakunï¿½chï¿½rya occupies a unique position in the history of Jainism. He belonged to Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha and his own lineage (i.e. Kundakundï¿½nvaya) with its many subsequent branches and sub-branches spread far and wide. To trace their spiritual lineage from Kundakunda has been looked upon as a proud privilege by Jaina monks of the Digambara Section, As many as three major Saï¿½ghas being known to have this Anvaya. He is also reputed to have established the superiorty of Jaina scriptures and to have made them popular all over Bhï¿½rata Kshetra. Many later authors are greatly indebted to him and some of his works have proved to be a milch cow for later commentators for quotations, and his Samayasï¿½ra in particular is studied with devotion by all the Jainas without any distinction.1
As regards the question of domicile of Kundakunda, there is no doubt that he belonged to the South. His very name, Koï¿½ï¿½akunda appears to be Dravidian and looks like the name of a Kannaï¿½a town or village. Later writers specifically mention that he belonged to the town of Koï¿½ï¿½akunda, and there still exists a village of this name about 8 kms. from Guntakal railway station which is associated with the life of Kundakunda. He is said to have performed penance in the nearby cave. A similar tradition connects him with Nandi hill.
The date of Kundakunda has been a baffling problem. Scholars generally advocate that Kundakunda belonged to the first century A.D. It is possible to suggest that he lived in the second century A.D. Kundakunda along with the six teachers in succession is mentioned in the copper plate inscription of 466 A.D.2 If we take 150 years for the six teachers, the time of the first teacher Gunachandra will be about 316 A.D. Guï¿½achandra was not actually the pupil of Kundakunda but only in his line. Therefore, Kundakunda must have lived in the second century A.D. at least 100 years before Guï¿½achandra.3
In later works and inscriptions, Kundakunda is mentioned by several names. The epigraphic records generally give his name as Koï¿½ï¿½a,-Kunda, Kundakunda being the Sanskrit form of the same. Devasena (933 A.D.) and Jayasena (1150 A.D.) refer to him as Padmanandi. Several inscriptions and writers of the 14th century and onwards mention that he was also known as Vakragrï¿½va, Gï¿½iddhapichchha and Elï¿½chï¿½rya.
There are certain main traditional facts1 regarding the life of Kundakunda. Kundakunda flourished after the division of the original Jaina church in to ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras and Digambaras. He is the ï¿½ishya of Bhadrabï¿½hu. On the authority of the ï¿½rutï¿½vatï¿½ra, Padmanandi of Kundakundapura traditionally received the knowledge of Siddhï¿½nta consisting of Karma and Kashï¿½ya-prï¿½bhï¿½ita and he wrote a huge commentary on half of the Shaï¿½khaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½gama. Kundakunda, on the authority of Jayasena and Bï¿½lachandra, is said to have been a contemporary of ï¿½ivaskandha Mahï¿½rï¿½ja of the Pallava dynasty. He is the author of Tamil classic Kural.
As far as the Digambara Text tradition was concerned, the important texts as a whole had fallen into oblivion during the time of Kundakunda. In order to meet the religious needs of the community, he wrote works on the basis of traditional text knowledge inherited from early teachers. The traditional aspect of Kundakunda’s work is clear from the fact that his work have some common verses with some texts of the ï¿½vï¿½tï¿½mbara canons which being a common property in early days have been preserved by both the sections independently. The well known and available works of Kundakunda are Samayasï¿½ra, Pravachanasï¿½ra, Paï¿½chï¿½stikï¿½yasï¿½ra, Niyamasï¿½ra, 5. Rayanasï¿½ra, 6. Ashtapï¿½huda, 7. Bï¿½rasa-aï¿½uvekhï¿½, 8. Daï¿½abhakti and 2 A.D. All are written in Prakrit language.
- UMASVÏ¿½MI: Umï¿½svï¿½mi was the celebrated author of the Tattvï¿½rtha ï¿½utra. He is held in high esteem by the Jainas. The Tattvï¿½rthï¿½ ï¿½utra is one of the original works on philosophy. It is also called the Mokshï¿½sastra, and it occupies high place in Jainism. It is the first known Jaina work in Sanskrit and contains some 357 pithy Sï¿½tras divided into ten chapters. The earliest available commentaries on the Tattvï¿½rtha are of all the Digambara Scholars of repute, viz. Pï¿½jyapï¿½da (5th Century), Akalaï¿½ka (7th century) and Vidyï¿½nanda.
In literature as well as inscriptions, Umï¿½svamï¿½ is invariably mentioned just after Kundakunda and before Samantabhadra. The Digambara tradition, however associates him with the Kundakundï¿½nvaya of Nandi Saï¿½gha. The Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½ of the Saï¿½ghainforms that he succeeded Kundakunda himself in 44 A.D. Sometimes, he is described as a disciple of and sometimes as born in or belonging to the line of Kundakunda. The influence of Kundakunda’s works and of the red-acted canonical texts has been traced in his Tattvï¿½rtha. A verse usually found at the end of his work and some inscriptions also mention. Gridhapichchha as a sobriquet of Umï¿½svï¿½in.1
The ï¿½vetambara called Umï¿½svï¿½mï¿½ by the name Umasvï¿½ti. The author also wrote a commentary on the Tattavï¿½rthï¿½ Sï¿½tra, according to the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras, although the Digambaras deny the authenticity of this Bhaï¿½ya. This commentary was known to the ï¿½vetï¿½mbara monks even in the early seventh century A.D. if not earlier. Both Siddhasena Gaï¿½a (C.600 A.D.) and Haribhadra (minddle of the eighth century) knew this Bhashya. According to the Praï¿½asti at the end of this Bhï¿½shya. Umï¿½svï¿½ti was a monk belonging to the Uchchanï¿½garï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ which was a branch of the Kuï¿½iya (Kolidya) gaï¿½a and was quite popular in the Mathura region as known from the inscriptions. We further learn from the same Bhï¿½shya that he was residing in Kusumapura or Pï¿½ï¿½aliputra at the time of its composition. He was a Brï¿½hmaï¿½a of the Kaubï¿½shaï¿½i gotra and his father’s name was Svï¿½ti and mother was called Vï¿½tsï¿½. His preceptor in respect of initiation was Ghoshanandi Kashamï¿½ï¿½ramaï¿½a and grandpreceptor was Vï¿½chakamukhya ï¿½ivaï¿½rï¿½ His teacher in respect of education was Vï¿½chakï¿½chï¿½rya Mï¿½la and grand-preceptor was Mahï¿½vï¿½chaka Muï¿½ï¿½pï¿½da.
- SÏ¿½MANTABHADRA: Sï¿½mantabhadra is one of the greatest masters of Jaina literature. He was a brilliant and a great preacher of the Jaina religion throughout India. He is the first writer to give a most interesting as well authoritative exposition of the Syï¿½dvï¿½da doctrine, and has been styled as the first composer of devotional prayers (ï¿½dya Stutikï¿½ra).
Like other early authors, Samantabhadra gives but little information about himself. Whatever is known about him has been gleaned indirectly from his works, from the remarks of his commentators and from several inscriptions (11th-15th century A.D.). The later works like the Kathï¿½koshas and Rï¿½jï¿½vatï¿½-Kathe also give some information.
His known and available works written in chaste Sanskrit are as followsï¿½Aptamï¿½mï¿½ï¿½sï¿½ or Devï¿½gamastotra, Yuktyï¿½nuï¿½ï¿½sana, Svayambhustotra, Jina Stutiï¿½ataka or Stutividyï¿½ and Ratnakaraï¿½ï¿½a ï¿½rï¿½vkï¿½chï¿½ra. His first known commentator is Akalï¿½na (C.625-75 A.D.) followed by Vidyï¿½nandi and others.
There is much controversy regarding the date of Samantabhadra. The traditional date of Samantabhadra is ï¿½aka 60 (138 A.D.), and as B.A. SALETORE observes, “Credence may be given to the tradition that Samantabhadra seems to have lived about 120-185 A.D.1
In the works of Samantabhadra, the description of Jaina ascetics as purely ‘forest recluses’ befits only to the times prior to about 300 A.D. The traditional Digambara chronology places Samantabhadra two generations before Pï¿½jyapï¿½da. Pï¿½jyapï¿½da is placed in the latter half of the fifth century A.D. Hence, It is justified to hold the view that Samantabhadra belonged to century A.D.2
As known from the Rï¿½javalï¿½-Kathe (1834 A.D.), Samantabhadra was a Tamil. He had close association with Kï¿½ï¿½chi. The Kathï¿½koshas (11th to 15th centuries) describe as the naked ascetic of Kï¿½ï¿½chï¿½. Besides Kï¿½ï¿½chï¿½, he was also closely associated with the rulers of Karahï¿½ï¿½a (modern Karahada), the ancient and probably the first capital of the Kadambas of Banavï¿½sï¿½.
According to tradition, the royal disciple of Samantabhadra was ï¿½ivakoï¿½i, ï¿½ivakoï¿½i was probably none other than ï¿½ivaskanda ï¿½rï¿½, the second ruler of the Kadamba dynasty. He is known to have had Jaina learnings. Tradition says that he abdicated the throne in favour of his son ï¿½rï¿½ Kaï¿½ï¿½ha who was probably the Kadamba king. He is said to have intervened between ï¿½ivaskanda ï¿½rï¿½ and ï¿½ivaskanda Varman (Early part of the 3rd century, a predecessor of Mayï¿½ravarman Kadamba of the Chandravalli record assigned to 258 A.D.).
The original name of Samantabhadra was ï¿½ï¿½ntivarman who was probably a younger son of the Nï¿½ga chief. He seems to be identical with Killikavarman Choï¿½a, the ruler of Uragapura (or Uraiyur modern Trichinopoly within the Phaï¿½imaï¿½ï¿½ala or the South Indian federation of Nï¿½ga chiefs.1 With his namesake, it is possible to identify him with some chief of the Kadamba dynasty.
His personal achievements are to be found for the first time in the 11th century Kathï¿½koï¿½a of Prabhï¿½chandra. In this work, Samantabhadra is represented as calling himself the naked ascetic from Kï¿½ï¿½chï¿½. He is further shown as the preceptor of ï¿½ivarya, the author of the ï¿½rï¿½dhanï¿½. That work delineates him as visiting places like Puï¿½ï¿½ravardhana, Daï¿½apura, Vï¿½rï¿½ï¿½asï¿½, Pï¿½ï¿½aliputra, Kï¿½ï¿½chï¿½, Mï¿½lava, Sindhu, ï¿½akka (Punjab) and Karaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aka. It appears that Samantabhadra was an itinerantSï¿½dhu and was universally respected for his vast learning and mesmeric personality.
- Ï¿½IVÏ¿½RYA: ï¿½ivï¿½rya is the author of the ï¿½rï¿½dhanï¿½, also called Mï¿½lï¿½rï¿½dhaï¿½a or Bhagavatï¿½-ï¿½rï¿½dhanï¿½which is a very important and ancient Prakrit text mainly dealing with the conduct of Jaina ascetics. It is believed to have been the ultimate source of the Jaina Kathï¿½kosha literature which is represented by the Kathï¿½koshas of Harisheï¿½a (931 A.D.), Prabhï¿½chandra (980 A.D.), ï¿½rï¿½chandra (1066 A.D.), Brahma Nemidatta, Rï¿½machandra etc. A number of Prakrit, Sanskrit and Kannaï¿½a commentaries were written on this work. The earliest available commentary is the Vï¿½jayodayï¿½-ï¿½ikï¿½ in Sanskrit written by Aparï¿½jita Sï¿½ri, also known as ï¿½rï¿½vijaya (700 A.D.).
The author Pï¿½ï¿½italabhojï¿½ ï¿½ivï¿½rya supplies information at the end of his work by mentioning the names of his three teachersï¿½ï¿½rya Jinanandi Gaï¿½i, ï¿½rya Sarvagupta Gaï¿½i, and ï¿½rya Mitranandi Gaï¿½i. The term “Pï¿½ï¿½italabhojï¿½’ is distinctively a Digambara epithet used for their ascetics. Besides his three Gurus, he also mentions Bhadrabï¿½hu who is said to have died peacefully in spite of great suffering. The prefix ï¿½rya and the suffix Gani used by ï¿½ivï¿½rya with the names of his ‘gurus’ are quite similar to those used in the Mathura inscriptions of the ï¿½uï¿½ga-ï¿½aka-Kushï¿½ï¿½a period. This points out that the author belonged to the North.
The author speaks of a peculiar form of funera1 which shows that the dead body used to be left away in some open space in the forest to be disposed off by birds and beasts. This ptactice was prevailing in a tribe named oreital which lived in South-Western Sindh during the period of Indo-Greeks.
YATIVÏ¿½ISHABHA : Yati Vï¿½ishabha is perhaps the most important author from a historical point of view. He is known to have been the author of three important worksï¿½the Chï¿½rï¿½ï¿½-Sï¿½tras on the Kashï¿½yapï¿½huï¿½a of Guï¿½adhara, the Karaï¿½a-ï¿½ï¿½trascontaining Mathematical formulae and the Tilvyapaï¿½ï¿½ati, an early Prakrit text on the subject of cosmology. Although it mainly deals with the nature, shape, size divisions and subdivisions of the universe, it also incidentally gives much information on Jaina doctrine, Purï¿½ï¿½ic traditions about the Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas and other heroes and about ancient Geography and on political history of ancient India such as the dynastic, chronology, commencement of the ‘ï¿½akas’ rule and their eras and so on. At the same time, the work is highly valuable for the study of the development of the science of Mathematics in ancient times. This work has undergone many recensions or transformations.
The question is how much of it corresponds to the original text, and what is the author’s date. Scholars like PREMI, MUKHTAR and UPADHYE assign this work and its author to the end of the fifth century A.D. PHOOL CHANDRA SHASTRI has shown that it must be a later compilation made probably by Jinasena (837 A.D.) on the basis of the original work.
Yati-Vï¿½ishabha is held in high esteem and is considered a very ancient scholar by the writers of the Seventh century onwards. His predecessors ï¿½ryaï¿½aï¿½khu and Nï¿½gahasti are equally owned and respected in the tradition of both the sects ï¿½ryamaï¿½khu has been assigned to the first century A.D. While Nï¿½gahasti has been proved to have belonged to shcent A.D. Yati Vï¿½ishabha has been described as ï¿½ntevï¿½sï¿½ (associate, Junior colleague or immediate disciple) of Nï¿½gahasti. Hence, Yativï¿½ishabha seems to have belonged to 150-180 A.D.1
PÏ¿½JYAPÏ¿½DA DEVANANDI : Jain tradition, both literary as well as inscriptional, place Pï¿½jyapï¿½da Devanandi in between Samantabhadra and Akalaï¿½ka (C.625-675 A.D.). His real name was Devanandi but he is generally known by the title ‘Pï¿½jyapï¿½da’. He was an eminent author, and a master of several branches of learning. He wrote his works in Sanskrit, both prose and verse, of a high quality. He was in his times, the chief pontiff of the Nandi or Deï¿½ï¿½yagaï¿½a, a branch of the Mï¿½la Saï¿½gha of Kundakunda’s line. He was probably the first Jaina Guru to devote himself to the writing of valuable secualar works, besides religious ones. He was a great grammarian and also the master of the medicine.
Pï¿½jyapï¿½da appears to have been the head of a great center of learning at or near Talkad, the capital of the Western Gaï¿½gas in south Kraï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aka.
The Western Gaï¿½ga rules Durvinï¿½ta was a devotee and a pupil of Pï¿½jyapï¿½da, Durvinita’s father Avinï¿½ta Koï¿½gini is said to have himself appointed this scholarly monk as a teacher of his son even before the latter’s accession to the throne. As Pï¿½jyapï¿½da’s fifty year pontificate indicates his long life, his date may safely be fixed, as 464-524 A.D. The known works of this great master areï¿½Jainendra Vyï¿½karï¿½a, Sarvï¿½rthasiddhi, Daï¿½abhaktyï¿½di saï¿½grah, Samï¿½dhitantra, Ishtopadeï¿½a and Sï¿½ntyï¿½shï¿½aka.1
- SIDDHASENA DIVÏ¿½KARA: Siddhasena Divï¿½kara2 is identified by some with Kshapaï¿½aka. Traditionally, he is regarded as one of the nine gems of the court of Vikramï¿½ditya. That he flourished in the Gupta period is indirectly proved by the fact that he is mentioned by Pï¿½jyapï¿½da (early 5th century) in his Jainendra. According to a tradition among the Jainas, Siddhasena Divï¿½kara performed a miracle during Vikramï¿½ditya’s time in the celebrated Mahï¿½kï¿½la temple of Ujjayini. He is the author of the two well known works namelyNyï¿½yï¿½vatï¿½ra and Sanmatitarka Sï¿½tra. Both the works deal with logic. Siddhasena also wrote a commentary on the famous work of Umï¿½svï¿½ti. In his work Sanmati-ï¿½utra, we find for the first time a comparative study of different Brahmanical and Buddhist systems of Philosophy and their criticism from the Jaina point of view.1 In the Seventh century Chï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ namely ï¿½vaï¿½yaka-chï¿½rni, of Jinadï¿½sa, Siddhasena Divï¿½kara is mentioned, Haribhadra (8th century) was also thoroughly acquainted with the philosophy of Siddhasena Divï¿½kara.
- DEVARDHIGANI KSHAMÏ¿½Ï¿½RAMAÏ¿½A: Devardhigaï¿½i Kshamï¿½ï¿½ramaï¿½a was the great ï¿½vetï¿½mbara pontiff who convened a Council of the ï¿½vetï¿½mbara scholars at the city of Valabhi (Gujarat) in 453 A.D. It was at this council that the redaction of the entire canonical knowledge that had been preserved by the ï¿½vetï¿½mbara section was finally undertaken. There were differences of opinion about the readings of the texts and some of them had several different versions each. It seems that Devardhigaï¿½i acted simply as an editor and he reduced to writing the scriptures which had come down to him by word of mouth. This attempt of preservation by redaction of traditional knowledge opened a new era in the cultural progress of the country. It gave an unprecedented impetus to the creation of voluminous exegetical literature in the form of Niryuktis, Chï¿½rï¿½is, Bhï¿½shyas, Vï¿½ittis and ï¿½ï¿½kï¿½s, which is very valuable for the study of ancient historical traditions and cultural conditions. The attempt of preservation of Jaina canon by Devardhigani is noteworthy.1
- MÏ¿½NATUÏ¿½GA: Mï¿½natuï¿½ga is the author of the celebrated Bhaktï¿½mara of ï¿½dinï¿½th Stotra. According to a tradition, he was a contemporary of Mayï¿½ra and Bï¿½ï¿½a (606-647 A.D.) at the court of king Harsha. Mï¿½natuï¿½ga according to a Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valiof the Bï¿½ihadgachchha, was a minister of Vairï¿½siï¿½ha (933 A.D.) of the Paramï¿½ra dynasty.2
- AKALAÏ¿½KA: Akalaï¿½ka is one of the greatest scholars in the history of Indian Logic. Like majority of ancient thinkers, he gives practically no information regarding his personal life. In the Kathï¿½koï¿½a of Prabhï¿½chandra, Akalaï¿½ka has been mentioned as the son of the Minister of king ï¿½ubhatuï¿½ga of Mï¿½nyakheï¿½a. A number of writers beginning from Vï¿½dirï¿½ja and Prabhï¿½chandra refer to Akalaï¿½ka’s debating skill and his victory over the Buddhists. The earliest source that refers to this event is a tenth century inscription of the reign of Bï¿½tuga II. Later Jaina writers and authors of epigraphs have referred to this feat of Akalaï¿½ka with evident pride. The patron of Akalaï¿½ka, according to the Kathï¿½koï¿½a of Prabhï¿½chandra was ï¿½ubhatuï¿½ga, but the Akalaï¿½ka Charita mentions one Sï¿½hasatuï¿½ga in whose reign Akalaï¿½ka defeated the Buddhists. Prabhï¿½chandra further informs that the debate took place in the court of Himaï¿½ï¿½tala, who was evidently a contemporary of ï¿½ubhatuï¿½ga. But the evidence of Akalaï¿½ka Charita is confirmed by the ï¿½ravaï¿½a-Belagola inscription No. 67 which refers to Akalaï¿½ka’s patron as ï¿½ahasatuï¿½ga, who is generally identified with Dantidurga (middle of the eighth century). Akalaï¿½ka was actually a contemporary of Dantidurga, and flourished in the middle of the eighth century A.D. It has further been suggested that Himaï¿½ï¿½tala of Akalaï¿½ka tradition should be identified with the king of Kaliï¿½ga. Since Akalaï¿½ka knows the Buddhists and Brahmanical scholars, who flourished even in the seventh century, we will be justified in placing him in the eighth century A.D.
Apart from his Tattvartharï¿½iavï¿½rtika, which is a commentary on the famous book of Umï¿½svami. Akalaï¿½ka is the reputed author of the Ashï¿½aï¿½atï¿½, a precious work of Jaina philosophy dealing mainly with logic. It is a commentary on the ï¿½ptamï¿½mï¿½ï¿½sa. of Samantabhadra. Another well-known works on logic by him is the Nyï¿½yaviniï¿½chaya. His other works are Laghï¿½yastrayï¿½ Prakaranaand Svarï¿½pa Sambodhana. A treatise work on expiatory rites called Prï¿½yaï¿½chita grantha is also ascribed to him. The Pramï¿½ï¿½a Saï¿½graha is also ascribed to Akalaï¿½ka.1
In the eighth century, probably between 705 A.D. and 775 A.D., Haribhadra, the most distinguished Jaina scholar, lived in Rajasthan. He was born in a Brï¿½hmaï¿½a family at Chitrakï¿½ï¿½a, the modern Chitor. He was the Purohita of a king named Jitï¿½ri about whom history knows nothing. Being a Brï¿½hmaï¿½a by birth, he was thoroughly well acquainted with the Brï¿½hmaï¿½ical works of Philosophy. He was not only a literary but has authority on Logic. He wrote in both Sanskrit and Prakrit. He was also at home with the Buddhist Logic. He wrote, the well known commentary on Dinnï¿½ga’s Nyï¿½yapraveï¿½a.
It is said that Haribhadra was deeply inspired by a Jaina nun; and as a result of it, he embraced Jainism. Being asked by his Guru to write 1444 volumes, he wrote a number of books on Logic, Yoga, Dharma, Ethics etc. Out of them only about fifty are now available. He is the earliest Sanskrit commentator of the canon, and his contributions to Jaina Logic are outstanding. He commented on theAnuyogadvï¿½rasï¿½tra, ï¿½vaï¿½yakasï¿½tra, Daï¿½avaikï¿½likasï¿½tra, Nandisï¿½tra, Prajï¿½ï¿½paï¿½asï¿½tra etc. Besides his commentaries on ï¿½gamas, he wrote the Anekï¿½ntajayapatï¿½kï¿½ and Anekï¿½ntavï¿½dapraveï¿½a, in which he not only expounded the Jaina philosophy of Anekï¿½nta but also criticised current philosophical systems. He inaugurated a new era in Yoga literature by writing the Yogabibdu and Yogadï¿½ishï¿½i-Samuchaya. In his Shad-darï¿½ana-Samuchchaya, he gives a brilliant exposition of the different systems of philosophy. He wrote the Dhï¿½rtï¿½khyï¿½na, Samaraichchakahï¿½ and Kathï¿½koï¿½a in Prakrit. In the Samaraichchakahï¿½ he throws some light on the condition of Jainism. The rivalary between Jainism and Buddhism was very keen in his time.
Haribhadra Sï¿½ri raised the powerful voice against the abuses of the Chaityavï¿½sï¿½ sect. He found Jaina saints living in Chaityas and maï¿½has. They used their wealth for their personal good. They put on even coloured or scented clothes. They ate food or sweets fetched by the monks. They sold idols and purchased children in order to make them their disciples.
- SIDDHARSHI: The next distinguished Jaina monk of Rajasthan is Siddharshi born at ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la in Marwar. He was the son of ï¿½ubhaï¿½kara. He was initiated and was named Siddharshi. In 906 A.D., he composed the allegorical novel named Upamitibhavapraï¿½chï¿½kathï¿½. The Saï¿½gha being pleased conferred the title of ‘Vyï¿½khyï¿½nakï¿½ra’ on him.
Later on, he made a deep study of Buddhism, so much so, that even the Buddhists held him in high esteem for his scholarship and highly virtuous life. In course of time, the title of Sï¿½ri was conferred on him by his Guru.
- JINEÏ¿½VARASÏ¿½RI: Jineï¿½varasuri occupies a prominent place in Jaina history. His early name was ï¿½rï¿½dhara. He and his brother ï¿½rï¿½pati were Brï¿½hmanas by caste. They came to Dhï¿½rï¿½nagarï¿½ where they met a rich man named Lakshmï¿½pati. He introduced them to Vardhamï¿½nasï¿½ri. Being impressed by their deep scholarship, Vardhamï¿½nasï¿½ri initiated them into Jainism and instructed them to preach it.
At this time, the Chaityavï¿½sï¿½ sect was very powerful. Actually, Vardhamï¿½nasuri rose in revolt against it and founded Vidhimï¿½rga; but Jineï¿½varasuri by his efforts organized its followers into a community and made it countrywide. He went to Aï¿½ahilapura where the Chaityavï¿½sis were very strong. He stayed in the house of the Purohita Someï¿½vara. He defeated Surï¿½chï¿½rya, the leader of the Chaityavï¿½sï¿½s, in the court of the king Durlabharï¿½ja at Pï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a and got the title of ‘Kharatara’. He established his own sect known as Vidhimï¿½rga at Aï¿½ahilapura. Later on, it was known as the Kharataragachchha. Then his reputation spread to neighbouring regions like Marwar, Mewar, Malva, Vï¿½gaï¿½a, Sindh and Delhi, and a large number of ï¿½rï¿½vakas became his devoted followers.
Jineï¿½varasuri and his young brother Buddhisï¿½garasï¿½ri generally lived and moved together. In 1023 A.D. they were at Jï¿½bï¿½lipura (Jalor), where Jineï¿½varasuri wrote commentary on the Ashï¿½akasaï¿½graha of Haribhadra and Buddhisï¿½garasuri completed the Svopajï¿½a Paï¿½chagranthï¿½.
Jineï¿½varasuri brought about a renaissance in Jainism, and, therefore, he is called the ‘Yugapradhï¿½na’. New temples known as Vidhichaityas were built. There came also some change in the form of worship. New Gachchhas, new castes and new Gotras also came into existence. The original ï¿½ï¿½stras were revised and several commentaries were prepared. He had a large number of disciples, the chief among them were Abhayadeva, Jinachandra and Jinabhadra.1
- JINAVALLABHASÏ¿½RI: The next great Jaina saint is Jinavallabhasï¿½ri, who was the follower of Chaityavï¿½si sect in the beginning. At Pï¿½ï¿½an, he got an opportunity to study the scriptures under Abhayadevasï¿½ri, the saint of Vidhimï¿½rga. As a rsult, he gave up the Chaityavï¿½sï¿½ sect and accepted Vidhimï¿½rga. At his directions, his followers constructed the Jaina temples known as Vidhichaityas.
At this time, the followers of the Chaityavï¿½si sect were powerful in Mewar. With a view to diminishing their influence, Jinavallabhasï¿½ri left Pï¿½tan for Chitor, where he converted a large number of people to Jainism and celebrated the consecration ceremony of several images and temples. From Chitor, he came to Dhï¿½rï¿½. The King invited him to his palace, where he listened to his religious discourses. He was so highly pleased with his extraordinary poetic talent that he offered him a Jï¿½gira of three villages and a handsome present in cash. He did not accept either of them but requested that the king should grant two parutthadrammas daily from his customs house for the maintenance of two Kharatara temples.
From Dhï¿½rï¿½, Jinavallabhasï¿½ri came to Vï¿½gaï¿½a, where he addressed large gatherings. He also came to Nagaur where the installation ceremony of Nemijinï¿½laya was performed under his supervision. As he converted several people to Jainism, it was natural for him to from many Gotras.1
- JINADATTASÏ¿½RI: Jinadattasï¿½ri is one of the great Jaina monks, who propagated Jainism in Rajasthan. He was born at Dhavalakapura in 1075 A.D. in Hï¿½mbaï¿½a caste. His parents were Vadhiga and Vï¿½haï¿½adevï¿½. His early name was Somachanda. His dï¿½kshï¿½ Guru was Vï¿½chaka Devabhadragaï¿½i, and he was given the name of Somachandra Muni. Being impressed by his extreme austerities and genius, Dharmadevopï¿½dhyï¿½ya made him ï¿½chï¿½rya at Chitor in 1112 AD. and named him Jinadattasï¿½ri.
Jinadattasï¿½ri was widely respected even by the Rajput rulers of Rajputana and Gujarat for his learning and piety. The Chï¿½lukyan rulers Karï¿½arï¿½ja and his son Siddharï¿½ja respected him. Jinadattasï¿½ri was a contemporary of Arï¿½orï¿½ja Chauhï¿½na of Ajmer, who honoured the ï¿½chï¿½rya by visiting him at his own place and by granting his followers a suitable site for a big Jaina temple. He converted a large number of people to Jainism and established many Gotras. Besides, he is said to have given dï¿½kshï¿½ to 500 monks and 700 nuns. Having installed Jinachandrasï¿½ri on his seat, he expired in 1154 A.D. at Ajmer. On account of his popularity among the masses, he came to be known as Dï¿½dï¿½jï¿½.1
- VÏ¿½DIÏ¿½RIDEVASÏ¿½RI: Devasuri was born in 1143 A.D. at Madhuvatï¿½ near Mount Abu in the Prï¿½gvï¿½ï¿½a family. He was the son of Vï¿½ranï¿½ga and Jinadevï¿½. When cholera broke out in the town, Vï¿½ranï¿½ga left the town and came to Bharoch. The early name of Devasuri was Pï¿½rï¿½achandra.
From his very childhood, Pï¿½rï¿½achandra was highly intelligent. He impressed a Jaina monk who asked his master to give the boy to him. He was given dï¿½kshï¿½ in 1152 A.D. and was named Rï¿½machandra. Within a short time, he became well-versed i the science oftarka, lakshaï¿½a, pramï¿½ï¿½a and literature; and scholars began to admire his scholarhip. He defeated his opponents in the discussion held at Dhavalakapura, Kashmir, Sanchor, Chitor, Gopagiri, Dhï¿½rï¿½ and Bharoch. Impressed by his deep scholarship, the Guru installed him on the seat of ï¿½chï¿½rya in 1174 A.D. and gave him the name of Devasï¿½ri.
Then Devasuri came to Dhavalakapura on the invitation of Udaya and performed the installation ceremony of the image of Sï¿½mandharasvï¿½mi. From there, he travelled to Mt. Abu for pilgrimage. In course of his journey, ï¿½rï¿½ Devasï¿½ri came to Nagaur. Ahidï¿½na, the ruler of this place, received him warmly. In the meanwhile, Siddharï¿½ja, the ruler of Gujarat, wanted to besiege Nagaur but when he was informed of the presence of Devasï¿½ri, he returned Then he invited ï¿½rï¿½ Devasuri to Patan and kept him there for four months.
ï¿½rï¿½ Devasuri defeated the famous Digambara Jaina Saint of Karï¿½ï¿½taka named Kumudachandra in the discussion held in the court of the king Siddharï¿½ja Jayasiï¿½ha. In 1147 A.D., he got the Jaina temple constructed in the town called Phalavardhikï¿½ (Phalodhi) and performed the installation ceremony of the image. In the town of Arasana also, the image of Nemijina Was installed.
- HEMACHANDRA: The most prominent Jaina monk is Hemachandra under whom Jainism prospered greatly both in Rajasthan and Gujarat. He was born in 1089 A.D. at Dhandhuka, a town in the district of Ahmedabad and was named Chï¿½ï¿½gadeva. His parents were Chï¿½chiga and Pï¿½hiï¿½ï¿½ of ï¿½rï¿½moï¿½ha caste. Both the parents were adherents of the doctrine of Jina. Pï¿½hiï¿½ï¿½ handed over her son to a monk named Devachandra. The circumstances which led Chï¿½ï¿½gadeva to enter the order of Yatis are more or less romantic. Devachandra took the body with him to Cambay where he was first initiated in the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha in 1093 A.D. this occasion, the famous Udayana held the usual festival and Chï¿½ï¿½gadeva received the name of Somachandra. In 1105 A.D., he was ordained as ï¿½chï¿½rya at Nï¿½gaur by Devasï¿½ri. On this occasion, he again changed hi name and was now cailled Hemachandra.
The parton of Hemachandra was Jayasiï¿½ha Siddharï¿½ja, who felt attacted and impressed by his deep and wide scholarship, used to listen to his discussion. Hemachandra helped Kumï¿½rapï¿½la in securing his accession to the throne. He is said to have foretold that Kumarpal was going to be the future ruler of Gujarat. It was for this reason that he had deep reverence for the Jaina religion. Kumï¿½rapï¿½la was originally a devotee of ï¿½iva but was converted to Jainism by Hemachandra. After his conversion which is said to have taken place in 1159 A.D., he aspired to make Gujarat model Jaina state. He personally gave up hunting animals, eating meat and using intoxicants, dice-playing and animal fights. In addition, he erected, the Jaina temples and favoured the literary and scintific efforts of the Jainas.
Hemachandra was called the ‘Omniscient of the Kali age’ (Kalikï¿½la Sarvajï¿½a), the title which he well deserved. He was more a scholar than a poet. By his efforts, Jaina literature made considerable progress in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. His contributions to the general Sanskrit literature are also noteworty. He wrote useful and important works on grammar, lexicography, poetics, prosody, philosophy and history.
Hemachandra’s services to education were as remarkable as his literary activities. He trained a number of pupils who have left works on various branches of Sanskrit literature. The chief among those pupils are Rï¿½machandra, Guï¿½chandra, Mahendrasï¿½ri, Devachandra, Vardhamï¿½nagaï¿½i, Udayachandra, Yaï¿½aï¿½chandra and Bï¿½lachandra.1
- JINAKUÏ¿½ALASÏ¿½RI: Jinakuï¿½alasï¿½ri is the most popular Jaina saint and is also known as Dï¿½dï¿½jï¿½. He was born in the village Samiyï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ in Marwar in 1280 A.D. His original name was Karmaï¿½a. In 1290 A.D., he received initiation from Jinachandrasï¿½ri and was named Kuï¿½alakï¿½rti. At Nagaur in 1310 A.D., he was given the title of Vï¿½chanï¿½chï¿½rya by Jinachandrasï¿½ri. In 1319 A.D, Jinachandra passed away and the title of Sï¿½ri was given to Jinakuï¿½ala at Patan amidst great rejoicings.
Rï¿½japati of Delhi made arrangement for the sojourn of Jinakuï¿½alasï¿½ri. He passed through Kanyï¿½nayana, Narhad, Phalodhi, Marukoï¿½a, Nagaur, Merta, Jalor, ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la and at last reached Patan. The members of the Saï¿½gha reqested Jinakuï¿½ala to accompany them. He consented and started from patan and reached ï¿½atruï¿½jaya where he performed several religious activities. He worshipped the idol by composing new stotras. Yaï¿½odhara and Devendra were initiated to monkhood by him. He celebrated the installation ceremony of the image of Neminï¿½tha. The consecration ceremony of the images of Jinapatisï¿½ri and Jineï¿½varasï¿½ri was also performed by him. On the occasion of Nandï¿½ï¿½varamahotsava, Sukhakrtigaï¿½i was given the title of ‘Vï¿½chanï¿½chï¿½rya.’ Afterwards, he returned to Patan with the Saï¿½gha safely.
In 1324 A.D., Virï¿½ï¿½amahotsava was celebrated at Patan with great rejoicings for fifteen days under the guidance of Jinakuï¿½alasï¿½ri. The images of the Tirthaï¿½karas and the ï¿½chï¿½ryas were sent to the various places such as Jalor, Devarï¿½japura, ï¿½atruï¿½jaya etc. Tejapï¿½la celebrated the Nandï¿½ï¿½varamahotsava at Patan in which Sumatisï¿½ra, Udayï¿½sara, Jayasï¿½ra and Dharmasundarï¿½ were initiated into monkhood. The famous ï¿½rï¿½vaka of Bhï¿½mapallï¿½ named Vï¿½radeva called Jinakuï¿½alasï¿½ri form Patan to Bhï¿½mapallï¿½ and requsted him to accompany the Saï¿½gha to ï¿½atruï¿½jaya. After passing through various cities and villages, the Saï¿½gha reached ï¿½atruï¿½jaya. He celebrated the consecration ceremony of the Vï¿½ra Chaitya at Bhï¿½mapallï¿½, Chintï¿½maï¿½i Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha temple at Jaisalmer and Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha temple at Jï¿½lor.
The ï¿½rï¿½vakas of Sindh invited Jinakuï¿½alasï¿½ri for propagation of Jainism. He went there and organised various ceremonies such as the Pratishï¿½hï¿½, Vratagrahaï¿½a, Mï¿½lï¿½ropaï¿½a and Nandï¿½mahotsava in order to give an impetus to Jainism. He wandered through various places and impressed the people by his religious discourses. This caused a great religious awakening among the people. He spent a rainy season at Devarï¿½japura where he caught high fever and died in 1352 A.D.
Jinakuï¿½alasï¿½ri was a distinguished scholar, well-versed in different branches of learning like grammar, law, literature, prosody, astronomy, magic etc. He could not contribute so much to literature as he was engaged in other activities. So great was his influence that, in his honour, a number of stutis, stotras, padas and Chhandas have been composed in many a village, city and holy place. The people of Svagachchha, Paragachchha, Sthï¿½nakavï¿½sï¿½ and Terï¿½panthï¿½ worship him with great devotion.1
- HÏ¿½RAVIJAYASÏ¿½RI: The most distinguished Jaina teacher at the time of Akbar was Hï¿½ravijayasï¿½ri. He was the leader of the Tapï¿½gachchha sect of the Jainas and was born at Palanapur. He was the som of Kumï¿½ra and Nï¿½thï¿½ of the Bï¿½sï¿½ Osavï¿½la family. His original name was Hï¿½rajï¿½. He was initiated to religious life by Vijayadï¿½nasï¿½ri in 1539 A.D. and was named Hï¿½raharsha. After getting education from Muni Hariharsha, he went to Devagiri in the south in order to learï¿½ Nyï¿½yaï¿½ï¿½stra from Naiyï¿½yika Brï¿½hmaï¿½a. He made a close and deep study of various branches of learning.
After his return from the Deccan, Vijayadevasï¿½ri made him a Paï¿½ï¿½iï¿½a in 1551 A.D. Next year, he was made a Upï¿½dhayï¿½ya at Nï¿½ï¿½lï¿½i. Then in the same year, he was made a Sï¿½ri at Sirohi. On this occasion, Chï¿½ï¿½ga Mehatï¿½, a descendant of Dhannï¿½ Poravï¿½la, the builder of Ranakpur temple, celebrated a great festival.
In 1582 A.D. when Akbar heard of the lofty virtues and deep learning of Hï¿½ravijaya, he ordered the Viceroy of Gujarat to request him to visit his court. In response to the summons of the vicerory, the monk went to Ahmedabad where he exchanged views with the royal representative. He refused to accept all the costly gifts presented to him and, in accordance with the rules of his order, he started on his long journey ot Fatehpur Sikri on foot.
On his way, passing through Bï¿½salapur, Mahï¿½sana, Patan, Baradi, Siddhapur and other places, Hï¿½ravijaya reached Saratara. At this place lived a Bhï¿½la Chief named Arjuna. He along with his eight wives came to hear Sï¿½rijï¿½’s sermon, and he took a vow not to kill any innocent animal. He then went to Abu; and Rï¿½va Surtï¿½na of Sirohi welcomed him and took a vow to refrain from drinking, hunting and meat eating. After that, passing through Sanganer, Chï¿½tsu, Bayï¿½nï¿½ and Mathura, he reached Fatehpur Sikri where he was accorded a royal reception; and Abul Fazl was asked to look after his comforts until the emperor found leisure to converse with him. After much discussion upon the problems of religion and philosophy first with Abul Fazl, the Muslim luminary of the age, and then with Akbar, he paid a visit to Agra. At the close of the rainy season, he returned to Fatehpursikri.
From the inscription by Hemavijaya dated 1593 A.D., in the porch of the eastern entrance of the ï¿½dinï¿½tha temple of ï¿½atrunjaya hill, it appears that Hï¿½ravijaya persuaded the emperor in 1592 A.D. to issue an editct forbidding the slaughter of animals for six months, to abolish the confiscation of the property of the deceased persons, the sujijia tax and ï¿½ukla, to set free many captives, snared birds and animals and to present ï¿½ï¿½trunjaya to the Jainas. Fishing was also prohibited at Fatehpursikri.
In 1596 A.D., Hï¿½ravijayasï¿½ri came to Nï¿½gaur where he spent the rainy season. Mahajala, the finance minister of the king Jagamala, treated him with great respect. Indrarï¿½ja, an official of Bairat, invited him; but he could not go and sent hi pupil Kalyï¿½ï¿½avijaya for the performance of the consecration ceremony. After that, he went to Abu and then to Sirohi where he spent the rainy season on the persuasion of the ruling chief. On his advice, Rï¿½va Surtï¿½na abolished some taxes. Once the Rï¿½va had imprisoned one hundred innocent ï¿½rï¿½vakas due to certain misunderstanding. The leaders of the Saï¿½gha had tried their best to secure their release but the Rï¿½va did not listen to them At last, he released them on the advice of Sï¿½rijï¿½.
From Sirohi, Hï¿½ravijaya came to Patan where he spent the next rainy season. From there, he started for Pï¿½lithï¿½nï¿½. The function was organized in his honour which was attended by several Jainas. He also passed the rainy season at Uï¿½ï¿½. ï¿½jamkhï¿½n, the governor of Gujarat, came to pay his respects. It was all due to Sï¿½ri’s magnetic personality and the honour given to him by Akbar. At this time, Jï¿½masï¿½hiba of Jï¿½managara with his minister named ï¿½bajï¿½ Bhaï¿½asï¿½lï¿½ reached Uï¿½ï¿½ to pay his compliments to the ï¿½chï¿½rya. Hï¿½ravijaya also induced the official Khï¿½n Muhammad to give up violence. He celebrated the consecration ceremony of the temple in 1595 A.D. and in the same year, he starved himself to death in the approved Jaina fashion.1
- JINACHANDRA: Jinachandra was a famous ï¿½chï¿½rya of the Kharataragachchha sect. He was born in 1508 A.D. at Khetsar in Jodhpur of ï¿½rï¿½vant ï¿½ï¿½ha and ï¿½irï¿½yadevï¿½ of Bï¿½sï¿½ Osavï¿½la family. His orginal name was Sultan. He received his initiation in 1547 A.D. from Jinamï¿½ï¿½ikyasï¿½ri and his dikshï¿½ name was Sumatidhï¿½ra. In 1555 A.D., he obtained the title of Suri form Guï¿½aprabhasï¿½ri.
While Akbar was holding his court at Lahore, he heard the fame of the Sï¿½ri and wanted to hear him. He suï¿½moned Mantrï¿½ï¿½vara Karmachandra Bachchhï¿½vata and requested him to invite the sage to his court. Considering his old age and hot season, Karmachandra pleaded that it would be difficult for him to come from Cambay. Then, the emperor asked him to write a letter to send his disciple Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha whom the Sï¿½ri sent along with six other religious followers. Receiving also an urgent letter from Karmachandra, the Sï¿½ri started his journey on foot, gradually reached Sirohi and observed the Chaturmï¿½sa at Jalor. Afterwards, he started, and passing through many villages and cities, reached Lahore in 1591 A.D. with thirty- one Jaina Paï¿½ï¿½itas in a great procession and was courteously received by the emperor. After a religious discourse on ï¿½tman, ahiï¿½sï¿½ etc., he was conducted to his residence. He used to come daily to the palace for the discourse on religion. Akbar used to address him as a Great Master (Bï¿½ihadguru).
Hearing of the destruction of the Jaina temples at Dwarka, Jinachandra prevailed upon Akbar to issue an imperial farmï¿½n for the protection of the Jaina holy places such as ï¿½atruï¿½jaya, Pï¿½lithï¿½nï¿½ and Girnar. The necessary order was sent to Azamkhï¿½n, the Subedï¿½r of Ahmedabad. The places of pilgrimage were put in charge of Karmachandra.
Just before starting for Kashmir, Akbar, met the Sï¿½ri and at his instance issued a farmï¿½n ordering the prohibition of the slaughter of animals for seven days (Navamï¿½ to Pï¿½rï¿½imï¿½, every year in the month of ï¿½shï¿½ï¿½ha. Akbar with the disciples of Jinachandra namely Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha, Harshaviï¿½ï¿½la and some others reached Kashmir and observed the vow of non-violence for eight days. He returned to Lahore in 1592 A.D. At this instance, Jinachandra gave the title of ï¿½chï¿½rya to Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha, calling him Jinasiï¿½hasï¿½ri. On the advice of Karmachandra, Akbar gave the title of ‘Yugapradhï¿½na’ or ‘Chief of the Age’ to Jinachandra. At the persuasion of Sï¿½riji, Akbar gave protection for a year to all animals of the sea adjoining Cambay, the palce of pilgrimage.
Jinachandra was held in high esteem by Jahangir also. In 1611 A. D., being incensed at the misconduct of the dissolute Darsaï¿½i, Jahangir not only banished him but ordered that members of other Jaina sects should also be ousted from the realm. This caused wide-spread consternation amongst all sections of the Jainas. The news reched Jinachandrasï¿½ri who travelled from Patan to Agra and called on the emperor. After a prolonged discussion on religion, Sï¿½rijï¿½ succeeded in persuading the emperor to withdraw the order. He breathed his last in 1613 A.D. at Bilï¿½rï¿½ in Marwar.1
- JINASIÏ¿½HASÏ¿½RI: After Jinachandrasï¿½ri, his paï¿½ï¿½adhara Jinasiï¿½hasï¿½ri became the leader of the Kharataragachchha. In Rajasthan, he mostly lived at Bikaner, Sirohi etc. In the ï¿½rï¿½ Jinasiï¿½hasï¿½rigï¿½ta of Rï¿½yasamundra, it is related that he had great influence on Jahangir. At his request, the emperor assured safety to all living creatures. He conferred upon him the title of ‘Yugapradhï¿½na’. In 1616 A.D., Jinasiï¿½hsï¿½ri spent the Chï¿½turmï¿½sa at Bikaner. In the Jinarï¿½jasï¿½rirï¿½sa composed in 1624 A.D. by ï¿½risï¿½ra, it is written that Jahangir was much anxious to see him, and he sent an officer to Bikaner to invite him. But unfortunately, he died in 1617 A.D. on his way to Agra.
The event mentioned in the Jaina rï¿½sa is more or less of the legendary character, intended to glorify the Jaina order, and can only be accepted when supported by some contemporary evidence. The attitude of Jahangir to Jinasiï¿½ha (Alias Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha) and towards the Jainas, as it is made to appear in them, does not seem to have been correctly represented. At the time of Khusru’s rebellion, Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha prophesied that Jahangir’s reign would last only for two years. This encouraged Rï¿½yasiï¿½ha of Bikaner to rebel. He was, however, pardoned by Jahangir who waited for an opportunity to punish Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha. In 1616 A.D. when Jahangir went to Gujarat, he persecuted the Jainas as their temples were the centres of disturbance and their religious leaders were accused of immoral practices. He summoned Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha to the court but the latter took poison on his way from Bikaner and died. Evidently there seems to be more truth in these facts than the above concocted story.
In early times, carrer was thrown open to talents, and talented Jainas captured many important offices. In those days, the heads of different departments of the State-Provincial Governors, Prime Ministers and Daï¿½ï¿½anï¿½yakas were known as Mantrï¿½s and Ministers and acted as Commanders of the Army.
- Ï¿½RUTAKÏ¿½RTI: ï¿½rutakï¿½rti was the General of the Kadambas. He and his descendents were great patrons to Jainism. They were devoted to theï¿½chï¿½ryas of the Yï¿½panï¿½ya Saï¿½gha. From his inscription,1 it is known that he donated Badovara land for his own merit to the Arhantas. This land was situated in Kheï¿½aka village which he got from his master Kadamba ruler named Kï¿½kusthya Varmï¿½. In another inscription,2 ï¿½rutakï¿½rti has been praised, and he has been mentioned as Bhojaka or belonged to Bhoja dynasty. He was a favourite of Kï¿½kusthyavarma. Mï¿½igeï¿½avarmï¿½, grandson of Kï¿½kusthya Verma, assigned Kheï¿½a village in charity to the wife of ï¿½rutakï¿½rti and mother of Dï¿½makï¿½rti. Jayakï¿½rti, elderson of Dï¿½makï¿½rti, gave the Kheï¿½aka village to ï¿½chï¿½ryaKumï¿½radatta of the Yï¿½panï¿½ya Saï¿½gha for the merit of his parents.
- CHÏ¿½MUÏ¿½Ï¿½ARÏ¿½YA: Chï¿½muï¿½ï¿½arï¿½ya was well known by the name ‘Rï¿½ya’. He was a great warrior, sincere, and devoted to Jainism. We get information about his life from several inscriptions of his time and the Chamuï¿½ï¿½arï¿½ya Purï¿½ï¿½a written in the Kaï¿½ï¿½ada language. He was born in the Brahmakshatra Kula as known from his inscription.1 He was the Senï¿½pati (Commander of the Gaï¿½ga ruler Rï¿½yamalla IV, and also his father Mï¿½rasiï¿½ha III. Rï¿½yamalla IV and Mï¿½rasiï¿½ha III were the feudatories of the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a rulers Kï¿½ishï¿½a III and Indra IV, and they won victories in battles. If we read inscriptions2 along with the Chï¿½muï¿½ï¿½arï¿½ya Purï¿½ï¿½a, it becomes clear that Gaï¿½ga rulers Mï¿½rasiï¿½ha and Rï¿½chamalla attained victories for their masters Rï¿½sï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a rulers Krishaï¿½a III and Indra IV through their Senï¿½pati Chï¿½muï¿½ï¿½a Rï¿½ya. In his inscriptions, he was given several titles showing his bravery.
Chï¿½muï¿½ï¿½a Rï¿½ya installed the famous big image of Bï¿½hubali, a feat of sculptural art in monolith at Sravaï¿½abelagola3. He had two teachers namely Ajitasena and Nemichandra Siddhï¿½nta Chakravartï¿½. It is known from the ï¿½ravaï¿½abelagola inscription4 that this Senï¿½pati built a Basadi at Chikka beï¿½ï¿½a. From another inscription,5 it is clear that his son Jinadevaï¿½ï¿½a, who was a disciple of Ajitasena Muni, also constructed a basadi. He seems to be the foremost for the establishment and uplift of Jinaï¿½ï¿½sana.
- Ï¿½ANTINÏ¿½THA: We know about ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha from the inscription.6 He was a naural poet. His title was Sarasvatï¿½ Mukha-Mukhara. His fame was wide. He requested Lakshma king for transforming a wooden Jaina temple into stone. The name of this temple was Mallikï¿½moda ï¿½antinï¿½tha.
There were several Jaina Senï¿½patis associated with the Hoysala dynasty during the twelfth century A.D. The most famous ruler of this dynasty was Vishï¿½uvardhana. The credit for his vast conquests goes to the eight Jaina Senï¿½patis. Their names were Gaï¿½garï¿½ja, Boppa, Puï¿½isa, Baladevaï¿½ï¿½a, Mariyï¿½ne, Bharata, Aicha and Vishï¿½u. The Hoysala dynasty became famous in the South because of theseSenï¿½patis.
- GAÏ¿½GA RÏ¿½JA: The chief among these Senï¿½patis was Gaï¿½garaja.1 We know about his life from two dozen inscriptions. There is mention of his conquests. He gave different kinds of charities to the Jaina Munis and temples. His two Jaina teachers were Meghachandra Siddhï¿½ntadeva and ï¿½ubhachandra Siddhï¿½ntadeva. He renovated several fallen Jaina temples. One Jaina temple was known by his peculiar title Drohagharatta. The Hoysala ruler Vishï¿½uvardhana assigned village and gave other charities to this temple in order to increase his merit.
- BOPPA: Daï¿½ï¿½eï¿½a Boppadeva, son of Gaï¿½garï¿½ja, was a great warrior and devoted to Jainism. He built two Jaina temples known as ï¿½ï¿½ntiï¿½vara Vasadi and Trailokya-raï¿½jana Vasadi (Boppaï¿½a Chaityï¿½laya). He has been praised for his valour. In 1134 A.D., he attacked the enemy, repulsed his powerful army and defeated the Kongas.2
- PUÏ¿½ISA: One of the warrior companions of Gaï¿½garï¿½ja, one was Puï¿½isa. He was the minister of peace and war (Sï¿½ndhivigrahika) of the Hoysala king vishï¿½uvardhana. His heroic deeds in the battles have been described in the inscription.1 He conquered several countries, and presented them to his master Vishï¿½uvardhana. Puï¿½isa was large hearted like Gaï¿½garï¿½ja. He rendered equal service to humanity and religion. It is known from the inscription2 that he restored by returning the lost belonging of the traders peasants, Kirï¿½tas and others who lost their belongings, he tried to restore them by returning. He also helped by bringing them up. He donated land to the attached Vasadis with his own Trikï¿½ï¿½a Vasadi at Arakottara of Aï¿½ï¿½enï¿½d and adorned Gaï¿½gavï¿½di like the Gaï¿½gas with Vasadis.
- BALADEVAÏ¿½Ï¿½A: Baladevaï¿½ï¿½a was also the Senï¿½pati of Visï¿½nuvardhana. He was the third son of king Arasï¿½ditya and ï¿½chï¿½mbike. His two elder brothers were Pamparï¿½ya and Harideva. In the inscription,3 he was given titles Mantriyï¿½thï¿½graï¿½i, Guï¿½ï¿½, Sakalasachivanï¿½tha, Jinapï¿½dï¿½ï¿½dhri sevaka etc.
- MARIYANE AND BHARATA: The two brothers Daï¿½ï¿½anï¿½yaka Mariyane and Bharata were Generals of the Hoysala ruler Vishï¿½uvardhana. Some inscriptions4 give introduction to their dynasty. They were related to the Hoysala dynasty. Vishnuvardhana understanding Mariyï¿½ne Daï¿½ï¿½anï¿½yaka his Paï¿½ï¿½adï¿½ne (Rï¿½jya Gajendra) made him Senï¿½pati. These two brothers were warrior, as well as devoted to religion. In the inscription,1 different virtues of Bharata have been praised, It has been mentioned that his wealth was meant for the Jaina temples, kindness for all beings, his soul for the worship of Jï¿½narï¿½ja and charity for Munis. From the two ï¿½ravaï¿½abelagola-inscriptions2, it is known that he got eighty new basadï¿½s built, and renovated two hundred old basadis of Gaï¿½gavï¿½ï¿½i. The teacher of these two brothers was Gaï¿½ï¿½avimukta Vrati, disciple of the ï¿½chï¿½rya Maghanandi of Deï¿½ï¿½gaï¿½a. Pustaka gachchha. These two brothers were living in the time of Narasiï¿½ha, son of Vishï¿½uvardhana.3 These two got sovereignty of three villages including Sindageri by paying five hundred Honnus to the ruler Narasimha.
- AICHA : The nephew of Gaï¿½garï¿½ja was Aicha who was the General of Vishnuvardhana. From the inscription4, it is known that he got constructed several Jaina temples at the places Kopana, Belgula etc., and died in saintly way of Sallekhanï¿½. Boppa, son of Gaï¿½garï¿½ja, got built Nishadyï¿½ in memory of his cousin.
- VISHÏ¿½U DAÏ¿½DÏ¿½DHIP: Vishï¿½u Daï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dhipa was another Senï¿½pati of Vishï¿½uvardhana.5 He conquered the southern province within half a month. He was the right hand of Vishï¿½uvardhana. He got him married with the daughter of his Prime Minister. He was given the post of Mahï¿½prachaï¿½ï¿½a Daï¿½ï¿½anï¿½tha and Sarvï¿½dhikï¿½rï¿½. This Senï¿½pati was religious and charitable. He performed several public deeds, and got constructed a Jaina temple in the capital Dorasamudra. His teacher’s name was ï¿½rï¿½pï¿½la Traividyadeva to whom he donated a village and lands for the management of Jaina temple and ï¿½hï¿½radï¿½na to saints.
- MÏ¿½DIRÏ¿½JA: One Jaina Minister of Vishnuvardhana was Mahï¿½pradhï¿½na Mï¿½dirï¿½ja. In one inscription,1 his religious virtues have been praised. He was Adhipati of ï¿½rï¿½karaï¿½a, and he influenced the audience hall by his oratory. He kept the account of the treasury. His teacher was ï¿½rï¿½pï¿½la Traividyadeva. The four Senï¿½patis of Narasimha, successor of Vishï¿½uvardhana were Devarï¿½ja, Hulla, ï¿½aï¿½tiyaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a and Iï¿½vara Chamï¿½pa.
- DEVARÏ¿½JA: There is mention of Devaraja in the inscription.2 His gotra was Kauï¿½ika. He has been told ï¿½rï¿½ Jinadharmanirmalam-barahimakara and ï¿½rï¿½ Hoysala Mahï¿½ï¿½arï¿½jyabhï¿½bhrinnilaya Maï¿½ipradï¿½pa Kalaï¿½a. Being pleased by his faithfulness and devotion to religion, king Narasiï¿½ha gave him village Sï¿½ranahalli where Devarï¿½ja built the Jaina temple. The Hoysala ruler gave ten Honnus in charity for Ashï¿½avidhï¿½rchana and ï¿½hï¿½radï¿½na and named the village Pï¿½rï¿½vapura.
- HULLA: Hulla was General of Hoysala king Narasimha. Like Chï¿½muï¿½ï¿½arï¿½ya, he made efforts for the progress of Jainism. He is known from several inscriptions3. During the reign of Hoysala Vishï¿½uvardhana, Narasiï¿½ha and Ballï¿½la, Hulla rendered service to the Hoysala kingdom.
- Ï¿½Ï¿½NTIYAÏ¿½Ï¿½A: ï¿½ï¿½ntiyaï¿½ï¿½a was the commander of the Hoysala ruler Narasiï¿½ha.1 He was the son of Pï¿½risaï¿½ï¿½a and Bammaladevï¿½. He was the son-in-law of Parï¿½saï¿½ï¿½a Mariyï¿½ne. In the inscription, he has been called Mahï¿½pradhï¿½na and Paï¿½ï¿½isa Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rï¿½ (Superintendent of Spears). Parisaï¿½ï¿½a Mariyï¿½ne defeated the enemies in the battlefield and sacrificed his life. Narasiï¿½ha made his son Santiyanna, the master of Karuguï¿½ï¿½a and Daï¿½ï¿½anï¿½yaka of the army. ï¿½ï¿½ntiyaï¿½ï¿½a got the basadi built in the memory of his father and granted charity for its security. His teacher Mallisheï¿½a was Paï¿½ï¿½ita.
- IÏ¿½VARA CHAMÏ¿½PA: Iï¿½vara Chamï¿½pa has been mentioned as Senï¿½pati of the Hoysala ruler Narasiï¿½ha in the inscription.2He was the son-in-law of Mahï¿½pradhï¿½na, Sarvï¿½dhikï¿½rï¿½ and Daï¿½danï¿½yaka Chamï¿½pa. Iï¿½vara Chamï¿½pati repaired the Jaina temples and his wife Mï¿½chiyakka constructed a Jaina temple and a tank at the holy place Maydabolala. His teacher’s name was Gaï¿½ï¿½avimukta Munipa.
- RECHARASA: Even during the reign of Ballala II, successor of Narasï¿½ï¿½a, there were some Jaina Senï¿½patis who rendered valuable service to the Hoysala Kingdom. One of them was Recharasa. He was devoted to Jainism. He installed the Sahaï¿½rakï¿½ta Jaina image at Arasiyakere. For the management of the temple, he got the village Indarahï¿½lu from the king Ballala II and entrusted it to his teacher Sï¿½garanandi Siddhï¿½ntadeva. The name of the above Jaina temple was Elekoï¿½i.1 In 1182 A.D., Recharasa was Daï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dhinï¿½thaof the Kalachuri ruler Bijjala. He got several regions from the Kalachuri rulers. One of them was Nagarakhaï¿½ï¿½a. He granted charity to ï¿½antinï¿½tha Jaina temple at the place Mï¿½guï¿½i there.2 From the ï¿½ravaï¿½a-belagola inscription,3 it is known that he performed the installation ceremony of ï¿½antinï¿½tha and entrusted the Basadi to Sï¿½garanandi of Kolhapura. In this inscription, he has been called ‘Vasudhaika-bï¿½ndhava.
- BUDHIRÏ¿½JA: Another Senapati of Hoysala Ballala II was Bï¿½dhirï¿½ja. He has been called Mantrï¿½ï¿½varï¿½ andï¿½andhivigrahika in the inscription4. He possessed Chaturvidha Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½itya, and he could compose poetry both in Sanskrit and Kaï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a. In 1173 during the time of Pattabandhotsava of king Ballï¿½la, he got built the Trikï¿½ta Jinï¿½laya at the place Marikali of Sï¿½genï¿½ï¿½a, and he presented the village Marikali to his teacher Vï¿½supï¿½jya Siddhï¿½ntï¿½deva for the worship of temple, renovation, ï¿½hï¿½radï¿½na etc.
- CHANDRAMAULI: Chandramauli was the Minister of Hoysala king Ballï¿½la. He was well versed in Bhï¿½rata ï¿½ï¿½stra, ï¿½gama, Logic, Grammar, Upanishad, drama, poetry, etc., and was the right hand of the king Ballï¿½la.5 Though he was ï¿½aiva, his wife Achaladevï¿½ was highly devoted to Jainism. He was liberal towards Jainism. His wife got constructed the Pï¿½rï¿½vanatha temple of ï¿½ravaï¿½abelagola, and Minister Chandra Mauli himself requested the king Ballï¿½la to donate the village Bammeyana Halli village in charity for worship of the temple.
- NÏ¿½GADEVA: Nï¿½gadeva was the Jaiana Minister of Ballala II. He was the son of Bommadeva Sachiva. It has been mentioned in the inscription1 that he was the protector of Jaina temple, and the king made him Paï¿½ï¿½anasvï¿½mï¿½. His teacher’s name was Nayakï¿½rti Siddhï¿½ntadeva. After erecting Nrï¿½tya raï¿½gaï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ and ï¿½ilï¿½kuttima in front of Pï¿½rï¿½vadeva at the Tï¿½rtha of ï¿½ravaï¿½abelgolaa, he got built a Nishidhi in memory of the department teacher. He got Nagara-Jinï¿½laya known as ‘ï¿½rï¿½nilaya’ at ï¿½ravaï¿½abelagola, and donated land for it. He appointed ï¿½ravaï¿½abelagola natives ‘Vaï¿½ijas’, descendants of Khaï¿½ï¿½ali and Mï¿½labhadra.
- MÏ¿½DEVA DAÏ¿½DANÏ¿½TH: Among the Jaina Ministers, Mahadeva Daï¿½ï¿½anï¿½tha was noteworty. He was Mahapradhï¿½naof Mahï¿½maï¿½ï¿½aleï¿½vara Ekkalarasa. His teacher’s name was Sakalachandra Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka. It is known from the inscription2 that he got constructed the beautiful Jaina temple at a place named Uddhare in 1198, and named it Eraga Jinï¿½laya. He gave several charities for worship and renovation of the temple, and different charities from Ekkalarasa.
- KAMMAÏ¿½A MÏ¿½CHAYYA: In the inscription3 of 1200 A.D. found from the village Kumbeyana halli, a name of another Jaina Minister is mentioned. He was Mahï¿½pradhï¿½ï¿½a, Sarvï¿½dhikï¿½rï¿½ and Tantrï¿½dhishï¿½ï¿½yaka Kammaï¿½a Mï¿½chayya. He donated to Parivï¿½dimalla Jinalaya in Kumbeyanahalli village with his father-in-law in 1200 A.D., Mahapradhï¿½na Sarvï¿½dhikï¿½rï¿½, Hariyaï¿½ï¿½a performed the Pratishï¿½hï¿½ of Kumbeyanahalli’s deva.
- AMÏ¿½ITA: Amï¿½ita was another Daï¿½ï¿½a-nï¿½yaka of Ballala II as known from the inscription.1 He was Mï¿½hï¿½pradhï¿½na, Sarvï¿½dhikï¿½ri Mahï¿½pasï¿½yasa (ï¿½bhï¿½shanï¿½dhyaksha) and Bherudana Morttï¿½dashï¿½ayaka (Adhyaksha of Upï¿½dhidhï¿½rï¿½s). He has been told in the inscription as Kavikulaja and Chaturthavarna (ï¿½udra). He has been said as Dhï¿½rmika,ï¿½ubhamati Puï¿½yï¿½dhika, Mantrichï¿½ï¿½ï¿½maï¿½i and Saumyaramyï¿½kriti. He got built a Jaina temple called ekkoï¿½i at ï¿½kkulanghere in 1203 A.D. He performed Ashtavidhapï¿½jana of ï¿½antinï¿½tha before all Nï¿½yakas, citizens and peasants, and donated land for ï¿½hï¿½radï¿½na to Munis. He got built a temple, big tank and one sattara at the birth place Lokkuï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ along with his brothers and established one Agrahï¿½ra and a water-hut. He was liberal even towards the Non-Jainas. He got constructed a temple of Amï¿½iteï¿½vara at his birth place.
- Ï¿½CHAÏ¿½A: ï¿½chaï¿½a is mentioned in the inscription2 of 1205 A.D. He got built such a Jaina temple at Velagavattinï¿½ï¿½a during the reign of Ballala II, as noticed in that region. Hence this region became Kopaï¿½a.
- MÏ¿½DHAVA: Mï¿½dhava Danï¿½anï¿½yaka is also found mentioned in the inscription3. He has been told as belonging to the family of Vï¿½ramahadevaï¿½ï¿½a. His teacher was Mï¿½dhavachandra Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka. He died as Samï¿½dhimaraï¿½a after giving up all family relations and after construction the Jaina temple. In this inscription, there is mention of another Daï¿½ï¿½anï¿½yaka Machigauï¿½a. His teacher was Mï¿½dhava Chandra Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka. He attained heaven by Samï¿½dhividhi.
25 KÏ¿½CHIRÏ¿½JA : A Jaina Minister Kï¿½chirï¿½ja of the Yï¿½dava king Mï¿½hï¿½deva of Devagiri is found mentioned in the inscription.1 He was a pupil of Padmasena. After the death of his wife Lakshmï¿½devï¿½, he got the Jaina temple built in her name and gave it Pogale gachchha of Sena Gaï¿½a. He requested the king to assign a village for the management of a Jaina temple. After meeting the local Gauda people, he himself donated and got donations from others.
- IRUGAPPA: Jaina Ministers and Senï¿½patis rendered valuable services to the Vijayanagara kingdom. The name of Irugappa is noteworthy among them. From his inscriptions2, it is known he was both Mahï¿½mantrï¿½ and Senï¿½pati. His father was Chaicha (Vaichappa) Daï¿½ï¿½eï¿½a, and his teacher was Siï¿½hanandi. He established the Kunthunï¿½tha Jaina temple. He also composed the Nï¿½nï¿½rthanï¿½ma mï¿½lï¿½. There is mention of his donation and the construction of Maï¿½ï¿½apa in the two inscriptions3 found at Tiruppa Ruktikuï¿½ru near Kaï¿½jï¿½varam.
- GOPA: Gopa was a Senï¿½pati of Devarï¿½ya4. He was the ruler of Nï¿½garakhaï¿½ï¿½a.5 His two Jaina teachers were Paï¿½ï¿½itï¿½chï¿½rya and ï¿½rutamunipa Gopa dies by Samï¿½dhividhi.
- MUÏ¿½JALA: Muï¿½jala was a Minister of king Karï¿½a, and contiued to hold office under Siddharï¿½ja. He saved the king Karï¿½a from a fall and won Mayaï¿½alladevï¿½’s secret blessings. On another occasion, he helped Jayasiï¿½hadeva, Karï¿½a’s son. When the siege of Dhï¿½ra was indefinitely prolonged, Siddharï¿½ja took a vow to refrain from food until he had captured the fort of Dhï¿½ra. At this time, Muï¿½jala intervened and persuaded Siddharï¿½ja to fulfill his vow by breaking Dhï¿½ra made of flour into pieces. He is said to have taken an important part in the capture of Dhï¿½ra. After taking Dhï¿½ra, Siddhï¿½rï¿½ja had taken a vow that he would enter Aï¿½ahilavï¿½ï¿½a mounted on an elephant, with Yaï¿½ovarman, holding an unseathed sword in hand, on the back seat of the Howdah. Muï¿½jala pointedout to the king the risk he had undertaken by taking that vow. The king was unwilling to break his vow but Muï¿½jala persuaded him to fulfil it by giving in Yaï¿½ovarman’s hand a wooden sword.1
- Ï¿½Ï¿½NTU OR SAMPATKARA: ï¿½ï¿½ntu or Sampatkara was another Jaina Minister of Siddharï¿½ja. He was the Prime Minister of Karï¿½a also. In the beginning of his career, he was a Governor of Lï¿½ï¿½a in Broach. By dint of his merit, he rose to the rank of the Chief Minister of Karï¿½a. His proficiency in Statecraft and his success in political affairs are specially mentioned by Bilhaï¿½a, He had sent an army under Sachchika to fight the Sultan of Ghazni whom it defeated on the banks of the Indus. ï¿½ï¿½ntu is said to have put an end to the tyranny of Madanapï¿½la, maternal uncle of king Karï¿½a. Taking advantage of the King’s absence from the capital, the king of Mï¿½lwa invaded Gujarat. As an able Statesman, he tried to avoid the enemy knocking at the door. ï¿½ï¿½ntu did not disclose the fault of others and gave an opportunity to the wrong doer to improve.1
- Ï¿½SUKA: Another Jaina Minister of Siddharï¿½ja was ï¿½suka. He was a Mï¿½hï¿½mï¿½tya or Prime Minister between 1122-23 A.D. and 1124-25 A.D. With his advice and assent, Jayasimha made a pilgrimage to the ï¿½atruï¿½jaya hill and gave a grant of twelve villages to the temple of ï¿½dinï¿½tha. He attended the famous debate between Devasï¿½ri and Kumudachandra.2
- SAJJANA: Sajjana was another Jaina officer of Siddharï¿½ja. After the conquest of Soratha, he was appointed Governor of the Province. This is confirmed by an inscription in Neminï¿½tha’s temple built by him on Giranï¿½ra, Sajjana’s temple in Giranï¿½ra is the largest temple on the hill.3
- VAGBHATA: According to the commentator of the Vï¿½gbha-ï¿½ï¿½laï¿½kï¿½ra, Vï¿½gbhaï¿½a was a Prime-minister of Jayasimhadeva. He was probably a son of Udayana.4 As known from the Dvyï¿½ï¿½raya, he was also a Prime Minister of Kumï¿½rapï¿½la. This fact is confirmed by the Nï¿½ï¿½ola copper plates of V.S. 1213. He built a stone temple to ï¿½dinï¿½tha on the ï¿½atruï¿½jaya hill in 1154-55 A.D. and founded Vï¿½gbhaï¿½apura at the fort of the hill. In this city, Vï¿½gbhaï¿½a built a temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha and called it Tribhuvanavihï¿½ra after King’s father.1
- CHANDRASÏ¿½RI: Chandrasï¿½ri, the author of the Munisuvrata’s Charitra, was the Governor of Lï¿½ta before he entered the order of Jaina monks.2
- AMBAÏ¿½A OR Ï¿½MRABHAÏ¿½A: ï¿½mra or ï¿½mrabhaï¿½a was another, Mantrï¿½ of Kumï¿½rapï¿½la. He was the second son of Udayana. He built the ï¿½akunikavihï¿½ra in Broach in V.S. 1211 or V.S. 1222. The Jainas of Broach believe that the remains of this temple are found in a mosque.3
- CHÏ¿½HAÏ¿½A: The Udepur inscription of V.S. 1222 informs that Chï¿½haï¿½a was a daï¿½ï¿½anï¿½yaka or Kumï¿½rapï¿½la in Malwa. He was probably Chï¿½haï¿½a, third son of Udayana. From an inscription on Giranï¿½ra, it seems, he had seven sons, the eldest of whom was a treasurer of Kumï¿½rapala. By dint of merit, he (the eldest son) rose to the rank of Prime Minister. From the Praï¿½asti to the Pï¿½ithvï¿½chandra-Charita of ï¿½ï¿½ntisï¿½ri, it is clear that Kumï¿½rasï¿½mha, Chï¿½haï¿½a’s eldest son, was the Prime Minister in V.S. 1225.4
- MHADEVA: The Kirï¿½ï¿½u inscription of V.S. 1209 and the Bï¿½li inscription of V.S. 1219 speak of Mahï¿½deva as the Prime Minister of the king. We do not know much about this Mahï¿½deva. He was probably the son of Dï¿½dï¿½ka, a Prime Minister of Siddharï¿½ja and the Governor of Ujjain in V.S. 1195.5
- PÏ¿½ITHVÏ¿½PÏ¿½LA: The Praï¿½asti to the Mallinï¿½tha Charita informs that Prithvï¿½pï¿½la was the Prime Minister of Kumï¿½rapï¿½la. This Pï¿½ithvï¿½pï¿½la repaired Vimalaï¿½ï¿½haï¿½ temple on Mount ï¿½bï¿½.1
- DAÏ¿½DANÏ¿½YAKAS: In V.S. 1202, Sahajiga was the Daï¿½ï¿½anï¿½yaka of Saurashtra. In V.S. 1207, Sajjana was theDandanï¿½yaka of Chitoda. We do not know who this Sajjana was. He was probably the daï¿½ï¿½anï¿½yaka of Saurashtra in the time of Siddharï¿½ja and built the stone temple on Giranï¿½ra. In V.S. 1210, 1213 and 1216, Vaijaladeva was the daï¿½ï¿½anï¿½yaka of Nï¿½ï¿½ola. In V.S. 1222, Ambaka, son of Rï¿½ï¿½iga, was the daï¿½ï¿½anï¿½yaka of Saurashtra.2
- YAÏ¿½AHPÏ¿½LA: Yaï¿½ahpï¿½la was a Jaina Minister of Ajayapï¿½la. He completed the Moh-aparï¿½jaya, an allegorical drama, celebrating the conversion of Kumï¿½rapï¿½la to Jainism, in this reign. His father’s name was Dhanadeva and mother’s name Rukmini. Dhanadeva was a Minister of Siddharï¿½ja or Kumï¿½rapï¿½la.3
- OTHER OFFICIALS: In V.S. 1247, Sobhanadeva was the governor of Lï¿½ï¿½adeï¿½a and Rï¿½masimha the Mudrï¿½dhikï¿½rï¿½, Ambaï¿½a Mantri and ï¿½lhï¿½dana Daï¿½ï¿½anï¿½yaka were the other Jaina officers of Bhima II.4
- PÏ¿½HILA: Pahila was the Minister of the Chandella ruler Dhaï¿½ga governing Jejï¿½bhukti now called Bundelkhand. The Khajurï¿½ho inscription dated 953-954 A.D. in the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha records a number of gifts and endowments of gardens by one Pï¿½hila who claims to have been held in esteem by king Dhaï¿½ga. The devotion of the Grahapati family to which Pï¿½hila belonged is also evidenced by ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha image inscription of V.S. 1132 in which it is found that during the reign of Kï¿½rttivarman, the image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha was installed by a group of his hereditary Ministers namely Pï¿½hilla and Jiju. They were disciples of Vï¿½savachandra. Another statue was setup by Sï¿½lhe, the son of Pï¿½hilla in 1157-58 A.D. during the prosperous reign of Madanavarman, and the sons of Sï¿½lhe were Mahegaï¿½a, Mahichandra, ï¿½rï¿½chandra, Jinachandra and Udayachandra.1
- SÏ¿½HU KUÏ¿½ARÏ¿½JA: Sï¿½hu Kuï¿½arï¿½ja Jaisavï¿½la was the Minister of the Tomara ruler Vï¿½ramadeva (1402-23 A.D.) of Gwalior, He was devoted to Jainism. Padmanï¿½bha Kï¿½yastha wrote the Yï¿½ï¿½odhara Charita during the reign of Vï¿½ramadeva by the inspiration of the Minister, Sï¿½hu Kuï¿½arï¿½ja Jaisavï¿½la.2 Kuï¿½arï¿½ja also built the Jaina temple of Chandraprabhu in Gwalior.
- KAMALASIÏ¿½HA: Kamalasimha was the Chief Minister of ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½garasiï¿½ha (1425-59 A.D.) He erected a huge image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha in V.S. 1497, and its consecration ceremony was performed by Raidhï¿½. Kamalasiï¿½ha also inspired others to install several images. He was a patron of the great poet Raidhï¿½ and encouraged him to write several works in Prakrit, Apabhramsa and Hindi. Asapati was also the Minister of ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½gasasiï¿½ha.
JAINA STATESMEN OF THE SULTÏ¿½NS OF MÏ¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½U
- NARADEVA SONÏ¿½: Hoshang Shah honoured the Jainas by associating them with his government. They had a reputation for their honesty in handling cash. Hoshang Shï¿½h appointed Naradeva Sonï¿½ as his Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½gï¿½rika (treasurer) and associated him in his Council. Narasiï¿½ha had become famous for his charities, as his son Sangrï¿½m Singh Sonï¿½ mentions that his father’s charities knew no bounds and all recipients returned to their places after receiving full satisfaction from Naradeva.1
- SANGRÏ¿½M SINGH SONÏ¿½: During the reign of Mahmud Khalji, we find Sangrï¿½m Singh, son of Naradeva Sonï¿½, occupying the same position that his father had enjoyed during the reign of Hoshang shah. That Sangrï¿½m Singh enjoyed the confidence of Sultan Mahmud is borne out from the Praï¿½asti of Buddhisï¿½gara, Sangram Singh accompanied Mahmud Khalji in his Deccan campaigns and completed his Buddhisï¿½gara at Pratishï¿½hï¿½npura (Paiï¿½hï¿½n) on the Godavari where he seems to have gone for a holy dip in 1463 A.D. In order to retain the favour of the Sultï¿½n, he did not fail to praise him in his composition. Sangram Singh Sonï¿½ retained his position throughout the reign of Nasir Shah.2
- MAÏ¿½Ï¿½ANA: Maï¿½ï¿½ana another Jaina of ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la caste, became well known in the reign of Hoshang Shah. Maï¿½ï¿½ana was a successful businessman and earned a good deal of wealth through his business. While he extended his charities, and lavishly donated for the entablishment of Jaina monasteries. He neither neglected his business nor failed to assist Sultan Hoshang Shah with his financial aids. Sultan Hoshang Shah also in return honoured him.1
- JASAVÏ¿½RA: There was another Jaina family flourishing in Mï¿½nï¿½u during the reign of Mahmud Khalji I. In this family Jasavira became quite prominetn. He visited many of the places of Jaina pilgrimage and distributed charity everywhere. He set up fifty-twoSaï¿½ghapatis and was himself honoured with the title of ‘Samgheï¿½vara‘. Jasavï¿½ra was also associated with the government. He held an important post in the principality (Jï¿½gir) of Shehzï¿½dï¿½ Ghiyas Shï¿½h.
Jaina merchants used to go either for trade or for pilgrimage, and it is not unlikely that they used to bring information about the internal condition prevailing in the kingdoms they visited and supplied them to their rulers. We find that in 1454, Jasavï¿½ra visited Mewar and also the court of Rï¿½nï¿½ Kumbha where he was honoured by the Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. It is possible that he might have visited the kingdom of Mewar in order to collect information.2
- PUNJARÏ¿½JA: That the Jainas were happy and prosperous in his reign is borne out from the praises that have been lavished on Mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½u in the Praï¿½asti of the Kalpa Sï¿½tra transcribed in 1198 A.D. The Jainas had become more closely associated with the administration and received various titles from Sultan Ghiyath Shah. Punjarï¿½ja was made Wazir of the Khï¿½lsï¿½ lands and was given the title of ‘Mafar-ul-Mulk.’1
- PADÏ¿½RTNA OF RÏ¿½MPURÏ¿½: From the two inscriptions of Rï¿½mpurï¿½, it is known that Padï¿½rtha was of the Ragheravï¿½la Caste. The Chandrï¿½vata ruler Durgabhï¿½nu of Rï¿½mpurï¿½ appointed the royal Padï¿½rtha as his Finance Minister. Durgabhanu’s son Chandra is said to have raised Padï¿½rtha to the status of Prime Minister. He gained a position of power and influence as Prime Minister. He was greatly devoted to the Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas. He made gifts of food and clothes to the Saï¿½gha while setting out to see the festival in Jaina temple. The pillar inscription records the excavation and the consecration of the well by Padï¿½rtha.2
- MINISTERS OF THE CHAUHÏ¿½NAS OF CHANDRAVÏ¿½DA :Rï¿½masimha was the Diwï¿½n of the Chauhana ruler Chandrapï¿½la. He built the Jaina temple in 996-999 A.D. and installed the image of Chandraprabhu in it. Amritapala, a Minister of Abhayapï¿½la, constructed the Jaina image at Chandravï¿½da. Soï¿½usahu, Minister of Jaheda, got the Bhavishyadatta Kathï¿½ written in Apabhraï¿½ï¿½a in 1173 A.D.3
Almost every state of Rajasthan and every principality or jï¿½gï¿½ra was served by more than one Jaina minister of manager. Naturally, all of them were not pious people; but some of them led a life of lofty ideals and were deeply devoted to their masters who could not but respect the general principles of their religion. The ministers and officers preached by practice and not by precepts. Their masters and all others who came into close contact with them were deeply impressed by the simplicity of their personal life and began to respect the religion which was responsible for their high morality, their high official position, social status, learning, loyalty and devotion. They are too numerous to be described but a bare outline of the life of some of them seems to be necessary.
- VIMALA: We have no information about the Jaina statesmen of Rajasthan before Vimala1 who is the most famous Jaina statesman of the eleventh century. He was a son of Vï¿½ra, the Mahattama of the King Mï¿½larï¿½ja, and rose to the position of the Minister of Bhï¿½ma I by sheer dint of his military skill. Probably, he fought against Mahamï¿½d Ghaznï¿½ with his master. According to the Prabandhas, he defeated the twelve Sï¿½mantas. It cannot be wholly legendary and may contain some elements of truth. They may be deputies or generals left by Mahmï¿½d Ghaznï¿½ after his return from India. He also assisted his master in restoring Saurï¿½shtra and Kachchha which became independent taking advantage of the Muslim invasion.
Afterwards, Vimala helped his master Bhï¿½ma in capturing Chandrï¿½vatï¿½, a place near Abu, from Dhandhuka. Bhï¿½ma made him a governor in recognition of his services. In course of time, Vimala restored friendship between Dhandhuka and Bhï¿½ma. Bhï¿½ma returned his kingdom to Dhandhuka but kept Vimala as his representative of Abu as before.
Vimala was a deeply religious and self-sacrificing man. He led an extremely simple life and lavished almost all of his immense personal wealth on the construction of a wonderful temple on Mount Abu.
- UDAYANA: Udayana was the well-known statesman in the time of Chï¿½lukyan rulers namely Siddharï¿½ja and Kumï¿½rapï¿½la. He was a native of Marwar, born at Jalor. He was a Jaina by religion and ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la by caste At the suggestion of some persons, he went to Karï¿½ï¿½vatï¿½ and stayed at the place of a painter, named Lachhi. Fortune smiled on him and he became a rich man. In course of time, he won name and fame; and he was appointed as the governor of Khambhat by Siddharï¿½ja.
Udayana was a devout Jaina and enormously rich. He was responsible for the initiation of Hemachandra at the age of eight, when he was the governor of Cambay. According to the Prabandhachintï¿½maï¿½i, it was he who persuaded his father Chï¿½chiga to consent for the initiation of his son. When Kumï¿½rapï¿½la was wandering as an exile persecuted by the fiery wrath of his uncle, it was Udayana who gave him shelter. Ther is little doubt that he remained in touch with him throughout his exile and made efforts to secure him the throne.
Udayana was a true follower of Jainism. Once Kumï¿½rapï¿½la sent him against the king of Soraï¿½ha. he left his army in Vardhamï¿½napura and went to Vimalï¿½chala. While worshipping, he saw a rat with a burning wick entering a hole in the wooden temple. Seeing this, Udayana determined to build a stone temple and vowed to take only one meal till the task was accomplished. Then he reached the camp and marched against Sunsars. In a battle, the imperial army was defeated; but he was mortally wounded. The minister thought that he was dying before having rebuilt the temples of Vimalï¿½chala and Bhï¿½igukachchha. His officers assured him that his sons Vï¿½gbhaï¿½a and ï¿½mrabhaï¿½a would carry out his plans. He passed away peacefully when his sons assured him to fulfil his vow. When Kumï¿½rapï¿½la heard about his death, he was much grieved. Udayana had four sons Vï¿½gbhata, Chï¿½haï¿½a, Ambaï¿½a and Sola. Vï¿½gbhaï¿½a and Ambaï¿½a became the Prime Minister and Minister respectively in his reign.1
- VASTUPALA: Vastupï¿½la, the prime minister of the Vï¿½ghela king Vï¿½radhavala of Dhavalaka or Dholka during the thirteenth century, was not only a statesman but also great patron of art and literature. Vastupï¿½la and his twin brother Tejapï¿½la were born in an aristocratic Prï¿½gvï¿½ï¿½a family of Aï¿½ahilavï¿½ï¿½a in 1205 A.D. They were the sons of Kumï¿½radevï¿½, the widow remarried to Aï¿½varï¿½ja, a military commander of the Vï¿½ghelas. During their childhood, they lived with their father in a town called Sumhalakapura which was given to him by the Chï¿½lukyan king as a reward for his services.1 After the death of Aï¿½varï¿½j, the two brothers with their mother went to Maï¿½ï¿½alï¿½ where they lived until the death of their mother. After that, they seem to have begun their political career. He served first under Bhï¿½madeva and his services were lent to the court of Dhavalakka only afterwards.2 We do not know when Vastupï¿½la joined the services of Bhï¿½ma, but it is certain that he end his brother were appointed at Dhavalakka in 1220 A.D.
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONSOLIDATION : When Vastupï¿½la was appointed the governor of Stambatirtha or Khambhat, he improved the economic conditions of the people and reformed administration. fort this purpose, he devised an excellent administrative machinery in order to put an end to Matsyanyï¿½ya. He put a check on unscrupulous people who were making money by base means and indulging in piracy.3 In this way, he succeeded in checking corruption with an iron hand. All these measures naturally brought about confidence among the people.4 He also improved the moral tone of the people. As a result of it, life and property became safe and secure, and thus it led to the prosperity of trade and commerce.
WARLIKE DEEDS : After establishing peace in the kingdom, Vastupï¿½la launched upon the career of conquests. Saï¿½kha, the ruler of Lï¿½ï¿½a, claimed the port of Stambha, which was in the possession of Vï¿½radhavala and attacked it. After a fierce fight at a place called Vaï¿½akupa (Vaï¿½avï¿½) near Stambatï¿½rtha, Saï¿½kha was defeated. The Yï¿½dava King Siï¿½hana of Devagiri from the south and the four Mï¿½rwï¿½rï¿½ rulers from the north made a joint attack on the kingdom of Vï¿½radhavala. Showing shrewd statesmanship on this occasion, Vastupï¿½la became successful in making truce with the four chiefs from Devagiri.
The Prabandhas describe several other warlike deeds of Vï¿½radhavala and his two ministers. First of all, they conquered the rulers of Vï¿½manasthalï¿½ (Modern Vanthalï¿½, near Junagarh). Sï¿½ï¿½gana and Chï¿½munï¿½a, the brothers of Vï¿½radhavala’s queen Jayataladevï¿½ declined to pay homage to Vï¿½radhavala.5 They were slain in a combat. The great riches of the palace of Vanasthalï¿½ fell into the hands of Vï¿½radhavala. Vï¿½radhavala led another attack against Bhï¿½masiï¿½ha of the Pratï¿½hara clan ruling at Bhadreï¿½vara in Kutch but could not conquer him: he had to return only after making a peace treaty.1 By it, a new friend was made and Kutch border became free from danger. After this Vï¿½radhavala thought of subduing Ghï¿½ghula, a chief ruling at Godraha (Modern Godhrï¿½) in the Mahï¿½taï¿½a region on the banks of the river Mahï¿½. Tejapï¿½la, who was sent with a strong force, captured Ghï¿½ghula and put him in a wooden cage.2
During the reign of Vï¿½radhavala, there was the attack of Sultan Mojdin of Delhi on Gujarat but it was successfully repulsed by the strategy of Vastupï¿½la. Mojdin may be identified with the slave ruler IItutmish who ruled from 1211 A.D. to 1236 A.D. The Sultan Iltutmish undertook a number of expeditions to Rajputana and Gujarat. He captured Jalor sometimes between 1211A.D. and 1216 A.D. and Mandor about 1226 A.D. In one of these, he might have attacked Gujarat. The enemy was encircled by Dhï¿½rï¿½varsha of Chandrï¿½vatï¿½ from the north and Vastupï¿½la from the southafter his army of Cahdruavatï¿½ from the north and Vastupï¿½la from the south after his army had entered a mountain pass near Abu. Consequently, the Sultan had to retreat. After some time, the Sultan’s mother was going on pilgrimage to the holy Mecca and had come to a port of Gujarat where she was robbed by the pirates. Vastupï¿½la returned the old woman’s property after receiving her with great respect and also provided for her comfort and safety. While returning from Meccat she took Vastupï¿½la with her to Delhi and introduced him to the Sultan. Vastupï¿½la obtained a promise from the Sultan to keep friendship with Vï¿½radhavala and thus made his kingdom safe. Coming from Delhi, he was received by Vï¿½radhavala with great honour.3
- PILGRIMAGES OF VASTUPÏ¿½LA: According to the Prabandhas, Vastupï¿½la had made thirteen pilgrimages to ï¿½atruï¿½jaya and Girnar. In childhood, he went to both the places with his father Aï¿½varï¿½ja in 1193 A.D. and 1194 A.D. After becoming a minister, he led the Saï¿½ghas to ï¿½atruï¿½jaya and Girnar in 1221 A.D., 1234 A.D, 1235 A.D., 1236 A.D. and 1237 A.D. The pilgrimage of 1221 A.D. was probably the most important one as it is described with remarkable accuracy and poetic skill in contemporary works like the Kï¿½rtikaumudï¿½, the Sukï¿½itasaï¿½kï¿½rtana and Dharmï¿½bhyudaya.
PUBLIC WORKS : Vastupï¿½la and Tejapï¿½la are remembered more for the cultural activities inspired by their munificience. They brough about a cultural renaissance. They built a large number of public works like temples, rest houses, tanks, wells etc. Their munificience and philanthropy extended to a large number of places in the whole of Gujarat, Saurashtra and Marwar. Their public works extended to ï¿½rï¿½ï¿½aila in the South, Prabhï¿½sa in the West, Kedï¿½ra in the North and Benares in the East.1 They were confined not only to the Jainas but were meant for all. They constructed hospitals, dharmaï¿½ï¿½lï¿½s, Maï¿½has, ï¿½iva temples and even mosques2. Besides, the famous Jaina temple of Abu at Delavï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ generally known as Luï¿½avasahï¿½ temple was constructed by him.
PATRON OF LEARNING AND LITERATURE : Vastupï¿½la was not only a philanthropist and patron of art but at the same time, a great patron of learning. He had established three public libraries in Aï¿½ahilavï¿½ï¿½, Stambhatï¿½rtha and Bhrigukachchha by spending an enormous wealth.3 His personal library was also very rich and contained more than one copy of all important ï¿½ï¿½stras.4 He was highly liberal towards poets and scholars. While giving patronage to scholars, he made no distinction between Jaina and non-Jaina. He gave large wealth to the Brï¿½hmaï¿½as having poetical skill.
Moreover, Vastupï¿½la was credited with a critical faculty which enabled him to detect defects in poetic compositions by others and to make improvements in them. He was himself a poet too. His poetic name was Vasantapï¿½la. His first poem was the ï¿½dinï¿½thastotra in the form of hymn in praise of ï¿½diï¿½vara on the ï¿½atruï¿½jaya hills.5 He has also written several Stotras like the Neminï¿½thastotra, Ambikï¿½stotra and a short Arï¿½dhanï¿½ of ten verses. He was also proficient in composition of Sï¿½ktis. In the Abu Praï¿½asti, Someï¿½vara has spoken highly of his originality in the field of poetry.6 He has composed the Naranï¿½rï¿½yaï¿½ananda of Arjuna and Kï¿½ishï¿½a.
LITERARY CIRCLE OF MAHÏ¿½MÏ¿½TYA VASTUPÏ¿½LA : Several poets and the scholars circled round Vastupï¿½la and not of the royal court of the Vï¿½ghelas. There is no doubt that these poets and scholars came to the Vï¿½ghelas court and sometimes received gifts from their ruler. But these writers praised the Vï¿½ghela kings not so much as they did Vastupï¿½la. It indicates that all of them were dependent upon Vastupï¿½la, and it was mainly through him that their literary efforts were appreciated. And hence, we are justified in calling these writers as the literary circle of Vastupï¿½la. The names of these writers are Someï¿½vara, Harihara, Nï¿½nï¿½ka, Yaï¿½ovï¿½ra, Subhaï¿½a, Arisiï¿½ha, Amarachandrasï¿½ri, Vijayasenasï¿½ri, Udayaprabhasï¿½ri, Jinabhadrasï¿½ri, Narachandra, Narendraprabhasï¿½ri, Bï¿½lachandra, Jayasiï¿½hasï¿½ri and Mï¿½ï¿½ikyachandra.
- RESTORATION OF THE KINGDOM BY TEJÏ¿½GADAHÏ¿½YA TO MÏ¿½LADEVA: In Jodhpur state, there were several leading Jainas who rendered valuable services to the ruling chiefs. Among them, the name of Tejï¿½ Gadahï¿½yï¿½ is well-known. He was a great warriour and a faithful servant of Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½ Mï¿½ladeva. In about 1541 A.D., Shershah attacked Jodhpur with large forces but he could not defeat the brave Rï¿½jputs so easily. He, therefore, took recourse to treachery and became successful in capturing Jodhpur from the Rï¿½ï¿½hoï¿½as. Shershah was so much impressed by their valour that he remarked “I had nearly lost the empire of Hindustan for a handful of Bï¿½jra (Millet).”
Shershah appointed his deputy Hamajï¿½ to govern Jodhpur. According to the Osvï¿½lavaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½,1 Tejï¿½ Gadahï¿½yï¿½ restored the kingdom of Jodhpur to his master Mï¿½ladeva after putting Hamajï¿½ to death. It shows his bravery as well as devotion towards his master.
- HEROIC AND PHILANTHROPIC DEEDS OF MUHAÏ¿½OTA JAYAMALA: Muhaï¿½ota Jyamala was a great warrior and philanthropist. The Mughal emperor gave two districts of Jalor and Sanchor to Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Gajasiï¿½ha who appointed Muhaï¿½ota Jayamala as the governor. Jayamala carried on the administration successfully. He defeated 500 Marï¿½ï¿½hï¿½s who invaded Sanchor. When a dreadful famine broke out in 1630 A.D., he distributed grains free of charge among the needy and distressed. Besides, he spent his entire property in these charitable activites.
- MUHAÏ¿½OTA NAIÏ¿½ASÏ¿½ AS AN ADMINISTRATOR: The son of Muhaï¿½ota Jayamala was Muhaï¿½ota Naiï¿½asï¿½, who was a historian as well as an administrator. He acted as the dï¿½vï¿½na of Jasawantasiï¿½ha. He compiled a history of Marwar on the line of Abul Fuzl. He introduced the census sustem and improved the administration by removing many lï¿½gas and begï¿½ras. He has written a five-yearly report describing the districts, villages, their income, quality of land, tanks, wells and different castes in Mï¿½rwari language on the model of ï¿½ini-Akbarï¿½ of Abul Fuzl.
Muhaï¿½ota Naiï¿½asï¿½ was a devout Jaina and possessed spotless character. He was loyal but frank and brave but lenient. He led an extremely simple life strictly according to the tenets of Jainism.
- RATANASIÏ¿½HA AS A WARRIOR: Ratanasimha Bhaï¿½dï¿½rï¿½ served Abhayasiï¿½ha with great zeal and devotion. He was a great warrior. In 1730 A.D., Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Abhayasiï¿½ha was appointed as a Viceroy of Ajmer and Gujarat. After a period of 3 years, he placed Ratanasiï¿½ha Bhaï¿½darï¿½ in the sole charge of the province. He worked there from 1733 A.D. to 1737 A.D. The Mughal power was on decline so that authority of the emperor was defied by the Marï¿½ï¿½hï¿½s on the one hand and by his refractory governors on the other. Ratanasiï¿½ha, therefor, had to spend his whole time either in waging the wars against the Marï¿½ï¿½hï¿½s or putting down the overpowerful governors.
Ratanasiï¿½ha had not been long in his new office when the Marï¿½ï¿½hï¿½s under their leader Jadujï¿½ Dï¿½bhade visited Gujarat. In order to save the province from their ravages, he had to purchase their retreat at an enormous expense.
Bhï¿½vasiï¿½ha, the hereditary governor of Vï¿½ramagï¿½m, was a source of trouble to him. In 1734 A.D., he had to issue orders to Jawahmard Khan for the arrest of the delinquent. Jawahmard Khan, of course went to Viramagam and took him into custody but was forced by his supporters to release him.
In 1735 A.D., Soharabkhan was appointed as the governor of Viramagam but Ratanasiï¿½ha did not like his appointment. Soharab Khan leaving Sadak Ali as his deputy in Junagarh marched for Vï¿½ramagam. Ratanasiï¿½ha also with assistance of Mominkhan and others proceeded towards Vï¿½ramagam. A battle was fought between the two. The troops of Soharab Khan fled away and he himself was killed in the battle. Bhï¿½vasiï¿½ha of Vï¿½ramagam was waiting for the revenge. He, therefore, entered into an alliance with the Marï¿½ï¿½hï¿½s and treacherously admitted them into the city. Dï¿½majï¿½. the Marï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ leader, assumed the control of Viramagam and expelled the Mï¿½rawï¿½rï¿½ administrator Kalyï¿½na and left his agent Raï¿½gojï¿½. Raï¿½gojï¿½ advanced as far as Bavla near Dholka pillaging and devastating the country. Ratanasiï¿½ha marched against him and drove him back to Viramagam. He, however, laid siege to it. At this time, Pratï¿½parï¿½va advanced towards Ahmedabad. When Ratanasiï¿½ha knew it, he at once raised the siege of the town and returned to Ahmedabad.
In 1737 A.D., Muhammad Shah became displeased with Abhayasiï¿½ha and appointed Meminkhan as the Viceroy of Gujarat in his place. When Ratanasiï¿½ha Bhaï¿½dï¿½rï¿½ became aware of the change, he at once wrote to his master for the orders. The reply from Abhaysiï¿½ha was that Ratanasiï¿½ha Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ri should resist Memimkhan if he could. He prepared to defend Ahmedabad while Meminkhan prepared for the march of his army. Meminkhan also made his friendship with the Marï¿½ï¿½hï¿½s. But Ratanasiï¿½ha was a great diplomat and made attempts not to make the union of these two parties. In the end, he entered into negotiation with Meminkhan and left the city after receiving a large sum of money from him.
After the death of Jorï¿½varasiï¿½ha, the chief of Bikaner in 1745 A.D., there started a war of succession between the two claimants namely Gajasiï¿½ha and Amarasiï¿½ha. With the aid of ï¿½hï¿½kura Kuï¿½alasiï¿½ha and Mehatï¿½ Bakhtï¿½varasiï¿½ha, Gajasiï¿½ha succeeded in securing the gaddi, upon which Amarsiï¿½ha took up the cause of the disappointed claimant and marched a large force in command of Ratansimaha Bhaï¿½dï¿½rï¿½ against Gajasiï¿½ha. A decisive battle was fought in 1747 A.D. and Ratanasiï¿½ha Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rï¿½ was killed fighting gallantly.1
Professionally a soldier and statesman, Ratanasiï¿½ha was almost a Sï¿½dhu in his private life. Naturally, he was greatly respected not only by Jainas but also by non-Jainas including the Muslims.
- Ï¿½AMASERA BAHÏ¿½DURA AS A GENERAL: ï¿½amasera Bahï¿½dura, who was the commander in chief of Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Vijayasiï¿½ha, participated in several battles. In the battle fought in Gaurwar province, he showed excellent bravery in 1792 A.D. In recognition of his gallantry and heroism on battlefields, Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½ Vijayasiï¿½ha became highly pleased and conferred upon him unique honour of Rï¿½vï¿½ Rï¿½jï¿½ and a jï¿½gï¿½ra worth 29,000/-.1 He was a very pious man and stories regarding his charity and purity are still current in Marwar.
- LOYALTY OF DHANARÏ¿½JÏ¿½: After conquering Ajmer from the Marï¿½ï¿½hï¿½s in 1787 A.D., the ruling chief of Jodhpur made Dhanarï¿½ja its governor, The Marï¿½ï¿½hï¿½s soon recovered their losses and four years later again invaded Marwar. Two sanguinary battle of Merta and Pï¿½tan were fought in which Mï¿½rwï¿½rï¿½s were defeated.
In the meantime, the Marï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ General De Boighe had attacked and invested Ajmer. Dhanarï¿½ja, the governor of the place, stood the siege heroically and successfully. Vijayasiï¿½ha, seeing the disastrous result of Pï¿½tan, issued him order to surrender the place to the enemies and return to Jodhpur. It was too exacting a demand on his brave and chivalrous nature. He would neither consent to a disgraceful surrender nor would he be guilty of disobedience to his master. He was thus placed in dilemma. Eventually, he decided to end his life. He had the diamond ring on his finger he had the gem pulverised and swallowed the powder. ‘Go and tell the prince’, cried the departing hero,’thus only, I could testify my obedience and over my dead body alone, could a Mï¿½rï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ enter Ajmer.’
- DIPLOMACY AND LOYALTY OF INDRARÏ¿½JA: Indrarï¿½ja Siï¿½ghï¿½ was a real diplomat as well as a loyal servant of his master. Jagatsiï¿½ha, the ruler of Jaipur, espoused the cause of Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha’s rival Dhoï¿½kalasiï¿½ha and attacked Marwar with a large army. Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½ Sï¿½ratasiï¿½ha of Bikaner, Pinï¿½ï¿½rï¿½ Amirakhan and several other Sardars also joined him. Jaipur forces took the possession of Mï¿½roï¿½ha, Merta, Parbatsar, Nagaur, Pï¿½lï¿½, Sojat etc. and even the city of Jodhpur. Only the fort remained under the possession of Mï¿½hï¿½rï¿½jï¿½. At this time, Siï¿½ghï¿½ Indrarï¿½ja and Bhaï¿½dï¿½rï¿½ Gangï¿½rï¿½ma requested Mï¿½harï¿½jï¿½ Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha to let them out through the secret path of the fort. The prince acceded to the request and sent them outside the fort. Both of them went to Merta where they collected a large force. They won Amï¿½rakhan, the leader of the Pinï¿½ï¿½rï¿½s, to their side by offering him a bribe of one lakh. After that, Siï¿½ghï¿½ Indrarï¿½ja, Bhaï¿½dï¿½rï¿½, Gangï¿½rï¿½ma and ï¿½hï¿½kura ï¿½ivanï¿½thasiï¿½ha of Kuchï¿½man left for Jaipur. When the Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½ of Jaipur came to know, he sent a large army under the command of Rï¿½ya ï¿½ivalï¿½la. Several skirmishes took place but not decisive battle was fought. At last, Amï¿½rakhï¿½n and Siï¿½ghï¿½ Indrarï¿½ja succeeded in rounting the Jaipur forces at Fï¿½gï¿½ near Tonk. When this news reached Jagatasiï¿½ha, he immediately raised the siege of Jodhpur and left for his counry.
Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½ Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha highly honoured Indrarï¿½ja on his return to Jodhpur and made him his chief minister. After that, Indrarï¿½ja besieged Bikaner and compelled the Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½ to pay four lakhs of rupees as a price for raising his siege. He also saved his master from the serious plot of Amï¿½rakhan. When he invaded Bikaner, Amï¿½rakhï¿½n in his absence got the pattï¿½ of the districts of Parbatsar, Mï¿½roï¿½ha, Dï¿½dwï¿½nï¿½ and Sambhar. The Pathans of Amï¿½rakhan reached Jodhpur and demanded their salaries and the possession of four districts from Indrarï¿½ja, who asked them to produce the relevant document. When it was placed before him, he swallowed it up. This act infuriated the Pathans who killed the Sï¿½ghï¿½ then and there. When this news reached the Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½, he expressed his deep sorrow over his death and ordered for the royal funeral. In return of his valuable services, Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½ Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha gave the jï¿½gï¿½ra of twenty-five thousand and dï¿½vï¿½nagï¿½ to his son Fateharï¿½ja.1
BIKANER AND JAINA STATESMEN
- RESTORATION OF THE KINGDOM TO KALYÏ¿½Ï¿½ASIÏ¿½HA BY THE EFFORTS OF NAGARÏ¿½JA: In Bikaner State, there were some Jaina statesmen who not only controlled the civil affairs of the state with great skill but also took part even in military affairs. Among them, the mane of Nï¿½garï¿½ja is well-known. He was a faithful servant of his master Jaitrasiï¿½ha. When Mï¿½ladeva, the ruler of Jodhpur, wanted to conquer Bikaner, Jaitrasiï¿½ha sent Nï¿½garï¿½ja to the court of Shershah for help. Jaitrasiï¿½ha lost his life fighting against Mï¿½ladeva who took possession of Bikaner. Nï¿½garï¿½ja, persuaded Shershah for the invasion of Marwar. Mï¿½ladeva was badly defeated, and it enabled Kalyï¿½ï¿½asiï¿½ha, the son of Jaitrasiï¿½ha, to restore his hereditary kingdom.
Tradition has it that Nagarï¿½ja was a great man in all respects. He was a God-fearing man, and his every act was inspired by lofty ideals. He gave great charities, respected Sï¿½dhus and led a very abstemious life.
- MILITARY AND PHILANTHROPIC ACTIVITIES OF KARMACHANDRA: Karmachandra was an able statesman, a great general and a religious man. He was the chief minister of Rï¿½yasiï¿½ha. When Abhayasiï¿½ha, the ruler of Jaipur, invaded Bikaner, he advised his master to make peace because the state was not prepared for the disastrous war. By his efforts, Akbar gave the title of Rï¿½jï¿½ to Rï¿½yasiï¿½ha. When Mirza Ibrahim of Nagaur attacked Bikaner, he repulsed him. Later on, he against Gujarat under Mughal standard. He extended the bounds of the Bikaner state by occupying Sojat, Jalor and some portion of Sindh.
Karmachandra rendered valuable services to his community and religion. he led many Saï¿½ghas to the holy places. In 1555 A.D., he celebrated the official entry of Jinachandrasï¿½ri at Bikaner with great rejoicings. During the famine of 1578 A.D, he made every endeavour to relieve the starving population by setting up depots for the free distribution of grain. He redovered a large number of images from the Mohammedans into whose hands they had fallen and deposited them in the Chintï¿½mï¿½i temples at Bikaner. It was through his efforts that Jainism secured the place in the heart of Akbar. In 1592 A.D., on the suggestion of Karmachandra, Akbar invited Jinachandrasï¿½ri from Cambay and received the holy visitor at Lahore with high honour.
Karmachandra was a farsighted statesman. When Rï¿½yasiï¿½ha, the ruler of Bikaner, was becoming more and extravagant, he made the last and determined dffort to bring the king to senses at the cost of his personal loss. The treasury became empty and the future of the state appeared gloomy. His enemies poisoned the ears of the Rï¿½jï¿½ against him. Rï¿½yasiï¿½ha determined to arrest Karmachandra and to put him to death. Anyhow, it became known to Karmachandra who at once fled from Bikaner and sought the protection of Akbar. The emperor treated him with kindness and assigned him an honourable post in his court.1
63 SUPPRESSION OF REFRECTORIES BY AMARACHANDRA SURÏ¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½ : Amarachanda Surï¿½nï¿½ rose to the position of eminence during the reign of Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½ Sï¿½ratasiï¿½ha. He was sent with an army against Zabatakhan, the chief of Bhattis. Zabatakhan fought for 5 months, but in the end, he had to surrender the fort to Amarachanda. In recognition of his service, Amarachandra was made dï¿½vï¿½na of the state.
In 1808 A.D., Sï¿½ratasiï¿½ha despatched a large force under the command of Amarachandra to check the march of advancing army under Indrarï¿½ja Siï¿½ghavï¿½, sent by Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½ Manasiï¿½ha of Jodhpur. However, no major incident took place and it was with the good offices of Amarachanda that the reconciliation between the two states was brought about.
Amarachanda was then appointed to suppress the refractory nobles of Bikaner. He carried out his task most successfully with iron hand. He exacted a heavy fine from the ï¿½hï¿½kura of Saraubi and then attacked Ratanasiï¿½ha Baidvant and hanged him on the spot. He next invaded Bhattis and ruthlessly butchered them all except one. Soon after, he attacked the leading ï¿½hï¿½kura chiefs Naharasiï¿½ha and imprisoned them. In 1815 A.D., he was sent with an army against ï¿½ivasiï¿½ha of Churu, who committed suicide. And thus, Churru fell into the hands of Amarachanda. Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½ Sï¿½ratasiï¿½ha highly appreciated his svices and conferred on him the special honour.
The continuous success of Amarachanda Surï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ could not be borne by his enemies who formed a conspiracy to bring about his downfall. In 1817 A.D., he was falsely accused of intriguing with Amï¿½rakhan, the leader of the Piï¿½dï¿½rï¿½s, and was executed in a most brutal manner by the Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½.1
UDAIPUR AND JAINA STATESMEN
64 SHELTER TO PRINCE UDAISIÏ¿½HA BY Ï¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½AHA : The Udaipur state was served by a number of Jaina soldiers, statesmen and administrators with singular devotion and loyalty. One of them is ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha who was the Kiledï¿½ra of Kumbhalmer. He aflorded asylum to the infant prince Udaisiï¿½ha against the clutches of Banavï¿½ra. Although in the beginning, when Pannï¿½ Dhï¿½ya approached him for protection of Udaisiï¿½ha, ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha was reluctant to give him shelter. But latr on, it was on the persuasion of his mother that he acceded to the request of Pannï¿½. In order to maintain secrecy, he bagan to call Udaisiï¿½ha as his nephew. When Udaisiï¿½ha came of age, ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aha along with a handful of chiefs installed Udaisiï¿½ha on the gaddï¿½, and this saved the dynasty from ruin.1
- LOYALTY OF MEHTA CHÏ¿½LAJÏ¿½ :Another officer who proved loyal to Udaisiï¿½ha in his hour of crisis was Mehatï¿½ Chï¿½lajï¿½. Though he was the Kiledï¿½ra of the fort of Chitor under Banavï¿½ra, his real desire was to restore the fort to the rightful claimant Udaisiï¿½ha. When the latter besieged the fort of Chitor, Mehatua Chï¿½lajï¿½ sent all the sectets of the fort to Udaisiï¿½ha and thus helped him in capturing the fort.2
- BHÏ¿½MÏ¿½Ï¿½HA, THE SAVIOUR OF MEWAR: Bhï¿½mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha, who was the dï¿½vï¿½na of Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Pratï¿½pa, set the noble example of high sense of patriotism and loyalty. When Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½a Pratï¿½pa was in desperate need of mony to continue the struggle with the Mughal emperor, Bhï¿½mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha, the embodiment of truth and loyalty, came to his help and disclosed the secrecy of the hidden treasure, as it was written in bhaï¿½, which was under his possession. This enabled Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ to collect his scattered forces and to renew war against Akbar. The result was that Rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Pratï¿½pa in a short campaign regained the whole Mewar except Chitor, Ajmer and Mandalgarh.3
- MILITARY AND PHILANTHROPIC DEEDS OF DAYÏ¿½LADÏ¿½SA: Saï¿½ghavï¿½ Dayï¿½ladï¿½sa, Dï¿½vï¿½na of Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Rï¿½jasiï¿½ha, was a great general and philanthropist. When Mewar was attacked by Aurangzeb in 1679 A.D., Dayï¿½ladï¿½sa fought on the side of Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ and gave an example of undaunted heroism. Besides, Dayï¿½ladï¿½sa was also sent to check the advance of the Mughal forces from the side of Malwa.
Not only the military general but he was also deeply religious minded and a devout Jaina. It was on accoutn of his personal efforts that Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ issued orders for the observance of Ahiï¿½sï¿½ in the area of Upï¿½sarï¿½. Dayï¿½ladï¿½sa also constructed a beautiful Jaina temple in the shape of a fort on the mountain just near Rï¿½jasamanda.4
- MEHATÏ¿½ AGARACHANDA AS A DIPLOMAT AND STATESMAN: Mehatï¿½ Agarachanda proved himself to be the successful diplomat and able statesman of the eighteenth century A.D. At this time, the politicalsituation of India as well as of Mewar was surcharged with fear and suspicion and of India as well as of Mewar was surcharged with fear and suspicion and anarchy was rampant. The props of the Mughal empire seems to be failing and the Marï¿½ï¿½has taking advantage of such situation were plundering and devastating the territory. In Rajasthan too, princes were disunited and were indulgung in mutual quarrels and family feuds. Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Arisiï¿½ha was a man of unscrupulous temperament. As a result of it, his faithful Saradï¿½ras became hostile to him and coquetted with the Marï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ chiefs. The Marï¿½ï¿½hï¿½s inflicted a severe defeat on Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ and forced him to pay a heavy war indemmity. Mï¿½hï¿½rï¿½nï¿½ could pay only 33 lakhs and for the rest, he gave the districts of Jï¿½vaï¿½ï¿½, Jï¿½ram and Nï¿½mach etc. to Sindhia Taking advantage of the weakness of Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, Holkar also occupied the fertile area of Nimbï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. Under such state of affairs, Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ made Mehatï¿½ Agarachanda his Dï¿½vï¿½na.
With uncommon tactfulness and personal intrepidity, Mehatï¿½ succeeded in bringing about a rapprochement between the two rival and hostile groups of the Sardï¿½ras and thus restord peace. In order to achieve this object, he occupied Mandalgarh which was the stronghold of the rebellious Sardï¿½ras. Naturally, this pleased Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ who first appointed him as the governor of Mandalgarh and afterwards gave him the paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ of that place.
Agarachanda again came to Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½’s rescue when fictitious Ratanasiï¿½ha organized a conspiracy with the help of Sindhia and some of the Mewar chiefs. Though Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½’s forces fought with undaunted heroism, they were defeated; and Agarachanda and other chiefs were made captives. He was asked by the Marï¿½ï¿½hï¿½s to recognize Ratanasiï¿½ha as the righful claimant but, true to his master’s loyalty, he declined to do so. Anyhow with the help of ï¿½ivachanda, he was able to free himself from the clutches of the enemy.1
Mehatï¿½ Agarachanda also served Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Bhï¿½masiï¿½ha who gave shelter to Chï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½vatas of Rï¿½mpura. This incited the anger of Sindhia of Gwalior who sent forces against Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ under the command of ï¿½khï¿½ and Lï¿½khï¿½. A dreadful battle was fought and in the end, Mehatï¿½ Agarachanda emerged victorious. When the chief of Shahpura took away the district of Jahazapur, Mehatï¿½ Agarachanda fough against him and seized Jahazapur back.
Mehatï¿½ Agarachanda was not only a skilful general but also an able administrator. He successfully carried on the administration of Mandalgarh by providing facilities to the people. He constructed tanks and repaired the fort. He was also a man of letters. In his last days, he wrote some works which rflect upon his dipolomatic insight and scholarship.
- FARSIGHTEDNESS OF MEHATÏ¿½ DEVÏ¿½CHANDA: Mehatï¿½ Devï¿½chanda was a farsighted statesman. He was also truthful and highly devoted to his master and state. When under some pressure Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Bhï¿½masiï¿½ha became ready to hand over the fort of Mandalgarh to the famous Jhï¿½lï¿½ Jï¿½limasiï¿½ha, Devï¿½chanda paid no heed to his instructions and continued to occupy the fort. Being a farsighted statesman, he knew the future dangers. Jhï¿½lï¿½ Jï¿½limasimha made preparations to annex Mandalgarh. First of all, he constructed a fort at Luhandi near Mandalgarh for invasion. Not only this, he occupied three villages of Mewar. Devï¿½chanda at once attacked Jhï¿½lï¿½, routed his forces and forced him to flee away. Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ became highly pleased and wanted to offer him the post of Chief Ministership. He declined to accept and remained only a chief councillor.1
JAINA STATESMEN OF JAIPUR
In the history of Jaipur, the Jaina statesman occupy a high and prominent place. About fifty Jainas acted as Dï¿½vï¿½nas and rendered valuable services to the state. Under their patronage, Jainism made a great progress. They got various copies of the Jaina ï¿½ï¿½stras prepared and constructed a number of temples and images. They were also warriors and good administrators. The achievements of some of them shall be described here.
- NÏ¿½NU’S CONTRIBUTION TO JAINISM: Saha Nï¿½nu was the Prime Minister of Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha Kachchhï¿½vï¿½ha ruler of ï¿½mber who was deputed as the Governor of Bangadeï¿½a by Akbar. It seems that Sï¿½ha Nï¿½nu had to visit Bengal several times in connection with his duties towards his Master. He got the Yaï¿½odhara Charitra written in V.S. 1659 at Akachchhapura (Akabarapura), near Champï¿½nagarï¿½ in Baï¿½gadeï¿½a from Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Jï¿½ï¿½nakï¿½rti in the ï¿½dinï¿½tha temple. He built twenty Jaina temples of the Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas at Sammedaï¿½ikhara and led pilgrimage to this holy place several times.
- WARLIKE DEEDS OF VIMALADÏ¿½SA :Vimaladï¿½sa was the Dï¿½vï¿½na of both Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½ Rï¿½masiï¿½ha I (1668 A.D.-1690 A.D.) and Viï¿½anasiï¿½ha. He was a great warrior and lost his life in the battle of Lï¿½lasoï¿½a. A chhatrï¿½ was also built in his memory.
- RESTORATION OF THE KINGDOM OF AMBER BY RÏ¿½MACHANDRA: After Vimaladï¿½sa, his son Rï¿½machandra became the chief minister who served both Viï¿½anasiï¿½ha and his successor Sawï¿½i Jayasiï¿½ha. He restored the kingdom of Amber to Sawï¿½i Jayasiï¿½ha. In 1707 A.D., the Mughal emperor Bahï¿½dura Shah invaded Amber and occupied it. He appointed Saiyyad Hussain as the governor. Jayasiï¿½ha abandoned his kingdom along with his chief minister Rï¿½machandra and took shelter under Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ of Chitor. Rï¿½machandra wanted to free Amber from the clutches of the enemy. With this object in view, he organized his forces which compelled Hussain Khï¿½n to leave Amber in favour of Sawï¿½i Jayasiï¿½ha. In recognition of his services, Mahï¿½rï¿½ja assigned him a piece of land and his name also began to appear on his coins. Formerly there was written Dï¿½vï¿½na Rï¿½machandra on the golden coin but now ‘Bande Dï¿½vï¿½na Rï¿½machandra’ was inscribed,1
Rï¿½machandra was also famous as a man of justice. When there was a possibility of conflict between the chiefs of Jodhpur and Jaipur over the partition of Sambhar, he was appointed as an intermediary from both the sides. He divided Sambhar equally between the two parties and his decision was accepted. In return of his services, he was given about 5000 maunds of salt yearly.
- DEVOTION OF KÏ¿½IPÏ¿½RAMA TOWARDS HIS MASTER: Another able Jaina statesman of Sawï¿½i Jayasiï¿½ha was Kï¿½ipï¿½rï¿½ma who was and envoy at Delhi. He was the faithful servant of his master. Vijayasiï¿½ha, the rival of Sawï¿½i Jayasiï¿½ha, won the Mughal emperor and his vazir Kamaruddin to his side by a promise to give five crores of rupees and five thousand cavalry. Rï¿½va Kï¿½ipï¿½rï¿½ma knew the secrecy of the plot through Daurankhan and cautioned his master. Jayasiï¿½ha took the measures of safeguard against his enemies. He became highly pleased with Kï¿½ipï¿½rï¿½ma and gave the village of Manoharapura to him.2
- VIJAYARAMA CHHÏ¿½BARÏ¿½ AS A DIPLOMAT :Vijayarï¿½ma Chhï¿½barï¿½ was also one of the ministers of Sawï¿½i Jayasiï¿½ha. The sister of Sawai Jayasiï¿½ha was going to be married to the Mughal emperor Bahï¿½durshah, but it was due to the efforts of Vijayarï¿½ma Chhï¿½barï¿½ that she was married to Rï¿½va Budhasiï¿½ha Hï¿½dï¿½, the king of Bundi. Further as a successful diplomat, he became successful in bringing the hostiliteis betwiin the Mughal emperor Bahï¿½durshah and Sawï¿½i Jayasiï¿½ha to a close.
- HARISIÏ¿½HA AS AN ADMINISTRATOR: Sawï¿½i Jayasiï¿½ha obtained the Ijï¿½rï¿½ of the ï¿½ekhï¿½vï¿½tï¿½ district from the Mughal authorities. He, therefore, invervened in this affair for the first time in 1726 A.D. and 1727 A.D. He appointed a competent banker named Harisiï¿½ha to collect the tribute. The Qaimkhani Nawabs held this place as watan for more than a century. At first, the Qaimkhani chief declined to pay the tribute; and disturbances also took place before the authority could be established. As the troops under the command of Harisiï¿½ha were insufficient to secure the Darbar’s possession in Jhunjhunu, he entered into a series of agreement with local leaders to secure their assistance in suppressing the trouble. In the end, he became successful in establishing the authority of Sawï¿½i Jayasiï¿½ha in ï¿½ekhï¿½vatï¿½.1
- RAYACHNDA AS A DIPLOMAT: The marriage question of Kï¿½ishï¿½ï¿½kumï¿½rï¿½ between the rulers of Jaipur and Jodhpur was settled by the efforts of Rï¿½yachanda. Kï¿½ishï¿½ï¿½kumï¿½rï¿½, the daughter of Mahï¿½rï¿½nï¿½ Bhï¿½masiï¿½ha of Udaipur, was first going to be married to the Jodhpur. As the ruling chief of Jodhpur died before the marriage, it was decided to marry her to Jagatsiï¿½ha, the chief of Jaipur. This was considered to be an insult of the Jodhpur House by Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½ Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha. In about 1805 A.D., the preparations for the struggle started on both the the sides. Anyhow Rï¿½yachanda settled the question peacefully between the two parties. Both Jaipur and Jodhpur chiefs promised not to marry Kï¿½ishï¿½ï¿½kumï¿½rï¿½. The sister of Jagatasiï¿½ha was married to Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha and the daughter of Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha was given to Jagatsiï¿½ha.
The peace thus established could not last long. Again, there started a struggle on the question of Dhoï¿½kalasiï¿½ha. Hearing the news of the invasion of Jaipur by Rï¿½ï¿½hoï¿½a forces with the help of Amï¿½rakhan, Jagatsiï¿½ha had to raise the siege of Jodhpur fort and march towards Jaipur. At this critical time, Rï¿½yachanda by giving bribery of one lakh won Amï¿½rakhï¿½n to his side and saved both the town and life of his master.
- Ï¿½IVAJÏ¿½LÏ¿½LA AS ADMINISTRATOR AND WARRIOR: ï¿½ivajï¿½lï¿½la became famous both as an administrator and warrior. There was no systematic order in the collection of Muamala during the reign of Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½ Pratï¿½pasiï¿½ha and there were several irregularities. ï¿½ivajï¿½lï¿½la became successful in removing them all and collecting a large amout of money. He achieved a remarkable success in the task of the procudtion and the distribution of salt entrusted to him. He also participated in several battles fought by the Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½ of Jaipur against the Piï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rï¿½s and Rathoï¿½as. In appreciation of his services, Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½ of Jaipur gave him special honour.
- SAÏ¿½GHÏ¿½ JHOTÏ¿½RÏ¿½MA AS A DIPLOMAT: Saï¿½ghï¿½ Jhotï¿½rï¿½ma was a shrewd diplomat in the nineteenth century A.D. Such was his powerful influence in the court of Jaipur that Tod remarked it as the faithless court, the Jhootï¿½ darbï¿½ra and the Baniyï¿½rï¿½ja. But these expressions indicate only the partisan character. It was only due to the prejudice of the author against the hesitation of Jaipur state in accepting the British alliance bacause of the influence of Jhotï¿½rï¿½ma who knew the future consequences. The British Government took Bairï¿½sï¿½la of Samod, the leading nobles of the state to their side. Between Jhotï¿½rï¿½ma and Rï¿½vala Bairï¿½sï¿½la, there came into existence the deadly enmity. In order to bring the downfall of Jhotï¿½rï¿½ma, schemes were devised. He was credited with the crime of murdering his young master in 1835 A.D. When he knew the jealousy, he himself resigned the post of ministership. He was ordered to go to Dausï¿½, where he was kept under strict restrictions. He could neither write nor read. Santris and Chaparasis remained there to gaurd him. Even after that, the plots were devised by Rï¿½vala Bairï¿½sï¿½la who was in power.
- KÏ¿½ISHÏ¿½ADÏ¿½SA: Kï¿½ishï¿½adï¿½sa, a rich merchant of the Bagheravï¿½la caste, was the Prime-Minister of Kishore Siï¿½ha Chauhï¿½n of Kotah Kishore Siï¿½ha was the Sï¿½manta of the Mughal Emperor Aurangazeb. Kï¿½ishï¿½adï¿½sa was highly devoted to Jainism. Even during the reign of Aurangzeb, Krishnadï¿½sa constructed a Jaina temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra and celebrated the installation ceremony of the temple as well as images with his wife and sons in 1689 A.D. at Chï¿½ndkheï¿½ï¿½. He could build the Jaina temple because Aurangzeb was in the South where Kishore Siï¿½ha was serving him faithfully. Krï¿½shï¿½adï¿½sa was sincere to his master Kishore Siï¿½ha. Even then repeated explanations were demanded as to why the temple was being built against the express imperial policy. But the local authorities continued to send evasive replies because they knew that the emperor’s end was high.
In 1835 A.D., the assault was committed upon the person on the British Resident Major Alves when he was returning from a visit of ceremony at the palace. It caused the death of Mr. Blake, the assistant agent to the Governor Genera. Jhotï¿½rï¿½ma was residing at Dausï¿½ under confinement. He with his brother and son were arrested because some letters were seized both at Dausï¿½ and Agra. As a matter of fact, these letters seem to be forged. For the trial of this case, the court met in 1836 A.D. The judges appointed for the trial were the puppets in the hands of the British Government. He and his brother were sentenced to death by the court but the Governor General in Council however took a different view of this case. The sentences of death in their case was commuted to imprisonment for life and the fort of Chunar was designated as the place of their confinement.1
The numerous Jaina statesmen, soldiers and administrators who served various important states of Rajputana for several centuries wielded naturally a great influence in the respective states. Their influence was very helpful to the spread and dissemination of Jainism in Rajasthan. They secured respect for Jaina Sï¿½dhus, arranged maintenance of Jaina temples, helped in running Jaina schools, encouraged the well-equipped Jaina libraries and in several other ways ensured respect for Jainism even by those who were not its followers. Rajasthan has been ruled for the last one thousand years by Rï¿½jputs who had no hesitations in shedding the blood. That Jainism flourished in their dominious is due to the influence of the Jaina Sï¿½dhus and the leading Jaina house-holders. Besides, there were a large number of Jaina businessmen and almost in every state, a few of them even multimillionaires. Some of them were mighty bankers and the Rï¿½jput rulers who suffered from the chronic want of necessary funds for maintaining the armies and running the administration depended mostly on loans from these rich magnates; and what is true of the rulers, was true in still greater degree of the people in general in all the states. Thus, the mercantile Jaina community wielded a great influence in the society; and their religion was naturally respected by the people. It is due to the influence of Jainism that the population of Rajasthan ruled by Rajputs remained vegetarian in larger majority than any other part of India.
There were some ï¿½rï¿½vakas who were great patrons of Jainism. They were wealthy and spent their wealth for the propagation of Jainism. They were of high character. The important ï¿½rï¿½vaks known to us are as follows :
- 1. RÏ¿½HAÏ¿½A: Rï¿½haï¿½a was intelligent, popular, religious and noble minded. He worshipped the image according to the rules of his faith, praised the Jaina monks, listened to their sermons, gave money in charity to the poor, performed penance to the best of his abilities and observed the vows of a Jaina layman.
- Ï¿½BHAÏ¿½A :The Prabandha chintï¿½maï¿½i gives information about ï¿½haï¿½a, a rich Jaina of the time of Kumï¿½rapala. ï¿½haï¿½a began life as a poor man. Once fortune smiled upon him and he became very rich. He was a follower of Hemasï¿½ri, and performed the religious ceremonies of the Jainas with great faith. He was a great donor.2
- CHHAÏ¿½AKA SHETH AND KUBERA: Chhaï¿½aka Sheï¿½h and Kubera were Jaina multi-millionaires of the time of Kumï¿½rapï¿½la.3 According to Yaï¿½ahpï¿½la, a contemporary of Kubera, Kubera had six crore gold coins, 8000 mans of silver, 80 mans or jewels, 50,000 horses, 1000 elephants, 80,000 cows, 500 ploughs, 500 shops, 500 carriages etc. It seems to be an exaggeration, but there is no doubt that he was very wealthy.
- JAGADU: Jagadu was the son of Sola, Several stories are told about Jagadu. Sarvananda Sï¿½ri informs us that fortune smiled upon Jagadu and the latter became very rich without any great effort on his part. The great famine occurred for three years from V.S. 1313 to 1315 or V.S. 1315 to 1317. There may or may not be on exaggeration about the amount of corn distributed by Jagadu but certain it is that he opened alms-houses in various parts of the country, gave corn to the poor very viberally and helped Vï¿½saladeva of Aï¿½ahilavï¿½ï¿½a and other kings of India by giving them corn in the days of famine.
Jagadu’s several pious and religious deeds are known. He built several Jaina temples at Bhadreï¿½vara, Dhaï¿½ka, Wadhawana, Devakula etc. and set up images also in them. he made three pilgrimages to Giranï¿½ra and ï¿½atruï¿½jaya. He dug wells in many villages and towns.
The date of Jagadu’s death is not known. From Jagaducharitra, it seems that he survived for some years after the great famine. He must have died bofore V.S. 1331.1
- PETHAÏ¿½A: Pethaï¿½a was another prominent Jaina of this period. His father’s name was Deda. His guru advised him to seek fortune in Maï¿½ï¿½apadurga. Pethaï¿½a acted according to the advice of his spiritual preceptor and became exceedingly rich King Jayasiï¿½ha Paramï¿½ra of Malwa honoured him much and gave him ensigns of royalty.
Dharmaghosha Sï¿½ri, who had induced him to seek fortune in Malwa, came to Maï¿½ï¿½apadurga and advised Pethaï¿½a to build Jaina temple. Pethaï¿½a acting according to the Sï¿½ri’s suggestion, built eighty-four Jaina temples in different parts of India. His edifice at Maï¿½ï¿½ava gaï¿½ha was superb. It was adorned with gold knob and staff costing eighteen lakhs. On the ï¿½atruï¿½jaya hill, Pethaï¿½a built a temple ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha. He also built a Jaina temple at Devagiri. He spent large sums of money to erect this temple and called it ‘Amulyaprï¿½sï¿½da‘. This temple was completed in 1218-79 A.D.
Pethada made pilgrimage to ï¿½atruï¿½jaya, Giranï¿½ra and Mount ï¿½bu. He had taken the vow ‘Parigraha-Pramï¿½ï¿½a Vrata‘ or the fifth vow or a Jaina layman when he was at Vidyï¿½pura (Vijapura).1
- JHÏ¿½Ï¿½JHANA: Pethada’s son Jhï¿½ï¿½jhaï¿½a was a chip of the old block. He married Saubhï¿½gyadevï¿½, daughter of Bhï¿½ma Sheth of Delhi. In 1284 A.D., he started from Maï¿½ï¿½apadurga with Dharmaghosha Sï¿½ri and Jaina Saï¿½gha and made a pilgrimage to ï¿½atruï¿½jaya and Giranï¿½ra. On the way, he halted at Balapura, Chitrakï¿½ï¿½a (Chitor), Arbudagiri, Chandrï¿½vatï¿½, Praï¿½hï¿½danapura (Pï¿½lanpura), Aï¿½ahilapura, Tï¿½ranagiri (Tï¿½raï¿½gï¿½), Karï¿½ï¿½vatï¿½ and several other places. At Balï¿½pura, Jhï¿½ï¿½jhaï¿½a set up twenty-four images and built a temple to Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha at Karï¿½hetaka, at the suggestion of Dharmaghosa, his preceptor. At Karnï¿½vatï¿½, he rewarded a bard for composing a good poem, set free ninety-six prisoners and took his meals with Sï¿½raï¿½gadeva of Gujarat.
According to the Upadeï¿½ataraï¿½ginï¿½, Jhaï¿½jhaï¿½a Shï¿½h, hearing that ï¿½bhu ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½ of Tharapadra or Tharada, who had the biruda of ‘Paï¿½chima Maï¿½ï¿½alika‘ did not take his meals without feeding the Jainas that paid visits to this place, went to Tharapadra with a Jaina congregation of 32,000 and put up at ï¿½bhu’s place. ï¿½bhu Shï¿½h was, on that day, engaged in religious ceremonies, but his brother Jinadï¿½sa feasted the congregation and gave presents to the Jainas. Next day, Jhï¿½ï¿½jhaï¿½a fell at the feet of ï¿½bhu and begged forgiveness for putting him to a severe test
Jhï¿½ï¿½jhaï¿½a, like his father, was an excellent follwer of Jina, on influential member of the Jaina, community and great donor.1
- SAMARASIÏ¿½HA: Samarasiï¿½ha, who repaired the temple of ï¿½dinï¿½tha on the ï¿½atruï¿½jaya Hill, belonged to Upakeï¿½aVaï¿½ï¿½a. Aï¿½ahilavï¿½ï¿½a was Samarasiï¿½ha’s domicile of choice. Samarasiï¿½ha was a well-known jeweller in the old capital of Gujarat. He exercised great influence at court. When ï¿½dinï¿½tha’s temple on the ï¿½atruï¿½jaya Hill was destroyed by the Muslims, he obtained a ‘firmï¿½na‘ to repair the temple. When the Jainas came to know of the ‘firmï¿½na, they gave a rousing reception to Samara Shï¿½h. Samara Shï¿½h, then made up his mind to make tomake a pilgirmage to the holy hill in the company of the Jaina congregation to set up the image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha in the newly constructed temple. The Jaina monks and the prominent Jainas joined the congregation. Alapakhana, Subedï¿½r of Gujarat, who had granted permission to rebuild the temple, gave ten guards to protect the congregation.
When the congregation reached Pï¿½litï¿½nï¿½, Samarasiï¿½ha Shï¿½h pitched tents. About this time, his brothers Sahajapï¿½la from Devagiri and Sï¿½haï¿½a from Khambhat came to Pï¿½lithï¿½nï¿½ with congregation. In 1315 A.D., Samarasiï¿½ha installed the image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha in the completed temple, on the holy hill. The honour of performing the ceremony at the time of setting up the images is shared by Siddhï¿½sï¿½ri of Upakeï¿½a-gachchha and Ratnï¿½kara Sï¿½ri of Tapï¿½gachchha. A festival was held by Deï¿½ala, Samara Shï¿½h’s father to celebrate this event. From Pï¿½litaï¿½ï¿½, Samaraï¿½aha went to Giranï¿½ra with the congregation and worshipped Neminï¿½tha. From Giranï¿½ra, he went to Devapattana where he was given a rousing reception by the king. The congregation then went to Div. From Div, the congregation went to Aï¿½ahilavï¿½ï¿½a. The Jaina Saï¿½gha gave a rousing reception to him. According to the Nï¿½bhinandanoddhara Prabandha, Emperor Gyï¿½suddï¿½n was much pleased with Samaraï¿½ï¿½ha and highly honoured him. He was appointed as the ‘Subedï¿½r’of Telaï¿½gadesa where he set free many prisoners and obliged many chieftï¿½ins.1
- KARMA Ï¿½Ï¿½HA: Karma ï¿½ï¿½ha was the son of Osavaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Tolï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha of Chitor by his wife Lilu. He was a well-known cloth merchant in Chitor. Once when Bahï¿½dura ï¿½ï¿½ha, prince of Gujarat, paid a visit to Chitor, he came to know Karma ï¿½ï¿½ha from whom he bought cloth. The young prince liked Karma ï¿½ï¿½ha and soon became his friend. When he wanted money to return to Gujarat, Karmaï¿½ï¿½ha gave him a lakh unconditionally. In 1526 A.D., Bahï¿½dura ï¿½ï¿½ha became the king of Gujarat. When Karma ï¿½ï¿½ha came to know this, he went to Ahmedabad where he was well received by the king who returned the money lent to him and asked the Baniï¿½merchant if he could do any thing for him. Thereupon, Karmaï¿½ï¿½ha requested Bahï¿½dura ï¿½ï¿½ha to give him a firmï¿½na to repair the temple on ï¿½atruï¿½jaya hill. The king granted his request and gave him the ‘firmï¿½na’.
In 1531 A.D., Karmaï¿½ï¿½ha repired Samarasiï¿½ha’s temple on the ï¿½atruï¿½jaya hill. Punï¿½arï¿½kasvï¿½mi’s temple was erected by him in 1531 A.D. The Rï¿½yana Pï¿½dukï¿½ temple in Adreï¿½varatunka was also erected by him in 1531 A.D. Chakreï¿½varï¿½devi’s temple in Adeï¿½vara-tunka was also erected by him in 1531 A.D.1
- PÏ¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½HA: Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha was also known as Bhaï¿½sï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha. This name originated from Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ of Bhaiï¿½sï¿½ meaning buffalo. According to traditions, he belonged to Thubona in Bundelakhand. He was of Gahoi caste. He used to deal in rï¿½ï¿½gï¿½ (brass) and became prosperous.
Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha was devoted to Jainism, and built many temples and images of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha. There are beautiful images of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha Kunthunï¿½tha, and Aranï¿½tha in Kï¿½yotsarga pose at Bajaraï¿½ga gaï¿½ha. These were installed in V.S. 1236. He also set up the ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha Jaina image at Gurilagiri, Muï¿½gï¿½valï¿½ Tahasil, Guna District. The Jaina temples at Aharajï¿½, Khï¿½napurï¿½, Jhï¿½larapï¿½ï¿½an, Thubon, Bhiyï¿½danta, Bardi, Bhï¿½bhona, Satna, Sujhekï¿½, Pahï¿½da, Pacharai Seranajï¿½, Sonï¿½giri etc. were all constructed by Pï¿½dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha.
CANONICAL LITERATURE OF THE SVETAMBARAS
The canonical texts are broadly divided into two groups : (1) Aï¿½gapaiï¿½ï¿½ha, and (2) Aï¿½gabï¿½hira. The Aï¿½gapaiï¿½ï¿½ha group include the Aï¿½gas, and the Aï¿½gabï¿½hira group is classified into fivesub-groups. This the canonical texts may be subsumed under six heads (1) Aï¿½ga (2) Upï¿½ï¿½ga, (3) Paiï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ (4) Cheyasutta (5) Mï¿½lasutta and (6) Cï¿½likï¿½sutta All these works are in Prakï¿½ta.
The Aï¿½gas are twelve in number. They are as follows : (i) ï¿½yï¿½raï¿½ga (ii) Sï¿½yagaï¿½aï¿½ga, (iii) ï¿½hï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ga (iv) Samavï¿½yï¿½ï¿½ga, (v) Viyï¿½hapaï¿½ï¿½tti (Bhagavatï¿½), (vi) Nï¿½yï¿½dhammakahï¿½o, (vii) Uvï¿½sagadasï¿½o, (viii) Aï¿½tagaï¿½adasï¿½o (ix) Anuttarovavï¿½iyadasï¿½o, (x) Paï¿½havï¿½garaï¿½ï¿½iï¿½ (xi) Vivï¿½gasuya and (xii) Diï¿½ï¿½hivï¿½ya (not extant now).
The Upï¿½ï¿½gas are also twelve in number. They are : (i) Ovavï¿½iya, (ii) Rï¿½yapaseï¿½aiya (iii) Jï¿½vï¿½bhig (iv) Paï¿½ï¿½avaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, (v) Sï¿½riyapaï¿½ï¿½atti, (vi) Jambuddï¿½vapaï¿½ï¿½atti, (vii) Candapaï¿½ï¿½tti (viii) Niryï¿½valiyao (ix) Kappavaï¿½aï¿½siyï¿½o (x) Pupphiyao, (xi) Pupphaculiyao and (xii) Vaï¿½hidasï¿½o
The Paiï¿½ï¿½ï¿½s are ten in number : (i) Causaraï¿½a (ii) ï¿½urapaccakkhï¿½ï¿½a, (iii) Mahï¿½paccakkhï¿½ï¿½a (iv) Bhattapariï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, (v) Taï¿½dulaveyaliya, (vi) Saï¿½thï¿½raga (vii) Gacchï¿½yï¿½ra, (viii) Gaï¿½ivijjï¿½, (ix) Deviï¿½datthaya and (x) Maraï¿½asamï¿½hï¿½
The Cheyasuttas are six in number : (1) Nisï¿½ha, (ii) Mahï¿½nisï¿½ha, (iii) Vavahï¿½ra, (iv) Dasï¿½suyakkhandha (v) Kappa (Bï¿½hatkalpa) and (vi) Paï¿½cakappa (Jiyakappa)
The Mï¿½lasuttas are four in number : (i) Uttarajjhayaï¿½a, (ii) Dasaveyï¿½liya (iii) ï¿½vassya and (iv) Piï¿½danijjutti (Ohanijjutti)
The Cï¿½likï¿½suttas are two in number : (i) Nandï¿½ and (ii) Anuyogadara.
Thus the told number of ï¿½gamas are fortyfive. The Sthï¿½nakavï¿½sï¿½s and the Terï¿½paï¿½this accept only Thirty-two ï¿½gamas. (1) Eleven Aï¿½gas (2) Twelve Upï¿½ï¿½gas, (3) Four cheyasuttas (leaving asida) Mahï¿½nisï¿½ha and Jiyakappa) (4) Three Mï¿½lasuttas (leaving aside Piï¿½danï¿½jjutti) and (5) Two Cï¿½likï¿½suttas. The Digambaras do not accept these forty-five Agï¿½mas.
CANONICAL LITERATURE OF THE DIGAMBARAS
The canonical texts are broadly divided into two goups : (i) Aï¿½gapaiï¿½ï¿½ha and (2) Aï¿½gabï¿½hira (1) The Sarvï¿½rthasiddhi of Pï¿½jyapï¿½da and the Dhavalï¿½ of Vï¿½rsena include in the Aï¿½gapaiï¿½ï¿½ha group following twelve Aï¿½gas (i) ï¿½yï¿½ra, (ii) Sï¿½dayada, (iii) ï¿½hï¿½ï¿½a, (iv) Samavï¿½ya (v) Viyï¿½hapaï¿½ï¿½atti, (vi) Nï¿½hï¿½dhammakahï¿½ (vii) Uvï¿½sayajjhayaï¿½a, (viii) Aï¿½tayaï¿½adasï¿½ (ix) Aï¿½uttarovavï¿½diyadarï¿½ (x) Paï¿½havï¿½yaraï¿½a (xi) Vivï¿½gasutta and (xii) Ditï¿½hivï¿½da.
(2) The Aï¿½gabï¿½hira group include the following : (i) Sï¿½mï¿½iya, (ii) Cauvï¿½sattho, (iii) Vaï¿½daï¿½ï¿½ (iv) Paï¿½ikkmaï¿½a (v) Veï¿½aiya, (vi) Kidiyamma (vii) Dasaveyï¿½liya, (viii) Uttarajjhayaï¿½a (ix) Kappavavaharo (x) Kappï¿½kappiya, (xi) Mahï¿½kappiya (xii) Puï¿½darï¿½ya, (xiii) Mahï¿½puï¿½darï¿½ya and (xiv) ï¿½isï¿½hiya
The Digambaras believe that the texts of both the groups are not extant now except some portion of Dï¿½ï¿½ï¿½hivï¿½ya, the twelfth Aï¿½ga.
The Diï¿½ï¿½hivï¿½ya comprises fourteen Puvvas, namely, (i) Uppadapuvva, (ii) Aggeï¿½iyapuvva (iii) Vï¿½ruyï¿½ ï¿½uvï¿½dapuvva (iv) Atthiï¿½atthipavï¿½depuvva, (v) Nï¿½ï¿½apavï¿½dapuvva, (vi) Saccapavï¿½dapuvva, (vii) ï¿½dapavï¿½dapuvva, (viii) Kammapavï¿½depuvva (ix) Paccakkhï¿½ï¿½anï¿½madheyapuvva (x) Vijjï¿½ï¿½uvï¿½dapuvva, (xi) Kallï¿½ï¿½anï¿½madheyapuvva. (xii) Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½vï¿½yapuvva, (xiii) Kiriyï¿½visï¿½lapuvva and (xiv) Lokabiï¿½dusï¿½ra puvva.
Dherasena (C.A.D.40-75) had a partial and fragmentary knowledge of the Aggeniyapuvva ineluded in the twelfth Aï¿½ga known as Diï¿½ï¿½hivaya. He imparted the knowledge of this Puvva to Puï¿½padanta and Bhutabali, who composed the Volume known as ï¿½aï¿½khaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½gama which deals with the doctrine of Karma in great detail. Since the work was completed on the fifth day of the bright fortnight of the month of Jyeï¿½ï¿½ha, this day has since been known as the festival of Sruta-Paï¿½cami.
Like Dharasena there was another saint named Guï¿½adhara (C.A.D. 25) who had a partial and fragmentary knowledge of the ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½apavï¿½d a puvva included in the twelfth Aï¿½ga known as Diï¿½ï¿½hivaya. He wrote Kaï¿½aya-pahuï¿½a which deals with the passion of attachment, avesion etc.
- Published in JSB, I. 4, p. 71.
- See R. Narsimhachar, Inscriptions at ï¿½ravaï¿½abelgola (EC, Vol. II, Bangalore, 1923).
- See Appendix A (iii)
- JSHI, p. 120.
- JSLS, pt. II, No.95.
- Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 69.
- Pravachanasï¿½ra ed. by A.N UPADHYE
- JSHI, pp. 134-136.
- JSHI, p. 148.
- CHJ, p. 325.
- JSHI, pp. 146-147.
- CHJ, p. 325.
- JSHI, pp. 128-131
- JSHI, pp. 137-141
- JSHI, pp. 153-161.
- CHJ, p. 327.
- JSHI, p. 164
- JSHI, pp. 152-153.
- MTA, p. 464.
- CHJ, pp. 328-329.
- Purï¿½tanaprabandhasaï¿½graha, pp. 103-05 and Prï¿½bhï¿½vakacharitra, pp. 183-212.
- Aitihï¿½sika Jaina Kï¿½vyasaï¿½graha, p. 4, Yugapradhï¿½na Jinachandrasï¿½rï¿½, p. 10 & Kharataragachcha-bï¿½ihadguruvï¿½edli.
- Kharataragachchha Bï¿½ihadgurvdvali & Aitihï¿½sika Jaina Kï¿½vyasaï¿½graha, pp. 14-6.
- Aitihï¿½sika Jaina Kï¿½vyasaingraha, pp.14, 46 and 363 and Kharataragachchhabrihadgureï¿½cali.
- The Life of Hemachandrï¿½chï¿½rya.
- Dï¿½dï¿½ ï¿½rï¿½ Jinakuï¿½alasï¿½ri and Kharataragachchha Bï¿½ihadgurvï¿½vali.
- Akbar the Great by Smith, pp. 116-168 and Sï¿½rï¿½ï¿½vara aura Samrï¿½ï¿½ Akbar.
- Kharataragachchha Bï¿½ihadgurvï¿½vali, Aitihï¿½sika Jainakï¿½vya-Saï¿½graha, pp. 58, 81 and 82 and Yugapradhï¿½na Jinachandrasï¿½ri.
- JSLS, No. 96.
- Ibid, No. 100
- JSLS, III, No. 165.
- Ibid, No. 152, 165, and 155.
- Ibid, No. 395.
- Ibid, I No. 122.
- Ibid, III, No.157.
- Ibid, III No. 204.
- JSLS, pp. 125-126.
- JSLS, III, p. 126.
- JSLS, III No. 264.
- Ibid, No. 264.
- Ibid, III No. 296.
- Ibid, No. 307, 308 and 411.
- JSLS, No. 307.
- Ibid, Nos. 154 and 355.
- Ibid, No. 411.
- Ibid, No.304.
- Ibid, No. 305.
- JSLS, III, No. 319.
- Ibid, III No. 324.
- Ibid III No. 348, 362, 363, 381 and 396.
- JSLS, III, No. 347.
- Ibid, No. 352.
- JSLS, III, No. 465.
- Ibid, No. 408.
- Ibid, No. 429.
- Ibid, No. 379.
- Ibid, No. 409.
- JSLS, III, No. 428.
- Ibid, No. 431.
- Ibid, No. 437.
- JSLS, III, No. 452.
- Ibid No. 451.
- Ibid No. 540.
- JSLS, III, No. 511.
- Ibid, No. 581, 585 and 587.
- Ibid III, No. 581 and 587.
- Ibid No. 609 and 610
- Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 5-7.
- Ibid, p. 10.
- Ibid, p. 10
- Ibid, P. 11.
- Jainism in Gujarat, p. 88
- Ibid, p. 11.
- Ibid, p. 88-89.
- Ibid, p. 87.
- Ibid, p. 89-90.
- Jainism in Gujarat, p. 90.
- Ibid, p. 90-91.
- Ibid, p. 108.
- Ibid, p. 113.
- KMTA, p. 453.
- JGPS, I, p. 5.
- UPENDRA NATH DEY : Medieval Malwa, pp. 422-428.
- UPENDRA NATH DEY : Medieval Malwa, pp. 422-428.
- UPENDRA NATH DEY : Medieval Malwa, pp. 422-28.
- EI, XXXVI, pp. 121-123.
- Vimalacharitra. See also Purï¿½tanaprabandhasaï¿½graha (Vimalavasatiprabandha, pp. 81-82.)
- Prabandhachintï¿½mani, pp. 67-68 and pp. 104-105.
- Vastupï¿½lacharitra, Chapter I.
- Naranï¿½rï¿½yaï¿½ananda, XVI, 35.
- Krï¿½tikaumudï¿½, IV, 16.
- Vastupï¿½lacharitra IV, 40.
- Prabandhakoï¿½a of Rï¿½jaï¿½ekhara, p. 103.
- Prabanandhaskoï¿½a of Rï¿½jaï¿½ekhara, pp. 104 f.
- Ibid., pp. 107 f.
- Ibid., pp. 119 f. See also Prabanandhachintï¿½mani, p. 103.
- Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa, p. 79. see also Prabandhakoï¿½a, p. 130
- Prabandhakoï¿½a, pp. 129 f.
- Vastupï¿½lacharitra, p. 80.
- Naranï¿½rï¿½yaï¿½ananda. XVI, 39.
- Prï¿½chï¿½na Jaina Lekha Saï¿½graha, No. 64.
- Anekï¿½nta, II p. 249,
- Some distinguished Jainas pp. 60-63. and also Jodhpurarï¿½jya kï¿½ Itihasa, pt. II, pp. 638-641.
- HOO, p. 55.
- HOO, pp. 59-63.
- HOO, pp. 100-104. See also Karmachandravaï¿½ï¿½aprabandha and Karmachandravaï¿½ï¿½otkï¿½rtanakï¿½vyam.
- Some Distinguished Jainas, pp. 71-74.
- HOO. pp. 70-71.
- Ibid., pp. 71-72.
- Udaipurarajya ka Itihasa, pp. 1304-05, and Vï¿½ravinoda, p. 251.
- Udaipur Rï¿½jya Kï¿½ Itihï¿½s, pp. 1304-05.
- Udaipurarï¿½jya Kï¿½ Itihï¿½s, pp. 1311, and HOO, pp. 77-82.
- HOO, pp. 87-88 and Udaipur Rï¿½jya kï¿½ Itihï¿½sa, pp. 1315-16.
- Vï¿½ravï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, I pp. 68-83 and Rï¿½jputuana Kï¿½ Itihï¿½s by Ojha, pp. 915-16.
- Annals & Antiquities of Rajasthan, p. 592.
- Report on Panchï¿½pana Singhï¿½nï¿½, pp. 9-10, See also A report on the Land Tenures and Special powers of certain Thikanedars of the Jaipur State, pp. 45-46.
- Jaipur State Trials.
- Jainism in Gujarat, p. 102.
- Ibid, p. 103.
- Ibid, p, 103.
- Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 152-158.
- Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 159-160.
- Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 161-162.
- Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 172-180.
- Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 236-240.