Chapter VIII



Almost simultaneously with the nirv��a of Mah�v�ra his chief disciple (Ga�adhara), Indrabh�ti Gautama, attained Kevala-j��na and after his own nirv��a was succeeded by Sudharma, and the latter, in his turn, by Jambu Sv�mi. The total period allotted to these three gurus is 62 years (i.e., 527-465 B. C.). All the three were, like Mah�v�ra, Arhat Kevalins and they attained nirv��a.Both the Digambara and the �vet�mbara accounts are in perfect agreement as to their respective names, character and total period.

After the three Kevalins came the five �rutakevalins, one after the other. The Digambara accounts allot to them a total period of 100 years, whereas the �vet�mbara accounts that of 116 years. The names of the first four gurus are different in the two traditions, but they are in full agreements as to Bhadrab�hu I being the last guru of this group. They do not differ as regards the twelve-years famine that took place in Magadha in his times nor as regards the consequent emigration of the Jaina Sa�gha under his leadership. But while the Digambara tradition states that the Sa�gha migrated to the South, �vet�mbara tradition says that Bhadrab�hu went to Nepal. The origin of the great schism, which later on developed into Digambara and �vet�mbara sects, is ultimately traced to this event.

In the �vet�mbara tradition, after Bhadrab�hu’s departure Sth�labhadra assumed the leadership of the Sa�gha in Magadha. After the famine was over he convened a council at P��aliputra, at which the remnant of the S�gha left behind in Magadha tried to put in order the sacred lore. In M.E. 827-840 (or A.D. 300-313) a second council was convened at Mathura under the presidentship of �rya Skandila at which whatever could be gathered from different monks was fixed in the form of the canon. Simultaneously, another council was held at Valabh� by N�g�rjuna S�ri and it also made a similar attempt. But the two versions disagreed in many points and hence no redaction took place. Finally, in M.E. 980 (or 993), i.e., in A.D. 453 (or 466,) at another council at Valabh� held under the chairmanship of Devarddhiga�i an attempt to reconcile the different readings of the former councils was made and the available texts were finally written down.1

In the Digambara tradition, after Bhadrabahu I came one after the other 33 successors of Mahavira and they took 683 years in all It is believed that the original canonical knowlege lasted only up to the end of this period. About this time the redaction of the surviving canonical knowlege was undertaken by the Digambara Ac�ry�s. A part of the traditional (canonical) knowlege was redacted by Dharasena., Puspadanta and Bhutbali and another by Gunadhara, �ryamankhu and Nagahasti.

Dharasena may be safely assigned to circe A.D 40-75 Pu�padant� to circe A.D. 50-80 and Bhutlabali to circa A.D. 66-90 and the competition of the Sa�khandagama to circa A.D. 75. Gunadhar who wrote Ka��ya-pahuda may be safely assigned to about (circa A.D. 25), Aryamankhu to circa A.D. 50 and Nagahasti circa A.D. 130-132. Thus within hocy a century (A.D. 25-75) the surviving Digambara canonical knowlege was finally reduce is writing.

Jainism prospered in India because of the vast canonical literation and the dedicated activities of the ideal Jaina monks, tr�sted statesmen and devoted �r�vakas.

Jaina monks were not only great scholars but also they possessed high character. Whatever they preached, they practised in their lives. They preached ethics and a spiritual way of life. They wandered from place to place for the propagation of Jainism. They preached in the language of the masses. As these saints were ever moving about and were reticent about biographical details, very little is known about their personal lives. Some Jainas also acted as trusted statesmen of kings and emperors. They were truthful and sincere. They were generally honest in the performance of their duties. Some ï¿½r�vakas who were rich, were devoted to their religion. They constructed temples and installed images in them. They led Sa�ghas to holy places. They got prepared copies of the manuscripts for presentation to the monks. They were so much enlightened that they exercised check on the monks if they deviated from the teachings of Jainism.

  2. KUNDAKUNDÏ¿½CHÏ¿½RYA: Kundakun�ch�rya occupies a unique position in the history of Jainism. He belonged to M�lasa�gha and his own lineage (i.e. Kundakund�nvaya) with its many subsequent branches and sub-branches spread far and wide. To trace their spiritual lineage from Kundakunda has been looked upon as a proud privilege by Jaina monks of the Digambara Section, As many as three major Sa�ghas being known to have this Anvaya. He is also reputed to have established the superiorty of Jaina scriptures and to have made them popular all over Bh�rata Kshetra. Many later authors are greatly indebted to him and some of his works have proved to be a milch cow for later commentators for quotations, and his Samayas�ra in particular is studied with devotion by all the Jainas without any distinction.1

As regards the question of domicile of Kundakunda, there is no doubt that he belonged to the South. His very name, Ko��akunda appears to be Dravidian and looks like the name of a Kanna�a town or village. Later writers specifically mention that he belonged to the town of Ko��akunda, and there still exists a village of this name about 8 kms. from Guntakal railway station which is associated with the life of Kundakunda. He is said to have performed penance in the nearby cave. A similar tradition connects him with Nandi hill.

The date of Kundakunda has been a baffling problem. Scholars generally advocate that Kundakunda belonged to the first century A.D. It is possible to suggest that he lived in the second century A.D. Kundakunda along with the six teachers in succession is mentioned in the copper plate inscription of 466 A.D.2 If we take 150 years for the six teachers, the time of the first teacher Gunachandra will be about 316 A.D. Gu�achandra was not actually the pupil of Kundakunda but only in his line. Therefore, Kundakunda must have lived in the second century A.D. at least 100 years before Gu�achandra.3

In later works and inscriptions, Kundakunda is mentioned by several names. The epigraphic records generally give his name as Ko��a,-Kunda, Kundakunda being the Sanskrit form of the same. Devasena (933 A.D.) and Jayasena (1150 A.D.) refer to him as Padmanandi. Several inscriptions and writers of the 14th century and onwards mention that he was also known as Vakragr�va, G�iddhapichchha and El�ch�rya.

There are certain main traditional facts1 regarding the life of Kundakunda. Kundakunda flourished after the division of the original Jaina church in to �vet�mbaras and Digambaras. He is the ï¿½ishya of Bhadrab�hu. On the authority of the ï¿½rut�vat�ra, Padmanandi of Kundakundapura traditionally received the knowledge of Siddh�nta consisting of Karma and Kash�ya-pr�bh�ita and he wrote a huge commentary on half of the Sha�kha���gama. Kundakunda, on the authority of Jayasena and B�lachandra, is said to have been a contemporary of �ivaskandha Mah�r�ja of the Pallava dynasty. He is the author of Tamil classic Kural.

As far as the Digambara Text tradition was concerned, the important texts as a whole had fallen into oblivion during the time of Kundakunda. In order to meet the religious needs of the community, he wrote works on the basis of traditional text knowledge inherited from early teachers. The traditional aspect of Kundakunda’s work is clear from the fact that his work have some common verses with some texts of the �v�t�mbara canons which being a common property in early days have been preserved by both the sections independently. The well known and available works of Kundakunda are Samayas�ra,  Pravachanas�raPa�ch�stik�yas�raNiyamas�ra, 5. Rayanas�ra, 6. Ashtap�huda, 7. B�rasa-a�uvekh�, 8. Da�abhakti and 2 A.D. All are written in Prakrit language.

  1. UMASVÏ¿½MI: Um�sv�mi was the celebrated author of the Tattv�rtha �utra. He is held in high esteem by the Jainas. The Tattv�rth� �utra is one of the original works on philosophy. It is also called the Moksh�sastra, and it occupies high place in Jainism. It is the first known Jaina work in Sanskrit and contains some 357 pithy S�tras divided into ten chapters. The earliest available commentaries on the Tattv�rtha are of all the Digambara Scholars of repute, viz. P�jyap�da (5th Century), Akala�ka (7th century) and Vidy�nanda.

In literature as well as inscriptions, Um�svam� is invariably mentioned just after Kundakunda and before Samantabhadra. The Digambara tradition, however associates him with the Kundakund�nvaya of Nandi Sa�gha. The Pa���val� of the Sa�ghainforms that he succeeded Kundakunda himself in 44 A.D. Sometimes, he is described as a disciple of and sometimes as born in or belonging to the line of Kundakunda. The influence of Kundakunda’s works and of the red-acted canonical texts has been traced in his Tattv�rtha. A verse usually found at the end of his work and some inscriptions also mention. Gridhapichchha as a sobriquet of Um�sv�in.1

The �vetambara called Um�sv�m� by the name Umasv�ti. The author also wrote a commentary on the Tattav�rth� S�tra, according to the �vet�mbaras, although the Digambaras deny the authenticity of this Bha�ya. This commentary was known to the �vet�mbara monks even in the early seventh century A.D. if not earlier. Both Siddhasena Ga�a (C.600 A.D.) and Haribhadra (minddle of the eighth century) knew this Bhashya. According to the Pra�asti at the end of this Bh�shya. Um�sv�ti was a monk belonging to the Uchchan�gar� ï¿½ï¿½kh� which was a branch of the Ku�iya (Kolidya) ga�a and was quite popular in the Mathura region as known from the inscriptions. We further learn from the same Bh�shya that he was residing in Kusumapura or P��aliputra at the time of its composition. He was a Br�hma�a of the Kaub�sha�i gotra and his father’s name was Sv�ti and mother was called V�ts�. His preceptor in respect of initiation was Ghoshanandi Kasham��rama�a and grandpreceptor was V�chakamukhya �iva�r� His teacher in respect of education was V�chak�ch�rya M�la and grand-preceptor was Mah�v�chaka Mu��p�da.

  1. SÏ¿½MANTABHADRA: S�mantabhadra is one of the greatest masters of Jaina literature. He was a brilliant and a great preacher of the Jaina religion throughout India. He is the first writer to give a most interesting as well authoritative exposition of the Sy�dv�da doctrine, and has been styled as the first composer of devotional prayers (�dya Stutik�ra).

Like other early authors, Samantabhadra gives but little information about himself. Whatever is known about him has been gleaned indirectly from his works, from the remarks of his commentators and from several inscriptions (11th-15th century A.D.). The later works like the Kath�koshas and R�j�vat�-Kathe also give some information.

His known and available works written in chaste Sanskrit are as follows�Aptam�m��s� or Dev�gamastotraYukty�nu��sana, Svayambhustotra, Jina Stuti�ataka or Stutividy� and Ratnakara��a ï¿½r�vk�ch�ra. His first known commentator is Akal�na (C.625-75 A.D.) followed by Vidy�nandi and others.

There is much controversy regarding the date of Samantabhadra. The traditional date of Samantabhadra is �aka 60 (138 A.D.), and as B.A. SALETORE observes, “Credence may be given to the tradition that Samantabhadra seems to have lived about 120-185 A.D.1

In the works of Samantabhadra, the description of Jaina ascetics as purely ‘forest recluses’ befits only to the times prior to about 300 A.D. The traditional Digambara chronology places Samantabhadra two generations before P�jyap�da. P�jyap�da is placed in the latter half of the fifth century A.D. Hence, It is justified to hold the view that Samantabhadra belonged to century A.D.2

As known from the R�javal�-Kathe (1834 A.D.), Samantabhadra was a Tamil. He had close association with K��chi. The Kath�koshas (11th to 15th centuries) describe as the naked ascetic of K��ch�. Besides K��ch�, he was also closely associated with the rulers of Karah��a (modern Karahada), the ancient and probably the first capital of the Kadambas of Banav�s�.

According to tradition, the royal disciple of Samantabhadra was �ivako�i, �ivako�i was probably none other than �ivaskanda �r�, the second ruler of the Kadamba dynasty. He is known to have had Jaina learnings. Tradition says that he abdicated the throne in favour of his son �r� Ka��ha who was probably the Kadamba king. He is said to have intervened between �ivaskanda �r� and �ivaskanda Varman (Early part of the 3rd century, a predecessor of May�ravarman Kadamba of the Chandravalli record assigned to 258 A.D.).

The original name of Samantabhadra was ��ntivarman who was probably a younger son of the N�ga chief. He seems to be identical with Killikavarman Cho�a, the ruler of Uragapura (or Uraiyur modern  Trichinopoly within the Pha�ima��ala or the South Indian federation of N�ga chiefs.1 With his namesake, it is possible to identify him with some chief of the Kadamba dynasty.

His personal achievements are to be found for the first time in the 11th century Kath�ko�a of Prabh�chandra. In this work, Samantabhadra is represented as calling himself the naked ascetic from K��ch�. He is further shown as the preceptor of �ivarya, the author of the ï¿½r�dhan�. That work delineates him as visiting places like Pu��ravardhana, Da�apura, V�r��as�, P��aliputra, K��ch�, M�lava, Sindhu, �akka (Punjab) and Kara���aka. It appears that Samantabhadra was an itinerantS�dhu and was universally respected for his vast learning and mesmeric personality.

  1. Ï¿½IVÏ¿½RYA: �iv�rya is the author of the ï¿½r�dhan�, also called M�l�r�dha�a or Bhagavat�-�r�dhan�which is a very important and ancient Prakrit text mainly dealing with the conduct of Jaina ascetics. It is believed to have been the ultimate source of the Jaina Kath�kosha literature which is represented by the Kath�koshas of Harishe�a (931 A.D.), Prabh�chandra (980 A.D.), �r�chandra (1066 A.D.), Brahma Nemidatta, R�machandra etc. A number of Prakrit, Sanskrit and Kanna�a commentaries were written on this work. The earliest available commentary is the V�jayoday�-�ik� in Sanskrit written by Apar�jita S�ri, also known as �r�vijaya (700 A.D.).

The author P��italabhoj� �iv�rya supplies information at the end of his work by mentioning the names of his three teachers��rya Jinanandi Ga�i, �rya Sarvagupta  Ga�i, and �rya Mitranandi Ga�i. The term “P��italabhoj�’ is distinctively a Digambara epithet used for their ascetics. Besides his three Gurus, he also mentions Bhadrab�hu who is said to have died peacefully in spite of great suffering. The prefix ï¿½rya and the suffix Gani used by �iv�rya with the names of his ‘gurus’ are quite similar to those used in the Mathura inscriptions of the �u�ga-�aka-Kush��a period. This points out that the author belonged to the North.

The author speaks of a peculiar form of funera1 which shows that the dead body used to be left away in some open space in the forest to be disposed off by birds and beasts. This ptactice was prevailing in a tribe named oreital which lived in South-Western Sindh during the period of Indo-Greeks.

YATIVÏ¿½ISHABHA : Yati V�ishabha is perhaps the most important author from a historical point of view. He is known to have been the author of three important works�the Ch�r��-S�tras on the Kash�yap�hu�a of Gu�adhara, the Kara�a-��trascontaining Mathematical formulae and the Tilvyapa��ati, an early Prakrit text on the subject of cosmology. Although it mainly deals with the nature, shape, size divisions and subdivisions of the universe, it also incidentally gives much information on Jaina doctrine, Pur��ic traditions about the T�rtha�karas and other heroes and about ancient Geography and on political history of ancient India such as the dynastic, chronology, commencement of the ‘�akas’ rule and their eras and so on. At the same time, the work is highly valuable for the study of the development of the science of Mathematics in ancient times. This work has undergone many recensions or transformations.

The question is how much of it corresponds to the original text, and what is the author’s date. Scholars like PREMI, MUKHTAR and UPADHYE assign this work and its author to the end of the fifth century A.D. PHOOL CHANDRA SHASTRI has shown that it must be a later compilation made probably by Jinasena (837 A.D.) on the basis of the original work.

Yati-V�ishabha is held in high esteem and is considered a very ancient scholar by the writers of the Seventh century onwards. His predecessors �rya�a�khu and N�gahasti are equally owned and respected in the tradition of both the sects �ryama�khu has been assigned to the first century A.D. While N�gahasti has been proved to have belonged to shcent A.D. Yati V�ishabha has been described as ï¿½ntev�s� (associate, Junior colleague or immediate disciple) of N�gahasti. Hence, Yativ�ishabha seems to have belonged to 150-180 A.D.1

PÏ¿½JYAPÏ¿½DA DEVANANDI : Jain tradition, both literary as well as inscriptional, place P�jyap�da Devanandi in between Samantabhadra and Akala�ka (C.625-675 A.D.). His real name was Devanandi but he is generally known by the title ‘P�jyap�da’. He was an eminent author, and a master of several branches of learning. He wrote his works in Sanskrit, both prose and verse, of a high quality. He was in his times, the chief pontiff of the Nandi or De��yaga�a, a branch of the M�la Sa�gha of Kundakunda’s line. He was probably the first Jaina Guru to devote himself to the writing of valuable secualar works, besides religious ones. He was a great grammarian and also the master of the medicine.

P�jyap�da appears to have been the head of a great center of learning at or near Talkad, the capital of the Western Ga�gas in south Kra���aka.

The Western Ga�ga rules Durvin�ta was a devotee and a pupil of P�jyap�da, Durvinita’s father Avin�ta Ko�gini is said to have himself appointed this scholarly monk as a teacher of his son even before the latter’s accession to the throne. As P�jyap�da’s fifty year pontificate indicates his long life, his date may safely be fixed, as 464-524 A.D. The known works of this great master are�Jainendra Vy�kar�aSarv�rthasiddhiDa�abhakty�di sa�grahSam�dhitantra, Ishtopade�a and S�nty�sh�aka.1

  1. SIDDHASENA DIVÏ¿½KARA: Siddhasena Div�kara2 is identified by some with Kshapa�aka. Traditionally, he is regarded as one of the nine gems of the court of Vikram�ditya. That he flourished in the Gupta period is indirectly proved by the fact that he is mentioned by P�jyap�da (early 5th century) in his Jainendra. According to a tradition among the Jainas, Siddhasena Div�kara performed a miracle during Vikram�ditya’s time in the celebrated Mah�k�la temple of Ujjayini. He is the author of the two well known works namelyNy�y�vat�ra and Sanmatitarka S�tra. Both the works deal with logic. Siddhasena also wrote a commentary on the famous work of Um�sv�ti. In his work Sanmati-�utra, we find for the first time a comparative study of different Brahmanical and Buddhist systems of Philosophy and their criticism from the Jaina point of view.1 In the Seventh century Ch�r�� namely ï¿½va�yaka-ch�rni, of Jinad�sa, Siddhasena Div�kara is mentioned, Haribhadra (8th century) was also thoroughly acquainted with the philosophy of Siddhasena Div�kara.
  2. DEVARDHIGANI KSHAMÏ¿½Ï¿½RAMAÏ¿½A: Devardhiga�i Ksham��rama�a was the great �vet�mbara pontiff who convened a Council of the �vet�mbara scholars at the city of Valabhi (Gujarat) in 453 A.D. It was at this council that the redaction of the entire canonical knowledge that had been preserved by the �vet�mbara section was finally undertaken. There were differences of opinion about the readings of the texts and some of them had several different versions each. It seems that Devardhiga�i acted simply as an editor and he reduced to writing the scriptures which had come down to him by word of mouth. This attempt of preservation by redaction of traditional knowledge opened a new era in the cultural progress of the country. It gave an unprecedented impetus to the creation of voluminous exegetical literature in the form of NiryuktisCh�r�isBh�shyasV�ittis and ï¿½ï¿½k�s, which is very valuable for the study of ancient historical traditions and cultural conditions. The attempt of preservation of Jaina canon by Devardhigani is noteworthy.1
  3. MÏ¿½NATUÏ¿½GA: M�natu�ga is the author of the celebrated Bhakt�mara of ï¿½din�th Stotra. According to a tradition, he was a contemporary of May�ra and B��a (606-647 A.D.) at the court of king Harsha. M�natu�ga according to a Pa���valiof the B�ihadgachchha, was a minister of Vair�si�ha (933 A.D.) of the Param�ra dynasty.2
  4. AKALAÏ¿½KA: Akala�ka is one of the greatest scholars in the history of Indian Logic. Like majority of ancient thinkers, he gives practically no information regarding his personal life. In the Kath�ko�a of Prabh�chandra, Akala�ka has been mentioned as the son of the Minister of king �ubhatu�ga of M�nyakhe�a. A number of writers beginning from V�dir�ja and Prabh�chandra refer to Akala�ka’s debating skill and his victory over the Buddhists. The earliest source that refers to this event is a tenth century inscription of the reign of B�tuga II. Later Jaina writers and authors of epigraphs have referred to this feat of Akala�ka with evident pride. The patron of Akala�ka, according to the Kath�ko�a of Prabh�chandra was �ubhatu�ga, but the Akala�ka Charita mentions one S�hasatu�ga in whose reign Akala�ka defeated the Buddhists. Prabh�chandra further informs that the debate took place in the court of Hima��tala, who was evidently a contemporary of �ubhatu�ga. But the evidence of Akala�ka Charita is confirmed by the �rava�a-Belagola inscription No. 67 which refers to Akala�ka’s patron as �ahasatu�ga, who is generally identified with Dantidurga (middle of the eighth century). Akala�ka was actually a contemporary of Dantidurga, and flourished in the middle of the eighth century A.D. It has further been suggested that Hima��tala of Akala�ka tradition should be identified with the king of Kali�ga. Since Akala�ka knows the Buddhists and Brahmanical scholars, who flourished even in the seventh century, we will be justified in placing him in the eighth century A.D.

Apart from his Tattvarthar�iav�rtika, which is a commentary on the famous book of Um�svami. Akala�ka is the reputed author of the Ash�a�at�, a precious work of Jaina philosophy dealing mainly with logic. It is a commentary on the ï¿½ptam�m��sa. of Samantabhadra. Another well-known works on logic by him is the Ny�yavini�chaya. His other works are Lagh�yastray� Prakaranaand Svar�pa Sambodhana. A treatise work on expiatory rites called Pr�ya�chita grantha is also ascribed to him. The Pram��a Sa�graha is also ascribed to Akala�ka.1


In the eighth century, probably between 705 A.D. and 775 A.D., Haribhadra, the most distinguished Jaina scholar, lived in Rajasthan. He was born in a Br�hma�a family at Chitrak��a, the modern Chitor. He was the Purohita of a king named Jit�ri about whom history knows nothing. Being a Br�hma�a by birth, he was thoroughly well acquainted with the Br�hma�ical works of Philosophy. He was not only a literary but has authority on Logic. He wrote in both Sanskrit and Prakrit. He was also at home with the Buddhist Logic. He wrote, the well known commentary on Dinn�ga’s Ny�yaprave�a.

It is said that Haribhadra was deeply inspired by a Jaina nun; and as a result of it, he embraced Jainism. Being asked by his Guru to write 1444 volumes, he wrote a number of books on Logic, Yoga, Dharma, Ethics etc. Out of them only about fifty are now available. He is the earliest Sanskrit commentator of the canon, and his contributions to Jaina Logic are outstanding. He commented on theAnuyogadv�ras�tra�va�yakas�traDa�avaik�likas�traNandis�traPraj��pa�as�tra etc. Besides his commentaries on �gamas, he wrote the Anek�ntajayapat�k� and Anek�ntav�daprave�a, in which he not only expounded the Jaina philosophy of Anek�nta but also criticised current philosophical systems. He inaugurated a new era in Yoga literature by writing the Yogabibdu and Yogad�ish�i-Samuchaya. In his Shad-dar�ana-Samuchchaya, he gives a brilliant exposition of the different systems of philosophy. He wrote the Dh�rt�khy�na, Samaraichchakah� and Kath�ko�a in Prakrit. In the Samaraichchakah� he throws some light on the condition of Jainism. The rivalary between Jainism and Buddhism was very keen in his time.

Haribhadra S�ri raised the powerful voice against the abuses of the Chaityav�s� sect. He found Jaina saints living in Chaityas and ma�has. They used their wealth for their personal good. They put on even coloured or scented clothes. They ate food or sweets fetched by the monks. They sold idols and purchased children in order to make them their disciples.

  1. SIDDHARSHI: The next distinguished Jaina monk of Rajasthan is Siddharshi born at �r�m�la in Marwar. He was the son of �ubha�kara. He was initiated and was named Siddharshi. In 906 A.D., he composed the allegorical novel named Upamitibhavapra�ch�kath�. The Sa�gha being pleased conferred the title of ‘Vy�khy�nak�ra’ on him.

Later on, he made a deep study of Buddhism, so much so, that even the Buddhists held him in high esteem for his scholarship and highly virtuous life. In course of time, the title of S�ri was conferred on him by his Guru.

  1. JINEÏ¿½VARASÏ¿½RI: Jine�varasuri occupies a prominent place in Jaina history. His early name was �r�dhara. He and his brother �r�pati were Br�hmanas by caste. They came to Dh�r�nagar� where they met a rich man named Lakshm�pati. He introduced them to Vardham�nas�ri. Being impressed by their deep scholarship, Vardham�nas�ri initiated them into Jainism and instructed them to preach it.

At this time, the Chaityav�s� sect was very powerful. Actually, Vardham�nasuri rose in revolt against it and founded Vidhim�rga; but Jine�varasuri by his efforts organized its followers into a community and made it countrywide. He went to A�ahilapura where the Chaityav�sis were very strong. He stayed in the house of the Purohita Some�vara. He defeated Sur�ch�rya, the leader of the Chaityav�s�s, in the court of the king Durlabhar�ja at P��a�a and got the title of ‘Kharatara’. He established his own sect known as Vidhim�rga at A�ahilapura. Later on, it was known as the Kharataragachchha. Then his reputation spread to neighbouring regions like Marwar, Mewar, Malva, V�ga�a, Sindh and Delhi, and a large number of �r�vakas became his devoted followers.

Jine�varasuri and his young brother Buddhis�garas�ri generally lived and moved together. In 1023 A.D. they were at J�b�lipura (Jalor), where Jine�varasuri wrote commentary on the Ash�akasa�graha of Haribhadra and Buddhis�garasuri completed the Svopaj�a Pa�chagranth�.

Jine�varasuri brought about a renaissance in Jainism, and, therefore, he is called the ‘Yugapradh�na’. New temples known as Vidhichaityas were built. There came also some change in the form of worship. New Gachchhas, new castes and new Gotras also came into existence. The original ï¿½ï¿½stras were revised and several commentaries were prepared. He had a large number of disciples, the chief among them were Abhayadeva, Jinachandra and Jinabhadra.1

  1. JINAVALLABHASÏ¿½RI: The next great Jaina saint is Jinavallabhas�ri, who was the follower of Chaityav�si sect in the beginning. At P��an, he got an opportunity to study the scriptures under Abhayadevas�ri, the saint of Vidhim�rga. As a rsult, he gave up the Chaityav�s� sect and accepted Vidhim�rga. At his directions, his followers constructed the Jaina temples known as Vidhichaityas.

At this time, the followers of the Chaityav�si sect were powerful in Mewar. With a view to diminishing their influence, Jinavallabhas�ri left P�tan for Chitor, where he converted a large number of people to Jainism and celebrated the consecration ceremony of several images and temples. From Chitor, he came to Dh�r�. The King invited him to his palace, where he listened to his religious discourses. He was so highly pleased with his extraordinary poetic talent that he offered him a J�gira of three villages and a handsome present in cash. He did not accept either of them but requested that the king should grant two parutthadrammas daily from his customs house for the maintenance of two Kharatara temples.

From Dh�r�, Jinavallabhas�ri came to V�ga�a, where he addressed large gatherings. He also came to Nagaur where the installation ceremony of Nemijin�laya was performed under his supervision. As he converted several people to Jainism, it was natural for him to from many Gotras.1

  1. JINADATTASÏ¿½RI: Jinadattas�ri is one of the great Jaina monks, who propagated Jainism in Rajasthan. He was born at Dhavalakapura in 1075 A.D. in H�mba�a caste. His parents were Vadhiga and V�ha�adev�. His early name was Somachanda. His d�ksh� Guru was V�chaka Devabhadraga�i, and he was given the name of Somachandra Muni. Being impressed by his extreme austerities and genius, Dharmadevop�dhy�ya made him �ch�rya at Chitor in 1112 AD. and named him Jinadattas�ri.

Jinadattas�ri was widely respected even by the Rajput rulers of Rajputana and Gujarat for his learning and piety. The Ch�lukyan rulers Kar�ar�ja and his son Siddhar�ja respected him. Jinadattas�ri was a contemporary of Ar�or�ja Chauh�na of Ajmer, who honoured the �ch�rya by visiting him at his own place and by granting his followers a suitable site for a big Jaina temple. He converted a large number of people to Jainism and established many Gotras. Besides, he is said to have given d�ksh� to 500 monks and 700 nuns. Having installed Jinachandras�ri on his seat, he expired in 1154 A.D. at Ajmer. On account of his popularity among the masses, he came to be known as D�d�j�.1

  1. VÏ¿½DIÏ¿½RIDEVASÏ¿½RI: Devasuri was born in 1143 A.D. at Madhuvat� near Mount Abu in the Pr�gv��a family. He was the son of V�ran�ga and Jinadev�. When cholera broke out in the town, V�ran�ga left the town and came to Bharoch. The early name of Devasuri was P�r�achandra.

From his very childhood, P�r�achandra was highly intelligent. He impressed a Jaina monk who asked his master to give the boy to him. He was given d�ksh� in 1152 A.D. and was named R�machandra. Within a short time, he became well-versed i the science oftarkalaksha�apram��a and literature; and scholars began to admire his scholarhip. He defeated his opponents in the discussion held at Dhavalakapura, Kashmir, Sanchor, Chitor, Gopagiri, Dh�r� and Bharoch. Impressed by his deep scholarship, the Guru installed him on the seat of �ch�rya in 1174 A.D. and gave him the name of Devas�ri.

Then Devasuri came to Dhavalakapura on the invitation of Udaya and performed the installation ceremony of the image of S�mandharasv�mi. From there, he travelled to Mt. Abu for pilgrimage. In course of his journey, �r� Devas�ri came to Nagaur. Ahid�na, the ruler of this place, received him warmly. In the meanwhile, Siddhar�ja, the ruler of Gujarat, wanted to besiege Nagaur but when he was informed of the presence of Devas�ri, he returned Then he invited �r� Devasuri to Patan and kept him there for four months.

�r� Devasuri defeated the famous Digambara Jaina Saint of Kar��taka named Kumudachandra in the discussion held in the court of the king Siddhar�ja Jayasi�ha. In 1147 A.D., he got the Jaina temple constructed in the town called Phalavardhik� (Phalodhi) and performed the installation ceremony of the image. In the town of Arasana also, the image of Nemijina Was installed.

  1. HEMACHANDRA: The most prominent Jaina monk is Hemachandra under whom Jainism prospered greatly both in Rajasthan and Gujarat. He was born in 1089 A.D. at Dhandhuka, a town in the district of Ahmedabad and was named Ch��gadeva. His parents were Ch�chiga and P�hi�� of �r�mo�ha caste. Both the parents were adherents of the doctrine of Jina. P�hi�� handed over her son to a monk named Devachandra. The circumstances which led Ch��gadeva to enter the order of Yatis are more or less romantic. Devachandra took the body with him to Cambay where he was first initiated in the temple of P�r�van�tha in 1093 A.D. this occasion, the famous Udayana held the usual festival and Ch��gadeva received the name of Somachandra. In 1105 A.D., he was ordained as �ch�rya at N�gaur by Devas�ri. On this occasion, he again changed hi name and was now cailled Hemachandra.

The parton of Hemachandra was Jayasi�ha Siddhar�ja, who felt attacted and impressed by his deep and wide scholarship, used to listen to his discussion. Hemachandra helped Kum�rap�la in securing his accession to the throne. He is said to have foretold that Kumarpal was going to be the future ruler of Gujarat. It was for this reason that he had deep reverence for the Jaina religion. Kum�rap�la was originally a devotee of �iva but was converted to Jainism by Hemachandra. After his conversion which is said to have taken place in 1159 A.D., he aspired to make Gujarat model Jaina state. He personally gave up hunting animals, eating meat and using intoxicants, dice-playing and animal fights. In addition, he erected, the Jaina temples and favoured the literary and scintific efforts of the Jainas.

Hemachandra was called the ‘Omniscient of the Kali age’ (Kalik�la Sarvaj�a), the title which he well deserved. He was more a scholar than a poet. By his efforts, Jaina literature made considerable progress in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. His contributions to the general Sanskrit literature are also noteworty. He wrote useful and important works on grammar, lexicography, poetics, prosody, philosophy and history.

Hemachandra’s services to education were as remarkable as his literary activities. He trained a number of pupils who have left works on various branches of Sanskrit literature. The chief among those pupils are R�machandra, Gu�chandra, Mahendras�ri, Devachandra, Vardham�naga�i, Udayachandra, Ya�a�chandra and B�lachandra.1

  1. JINAKUÏ¿½ALASÏ¿½RI: Jinaku�alas�ri is the most popular Jaina saint and is also known as D�d�j�. He was born in the village Samiy��� in Marwar in 1280 A.D. His original name was Karma�a. In 1290 A.D., he received initiation from Jinachandras�ri and was named Ku�alak�rti. At Nagaur in 1310 A.D., he was given the title of V�chan�ch�rya by Jinachandras�ri. In 1319 A.D, Jinachandra passed away and the title of S�ri was given to Jinaku�ala at Patan amidst great rejoicings.

R�japati of Delhi made arrangement for the sojourn of Jinaku�alas�ri. He passed through Kany�nayana, Narhad, Phalodhi, Maruko�a, Nagaur, Merta, Jalor, �r�m�la and at last reached Patan. The members of the Sa�gha reqested Jinaku�ala to accompany them. He consented and started from patan and reached �atru�jaya where he performed several religious activities. He worshipped the idol by composing new stotras. Ya�odhara and Devendra were initiated to monkhood by him. He celebrated the installation ceremony of the image of Nemin�tha. The consecration ceremony of the images of Jinapatis�ri and Jine�varas�ri was also performed by him. On the occasion of Nand��varamahotsava, Sukhakrtiga�i was given the title of ‘V�chan�ch�rya.’ Afterwards, he returned to Patan with the Sa�gha safely.

In 1324 A.D., Vir��amahotsava was celebrated at Patan with great rejoicings for fifteen days under the guidance of Jinaku�alas�ri. The images of the Tirtha�karas and the �ch�ryas were sent to the various places such as Jalor, Devar�japura, �atru�jaya etc. Tejap�la celebrated the Nand��varamahotsava at Patan in which Sumatis�ra, Uday�sara, Jayas�ra and Dharmasundar� were initiated into monkhood. The famous �r�vaka of Bh�mapall� named V�radeva called Jinaku�alas�ri form Patan to Bh�mapall� and requsted him to accompany the Sa�gha to �atru�jaya. After passing through various cities and villages, the Sa�gha reached �atru�jaya. He celebrated the consecration ceremony of the V�ra Chaitya at Bh�mapall�, Chint�ma�i P�r�van�tha temple at Jaisalmer and P�r�van�tha temple at J�lor.

The �r�vakas of Sindh invited Jinaku�alas�ri for propagation of Jainism. He went there and organised various ceremonies such as the Pratish�h�, Vratagraha�a, M�l�ropa�a and Nand�mahotsava in order to give an impetus to Jainism. He wandered through various places and impressed the people by his religious discourses. This caused a great religious awakening among the people. He spent a rainy season at Devar�japura where he caught high fever and died in 1352 A.D.

Jinaku�alas�ri was a distinguished scholar, well-versed in different branches of learning like grammar, law, literature, prosody, astronomy, magic etc. He could not contribute so much to literature as he was engaged in other activities. So great was his influence that, in his honour, a number of stutis, stotras, padas and Chhandas have been composed in many a village, city and holy place. The people of Svagachchha, Paragachchha, Sth�nakav�s� and Ter�panth� worship him with great devotion.1

  1. HÏ¿½RAVIJAYASÏ¿½RI: The most distinguished Jaina teacher at the time of Akbar was H�ravijayas�ri. He was the leader of the Tap�gachchha sect of the Jainas and was born at Palanapur. He was the som of Kum�ra and N�th� of the B�s� Osav�la family. His original name was H�raj�. He was initiated to religious life by Vijayad�nas�ri in 1539 A.D. and was named H�raharsha. After getting education from Muni Hariharsha, he went to Devagiri in the south in order to lear� Ny�ya��stra from Naiy�yika Br�hma�a. He made a close and deep study of various branches of learning.

After his return from the Deccan, Vijayadevas�ri made him a Pa��i�a in 1551 A.D. Next year, he was made a Up�dhay�ya at N��l�i. Then in the same year, he was made a S�ri at Sirohi. On this occasion, Ch��ga Mehat�, a descendant of Dhann� Porav�la, the builder of Ranakpur temple, celebrated a great festival.

In 1582 A.D. when Akbar heard of the lofty virtues and deep learning of H�ravijaya, he ordered the Viceroy of Gujarat to request him to visit his court. In response to the summons of the vicerory, the monk went to Ahmedabad where he exchanged views with the royal representative. He refused to accept all the costly gifts presented to him and, in accordance with the rules of his order, he started on his long journey ot Fatehpur Sikri on foot.

On his way, passing through B�salapur, Mah�sana, Patan, Baradi, Siddhapur and other places, H�ravijaya reached Saratara. At this place lived a Bh�la Chief named Arjuna. He along with his eight wives came to hear S�rij�’s sermon, and he took a vow not to kill any innocent animal. He then went to Abu; and R�va Surt�na of Sirohi welcomed him and took a vow to refrain from drinking, hunting and meat eating. After that, passing through Sanganer, Ch�tsu, Bay�n� and Mathura, he reached Fatehpur Sikri where he was accorded a royal reception; and Abul Fazl was asked to look after his comforts until the emperor found leisure to converse with him. After much discussion upon the problems of religion and philosophy first with Abul Fazl, the Muslim luminary of the age, and then with Akbar, he paid a visit to Agra. At the close of the rainy season, he returned to Fatehpursikri.

From the inscription by Hemavijaya dated 1593 A.D., in the porch of the eastern entrance of the �din�tha temple of �atrunjaya hill, it appears that H�ravijaya persuaded the emperor in 1592 A.D. to issue an editct forbidding the slaughter of animals for six months, to abolish the confiscation of the property of the deceased persons, the sujijia tax and �ukla, to set free many captives, snared birds and animals and to present ��trunjaya to the Jainas. Fishing was also prohibited at Fatehpursikri.

In 1596 A.D., H�ravijayas�ri came to N�gaur where he spent the rainy season. Mahajala, the finance minister of the king Jagamala, treated him with great respect. Indrar�ja, an official of Bairat, invited him; but he could not go and sent hi pupil Kaly��avijaya for the performance of the consecration ceremony. After that, he went to Abu and then to Sirohi where he spent the rainy season on the persuasion of the ruling chief. On his advice, R�va Surt�na abolished some taxes. Once the R�va had imprisoned one hundred innocent �r�vakas due to certain misunderstanding. The leaders of the Sa�gha had tried their best to secure their release but the R�va did not listen to them At last, he released them on the advice of S�rij�.

From Sirohi, H�ravijaya came to Patan where he spent the next rainy season. From there, he started for P�lith�n�. The function was organized in his honour which was attended by several Jainas. He also passed the rainy season at U��. �jamkh�n, the governor of Gujarat, came to pay his respects. It was all due to S�ri’s magnetic personality and the honour given to him  by Akbar. At this time, J�mas�hiba of J�managara with his minister named �baj� Bha�as�l� reached U�� to pay his compliments to the �ch�rya. H�ravijaya also induced the official Kh�n Muhammad to give up violence. He celebrated the consecration ceremony of the temple in 1595 A.D. and in the same year, he starved himself to death in the approved Jaina fashion.1

  1. JINACHANDRA: Jinachandra was a famous �ch�rya of the Kharataragachchha sect. He was born in 1508 A.D. at Khetsar in Jodhpur of �r�vant ��ha and �ir�yadev� of B�s� Osav�la family. His orginal name was Sultan. He received his initiation in 1547 A.D. from Jinam��ikyas�ri and his diksh� name was Sumatidh�ra. In 1555 A.D., he obtained the title of Suri form Gu�aprabhas�ri.

While Akbar was holding his court at Lahore, he heard the fame of the S�ri and wanted to hear him. He su�moned Mantr��vara Karmachandra Bachchh�vata and requested him to invite the sage to his court. Considering his old age and hot season, Karmachandra pleaded that it would be difficult for him to come from Cambay. Then, the emperor asked him to write a letter to send his disciple M�nasi�ha whom the S�ri sent along with six other religious followers. Receiving also an urgent letter from Karmachandra, the S�ri started his journey on foot, gradually reached Sirohi and observed the Chaturm�sa at Jalor. Afterwards, he started, and passing through many villages and cities, reached Lahore in 1591 A.D. with thirty- one Jaina Pa��itas in a great procession and was courteously received by the emperor. After a religious discourse on ï¿½tman, ahi�s� etc., he was conducted to his residence. He used to come daily to the palace for the discourse on religion. Akbar used to address him as a Great Master (B�ihadguru).

Hearing of the destruction of the Jaina temples at Dwarka, Jinachandra prevailed upon Akbar to issue an imperial farm�n for the protection of the Jaina holy places such as �atru�jaya, P�lith�n� and Girnar. The necessary order was sent to Azamkh�n, the Subed�r of Ahmedabad. The places of pilgrimage were put in charge of Karmachandra.

Just before starting for Kashmir, Akbar, met the S�ri and at his instance issued a farm�n ordering the prohibition of the slaughter of animals for seven days (Navam� to P�r�im�, every year in the month of ï¿½sh��ha. Akbar with the disciples of Jinachandra namely M�nasi�ha, Harshavi��la and some others reached Kashmir and observed the vow of non-violence for eight days. He returned to Lahore in 1592 A.D. At this instance, Jinachandra gave the title of �ch�rya to M�nasi�ha, calling him Jinasi�has�ri. On the advice of Karmachandra, Akbar gave the title of ‘Yugapradh�na’ or ‘Chief of the Age’ to Jinachandra. At the persuasion of S�riji, Akbar gave protection for a year to all animals of the sea adjoining Cambay, the palce of pilgrimage.

Jinachandra was held in high esteem by Jahangir also. In 1611 A. D., being incensed at the misconduct of the dissolute Darsa�i, Jahangir not only banished him but ordered that members of other Jaina sects should also be ousted from the realm. This caused wide-spread consternation amongst all sections of the Jainas. The news reched Jinachandras�ri who travelled from Patan to Agra and called on the emperor. After a prolonged discussion on religion, S�rij� succeeded in persuading the emperor to withdraw the order. He breathed his last in 1613 A.D. at Bil�r� in Marwar.1

  1. JINASIÏ¿½HASÏ¿½RI: After Jinachandras�ri, his pa��adhara Jinasi�has�ri became the leader of the Kharataragachchha. In Rajasthan, he mostly lived at Bikaner, Sirohi etc. In the ï¿½r� Jinasi�has�rig�ta of R�yasamundra, it is related that he had great influence on Jahangir. At his request, the emperor assured safety to all living creatures. He conferred upon him the title of ‘Yugapradh�na’. In 1616 A.D., Jinasi�hs�ri spent the Ch�turm�sa at Bikaner. In the Jinar�jas�rir�sa composed in 1624 A.D. by �ris�ra, it is written that Jahangir was much anxious to see him, and he sent an officer to Bikaner to invite him. But unfortunately, he died in 1617 A.D. on his way to Agra.

The event mentioned in the Jaina r�sa is more or less of the legendary character, intended to glorify the Jaina order, and can only be accepted when supported by some contemporary evidence. The attitude of Jahangir to Jinasi�ha (Alias M�nasi�ha) and towards the Jainas, as it is made to appear in them, does not seem to have been correctly represented. At the time of Khusru’s rebellion, M�nasi�ha prophesied that Jahangir’s reign would last only for two years. This encouraged R�yasi�ha of Bikaner to rebel. He was, however, pardoned by Jahangir who waited for an opportunity to punish M�nasi�ha. In 1616 A.D. when Jahangir went to Gujarat, he persecuted the Jainas as their temples were the centres of disturbance and their religious leaders were accused of immoral practices. He summoned M�nasi�ha to the court but the latter took poison on his way from Bikaner and died. Evidently there seems to be more truth in these facts than the above concocted story.


In early times, carrer was thrown open to talents, and talented Jainas captured many important offices. In those days, the heads of different departments of the State-Provincial Governors, Prime Ministers and Da��an�yakas were known as Mantr�s and Ministers and acted as Commanders of the Army.


  1. Ï¿½RUTAKÏ¿½RTI: �rutak�rti was the General of the Kadambas. He and his descendents were great patrons to Jainism. They were devoted to the�ch�ryas of the Y�pan�ya Sa�gha. From his inscription,1 it is known that he donated Badovara land for his own merit to the Arhantas. This land was situated in Khe�aka village which he got from his master Kadamba ruler named K�kusthya Varm�. In another inscription,2 ï¿½rutak�rti has been praised, and he has been mentioned as Bhojaka or belonged to Bhoja dynasty. He was a favourite of K�kusthyavarma. M�ige�avarm�, grandson of K�kusthya Verma, assigned Khe�a village in charity to the wife of �rutak�rti and mother of D�mak�rti. Jayak�rti, elderson of D�mak�rti, gave the Khe�aka village to ï¿½ch�ryaKum�radatta of the Y�pan�ya Sa�gha for the merit of his parents.
  2. CHÏ¿½MUÏ¿½Ï¿½ARÏ¿½YA: Ch�mu��ar�ya was well known by the name ‘R�ya’. He was a great warrior, sincere, and devoted to Jainism. We get information about his life from several inscriptions of his time and the Chamu��ar�ya Pur��a written in the Ka��ada language. He was born in the Brahmakshatra Kula as known from his inscription.1 He was the Sen�pati (Commander of the Ga�ga ruler R�yamalla IV, and also his father M�rasi�ha III. R�yamalla IV and M�rasi�ha III were the feudatories of the R�sh�rak��a rulers K�ish�a III and Indra IV, and they won victories in battles. If we read inscriptions2 along with the Ch�mu��ar�ya Pur��a, it becomes clear that Ga�ga rulers M�rasi�ha and R�chamalla attained victories for their masters R�s�rak��a rulers Krisha�a III and Indra IV through their Sen�pati Ch�mu��a R�ya. In his inscriptions, he was given several titles showing his bravery.

Ch�mu��a R�ya installed the famous big image of B�hubali, a feat of sculptural art in monolith at Srava�abelagola3. He had two teachers namely Ajitasena and Nemichandra Siddh�nta Chakravart�. It is known from the �rava�abelagola inscription4 that this Sen�pati built a Basadi at Chikka be��a. From another inscription,5 it is clear that his son Jinadeva��a, who was a disciple of Ajitasena Muni, also constructed a basadi. He seems to be the foremost for the establishment and uplift of Jina��sana.

  1. Ï¿½ANTINÏ¿½THA: We know about ��ntin�tha from the inscription.6 He was a naural poet. His title was Sarasvat� Mukha-Mukhara. His fame was wide. He requested Lakshma king for transforming a wooden Jaina temple into stone. The name of this temple was Mallik�moda �antin�tha.

There were several Jaina Sen�patis associated with the Hoysala dynasty during the twelfth century A.D. The most famous ruler of this dynasty was Vish�uvardhana. The credit for his vast conquests goes to the eight Jaina Sen�patis. Their names were Ga�gar�ja, Boppa, Pu�isa, Baladeva��a, Mariy�ne, Bharata, Aicha and Vish�u. The Hoysala dynasty became famous in the South because of theseSen�patis.

  1. GAÏ¿½GA RÏ¿½JA: The chief among these Sen�patis was Ga�garaja.1 We know about his life from two dozen inscriptions. There is mention of his conquests. He gave different kinds of charities to the Jaina Munis and temples. His two Jaina teachers were Meghachandra Siddh�ntadeva and �ubhachandra Siddh�ntadeva. He renovated several fallen Jaina temples. One Jaina temple was known by his peculiar title Drohagharatta. The Hoysala ruler Vish�uvardhana assigned village and gave other charities to this temple in order to increase his merit.
  2. BOPPA: Da��e�a Boppadeva, son of Ga�gar�ja, was a great warrior and devoted to Jainism. He built two Jaina temples known as ��nti�vara Vasadi and Trailokya-ra�jana Vasadi (Boppa�a Chaity�laya). He has been praised for his valour. In 1134 A.D., he attacked the enemy, repulsed his powerful army and defeated the Kongas.2
  3. PUÏ¿½ISA: One of the warrior companions of Ga�gar�ja, one was Pu�isa. He was the minister of peace and war (S�ndhivigrahika) of the Hoysala king vish�uvardhana. His heroic deeds in the battles have been described in the inscription.1 He conquered several countries, and presented them to his master Vish�uvardhana. Pu�isa was large hearted like Ga�gar�ja. He rendered equal service to humanity and religion. It is known from the inscription2 that he restored by returning the lost belonging of the traders peasants, Kir�tas and others who lost their belongings, he tried to restore them by returning. He also helped by bringing them up. He donated land to the attached Vasadis with his own Trik��a Vasadi at Arakottara of A��en�d and adorned Ga�gav�di like the Ga�gas with Vasadis.
  4. BALADEVAÏ¿½Ï¿½A: Baladeva��a was also the Sen�pati of Vis�nuvardhana. He was the third son of king Aras�ditya and �ch�mbike. His two elder brothers were Pampar�ya and Harideva. In the inscription,3 he was given titles Mantriy�th�gra�i, Gu��, Sakalasachivan�tha, Jinap�d��dhri sevaka etc.
  5. MARIYANE AND BHARATA: The two brothers Da��an�yaka Mariyane and Bharata were Generals of the Hoysala ruler Vish�uvardhana. Some inscriptions4 give introduction to their dynasty. They were related to the Hoysala dynasty. Vishnuvardhana understanding Mariy�ne Da��an�yaka his Pa��ad�ne (R�jya Gajendra) made him Sen�pati. These two brothers were warrior, as well as devoted to religion. In the inscription,1 different virtues of Bharata have been praised, It has been mentioned that his wealth was meant  for the Jaina temples, kindness for all beings, his soul for the worship of J�nar�ja and charity for Munis. From the two �rava�abelagola-inscriptions2, it is known that he got eighty new basad�s built, and renovated two hundred old basadis of Ga�gav��i. The teacher of these two brothers was Ga��avimukta Vrati, disciple of the ï¿½ch�rya Maghanandi of De��ga�a. Pustaka gachchha. These two brothers were living in the time of Narasi�ha, son of Vish�uvardhana.3 These two got sovereignty of three villages including Sindageri by paying five hundred Honnus to the ruler Narasimha.
  6. AICHA : The nephew of Ga�gar�ja was Aicha who was the General of Vishnuvardhana. From the inscription4, it is known that he got constructed several Jaina temples at the places Kopana, Belgula etc., and died in saintly way of Sallekhan�. Boppa, son of Ga�gar�ja, got built Nishady� in memory of his cousin.
  7. VISHÏ¿½U DAÏ¿½DÏ¿½DHIP: Vish�u Da���dhipa was another Sen�pati of Vish�uvardhana.5 He conquered the southern province within half a month. He was the right hand of Vish�uvardhana. He got him married with the daughter of his Prime Minister. He was given the post of Mah�pracha��a Da��an�tha and Sarv�dhik�r�. This Sen�pati was religious and charitable. He performed several public deeds, and got constructed a Jaina temple in the capital Dorasamudra. His teacher’s name was �r�p�la Traividyadeva to whom he donated a village and lands for the management of Jaina temple and ï¿½h�rad�na to saints.
  8. MÏ¿½DIRÏ¿½JA: One Jaina Minister of Vishnuvardhana was Mah�pradh�na M�dir�ja. In one inscription,1 his religious virtues have been praised. He was Adhipati of �r�kara�a, and he influenced the audience hall by his oratory. He kept the account of the treasury. His teacher was �r�p�la Traividyadeva. The four Sen�patis of Narasimha, successor of Vish�uvardhana were Devar�ja, Hulla, �a�tiya���a and I�vara Cham�pa.
  9. DEVARÏ¿½JA: There is mention of Devaraja in the inscription.2 His gotra was Kau�ika. He has been told �r� Jinadharmanirmalam-barahimakara and �r� Hoysala Mah��ar�jyabh�bhrinnilaya Ma�iprad�pa Kala�a. Being pleased by his faithfulness and devotion to religion, king Narasi�ha gave him village S�ranahalli where Devar�ja built the Jaina temple. The Hoysala ruler gave ten Honnus in charity for Ash�avidh�rchana and ï¿½h�rad�na and named the village P�r�vapura.
  10. HULLA: Hulla was General of Hoysala king Narasimha. Like Ch�mu��ar�ya, he made efforts for the progress of Jainism. He is known from several inscriptions3. During the reign of Hoysala Vish�uvardhana, Narasi�ha and Ball�la, Hulla rendered service to the Hoysala kingdom.
  11. Ï¿½Ï¿½NTIYAÏ¿½Ï¿½A: ��ntiya��a was the commander of the Hoysala ruler Narasi�ha.1 He was the son of P�risa��a and Bammaladev�. He was the son-in-law of Par�sa��a Mariy�ne. In the inscription, he has been called Mah�pradh�na and Pa��isa Bha���r� (Superintendent of Spears). Parisa��a Mariy�ne defeated the enemies in the battlefield and sacrificed his life. Narasi�ha made his son Santiyanna, the master of Karugu��a and Da��an�yaka of the army. ��ntiya��a got the basadi built in the memory of his father and granted charity for its security. His teacher Mallishe�a was Pa��ita.
  12. IÏ¿½VARA CHAMÏ¿½PA: I�vara Cham�pa has been mentioned as Sen�pati of the Hoysala ruler Narasi�ha in the inscription.2He was the son-in-law of Mah�pradh�naSarv�dhik�r� and Da�dan�yaka Cham�pa. I�vara Cham�pati repaired the Jaina temples and his wife M�chiyakka constructed a Jaina temple and a tank at the holy place Maydabolala. His teacher’s name was Ga��avimukta Munipa.
  13. RECHARASA: Even during the reign of Ballala II, successor of Naras��a, there were some Jaina Sen�patis who rendered valuable service to the Hoysala Kingdom. One of them was Recharasa. He was devoted to Jainism. He installed the Saha�rak�ta Jaina image at Arasiyakere. For the management of the temple, he got the village Indarah�lu from the king Ballala II and entrusted it to his teacher S�garanandi Siddh�ntadeva. The name of the above Jaina temple was Eleko�i.1 In 1182 A.D., Recharasa was Da���dhin�thaof the Kalachuri ruler Bijjala. He got several regions from the Kalachuri rulers. One of them was Nagarakha��a. He granted charity to �antin�tha Jaina temple at the place M�gu�i there.2 From the �rava�a-belagola inscription,3  it is known that he performed the installation ceremony of �antin�tha and entrusted the Basadi to S�garanandi of Kolhapura. In this inscription, he has been called ‘Vasudhaika-b�ndhava.
  14. BUDHIRÏ¿½JA: Another Senapati of Hoysala Ballala II was B�dhir�ja. He has been called Mantr��var� and�andhivigrahika in the inscription4. He possessed Chaturvidha P���itya, and he could compose poetry both in Sanskrit and Ka��a�a. In 1173 during the time of Pattabandhotsava of king Ball�la, he got built the Trik�ta Jin�laya at the place Marikali of S�gen��a, and he presented the village Marikali to his teacher V�sup�jya Siddh�nt�deva for the worship of temple, renovation, ï¿½h�rad�na etc.
  15. CHANDRAMAULI: Chandramauli was the Minister of Hoysala king Ball�la. He was well versed in Bh�rata ��stra, �gama, Logic, Grammar, Upanishad, drama, poetry, etc., and was the right hand of the king Ball�la.5 Though he was �aiva, his wife Achaladev�  was highly devoted to Jainism. He was liberal towards Jainism. His wife got constructed the P�r�vanatha temple of �rava�abelagola, and Minister Chandra Mauli himself requested the king Ball�la to donate the village Bammeyana Halli village in charity for worship of the temple.
  16. NÏ¿½GADEVA: N�gadeva was the Jaiana Minister of Ballala II. He was the son of Bommadeva Sachiva. It has been mentioned in the inscription1 that he was the protector of Jaina temple, and the king made him Pa��anasv�m�. His teacher’s name was Nayak�rti Siddh�ntadeva. After erecting Nr�tya ra�ga��l� and ï¿½il�kuttima in front of P�r�vadeva at the T�rtha of �rava�abelgolaa, he got built a Nishidhi in memory of the department teacher. He got Nagara-Jin�laya known as ‘�r�nilaya’ at �rava�abelagola, and donated land for it. He appointed �rava�abelagola natives ‘Va�ijas’, descendants of Kha��ali and M�labhadra.
  17. MÏ¿½DEVA DAÏ¿½DANÏ¿½TH: Among the Jaina Ministers, Mahadeva Da��an�tha was noteworty. He was Mahapradh�naof Mah�ma��ale�vara Ekkalarasa. His teacher’s name was Sakalachandra Bha���raka. It is known from the inscription2 that he got constructed the beautiful Jaina temple at a place named Uddhare in 1198, and named it Eraga Jin�laya. He gave several charities for worship and renovation of the temple, and different charities from Ekkalarasa.
  18. KAMMAÏ¿½A MÏ¿½CHAYYA: In the inscription3 of 1200 A.D. found from the village Kumbeyana halli, a name of another Jaina Minister is mentioned. He was Mah�pradh��aSarv�dhik�r� and  Tantr�dhish��yaka Kamma�a M�chayya. He donated to Pariv�dimalla Jinalaya in Kumbeyanahalli village with his father-in-law in 1200 A.D., Mahapradh�na Sarv�dhik�r�, Hariya��a performed the Pratish�h� of Kumbeyanahalli’s deva.
  19. AMÏ¿½ITA: Am�ita was another Da��a-n�yaka of Ballala II as known from the inscription.1 He was M�h�pradh�na, Sarv�dhik�ri Mah�pas�yasa (�bh�shan�dhyaksha) and Bherudana Mortt�dash�ayaka  (Adhyaksha of Up�dhidh�r�s). He has been told in the inscription as Kavikulaja and Chaturthavarna (�udra). He has been said as Dh�rmika,�ubhamati Pu�y�dhikaMantrich���ma�i and Saumyaramy�kriti. He got built a Jaina temple called ekko�i at �kkulanghere in 1203 A.D. He performed Ashtavidhap�jana of �antin�tha before all N�yakas, citizens and peasants, and donated land for ï¿½h�rad�na to Munis. He got built a temple, big tank and one sattara at the birth place Lokku��� along with his brothers and established one Agrah�ra and a water-hut. He was liberal even towards the Non-Jainas. He got constructed a temple of Am�ite�vara at his birth place.
  20. Ï¿½CHAÏ¿½A: �cha�a is mentioned in the inscription2 of 1205 A.D. He got built such a Jaina temple at Velagavattin��a during the reign of Ballala II, as noticed in that region. Hence this region became Kopa�a.
  21. MÏ¿½DHAVA: M�dhava Dan�an�yaka is also found mentioned in the inscription3. He has been told as belonging to the family of V�ramahadeva��a. His teacher was M�dhavachandra Bha���raka. He died as Sam�dhimara�a after giving up all family relations and after construction the Jaina temple. In this inscription, there is mention of another Da��an�yaka Machigau�a. His teacher was M�dhava Chandra Bha���raka. He attained heaven by Sam�dhividhi.

25 KÏ¿½CHIRÏ¿½JA : A Jaina Minister K�chir�ja of the Y�dava king M�h�deva of Devagiri is found mentioned in the inscription.1 He was a pupil of Padmasena. After the death of his wife Lakshm�dev�, he got the Jaina temple built in her name and gave it Pogale gachchha of Sena Ga�a. He requested the king to assign a village for the management of a Jaina temple. After meeting the local Gauda people, he himself donated and got donations from others.

  1. IRUGAPPA: Jaina Ministers and Sen�patis rendered valuable services to the Vijayanagara kingdom. The name of Irugappa is noteworthy among them. From his inscriptions2, it is known he was both Mah�mantr� and Sen�pati. His father was Chaicha (Vaichappa) Da��e�a, and his teacher was Si�hanandi. He established the Kunthun�tha Jaina temple. He also composed the N�n�rthan�ma m�l�. There is mention of his donation and the construction of Ma��apa in the two inscriptions3 found at Tiruppa Ruktiku�ru near Ka�j�varam.
  2. GOPA: Gopa was a Sen�pati of Devar�ya4. He was the ruler of N�garakha��a.5 His two Jaina teachers were Pa��it�ch�rya and �rutamunipa Gopa dies by Sam�dhividhi.


  1. MUÏ¿½JALA: Mu�jala was a Minister of king Kar�a, and contiued to hold office under Siddhar�ja. He saved the king Kar�a from a fall and won Maya�alladev�’s secret blessings. On another occasion, he helped Jayasi�hadeva, Kar�a’s son. When the siege  of Dh�ra was indefinitely prolonged, Siddhar�ja took a vow to refrain from food until he had captured the fort of Dh�ra. At this time, Mu�jala intervened and persuaded Siddhar�ja to fulfill his vow by breaking Dh�ra made of flour into pieces. He is said to have taken an important part in the capture of Dh�ra. After taking Dh�ra, Siddh�r�ja had taken a vow that he would enter A�ahilav��a mounted on an elephant, with Ya�ovarman, holding an unseathed sword in hand, on the back seat of the Howdah. Mu�jala pointedout to the king the risk he had undertaken by taking that vow. The king was unwilling to break his vow but Mu�jala persuaded him to fulfil it by giving in Ya�ovarman’s hand a wooden sword.1
  2. Ï¿½Ï¿½NTU OR SAMPATKARA: ��ntu or Sampatkara was another Jaina Minister of Siddhar�ja. He was the Prime Minister of Kar�a also. In the beginning of his career, he was a Governor of L��a in Broach. By dint of his merit, he rose to the rank of the Chief Minister of Kar�a. His proficiency in Statecraft and his success in political affairs are specially mentioned by Bilha�a, He had sent an army under Sachchika to fight the Sultan of Ghazni whom it defeated on the banks of the Indus. ��ntu is said to have put an end to the tyranny of Madanap�la, maternal uncle of king Kar�a. Taking advantage of the King’s absence from the capital, the king of M�lwa invaded Gujarat. As an able Statesman, he tried to avoid the enemy  knocking at the door. ��ntu did not disclose the fault of others and gave an opportunity to the wrong doer to improve.1
  3. Ï¿½SUKA: Another Jaina Minister of Siddhar�ja was �suka. He was a M�h�m�tya or Prime Minister between 1122-23 A.D. and 1124-25 A.D. With his advice and assent, Jayasimha made a pilgrimage to the �atru�jaya hill and gave a grant of twelve villages to the temple of �din�tha. He attended the famous debate between Devas�ri and Kumudachandra.2
  4. SAJJANA: Sajjana was another Jaina officer of Siddhar�ja.  After the conquest of Soratha, he was appointed Governor of the Province. This is confirmed by an inscription in Nemin�tha’s temple built by him on Giran�ra, Sajjana’s temple in Giran�ra is the largest temple on the hill.3
  5. VAGBHATA: According to the commentator of the V�gbha-��la�k�ra, V�gbha�a was a Prime-minister of Jayasimhadeva. He was probably a son of Udayana.4 As known from the Dvy��raya, he was also a Prime Minister of Kum�rap�la. This fact is confirmed by the N��ola copper plates of V.S. 1213. He built a stone temple to �din�tha on the �atru�jaya hill in 1154-55 A.D. and founded V�gbha�apura at the fort of the hill. In this city, V�gbha�a built a temple of P�r�van�tha and called it Tribhuvanavih�ra after King’s father.1
  6. CHANDRASÏ¿½RI: Chandras�ri, the author of the Munisuvrata’s Charitra, was the Governor of L�ta before he entered the order of Jaina monks.2
  7. AMBAÏ¿½A OR Ï¿½MRABHAÏ¿½A: �mra or �mrabha�a was another, Mantr� of Kum�rap�la. He was the second son of Udayana. He built the ï¿½akunikavih�ra in Broach in V.S. 1211 or V.S. 1222. The Jainas of Broach believe that the remains of this temple are found in a mosque.3
  8. CHÏ¿½HAÏ¿½A: The Udepur inscription of V.S. 1222 informs that Ch�ha�a was a da��an�yaka or Kum�rap�la in Malwa. He was probably Ch�ha�a, third son of Udayana. From an inscription on Giran�ra, it seems, he had seven sons, the eldest of whom was a treasurer of Kum�rapala. By dint of merit, he (the eldest son) rose to the rank of Prime Minister. From the Pra�asti to the P�ithv�chandra-Charita of ��ntis�ri, it is clear that Kum�ras�mha, Ch�ha�a’s eldest son, was the Prime Minister in V.S. 1225.4
  9. MHADEVA: The Kir��u inscription of V.S. 1209 and the B�li inscription of V.S. 1219 speak of Mah�deva as the Prime Minister of the king. We do not know much about this Mah�deva. He was probably the son of D�d�ka, a Prime Minister of Siddhar�ja and the Governor of Ujjain in V.S. 1195.5
  10. PÏ¿½ITHVÏ¿½PÏ¿½LA: The Pra�asti to the Mallin�tha Charita informs that Prithv�p�la was the Prime Minister of Kum�rap�la. This P�ithv�p�la repaired Vimala��ha� temple on Mount �b�.1
  11. DAÏ¿½DANÏ¿½YAKAS: In V.S. 1202, Sahajiga was the Da��an�yaka of Saurashtra. In V.S. 1207, Sajjana was theDandan�yaka of Chitoda. We do not know who this Sajjana was. He was probably the da��an�yaka of Saurashtra in the time of Siddhar�ja and built the stone temple on Giran�ra. In V.S. 1210, 1213 and 1216, Vaijaladeva was the da��an�yaka of N��ola. In V.S. 1222, Ambaka, son of R��iga, was the da��an�yaka of Saurashtra.2
  12. YAÏ¿½AHPÏ¿½LA: Ya�ahp�la was a Jaina Minister of Ajayap�la. He completed the Moh-apar�jaya, an allegorical drama, celebrating the conversion of Kum�rap�la to Jainism, in this reign. His father’s name was Dhanadeva and mother’s name Rukmini. Dhanadeva was a Minister of Siddhar�ja or Kum�rap�la.3
  13. OTHER OFFICIALS: In V.S. 1247, Sobhanadeva was the governor of L��ade�a and R�masimha the Mudr�dhik�r�, Amba�a Mantri and �lh�dana Da��an�yaka were the other Jaina officers of Bhima II.4


  1. PÏ¿½HILA: Pahila was the Minister of the Chandella ruler Dha�ga governing Jej�bhukti now called Bundelkhand. The Khajur�ho inscription dated 953-954 A.D. in the temple of P�r�van�tha records a number of gifts and endowments of gardens by one P�hila who claims to have been held in esteem by king Dha�ga. The devotion of the Grahapati family to which P�hila belonged is also evidenced by ��ntin�tha image inscription of V.S. 1132 in which it is found that during the reign of K�rttivarman, the image of ��ntin�tha was installed by a group of his hereditary Ministers namely P�hilla and Jiju. They were disciples of V�savachandra. Another statue was setup by S�lhe, the son of P�hilla in 1157-58 A.D. during the prosperous reign of Madanavarman, and the sons of S�lhe were Mahega�a, Mahichandra, �r�chandra, Jinachandra and Udayachandra.1
  2. SÏ¿½HU KUÏ¿½ARÏ¿½JA: S�hu Ku�ar�ja Jaisav�la was the Minister of the Tomara ruler V�ramadeva (1402-23 A.D.) of Gwalior, He was devoted to Jainism. Padman�bha K�yastha wrote the Y��odhara Charita during the reign of V�ramadeva by the inspiration of the Minister, S�hu Ku�ar�ja Jaisav�la.2 Ku�ar�ja also built the Jaina temple of Chandraprabhu in Gwalior.
  3. KAMALASIÏ¿½HA: Kamalasimha was the Chief Minister of ���garasi�ha (1425-59 A.D.) He erected a huge image of �din�tha  in V.S. 1497, and its consecration ceremony was performed by Raidh�. Kamalasi�ha also inspired others to install several images. He was a patron of the great poet Raidh� and encouraged him to write several works in Prakrit, Apabhramsa and Hindi. Asapati was also the Minister of ���gasasi�ha.


  1. NARADEVA SONÏ¿½: Hoshang Shah honoured the Jainas by associating them with his government. They had a reputation for their honesty in handling cash. Hoshang Sh�h appointed Naradeva Son� as his Bha���g�rika (treasurer) and associated him in his Council. Narasi�ha had become famous for his charities, as his son Sangr�m Singh Son� mentions that his father’s charities knew no bounds and all recipients returned to their places after receiving full satisfaction from Naradeva.1
  2. SANGRÏ¿½M SINGH SONÏ¿½: During the reign of Mahmud Khalji, we find Sangr�m Singh, son of Naradeva Son�, occupying the same position that his father had enjoyed during the reign of Hoshang shah. That Sangr�m Singh enjoyed the confidence of Sultan Mahmud is borne out from the Pra�asti of Buddhis�gara, Sangram Singh accompanied Mahmud Khalji in his Deccan campaigns and completed his Buddhis�gara at Pratish�h�npura (Pai�h�n) on the Godavari where he seems to have gone for a holy dip in 1463 A.D. In order to retain the favour of the Sult�n, he did not fail to praise him in his composition. Sangram Singh Son� retained his position throughout the reign of Nasir Shah.2
  3. MAÏ¿½Ï¿½ANA: Ma��ana another Jaina of �r�m�la caste, became well known in the reign of Hoshang Shah. Ma��ana was a successful businessman and earned a good deal of wealth through his business. While he extended his charities, and lavishly donated for the entablishment of Jaina monasteries. He neither neglected his business nor failed to assist Sultan Hoshang Shah with his financial aids. Sultan Hoshang Shah also in return honoured him.1
  4. JASAVÏ¿½RA: There was another Jaina family flourishing in M�n�u during the reign of Mahmud Khalji I. In this family Jasavira became quite prominetn. He visited many of the places of Jaina pilgrimage and distributed charity everywhere. He set up fifty-twoSa�ghapatis and was himself honoured with the title of ‘Samghe�vara‘. Jasav�ra was also associated with the government. He held an important post in the principality (J�gir) of Shehz�d� Ghiyas Sh�h.

Jaina merchants used to go either for trade or for pilgrimage, and it is not unlikely that they used to bring information about the internal condition prevailing in the kingdoms they visited and supplied them to their rulers. We find that in 1454, Jasav�ra visited Mewar and also the court of R�n� Kumbha where he was honoured by the R���. It is possible that he might have visited the kingdom of Mewar in order to collect information.2

  1. PUNJARÏ¿½JA: That the Jainas were happy and prosperous in his reign is borne out from the praises that have been lavished on M���u in the Pra�asti of the Kalpa S�tra transcribed in 1198 A.D. The Jainas had become more closely associated with the administration and received various titles from Sultan Ghiyath Shah. Punjar�ja was made Wazir of the Kh�ls� lands and was given the title of ‘Mafar-ul-Mulk.’1
  2. PADÏ¿½RTNA OF RÏ¿½MPURÏ¿½: From the two inscriptions of R�mpur�, it is known that Pad�rtha was of the Ragherav�la Caste. The Chandr�vata ruler Durgabh�nu of R�mpur� appointed the royal Pad�rtha as his Finance Minister. Durgabhanu’s son Chandra is said to have raised Pad�rtha to the status of Prime Minister. He gained a position of power and influence as Prime Minister. He was greatly devoted to the T�rtha�karas. He made gifts of food and clothes to the Sa�gha while setting out to see the festival in Jaina temple. The pillar inscription records the excavation and the consecration of the well by Pad�rtha.2


  1. MINISTERS OF THE CHAUHÏ¿½NAS OF CHANDRAVÏ¿½DA :R�masimha was the Diw�n of the Chauhana ruler Chandrap�la. He built the Jaina temple in 996-999 A.D. and installed the image of Chandraprabhu in it. Amritapala, a Minister of Abhayap�la, constructed the Jaina image at Chandrav�da. So�usahu, Minister of Jaheda, got the Bhavishyadatta Kath� written in Apabhra��a in 1173 A.D.3


Almost every state of Rajasthan and every principality or j�g�ra was served by more than one Jaina minister of manager. Naturally, all of them were not pious people; but some of them led a life of lofty ideals and were deeply devoted to their masters who could not but respect the general principles of their religion. The ministers and officers preached by practice and not by precepts. Their masters and all others who came into close contact with them were deeply impressed by the simplicity of their personal life and began to respect the religion which was responsible for their high morality, their high official position, social status, learning, loyalty and devotion. They are too numerous to be described but a bare outline of the life of some of them seems to be necessary.

  1. VIMALA: We have no information about the Jaina statesmen of Rajasthan before Vimala1 who is the most famous Jaina statesman of the eleventh century. He was a son of V�ra, the Mahattama of the King M�lar�ja, and rose to the position of the Minister of Bh�ma I by sheer dint of his military skill. Probably, he fought against Maham�d Ghazn� with his master. According to the Prabandhas, he defeated the twelve S�mantas. It cannot be wholly legendary and may contain some elements of truth. They may be deputies or generals left by Mahm�d Ghazn� after his return from India. He also assisted his master in restoring Saur�shtra and Kachchha which became independent taking advantage of the Muslim invasion.

Afterwards, Vimala helped his master Bh�ma in capturing Chandr�vat�, a place near Abu, from Dhandhuka. Bh�ma made him a governor in recognition of his services. In course of time, Vimala restored friendship between Dhandhuka and Bh�ma. Bh�ma returned his kingdom to Dhandhuka but kept Vimala as his representative of Abu as before.

Vimala was a deeply religious and self-sacrificing man. He led an extremely simple life and lavished almost all of his immense personal wealth  on the construction of a wonderful temple on Mount Abu.

  1. UDAYANA: Udayana was the well-known statesman in the time of Ch�lukyan rulers namely Siddhar�ja and Kum�rap�la. He was a native of Marwar, born at Jalor. He was a Jaina by religion and �r�m�la by caste At the suggestion of some persons, he went to Kar��vat� and stayed at the place of a painter, named Lachhi. Fortune smiled on him and he became a rich man. In course of time, he won name and fame; and he was appointed as the governor of Khambhat by Siddhar�ja.

Udayana was a devout Jaina and enormously rich. He was responsible for the initiation of Hemachandra at the age of eight, when he was the governor of Cambay. According to the Prabandhachint�ma�i, it was he who persuaded his father Ch�chiga to consent for the initiation of his son. When Kum�rap�la was wandering as an exile persecuted by the fiery wrath of his uncle, it was Udayana who gave him shelter. Ther is little doubt that he remained in touch with him throughout his exile and made efforts to secure him the throne.

Udayana was a true follower of Jainism. Once Kum�rap�la sent him against the king of Sora�ha. he left his army in Vardham�napura and went to Vimal�chala. While worshipping, he saw a rat with a burning wick entering a hole in the wooden temple. Seeing this, Udayana determined to build a stone temple and vowed to take only one meal till the task was accomplished. Then he reached the camp and marched against Sunsars. In a battle, the imperial army was defeated; but he was mortally wounded. The minister thought that he was dying before having rebuilt the temples of Vimal�chala and Bh�igukachchha. His officers assured him that his sons V�gbha�a and �mrabha�a would carry out his plans. He passed away peacefully when his sons assured him to fulfil his vow. When Kum�rap�la heard about his death, he was much grieved. Udayana had four sons V�gbhata, Ch�ha�a, Amba�a and Sola. V�gbha�a and Amba�a became the Prime Minister and Minister respectively in his reign.1

  1. VASTUPALA: Vastup�la, the prime minister of the V�ghela king V�radhavala of Dhavalaka or Dholka during the thirteenth century, was not only a statesman but also great patron of art and literature. Vastup�la and his twin brother Tejap�la were born in an aristocratic Pr�gv��a family of A�ahilav��a in 1205 A.D. They were the sons of Kum�radev�, the widow remarried to A�var�ja, a military commander of the V�ghelas. During their childhood, they lived with their father in a town called Sumhalakapura which was given to him by the Ch�lukyan king as a reward for his services.1 After the death of A�var�j, the two brothers with their mother went to Ma��al� where they lived until the death of their mother. After that, they seem to have begun their political career. He served first under Bh�madeva and his services were lent to the court of Dhavalakka only afterwards.2 We do not know when Vastup�la joined the services of Bh�ma, but it is certain that he end his brother were appointed at Dhavalakka in 1220 A.D.

ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONSOLIDATION : When Vastup�la was appointed the governor of Stambatirtha or Khambhat, he improved the economic conditions of the people and reformed administration. fort this purpose, he devised an excellent administrative machinery in order to put an end to Matsyany�ya. He put a check on unscrupulous people who were making money by base means and indulging in piracy.3 In this way, he succeeded in checking corruption with an iron hand. All these measures naturally brought about confidence among the people.4 He also improved the moral tone of the people. As a result of it, life and property became safe and secure, and thus it led to the prosperity of trade and commerce.

WARLIKE DEEDS : After establishing peace in the kingdom, Vastup�la launched upon the career of conquests. Sa�kha, the ruler of L��a, claimed the port of Stambha, which was in the possession of V�radhavala and attacked it. After a fierce fight at a place called Va�akupa (Va�av�) near Stambat�rtha, Sa�kha was defeated. The Y�dava King Si�hana of Devagiri from the south and the four M�rw�r� rulers from the north made a joint attack on the kingdom of V�radhavala. Showing shrewd statesmanship on this occasion, Vastup�la became successful in making truce with the four chiefs from Devagiri.

The Prabandhas describe several other warlike deeds of V�radhavala and his two ministers. First of all, they conquered the rulers of V�manasthal� (Modern Vanthal�, near Junagarh). S��gana and Ch�mun�a, the brothers of V�radhavala’s queen Jayataladev� declined to pay homage to V�radhavala.5 They were slain in a combat. The great riches of the palace of Vanasthal� fell into the hands of V�radhavala. V�radhavala led another attack against Bh�masi�ha of the Prat�hara clan ruling at Bhadre�vara in Kutch but could not conquer him: he had to return only after making a peace treaty.1 By it, a new friend was made and Kutch border became free from danger. After this V�radhavala thought of subduing Gh�ghula, a chief ruling at Godraha (Modern Godhr�) in the Mah�ta�a region on the banks of the river Mah�. Tejap�la, who was sent with a strong force, captured Gh�ghula and put him in a wooden cage.2

During the reign of V�radhavala, there was the attack of Sultan Mojdin of Delhi on Gujarat but it was successfully repulsed by the strategy of Vastup�la. Mojdin may be identified with the slave ruler IItutmish who ruled from 1211 A.D. to 1236 A.D. The Sultan Iltutmish undertook a number of expeditions to Rajputana and Gujarat. He captured Jalor sometimes between 1211A.D. and 1216 A.D. and Mandor about 1226 A.D. In one of these, he might have attacked Gujarat. The enemy was encircled by Dh�r�varsha of Chandr�vat� from the north and Vastup�la from the southafter his army of Cahdruavat� from the north and Vastup�la from the south after his army had entered a mountain pass near Abu. Consequently, the Sultan had to retreat. After some time, the Sultan’s mother was going on pilgrimage to the holy Mecca and had come to a port of Gujarat where she was robbed by the pirates. Vastup�la returned the old woman’s property after receiving her with great respect and also provided for her comfort and safety. While returning from Meccat she took Vastup�la with her to Delhi and introduced him to the Sultan. Vastup�la obtained a promise from the Sultan to keep friendship with V�radhavala and thus made his kingdom safe. Coming from Delhi, he was received by V�radhavala with great honour.3

  1. PILGRIMAGES OF VASTUPÏ¿½LA: According to the Prabandhas, Vastup�la had made thirteen pilgrimages to �atru�jaya and Girnar. In childhood, he went to both the places with his father A�var�ja in 1193 A.D. and 1194 A.D. After becoming a minister, he led the Sa�ghas to �atru�jaya and Girnar in 1221 A.D., 1234 A.D, 1235 A.D., 1236 A.D. and 1237 A.D. The pilgrimage of 1221 A.D. was probably the most important one as it is described with remarkable accuracy and poetic skill in contemporary works like the K�rtikaumud�, the Suk�itasa�k�rtana and Dharm�bhyudaya.

PUBLIC WORKS : Vastup�la and Tejap�la are remembered more for the cultural activities inspired by their munificience. They brough about a cultural renaissance. They built a large number of public works like temples, rest houses, tanks, wells etc. Their munificience and philanthropy extended to a large number of places in the whole of Gujarat, Saurashtra and Marwar. Their public works extended to �r��aila in the South, Prabh�sa in the West, Ked�ra in the North and Benares in the East.1 They were confined not only to the Jainas but were meant for all. They constructed hospitals, dharma��l�sMa�has, �iva temples and even mosques2. Besides, the famous Jaina temple of Abu at Delav��� generally known as Lu�avasah� temple was constructed by him.

PATRON OF LEARNING AND LITERATURE : Vastup�la was not only a philanthropist and patron of art but at the same time, a great patron of learning. He had established three public libraries in A�ahilav��, Stambhat�rtha and Bhrigukachchha by spending an enormous wealth.3 His personal library was also very rich and contained more than one copy of all important ï¿½ï¿½stras.4 He was highly liberal towards poets and scholars. While giving patronage to scholars, he made no distinction between Jaina and non-Jaina. He gave large wealth to the Br�hma�as having poetical skill.

Moreover, Vastup�la was credited with a critical faculty which enabled him to detect defects in poetic compositions by others and to make improvements in them. He was himself a poet too. His poetic name was Vasantap�la. His first poem was the ï¿½din�thastotra in the form of hymn in praise of �di�vara on the �atru�jaya hills.5 He has also written several Stotras like the Nemin�thastotraAmbik�stotra and a short Ar�dhan� of ten verses. He was also proficient in composition of S�ktis. In the Abu Pra�asti, Some�vara has spoken highly of his originality in the field of poetry.He has composed the Naran�r�ya�ananda of Arjuna and K�ish�a.

LITERARY CIRCLE OF MAHÏ¿½MÏ¿½TYA VASTUPÏ¿½LA : Several poets and the scholars circled round Vastup�la and not of the royal court of the V�ghelas. There is no doubt that these poets and scholars came to the V�ghelas court and sometimes received gifts from their ruler. But these writers praised the V�ghela kings not so much as they did Vastup�la. It indicates that all of them were dependent upon Vastup�la, and it was mainly through him that their literary efforts were appreciated. And hence, we are justified in calling these writers as the literary circle of Vastup�la. The names of these writers are Some�vara, Harihara, N�n�ka, Ya�ov�ra, Subha�a, Arisi�ha, Amarachandras�ri, Vijayasenas�ri, Udayaprabhas�ri, Jinabhadras�ri, Narachandra, Narendraprabhas�ri, B�lachandra, Jayasi�has�ri and M��ikyachandra.


  1. RESTORATION OF THE KINGDOM BY TEJÏ¿½GADAHÏ¿½YA TO MÏ¿½LADEVA: In Jodhpur state, there were several leading Jainas who rendered valuable services to the ruling chiefs. Among them, the name of Tej� Gadah�y� is well-known. He was a great warriour and a faithful servant of Mah�r�j� M�ladeva. In about 1541 A.D., Shershah attacked Jodhpur with large forces but he could not defeat the brave R�jputs so easily. He, therefore, took recourse to treachery and became successful in capturing Jodhpur from the R��ho�as. Shershah was so much impressed by their valour that he remarked “I had nearly lost the empire of Hindustan for a handful of B�jra (Millet).”

Shershah appointed his deputy Hamaj� to govern Jodhpur. According to the Osv�lava���val�,1 Tej� Gadah�y� restored the kingdom of Jodhpur to his master M�ladeva after putting Hamaj� to death. It shows his bravery as well as devotion towards his master.

  1. HEROIC AND PHILANTHROPIC DEEDS OF MUHAÏ¿½OTA JAYAMALA: Muha�ota Jyamala was a great warrior and philanthropist. The Mughal emperor gave two districts of Jalor and Sanchor to Mah�r�ja Gajasi�ha who appointed Muha�ota Jayamala as the governor. Jayamala carried on the administration successfully. He defeated 500 Mar��h�s who invaded Sanchor. When a dreadful famine broke out in 1630 A.D., he distributed grains free of charge among the needy and distressed. Besides, he spent his entire property in these charitable activites.
  2. MUHAÏ¿½OTA NAIÏ¿½ASÏ¿½ AS AN ADMINISTRATOR: The son of Muha�ota Jayamala was Muha�ota Nai�as�, who was a historian as well as an administrator. He acted as the d�v�na of Jasawantasi�ha. He compiled  a history of Marwar on the line of Abul Fuzl. He introduced the census sustem and improved the administration by removing many l�gas and beg�ras. He has written a five-yearly report describing the districts, villages, their income, quality of land, tanks, wells and different castes in M�rwari language on the model of ï¿½ini-Akbar� of Abul Fuzl.

Muha�ota Nai�as� was a devout Jaina and possessed spotless character. He was loyal but frank and brave but lenient. He led an extremely simple life strictly according to the tenets of Jainism.

  1. RATANASIÏ¿½HA AS A WARRIOR: Ratanasimha Bha�d�r� served Abhayasi�ha with great zeal and devotion. He was a great warrior. In 1730 A.D., Mah�r�ja Abhayasi�ha was appointed as a Viceroy of Ajmer and Gujarat. After a period of 3 years, he placed Ratanasi�ha Bha�dar� in the sole charge of the province. He worked there from 1733 A.D. to 1737 A.D. The Mughal power was on decline so that authority of the emperor was defied by the Mar��h�s on the one hand and by his refractory governors on the other. Ratanasi�ha, therefor, had to spend his whole time either in waging the wars against the Mar��h�s or putting down the overpowerful governors.

Ratanasi�ha had not been long in his new office when the Mar��h�s under their leader Jaduj� D�bhade visited Gujarat. In order to save the province from their ravages, he had to purchase their retreat at an enormous expense.

Bh�vasi�ha, the hereditary governor of V�ramag�m, was a source of trouble to him. In 1734 A.D., he had to issue orders to Jawahmard Khan for the arrest of the delinquent. Jawahmard Khan, of course went to Viramagam and took him into custody but was forced by his supporters to release him.

In 1735 A.D., Soharabkhan was appointed as the governor of Viramagam but Ratanasi�ha did not like his appointment. Soharab Khan leaving Sadak Ali as his deputy in Junagarh marched for V�ramagam. Ratanasi�ha also with assistance of Mominkhan and others proceeded towards V�ramagam. A battle was fought between the two. The troops of Soharab Khan fled away and he himself was killed in the battle. Bh�vasi�ha of V�ramagam was waiting for the revenge. He, therefore, entered into an alliance with the Mar��h�s and treacherously admitted them into the city. D�maj�. the Mar��h� leader, assumed the control of Viramagam and expelled the M�raw�r� administrator Kaly�na and left his agent Ra�goj�. Ra�goj� advanced as far as Bavla near Dholka pillaging and devastating the country. Ratanasi�ha marched against him and drove him back to Viramagam. He, however, laid siege to it. At this time, Prat�par�va advanced towards Ahmedabad. When Ratanasi�ha knew it, he at once raised the siege of the town and returned to Ahmedabad.

In 1737 A.D., Muhammad Shah became displeased with Abhayasi�ha and appointed Meminkhan as the Viceroy of Gujarat in his place. When Ratanasi�ha Bha�d�r� became aware of the change, he at once wrote to his master for the orders. The reply from Abhaysi�ha was that Ratanasi�ha Bha���ri should resist Memimkhan if he could. He prepared to defend Ahmedabad while Meminkhan prepared for the march of his army. Meminkhan also made his friendship with the Mar��h�s. But Ratanasi�ha was a great diplomat and made attempts not to make the union of these two parties. In the end, he entered into negotiation with Meminkhan and left the city after receiving a large sum of money from him.

After the death of Jor�varasi�ha, the chief of Bikaner in 1745 A.D., there started a war of succession between the two claimants namely Gajasi�ha and Amarasi�ha. With the aid of �h�kura Ku�alasi�ha and Mehat� Bakht�varasi�ha, Gajasi�ha succeeded in securing the gaddi, upon which Amarsi�ha took up the cause of the disappointed claimant and marched a large force in command of Ratansimaha Bha�d�r� against Gajasi�ha. A decisive battle was fought in 1747 A.D. and Ratanasi�ha Bha���r� was killed fighting gallantly.1

Professionally a soldier and statesman, Ratanasi�ha was almost a S�dhu in his private life. Naturally, he was greatly respected not only by Jainas but also by non-Jainas including the Muslims.

  1. Ï¿½AMASERA BAHÏ¿½DURA AS A GENERAL: �amasera Bah�dura, who was the commander in chief of Mah�r�ja Vijayasi�ha, participated in several battles. In the battle fought in Gaurwar province, he showed excellent bravery in 1792 A.D. In recognition of his gallantry and heroism on battlefields, Mah�r�j� Vijayasi�ha became highly pleased and conferred upon him unique honour of R�v� R�j� and a j�g�ra worth 29,000/-.1 He was a very pious man and stories regarding his charity and purity are still current in Marwar.
  2. LOYALTY OF DHANARÏ¿½JÏ¿½: After conquering Ajmer from the Mar��h�s in 1787 A.D., the ruling chief of Jodhpur made Dhanar�ja its governor, The Mar��h�s soon recovered their losses and four years later again invaded Marwar. Two sanguinary battle of Merta and P�tan were fought in which M�rw�r�s were defeated.

In the meantime, the Mar��h� General De Boighe had attacked and invested Ajmer. Dhanar�ja, the governor of the place, stood the siege heroically and successfully. Vijayasi�ha, seeing the disastrous result of P�tan, issued him order to surrender the place to the enemies and return to Jodhpur. It was too exacting a demand on his brave and chivalrous nature. He would neither consent to a disgraceful surrender nor would he be guilty of disobedience to his master. He was thus placed in dilemma. Eventually, he decided to end his life. He had the diamond ring on his finger he had the gem pulverised and swallowed the powder. ‘Go and tell the prince’, cried the departing hero,’thus only, I could testify my obedience and over my dead body alone, could a M�r��h� enter Ajmer.’

  1. DIPLOMACY AND LOYALTY OF INDRARÏ¿½JA: Indrar�ja Si�gh� was a real diplomat as well as a loyal servant of his master. Jagatsi�ha, the ruler of Jaipur, espoused the cause of M�nasi�ha’s rival Dho�kalasi�ha and attacked Marwar with a large army. Mah�r�j� S�ratasi�ha of Bikaner, Pin��r� Amirakhan and several other Sardars also joined him. Jaipur forces took the possession of M�ro�ha, Merta, Parbatsar, Nagaur, P�l�, Sojat etc. and even the city of Jodhpur. Only the fort remained under the possession of M�h�r�j�. At this time, Si�gh� Indrar�ja and Bha�d�r� Gang�r�ma requested M�har�j� M�nasi�ha to let them out through the secret path of the fort. The prince acceded to the request and sent them outside the fort. Both of them went to Merta where they collected a large force. They won Am�rakhan, the leader of the Pin��r�s, to their side by offering him a bribe of one lakh. After that, Si�gh� Indrar�ja, Bha�d�r�, Gang�r�ma and �h�kura �ivan�thasi�ha of Kuch�man left for Jaipur. When the Mah�r�j� of Jaipur came to know, he sent a large army under the command of R�ya �ival�la. Several skirmishes took place but not decisive battle was fought. At last, Am�rakh�n and Si�gh� Indrar�ja succeeded in rounting the Jaipur forces at F�g� near Tonk. When this news reached Jagatasi�ha, he immediately raised the siege of Jodhpur and left for his counry.

Mah�r�j� M�nasi�ha highly honoured Indrar�ja on his return to Jodhpur and made him his chief minister. After that, Indrar�ja besieged Bikaner and compelled the Mah�r�j� to pay four lakhs of rupees as a price for raising his siege. He also saved his master from the serious plot of Am�rakhan. When he invaded Bikaner, Am�rakh�n in his absence got the patt� of the districts of Parbatsar, M�ro�ha, D�dw�n� and Sambhar. The Pathans of Am�rakhan reached Jodhpur and demanded their salaries and the possession of four districts from Indrar�ja, who asked them to produce the relevant document. When it was placed before him, he swallowed it up. This act infuriated the Pathans who killed the S�gh� then and there. When this news reached the Mah�r�j�, he expressed his deep sorrow over his death and ordered for the royal funeral. In return of his valuable services, Mah�r�j� M�nasi�ha gave the j�g�ra of twenty-five thousand and d�v�nag� to his son Fatehar�ja.1


  1. RESTORATION OF THE KINGDOM TO KALYÏ¿½Ï¿½ASIÏ¿½HA BY THE EFFORTS OF NAGARÏ¿½JA: In Bikaner State, there were some Jaina statesmen who not only controlled the civil affairs of the state with great skill but also took part even in military affairs. Among them, the mane of N�gar�ja is well-known. He was a faithful servant of his master Jaitrasi�ha. When M�ladeva, the ruler of Jodhpur, wanted to conquer Bikaner, Jaitrasi�ha sent N�gar�ja to the court of Shershah for help. Jaitrasi�ha lost his life fighting against M�ladeva who took possession of Bikaner. N�gar�ja, persuaded Shershah for the invasion of Marwar. M�ladeva was badly defeated, and it enabled Kaly��asi�ha, the son of Jaitrasi�ha, to restore his hereditary kingdom.

Tradition has it that Nagar�ja was a great man in all respects. He was a God-fearing man, and his every act was inspired by lofty ideals. He gave great charities, respected S�dhus and led a very abstemious life.

  1. MILITARY AND PHILANTHROPIC ACTIVITIES OF KARMACHANDRA: Karmachandra was an able statesman, a great general and a religious man. He was the chief minister of R�yasi�ha. When Abhayasi�ha, the ruler of Jaipur, invaded Bikaner, he advised his master to make peace because the state was not prepared for the disastrous war. By his efforts, Akbar gave the title of R�j� to R�yasi�ha. When Mirza Ibrahim of Nagaur attacked Bikaner, he repulsed him. Later on, he against Gujarat under Mughal standard. He extended the bounds of the Bikaner state by occupying Sojat, Jalor and some portion of Sindh.

Karmachandra rendered valuable services to his community and religion. he led many Sa�ghas to the holy places. In 1555 A.D., he celebrated the official entry of Jinachandras�ri at Bikaner with great rejoicings. During the famine of 1578 A.D, he made every endeavour to relieve the starving population by setting up depots for the free distribution of grain. He redovered a large number of images from the Mohammedans into whose hands they had fallen and deposited them in the Chint�m�i temples at Bikaner. It was through his efforts that Jainism secured the place in the heart of Akbar. In 1592 A.D., on the suggestion of Karmachandra, Akbar invited Jinachandras�ri from Cambay and received the holy visitor at Lahore with high honour.

Karmachandra was a farsighted statesman. When R�yasi�ha, the ruler of Bikaner, was becoming more and extravagant, he made the last and determined dffort to bring the king to senses at the cost of his personal loss. The treasury became empty and the future of the state appeared gloomy. His enemies poisoned the ears of the R�j� against him. R�yasi�ha determined to arrest Karmachandra and to put him to death. Anyhow, it became known to Karmachandra who at once fled from Bikaner and sought the protection of Akbar. The emperor treated him with kindness and assigned him an honourable post in his court.1

63 SUPPRESSION OF REFRECTORIES BY AMARACHANDRA SURÏ¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½ : Amarachanda Sur�n� rose to the position of eminence during the reign of Mah�r�j� S�ratasi�ha. He was sent with an army against Zabatakhan, the chief of Bhattis. Zabatakhan fought for 5 months, but in the end, he had to surrender the fort to Amarachanda. In recognition of his service, Amarachandra was made d�v�na of the state.

In 1808 A.D., S�ratasi�ha despatched a large force under the command of Amarachandra to check the march of advancing army under Indrar�ja Si�ghav�, sent by Mah�r�j� Manasi�ha of Jodhpur. However, no major incident took place and it was with the good offices of Amarachanda that the reconciliation between the two states was brought about.

Amarachanda was then appointed to suppress the refractory nobles of Bikaner. He carried out his task most successfully with iron hand. He exacted a heavy fine from the �h�kura of Saraubi and then attacked Ratanasi�ha Baidvant and hanged him on the spot. He next invaded Bhattis and ruthlessly butchered them all except one. Soon after, he attacked the leading �h�kura chiefs Naharasi�ha and imprisoned them. In 1815 A.D., he was sent with an army against �ivasi�ha of Churu, who committed suicide. And thus, Churru fell into the hands of Amarachanda. Mah�r�j� S�ratasi�ha highly appreciated his svices and conferred on him the special honour.

The continuous success of Amarachanda Sur��� could not be borne by his enemies who formed a conspiracy to bring about his downfall. In 1817 A.D., he was falsely accused of intriguing with Am�rakhan, the leader of the Pi�d�r�s, and was executed in a most brutal manner by the Mah�r�j�.1


64 SHELTER TO PRINCE UDAISIÏ¿½HA BY Ï¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½AHA : The Udaipur state was served by a number of Jaina soldiers, statesmen and administrators with singular devotion and loyalty. One of them is �����ha who was the Kiled�ra of Kumbhalmer. He aflorded asylum to the infant prince Udaisi�ha against the clutches of Banav�ra. Although in the beginning, when Pann� Dh�ya approached him for protection of Udaisi�ha, �����ha was reluctant to give him shelter. But latr on, it was on the persuasion of his mother that he acceded to the request of Pann�. In order to maintain secrecy, he bagan to call Udaisi�ha as his nephew. When Udaisi�ha came of age, ����aha along with a handful of chiefs installed Udaisi�ha on the gadd�, and this saved the dynasty from ruin.1

  1. LOYALTY OF MEHTA CHÏ¿½LAJÏ¿½ :Another officer who proved loyal to Udaisi�ha in his hour of crisis was Mehat� Ch�laj�. Though he was the Kiled�ra of the fort of Chitor under Banav�ra, his real desire was to restore the fort to the rightful claimant Udaisi�ha. When the latter besieged the fort of Chitor, Mehatua Ch�laj� sent all the sectets of the fort to Udaisi�ha and thus helped him in capturing the fort.2
  2. BHÏ¿½MÏ¿½Ï¿½HA, THE SAVIOUR OF MEWAR:  Bh�m���ha, who was the d�v�na of Mah�r��� Prat�pa, set the noble example of high sense of patriotism and loyalty. When Mah�r��a Prat�pa was in desperate need of mony to continue the struggle with the Mughal emperor, Bh�m���ha, the embodiment of truth and loyalty, came to his help and disclosed the secrecy of the hidden treasure, as it was written in bha�, which was under his possession. This enabled Mah�r��� to collect his scattered forces and to renew war against Akbar. The result was that R��� Prat�pa in a short campaign regained the whole Mewar except Chitor, Ajmer and Mandalgarh.3
  3. MILITARY AND PHILANTHROPIC DEEDS OF DAYÏ¿½LADÏ¿½SA: Sa�ghav� Day�lad�sa, D�v�na of Mah�r��� R�jasi�ha, was a great general and philanthropist. When Mewar was attacked by Aurangzeb in 1679 A.D., Day�lad�sa  fought on the side of Mah�r��� and gave an example of undaunted heroism. Besides, Day�lad�sa was also sent to check the advance of the Mughal forces from the side of Malwa.

Not only the military general but he was also deeply religious minded and a devout Jaina. It was on accoutn of his personal efforts that Mah�r��� issued orders for the observance of Ahi�s� in the area of Up�sar�. Day�lad�sa also constructed a beautiful Jaina temple in the shape of a fort on the mountain just near R�jasamanda.4

  1. MEHATÏ¿½ AGARACHANDA AS A DIPLOMAT AND STATESMAN: Mehat� Agarachanda proved himself to be the successful diplomat and able statesman of the eighteenth century A.D. At this time, the politicalsituation of India as well as of Mewar was surcharged with fear and suspicion and of India as well as of Mewar was surcharged with fear and suspicion and anarchy was rampant. The props of the Mughal empire seems to be failing and the Mar��has taking advantage of such situation were plundering and devastating the territory. In Rajasthan too, princes were disunited and were indulgung in mutual quarrels and family feuds. Mah�r��� Arisi�ha was a man of unscrupulous temperament. As a result of it, his faithful Sarad�ras became hostile to him and coquetted with the Mar��h� chiefs. The Mar��h�s inflicted a severe defeat on Mah�r��� and forced him to pay a heavy war indemmity. M�h�r�n� could pay only 33 lakhs and for the rest, he gave the districts of J�va��, J�ram and N�mach etc. to Sindhia Taking advantage of the weakness of Mah�r���, Holkar also occupied the fertile area of Nimb���. Under such state of affairs, Mah�r��� made Mehat� Agarachanda his D�v�na.

With uncommon tactfulness and personal intrepidity, Mehat� succeeded in bringing about a rapprochement between the two rival and hostile groups of the Sard�ras and thus restord peace. In order to achieve this object, he occupied Mandalgarh which was the stronghold of the rebellious Sard�ras. Naturally, this pleased Mah�r��� who first appointed him as the governor of Mandalgarh and afterwards gave him the pa��� of that place.

Agarachanda again came to Mah�r���’s rescue when fictitious Ratanasi�ha organized a conspiracy with the help of Sindhia and some of the Mewar chiefs. Though Mah�r���’s  forces fought with undaunted heroism, they were defeated; and Agarachanda and other chiefs were made captives. He was asked by the Mar��h�s to recognize Ratanasi�ha as the righful claimant but, true to his master’s loyalty, he declined to do so. Anyhow with the help of �ivachanda, he was able to free himself from the clutches of the enemy.1

Mehat� Agarachanda also served Mah�r��� Bh�masi�ha who gave shelter to Ch����vatas of R�mpura. This incited the anger of Sindhia of Gwalior who sent forces against Mah�r��� under the command of �kh� and L�kh�. A dreadful battle was fought and in the end, Mehat� Agarachanda emerged victorious. When the chief of Shahpura took away the district of Jahazapur, Mehat� Agarachanda fough against him and seized Jahazapur back.

Mehat� Agarachanda was not only a skilful general but also an able administrator. He successfully carried on the administration of Mandalgarh by providing facilities to the people. He constructed tanks and repaired the fort. He was also a man of letters. In his last days, he wrote some works which rflect upon his dipolomatic insight and scholarship.

  1. FARSIGHTEDNESS OF MEHATÏ¿½ DEVÏ¿½CHANDA: Mehat� Dev�chanda was a farsighted statesman. He was also truthful and highly devoted to his master and state. When under some pressure Mah�r��� Bh�masi�ha became ready to hand over the fort of Mandalgarh to the famous Jh�l� J�limasi�ha, Dev�chanda paid no heed to his instructions and continued to occupy the fort. Being a farsighted statesman, he knew the future dangers. Jh�l� J�limasimha made preparations to annex Mandalgarh. First of all, he constructed a fort at Luhandi near Mandalgarh for invasion. Not only this, he occupied three villages of Mewar. Dev�chanda at once attacked Jh�l�, routed his forces and forced him to flee away. Mah�r��� became highly pleased and wanted to offer him the post of Chief Ministership. He declined to accept and remained only a chief councillor.1


In the history of Jaipur, the Jaina statesman occupy a high and prominent place. About fifty Jainas acted as D�v�nas and rendered valuable services to the state. Under their patronage, Jainism made a great progress. They got various copies of the Jaina ��stras prepared and constructed a number of temples and images. They were also warriors and good administrators. The achievements of some of them shall be described here.

  1. NÏ¿½NU’S CONTRIBUTION TO JAINISM: Saha N�nu was the Prime Minister of M�nasi�ha Kachchh�v�ha ruler of �mber who was deputed as the Governor of Bangade�a by Akbar. It seems that S�ha N�nu had to visit Bengal several times in connection with his duties towards his Master. He got the Ya�odhara Charitra written in V.S. 1659 at Akachchhapura (Akabarapura), near Champ�nagar� in Ba�gade�a from Bha���raka J��nak�rti in the �din�tha temple. He built twenty Jaina temples of the T�rtha�karas at Sammeda�ikhara and led pilgrimage to this holy place several times.
  2. WARLIKE DEEDS OF VIMALADÏ¿½SA :Vimalad�sa was the D�v�na of both Mah�r�j� R�masi�ha I (1668 A.D.-1690 A.D.) and Vi�anasi�ha. He was a great warrior and lost his life in the battle of L�laso�a. A chhatr� was also built in his memory.
  3. RESTORATION OF THE KINGDOM OF AMBER BY RÏ¿½MACHANDRA: After Vimalad�sa, his son R�machandra became the chief minister who served both Vi�anasi�ha and his successor Saw�i Jayasi�ha. He restored the kingdom of Amber to Saw�i Jayasi�ha. In 1707 A.D., the Mughal emperor Bah�dura Shah invaded Amber and occupied it. He appointed Saiyyad Hussain as the governor. Jayasi�ha abandoned his kingdom along with his chief minister R�machandra and took shelter under Mah�r��� of Chitor. R�machandra wanted to free Amber from the clutches of the enemy. With this object in view, he organized his forces which compelled Hussain Kh�n to leave Amber in favour of Saw�i Jayasi�ha. In recognition of his services, Mah�r�ja assigned him a piece of land and his name also began to appear on his coins. Formerly there was written D�v�na R�machandra on the golden coin but now ‘Bande D�v�na R�machandra’ was inscribed,1

R�machandra was also famous as a man of justice. When there was a possibility of conflict between the chiefs of Jodhpur and Jaipur over the partition of Sambhar, he was appointed as an intermediary from both the sides. He divided Sambhar equally between the two parties and his decision was accepted. In return of his services, he was given about 5000 maunds of salt yearly.

  1. DEVOTION OF KÏ¿½IPÏ¿½RAMA TOWARDS HIS MASTER: Another able Jaina statesman of Saw�i Jayasi�ha was K�ip�r�ma who was and envoy at Delhi. He was the faithful servant of his master. Vijayasi�ha, the rival of Saw�i Jayasi�ha, won the Mughal emperor and his vazir Kamaruddin to his side by a promise to give five crores of rupees and five thousand cavalry. R�va K�ip�r�ma knew the secrecy of the plot through Daurankhan and cautioned his master. Jayasi�ha took the measures of safeguard against his enemies. He became highly pleased with K�ip�r�ma and gave the village of Manoharapura to him.2
  2. VIJAYARAMA CHHÏ¿½BARÏ¿½ AS A DIPLOMAT :Vijayar�ma Chh�bar� was also one of the ministers of Saw�i Jayasi�ha. The sister of Sawai Jayasi�ha was going to be married to the Mughal emperor Bah�durshah, but it was due to the efforts of Vijayar�ma Chh�bar� that she was married to R�va Budhasi�ha H�d�, the king of Bundi. Further as a successful diplomat, he became successful in bringing the hostiliteis betwiin the Mughal emperor Bah�durshah and Saw�i Jayasi�ha to a close.
  3. HARISIÏ¿½HA AS AN ADMINISTRATOR: Saw�i Jayasi�ha obtained the Ij�r� of the �ekh�v�t� district from the Mughal authorities. He, therefore, invervened in this affair for the first time in 1726 A.D. and 1727 A.D. He appointed a competent banker named Harisi�ha to collect the tribute. The Qaimkhani Nawabs held this place as watan for more than a century. At first, the Qaimkhani chief declined to pay the tribute; and disturbances also took place before the authority could be established. As the troops under the command of Harisi�ha were insufficient to secure the Darbar’s possession in Jhunjhunu, he entered into a series of agreement with local leaders to secure their assistance in suppressing the trouble. In the end, he became successful in establishing the authority of Saw�i Jayasi�ha in �ekh�vat�.1
  4. RAYACHNDA AS A DIPLOMAT: The marriage question of K�ish��kum�r� between the rulers of Jaipur and Jodhpur was settled by the efforts of R�yachanda. K�ish��kum�r�, the daughter of Mah�r�n� Bh�masi�ha of Udaipur, was first going to be married to the Jodhpur. As the ruling chief of Jodhpur died before the marriage, it was decided to marry her to Jagatsi�ha, the chief of Jaipur. This was considered to be an insult of the Jodhpur House by Mah�r�j� M�nasi�ha. In about 1805 A.D., the preparations for the struggle started on both the the sides. Anyhow R�yachanda settled the question peacefully between the two parties. Both Jaipur and Jodhpur chiefs promised not to marry K�ish��kum�r�. The sister of Jagatasi�ha was married to M�nasi�ha and the daughter of M�nasi�ha was given to Jagatsi�ha.

The peace thus established could not last long. Again, there started a struggle on the question of Dho�kalasi�ha. Hearing the news of the invasion of Jaipur by R��ho�a forces with the help of Am�rakhan, Jagatsi�ha had to raise the siege of Jodhpur fort and march towards Jaipur. At this critical time, R�yachanda by giving bribery of one lakh won Am�rakh�n to his side and saved both the town and life of his master.

  1. Ï¿½IVAJÏ¿½LÏ¿½LA AS ADMINISTRATOR AND WARRIOR: �ivaj�l�la became famous both as an administrator and warrior. There was no systematic order in the collection of Muamala during the reign of Mah�r�j� Prat�pasi�ha and there were several irregularities. �ivaj�l�la became successful in removing them all and collecting a large amout of money. He achieved a remarkable success in the task of the procudtion and the distribution of salt entrusted to him. He also participated in several battles fought by the Mah�r�j� of Jaipur against the Pi���r�s and Ratho�as. In appreciation of his services, Mah�r�j� of Jaipur gave him special honour.
  2. SAÏ¿½GHÏ¿½ JHOTÏ¿½RÏ¿½MA AS A DIPLOMAT: Sa�gh� Jhot�r�ma was a shrewd diplomat in the nineteenth century A.D. Such was his powerful influence in the court of Jaipur that Tod remarked it as the faithless court, the Jhoot� darb�ra and the Baniy�r�ja. But these expressions indicate only the partisan character. It was only due to the prejudice of the author against  the hesitation of Jaipur state in accepting the British alliance bacause of the influence of Jhot�r�ma who knew the future consequences. The British Government took Bair�s�la of Samod, the leading nobles of the state to their side. Between Jhot�r�ma and R�vala Bair�s�la, there came into existence the deadly enmity. In order to bring the downfall of Jhot�r�ma, schemes were devised. He was credited with the crime of murdering his young master in 1835 A.D. When he knew the jealousy, he himself resigned the post of ministership. He was ordered to go to Daus�, where he was kept under strict restrictions. He could neither write nor read. Santris and Chaparasis remained there to gaurd him. Even after that, the plots were devised by R�vala Bair�s�la who was in power.
  3. KÏ¿½ISHÏ¿½ADÏ¿½SA: K�ish�ad�sa, a rich merchant of the Bagherav�la caste, was the Prime-Minister of Kishore Si�ha Chauh�n of Kotah Kishore Si�ha was the S�manta of the Mughal Emperor Aurangazeb. K�ish�ad�sa was highly devoted to Jainism. Even during the reign of Aurangzeb, Krishnad�sa constructed a Jaina temple of Mah�v�ra and celebrated the installation ceremony of the temple as well as images with his wife and sons in 1689 A.D. at Ch�ndkhe��. He could build the Jaina temple because Aurangzeb was in the South where Kishore Si�ha was serving him faithfully. Kr�sh�ad�sa was sincere to his master Kishore Si�ha. Even then repeated explanations were demanded as to why the temple was being built against the express imperial policy. But the local authorities continued to send evasive replies because they knew that the emperor’s end was high.

In 1835 A.D., the assault was committed upon the person on the British Resident Major Alves when he was returning from a visit of ceremony at the palace. It caused the death of Mr. Blake, the assistant agent to the Governor Genera. Jhot�r�ma was residing at Daus� under confinement. He with his brother and son were arrested because some letters were seized both at Daus� and Agra. As a matter of fact, these letters seem to be forged. For the trial of this case, the court met in 1836 A.D. The judges appointed for the trial were the puppets in the hands of the British Government. He and his brother were sentenced to death by the court but the Governor General in Council however took a different view of this case. The sentences of death in their case was commuted to imprisonment for life and the fort of Chunar was designated as the place of their confinement.1

The numerous Jaina statesmen, soldiers and administrators who served various important states of Rajputana for several centuries wielded naturally a great influence in the respective states. Their influence was very helpful to the spread and dissemination of Jainism in Rajasthan. They secured respect for Jaina S�dhus, arranged maintenance of Jaina temples, helped in running Jaina schools, encouraged the well-equipped Jaina libraries and in several other ways ensured respect for Jainism even by those who were not its followers. Rajasthan has been ruled for the last one thousand years by R�jputs who had no hesitations in shedding the blood. That Jainism flourished in their dominious is due to the influence of the Jaina S�dhus and the leading Jaina house-holders. Besides, there were a large number of Jaina businessmen and almost in every state, a few of them even multimillionaires. Some of them were mighty bankers and the R�jput rulers who suffered from the chronic want of necessary funds for maintaining the armies and running the administration depended mostly on loans from these rich magnates; and what is true of the rulers, was true in still greater degree of the people in general in all the states. Thus, the mercantile Jaina community wielded a great influence in the society; and their religion was naturally respected by the people. It is due to the influence of Jainism that the population of Rajasthan ruled by Rajputs remained vegetarian in larger majority than any other part of India.


There were some ï¿½r�vakas who were great patrons of Jainism. They were wealthy and spent their wealth for the propagation of Jainism. They were of high character. The important ï¿½r�vaks known to us are as follows :


  1. 1. RÏ¿½HAÏ¿½A: R�ha�a was intelligent, popular, religious and noble minded. He worshipped the image according to the rules of his faith, praised the Jaina monks, listened to their sermons, gave money in charity to the poor, performed penance to the best of his abilities and observed the vows of a Jaina layman.
  2. Ï¿½BHAÏ¿½A :The Prabandha chint�ma�i gives information about �ha�a, a rich Jaina of the time of Kum�rapala. �ha�a began life as a poor man. Once fortune smiled upon him and he became very rich. He was a follower of Hemas�ri, and performed the religious ceremonies of the Jainas with great faith. He was a great donor.2
  3. CHHAÏ¿½AKA SHETH AND KUBERA: Chha�aka She�h and Kubera were Jaina multi-millionaires of the time of Kum�rap�la.3 According to Ya�ahp�la, a contemporary of Kubera, Kubera had six crore gold coins, 8000 mans of silver, 80 mans or jewels, 50,000 horses, 1000 elephants, 80,000 cows, 500 ploughs, 500 shops, 500 carriages etc. It seems to be an exaggeration, but there is no doubt that he was very wealthy.
  4. JAGADU: Jagadu was the son of Sola, Several stories are told about Jagadu. Sarvananda S�ri informs us that fortune smiled upon  Jagadu and the latter became very rich without any great effort on his part. The great famine occurred for three years from V.S. 1313 to 1315 or V.S. 1315 to 1317. There may or may not be on exaggeration about the amount of corn distributed by Jagadu but certain it is that he opened alms-houses in various parts of the country, gave corn to the poor very viberally and helped V�saladeva of A�ahilav��a and other kings of India by giving them corn in the days of famine.

Jagadu’s several pious and religious deeds are known. He built several Jaina temples at Bhadre�vara, Dha�ka, Wadhawana, Devakula etc. and set up images also in them. he made three pilgrimages to Giran�ra and �atru�jaya. He dug wells in many villages and towns.

The date of Jagadu’s death is not known. From Jagaducharitra, it seems that he survived for some years after the great famine. He must have died bofore V.S. 1331.1


  1. PETHAÏ¿½A: Petha�a was another prominent Jaina of this period. His father’s name was Deda. His guru advised him to seek fortune in Ma��apadurga. Petha�a acted according to the advice of his spiritual preceptor and became exceedingly rich King Jayasi�ha Param�ra of Malwa honoured him much and gave him ensigns of royalty.

Dharmaghosha S�ri, who had induced him to seek fortune in Malwa, came to Ma��apadurga and advised Petha�a  to build Jaina temple. Petha�a acting according to the S�ri’s suggestion, built eighty-four Jaina temples in different parts of India. His edifice at Ma��ava ga�ha was superb. It was adorned with gold knob and staff costing eighteen lakhs. On the �atru�jaya hill, Petha�a built a temple ��ntin�tha. He also built a Jaina temple at Devagiri. He spent large sums of money to erect this temple and called it ‘Amulyapr�s�da‘. This temple was completed in 1218-79 A.D.

Pethada made pilgrimage to �atru�jaya, Giran�ra and Mount �bu. He had taken the vow ‘Parigraha-Pram��a Vrata‘ or the fifth vow or a Jaina layman when he was at Vidy�pura (Vijapura).1

  1. JHÏ¿½Ï¿½JHANA: Pethada’s son Jh��jha�a was a chip of the old  block. He married Saubh�gyadev�, daughter of Bh�ma Sheth of Delhi. In 1284 A.D., he started from Ma��apadurga with Dharmaghosha S�ri and Jaina Sa�gha and made a pilgrimage to �atru�jaya and Giran�ra. On the way, he halted at Balapura, Chitrak��a (Chitor), Arbudagiri, Chandr�vat�, Pra�h�danapura (P�lanpura), A�ahilapura, T�ranagiri (T�ra�g�), Kar��vat� and several other places. At Bal�pura, Jh��jha�a set up twenty-four images and built a temple to P�r�van�tha at Kar�hetaka, at the suggestion of Dharmaghosa, his preceptor. At Karn�vat�, he rewarded a bard for composing a good poem, set free ninety-six prisoners and took his meals with S�ra�gadeva of Gujarat.

According to the Upade�atara�gin�, Jha�jha�a Sh�h, hearing that �bhu �r�m�l� of Tharapadra or Tharada, who had the biruda of ‘Pa�chima Ma��alika‘ did not take his meals without feeding the Jainas that paid visits to this place, went to Tharapadra with a Jaina congregation of 32,000 and put up at �bhu’s place. �bhu Sh�h was, on that day, engaged in religious ceremonies, but his brother Jinad�sa feasted the congregation and gave presents to the Jainas. Next day, Jh��jha�a fell at the feet of �bhu and begged forgiveness for putting him to a severe test

Jh��jha�a, like his father, was an excellent follwer of Jina, on influential member of the Jaina, community and great donor.1

  1. SAMARASIÏ¿½HA: Samarasi�ha, who repaired the temple of �din�tha on the �atru�jaya Hill, belonged to Upake�aVa��a. A�ahilav��a was Samarasi�ha’s domicile of choice. Samarasi�ha was a well-known jeweller in the old capital of Gujarat. He exercised great influence at court. When �din�tha’s temple on the �atru�jaya Hill was destroyed by the Muslims, he obtained a ‘firm�na‘ to repair the temple. When the Jainas came to know of the ‘firm�na, they gave a rousing reception to Samara Sh�h. Samara Sh�h, then made up his mind to make tomake a pilgirmage to the holy hill in the company of the Jaina congregation to set up the image of �din�tha in the newly constructed temple. The Jaina monks and the prominent Jainas joined the congregation. Alapakhana, Subed�r of Gujarat, who had granted permission to rebuild the temple, gave ten guards to protect the congregation.

When the congregation reached P�lit�n�, Samarasi�ha Sh�h pitched tents. About this time, his brothers Sahajap�la from Devagiri and S�ha�a from Khambhat came to P�lith�n� with congregation. In 1315 A.D., Samarasi�ha installed the image of �din�tha in the completed temple, on the holy hill. The honour of performing the ceremony at the time of setting up the images is shared by Siddh�s�ri of Upake�a-gachchha and Ratn�kara S�ri of Tap�gachchha. A festival was held by De�ala, Samara Sh�h’s father to celebrate this event. From P�lita��, Samara�aha went to Giran�ra with the congregation and worshipped Nemin�tha. From Giran�ra, he went to Devapattana where he was given a rousing reception by the king. The congregation then went to Div. From Div, the congregation went to A�ahilav��a. The Jaina Sa�gha gave a rousing reception to him. According to the N�bhinandanoddhara Prabandha, Emperor Gy�sudd�n was much pleased with Samara��ha and highly honoured him. He was appointed as the ‘Subed�r’of Tela�gadesa where he set free many prisoners and obliged many chieft�ins.1

  1. KARMA Ï¿½Ï¿½HA: Karma ��ha was the son of Osava��� Tol���ha of Chitor by his wife Lilu. He was a well-known cloth merchant in Chitor. Once when Bah�dura ��ha, prince of Gujarat, paid a visit to Chitor, he came to know Karma ��ha from whom he bought cloth. The young prince liked Karma ��ha and soon became his friend. When he wanted money to return to Gujarat, Karma��ha  gave him a lakh unconditionally. In 1526 A.D., Bah�dura ��ha became the king of Gujarat. When Karma ��ha came to know this, he went to Ahmedabad where he was well received by the king who returned the money lent to him and asked the Bani�merchant if he could do any thing for him. Thereupon, Karma��ha requested Bah�dura ��ha to give him a firm�na to repair the temple on �atru�jaya hill. The king granted his request and gave him the ‘firm�na’.

In 1531 A.D., Karma��ha repired Samarasi�ha’s temple on the �atru�jaya hill. Pun�ar�kasv�mi’s temple was erected by him in 1531 A.D. The R�yana P�duk� temple in Adre�varatunka was also erected by him in 1531 A.D. Chakre�var�devi’s temple in Ade�vara-tunka was also erected by him in 1531 A.D.1

  1. PÏ¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½HA: P�����ha was also known as Bha�s���ha. This name originated from P��� of Bhai�s� meaning buffalo. According to traditions, he belonged to Thubona in Bundelakhand. He was of Gahoi caste. He used to deal in r��g� (brass) and became prosperous.

P�����ha was devoted to Jainism, and built many temples and images of ��ntin�tha. There are beautiful images of ��ntin�tha Kunthun�tha, and Aran�tha in K�yotsarga pose at Bajara�ga ga�ha. These were installed in V.S. 1236. He also set up the ��ntin�tha Jaina image at Gurilagiri, Mu�g�val� Tahasil, Guna District. The Jaina temples at Aharaj�, Kh�napur�, Jh�larap��an, Thubon, Bhiy�danta, Bardi, Bh�bhona, Satna, Sujhek�, Pah�da, Pacharai Seranaj�, Son�giri etc. were all constructed by P�d���ha.



The canonical texts are broadly divided into two groups : (1) A�gapai��ha, and (2) A�gab�hira. The A�gapai��ha group include the A�gas, and the A�gab�hira group is classified into fivesub-groups. This the canonical texts may be subsumed under six heads (1) A�ga (2) Up��ga, (3) Pai��� (4) Cheyasutta (5) M�lasutta and (6) C�lik�sutta All these works are in Prak�ta.

(1) A�ga

The A�gas are twelve in number. They are as follows : (i)  ï¿½y�ra�ga (ii) S�yaga�a�ga, (iii) ï¿½h����ga (iv) Samav�y��ga, (v) Viy�hapa��tti (Bhagavat�), (vi) N�y�dhammakah�o, (vii) Uv�sagadas�o, (viii) A�taga�adas�o (ix) Anuttarovav�iyadas�o, (x) Pa�hav�gara��i� (xi) Viv�gasuya and (xii) Di��hiv�ya (not extant now).

(2) Upa�ga

The Up��gas are also twelve in number. They are : (i) Ovav�iya, (ii) R�yapase�aiya (iii) J�v�bhig (iv) Pa��ava���, (v) S�riyapa��atti, (vi) Jambudd�vapa��atti, (vii) Candapa��tti (viii) Niry�valiyao (ix) Kappava�a�siy�o (x) Pupphiyao, (xi) Pupphaculiyao and (xii) Va�hidas�o

(3) Pai���

The Pai���s are ten in number : (i) Causara�a (ii) ï¿½urapaccakkh��a, (iii) Mah�paccakkh��a (iv) Bhattapari���, (v) Ta�dulaveyaliya, (vi) Sa�th�raga (vii) Gacch�y�ra, (viii) Ga�ivijj�, (ix) Devi�datthaya and (x) Mara�asam�h�

(4­) Cheyasutta

The Cheyasuttas are six in number : (1) Nis�ha, (ii) Mah�nis�ha, (iii) Vavah�ra, (iv) Das�suyakkhandha (v) Kappa (B�hatkalpa) and (vi) Pa�cakappa (Jiyakappa)

(5) M�lasutta

The M�lasuttas are four in number : (i) Uttarajjhaya�a, (ii) Dasavey�liya (iii) ï¿½vassya and (iv) Pi�danijjutti (Ohanijjutti)

(6) C�lik�sutta

The C�lik�suttas are two in number : (i) Nand� and (ii) Anuyogadara.

 Thus the told number of �gamas are fortyfive. The Sth�nakav�s�s and the Ter�pa�this accept only Thirty-two ï¿½gamas. (1) Eleven A�gas (2) Twelve Up��gas, (3) Four cheyasuttas (leaving asida) Mah�nis�ha and Jiyakappa) (4) Three M�lasuttas (leaving aside Pi�dan�jjutti) and (5) Two C�lik�suttas. The Digambaras do not accept these forty-five Ag�mas.


The canonical texts are broadly divided into two goups : (i) A�gapai��ha and (2) A�gab�hira (1) The Sarv�rthasiddhi of P�jyap�da and the Dhaval� of V�rsena  include in the A�gapai��ha group following twelve A�gas (i) ï¿½y�ra, (ii) S�dayada, (iii) ï¿½h��a, (iv) Samav�ya (v) Viy�hapa��atti, (vi) N�h�dhammakah� (vii) Uv�sayajjhaya�a, (viii) A�taya�adas� (ix) A�uttarovav�diyadar� (x) Pa�hav�yara�a (xi) Viv�gasutta and (xii) Dit�hiv�da.

(2) The A�gab�hira group include the following : (i) S�m�iya, (ii) Cauv�sattho, (iii) Va�da�� (iv) Pa�ikkma�a (v) Ve�aiya, (vi) Kidiyamma (vii) Dasavey�liya, (viii) Uttarajjhaya�a (ix) Kappavavaharo (x) Kapp�kappiya, (xi) Mah�kappiya (xii) Pu�dar�ya, (xiii) Mah�pu�dar�ya and (xiv) ï¿½is�hiya

The Digambaras believe that the texts of both the groups are not extant now except some portion of D���hiv�ya, the twelfth A�ga.

The Di��hiv�ya comprises fourteen Puvvas, namely, (i) Uppadapuvva, (ii) Agge�iyapuvva (iii) V�ruy� �uv�dapuvva (iv) Atthi�atthipav�depuvva, (v) N��apav�dapuvva, (vi) Saccapav�dapuvva, (vii) ï¿½dapav�dapuvva, (viii) Kammapav�depuvva (ix) Paccakkh��an�madheyapuvva (x) Vijj��uv�dapuvva, (xi) Kall��an�madheyapuvva. (xii) P���v�yapuvva, (xiii) Kiriy�vis�lapuvva and (xiv) Lokabi�dus�ra puvva.

Dherasena (C.A.D.40-75) had a partial and fragmentary knowledge  of the Aggeniyapuvva ineluded in the twelfth A�ga known as Di��hivaya. He imparted the knowledge of this Puvva to Pu�padanta and Bhutabali, who composed the Volume known as ï¿½a�kha���gama which deals with the doctrine of Karma in great detail. Since the work was completed on the fifth day of the bright fortnight of the month of Jye��ha, this day has since been known as the festival of Sruta-Pa�cami.

Like Dharasena there was another saint named Gu�adhara (C.A.D. 25) who had a partial and fragmentary knowledge of the ���apav�d a puvva included in the twelfth A�ga known as Di��hivaya. He wrote Ka�aya-pahu�a which deals with the passion of attachment, avesion etc.


  1.  Published in JSB, I. 4, p. 71.
  2.  See R. Narsimhachar, Inscriptions at �rava�abelgola (EC, Vol. II, Bangalore, 1923).
  3.  See Appendix A (iii)
  4.  JSHI, p. 120.
  5.  JSLS, pt. II, No.95.
  6.  Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 69.
  7.  Pravachanas�ra ed. by A.N UPADHYE
  8.  JSHI, pp. 134-136.
  9.  JSHI, p. 148.
  10.  CHJ, p. 325.
  11.  JSHI, pp. 146-147.
  12.  CHJ, p. 325.
  13.  JSHI, pp. 128-131
  14.  JSHI, pp. 137-141
  15.  JSHI, pp. 153-161.
  16.  CHJ, p. 327.
  17.  JSHI, p. 164
  18.  JSHI, pp. 152-153.
  19.  MTA, p. 464.
  20.  CHJ, pp. 328-329.
  21.  Pur�tanaprabandhasa�graha, pp. 103-05 and Pr�bh�vakacharitra, pp. 183-212.
  22.  Aitih�sika Jaina K�vyasa�graha, p. 4, Yugapradh�na Jinachandras�r�, p. 10 & Kharataragachcha-b�ihadguruv�edli.
  23.  Kharataragachchha B�ihadgurvdvali & Aitih�sika Jaina K�vyasa�graha, pp. 14-6.
  24.  Aitih�sika Jaina K�vyasaingraha, pp.14, 46 and 363 and Kharataragachchhabrihadgure�cali.
  25.  The Life of Hemachandr�ch�rya.
  26.  D�d� �r� Jinaku�alas�ri and Kharataragachchha B�ihadgurv�vali.
  27.  Akbar the Great by Smith, pp. 116-168 and S�r��vara aura Samr�� Akbar.
  28.  Kharataragachchha B�ihadgurv�vali, Aitih�sika Jainak�vya-Sa�graha, pp. 58, 81 and 82 and Yugapradh�na Jinachandras�ri.
  29.  JSLS, No. 96.
  30.  Ibid, No. 100
  31.  JSLS, III, No. 165.
  32.  Ibid, No. 152, 165, and 155.
  33.  Ibid, No. 395.
  34.  Ibid, I No. 122.
  35.  Ibid, III, No.157.
  36.  Ibid, III No. 204.
  37.  JSLS, pp. 125-126.
  38.  JSLS, III, p. 126.
  39. JSLS, III No. 264.
  40.  Ibid, No. 264.
  41.  Ibid, III No. 296.
  42.  Ibid, No. 307, 308 and 411.
  43.  JSLS, No. 307.
  44.  Ibid, Nos. 154 and 355.
  45.  Ibid, No. 411.
  46.  Ibid, No.304.
  47.  Ibid, No. 305.
  48.  JSLS, III, No. 319.
  49.  Ibid, III No. 324.
  50.  Ibid III No. 348, 362, 363, 381 and 396.
  51.  JSLS, III, No. 347.
  52.  Ibid, No. 352.
  53.  JSLS, III, No. 465.
  54.  Ibid, No. 408.
  55.  Ibid, No. 429.
  56.  Ibid, No. 379.
  57.  Ibid, No. 409.
  58.  JSLS, III, No. 428.
  59.  Ibid, No. 431.
  60.  Ibid, No. 437.
  61.  JSLS, III, No. 452.
  62.  Ibid No. 451.
  63.  Ibid No. 540.
  64.  JSLS, III, No. 511.
  65.  Ibid, No. 581, 585 and 587.
  66.  Ibid III, No. 581 and 587.
  67.  Ibid No. 609 and 610
  68.  Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 5-7.
  69.  Ibid, p. 10.
  70.  Ibid, p. 10
  71.  Ibid, P. 11.
  72.  Jainism in Gujarat, p. 88
  73.  Ibid, p. 11.
  74.  Ibid, p. 88-89.
  75.  Ibid, p. 87.
  76.  Ibid, p. 89-90.
  77.  Jainism in Gujarat, p. 90.
  78.  Ibid, p. 90-91.
  79.  Ibid, p. 108.
  80.  Ibid, p. 113.
  81.  KMTA, p. 453.
  82.  JGPS, I, p. 5.
  83.  UPENDRA NATH DEY : Medieval Malwa, pp. 422-428.
  84.  Ibid.
  85.  UPENDRA NATH DEY : Medieval Malwa, pp. 422-428.
  86.  Ibid.
  87.  UPENDRA NATH DEY : Medieval Malwa, pp. 422-28.
  88.  EI, XXXVI, pp. 121-123.
  89.  JUPJ.
  90.  Vimalacharitra. See also Pur�tanaprabandhasa�graha (Vimalavasatiprabandha, pp. 81-82.)
  91.  Prabandhachint�mani, pp. 67-68 and pp. 104-105.
  92.  Vastup�lacharitra, Chapter I.
  93.  Naran�r�ya�ananda, XVI, 35.
  94.  Kr�tikaumud�, IV, 16.
  95.  Vastup�lacharitra IV, 40.
  96.  Prabandhako�a of R�ja�ekhara, p. 103.
  97.  Prabanandhasko�a of R�ja�ekhara, pp. 104 f.
  98.  Ibid., pp. 107 f.
  99.  Ibid., pp. 119 f. See also Prabanandhachint�mani, p. 103.
  100.   Vividhat�rthakalpa, p. 79. see also Prabandhako�a, p. 130
  101.   Prabandhako�a, pp. 129 f.
  102.   Ibid.,
  103.   Vastup�lacharitra, p. 80.
  104.   Naran�r�ya�ananda. XVI, 39.
  105.   Pr�ch�na Jaina Lekha Sa�graha, No. 64.
  106.   Anek�nta, II p. 249,
  107.   Some distinguished Jainas pp. 60-63. and also Jodhpurar�jya k� Itihasa, pt. II, pp. 638-641.
  108.   HOO, p. 55.
  109.   HOO, pp. 59-63.
  110.   HOO, pp. 100-104. See also Karmachandrava��aprabandha and Karmachandrava��otk�rtanak�vyam.
  111.   Some Distinguished Jainas, pp. 71-74.
  112.   HOO. pp. 70-71.
  113.   Ibid., pp. 71-72.
  114.   Udaipurarajya ka Itihasa, pp. 1304-05, and V�ravinoda, p. 251.
  115.   Udaipur R�jya K� Itih�s, pp. 1304-05.
  116.   Udaipurar�jya K� Itih�s, pp. 1311, and HOO, pp. 77-82.
  117.   HOO, pp. 87-88 and Udaipur R�jya k� Itih�sa, pp. 1315-16.
  118.   V�rav���, I pp. 68-83 and R�jputuana K� Itih�s by Ojha, pp. 915-16.
  119.   Annals & Antiquities of Rajasthan, p. 592.
  120.   Report on Panch�pana Singh�n�, pp. 9-10, See also A report on the Land Tenures and Special powers of certain Thikanedars of the Jaipur State, pp. 45-46.
  121.   Jaipur State Trials.
  122.   Jainism in Gujarat, p. 102.
  123.   Ibid, p. 103.
  124.   Ibid, p, 103.
  125.   Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 152-158.
  126.   Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 159-160.
  127.   Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 161-162.
  128.   Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 172-180.
  129.   Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 236-240.