JAINA MONKS, STATESMEN AND ÁRÄVAKAS1
Almost simultaneously with the nirväîa of Mahävïra his chief disciple (Gaîadhara), Indrabhüti Gautama, attained Kevala-jñäna and after his own nirväîa was succeeded by Sudharma, and the latter, in his turn, by Jambu Svämi. The total period allotted to these three gurus is 62 years (i.e., 527-465 B. C.). All the three were, like Mahävïra, Arhat Kevalins and they attained nirväîa. Both the Digambara and the Ávetämbara accounts are in perfect agreement as to their respective names, character and total period.
After the three Kevalins came the five Árutakevalins, one after the other. The Digambara accounts allot to them a total period of 100 years, whereas the Ávetämbara accounts that of 116 years. The names of the first four gurus are different in the two traditions, but they are in full agreements as to Bhadrabähu I being the last guru of this group. They do not differ as regards the twelve-years famine that took place in Magadha in his times nor as regards the consequent emigration of the Jaina Saãgha under his leadership. But while the Digambara tradition states that the Saãgha migrated to the South, Ávetämbara tradition says that Bhadrabähu went to Nepal. The origin of the great schism, which later on developed into Digambara and Ávetämbara sects, is ultimately traced to this event.
In the Ávetämbara tradition, after Bhadrabähu’s departure Sthülabhadra assumed the leadership of the Saãgha in Magadha. After the famine was over he convened a council at Päûaliputra, at which the remnant of the Sãgha left behind in Magadha tried to put in order the sacred lore. In M.E. 827-840 (or A.D. 300-313) a second council was convened at Mathura under the presidentship of Ärya Skandila at which whatever could be gathered from different monks was fixed in the form of the canon. Simultaneously, another council was held at Valabhï by Nägärjuna Süri and it also made a similar attempt. But the two versions disagreed in many points and hence no redaction took place. Finally, in M.E. 980 (or 993), i.e., in A.D. 453 (or 466,) at another council at Valabhï held under the chairmanship of Devarddhigaîi an attempt to reconcile the different readings of the former councils was made and the available texts were finally written down.1
In the Digambara tradition, after Bhadrabahu I came one after the other 33 successors of Mahavira and they took 683 years in all It is believed that the original canonical knowlege lasted only up to the end of this period. About this time the redaction of the surviving canonical knowlege was undertaken by the Digambara Acäryäs. A part of the traditional (canonical) knowlege was redacted by Dharasena., Puspadanta and Bhutbali and another by Gunadhara, Äryamankhu and Nagahasti.
Dharasena may be safely assigned to circe A.D 40-75 Puÿpadantä to circe A.D. 50-80 and Bhutlabali to circa A.D. 66-90 and the competition of the Saûkhandagama to circa A.D. 75. Gunadhar who wrote Kaÿäya-pahuda may be safely assigned to about (circa A.D. 25), Aryamankhu to circa A.D. 50 and Nagahasti circa A.D. 130-132. Thus within hocy a century (A.D. 25-75) the surviving Digambara canonical knowlege was finally reduce is writing.
Jainism prospered in India because of the vast canonical literation and the dedicated activities of the ideal Jaina monks, trüsted statesmen and devoted Árävakas.
Jaina monks were not only great scholars but also they possessed high character. Whatever they preached, they practised in their lives. They preached ethics and a spiritual way of life. They wandered from place to place for the propagation of Jainism. They preached in the language of the masses. As these saints were ever moving about and were reticent about biographical details, very little is known about their personal lives. Some Jainas also acted as trusted statesmen of kings and emperors. They were truthful and sincere. They were generally honest in the performance of their duties. Some Árävakas who were rich, were devoted to their religion. They constructed temples and installed images in them. They led Saãghas to holy places. They got prepared copies of the manuscripts for presentation to the monks. They were so much enlightened that they exercised check on the monks if they deviated from the teachings of Jainism.
- JAINA MONKS
- KUNDAKUNDÄCHÄRYA: Kundakunächärya occupies a unique position in the history of Jainism. He belonged to Mülasaãgha and his own lineage (i.e. Kundakundänvaya) with its many subsequent branches and sub-branches spread far and wide. To trace their spiritual lineage from Kundakunda has been looked upon as a proud privilege by Jaina monks of the Digambara Section, As many as three major Saãghas being known to have this Anvaya. He is also reputed to have established the superiorty of Jaina scriptures and to have made them popular all over Bhärata Kshetra. Many later authors are greatly indebted to him and some of his works have proved to be a milch cow for later commentators for quotations, and his Samayasära in particular is studied with devotion by all the Jainas without any distinction.1
As regards the question of domicile of Kundakunda, there is no doubt that he belonged to the South. His very name, Koîâakunda appears to be Dravidian and looks like the name of a Kannaâa town or village. Later writers specifically mention that he belonged to the town of Koîâakunda, and there still exists a village of this name about 8 kms. from Guntakal railway station which is associated with the life of Kundakunda. He is said to have performed penance in the nearby cave. A similar tradition connects him with Nandi hill.
The date of Kundakunda has been a baffling problem. Scholars generally advocate that Kundakunda belonged to the first century A.D. It is possible to suggest that he lived in the second century A.D. Kundakunda along with the six teachers in succession is mentioned in the copper plate inscription of 466 A.D.2 If we take 150 years for the six teachers, the time of the first teacher Gunachandra will be about 316 A.D. Guîachandra was not actually the pupil of Kundakunda but only in his line. Therefore, Kundakunda must have lived in the second century A.D. at least 100 years before Guîachandra.3
In later works and inscriptions, Kundakunda is mentioned by several names. The epigraphic records generally give his name as Koîâa,-Kunda, Kundakunda being the Sanskrit form of the same. Devasena (933 A.D.) and Jayasena (1150 A.D.) refer to him as Padmanandi. Several inscriptions and writers of the 14th century and onwards mention that he was also known as Vakragrïva, Gôiddhapichchha and Elächärya.
There are certain main traditional facts1 regarding the life of Kundakunda. Kundakunda flourished after the division of the original Jaina church in to Ávetämbaras and Digambaras. He is the Áishya of Bhadrabähu. On the authority of the Árutävatära, Padmanandi of Kundakundapura traditionally received the knowledge of Siddhänta consisting of Karma and Kashäya-präbhôita and he wrote a huge commentary on half of the Shaûkhaîâägama. Kundakunda, on the authority of Jayasena and Bälachandra, is said to have been a contemporary of Áivaskandha Mahäräja of the Pallava dynasty. He is the author of Tamil classic Kural.
As far as the Digambara Text tradition was concerned, the important texts as a whole had fallen into oblivion during the time of Kundakunda. In order to meet the religious needs of the community, he wrote works on the basis of traditional text knowledge inherited from early teachers. The traditional aspect of Kundakunda’s work is clear from the fact that his work have some common verses with some texts of the Ávëtämbara canons which being a common property in early days have been preserved by both the sections independently. The well known and available works of Kundakunda are Samayasära, Pravachanasära, Pañchästikäyasära, Niyamasära, 5. Rayanasära, 6. Ashtapähuda, 7. Bärasa-aîuvekhä, 8. Daáabhakti and 2 A.D. All are written in Prakrit language.
- UMASVÄMI: Umäsvämi was the celebrated author of the Tattvärtha Áutra. He is held in high esteem by the Jainas. The Tattvärthä Áutra is one of the original works on philosophy. It is also called the Mokshäsastra, and it occupies high place in Jainism. It is the first known Jaina work in Sanskrit and contains some 357 pithy Sütras divided into ten chapters. The earliest available commentaries on the Tattvärtha are of all the Digambara Scholars of repute, viz. Püjyapäda (5th Century), Akalaõka (7th century) and Vidyänanda.
In literature as well as inscriptions, Umäsvamï is invariably mentioned just after Kundakunda and before Samantabhadra. The Digambara tradition, however associates him with the Kundakundänvaya of Nandi Saãgha. The Paûûävalï of the Saãgha informs that he succeeded Kundakunda himself in 44 A.D. Sometimes, he is described as a disciple of and sometimes as born in or belonging to the line of Kundakunda. The influence of Kundakunda’s works and of the red-acted canonical texts has been traced in his Tattvärtha. A verse usually found at the end of his work and some inscriptions also mention. Gridhapichchha as a sobriquet of Umäsväin.1
The Ávetambara called Umäsvämï by the name Umasväti. The author also wrote a commentary on the Tattavärthä Sütra, according to the Ávetämbaras, although the Digambaras deny the authenticity of this Bhaÿya. This commentary was known to the Ávetämbara monks even in the early seventh century A.D. if not earlier. Both Siddhasena Gaîa (C.600 A.D.) and Haribhadra (minddle of the eighth century) knew this Bhashya. According to the Praáasti at the end of this Bhäshya. Umäsväti was a monk belonging to the Uchchanägarï Áäkhä which was a branch of the Kuâiya (Kolidya) gaîa and was quite popular in the Mathura region as known from the inscriptions. We further learn from the same Bhäshya that he was residing in Kusumapura or Päûaliputra at the time of its composition. He was a Brähmaîa of the Kaubïshaîi gotra and his father’s name was Sväti and mother was called Vätsï. His preceptor in respect of initiation was Ghoshanandi Kashamäáramaîa and grandpreceptor was Vächakamukhya Áivaárï His teacher in respect of education was Vächakächärya Müla and grand-preceptor was Mahävächaka Muîâpäda.
- SÄMANTABHADRA: Sämantabhadra is one of the greatest masters of Jaina literature. He was a brilliant and a great preacher of the Jaina religion throughout India. He is the first writer to give a most interesting as well authoritative exposition of the Syädväda doctrine, and has been styled as the first composer of devotional prayers (Ädya Stutikära).
Like other early authors, Samantabhadra gives but little information about himself. Whatever is known about him has been gleaned indirectly from his works, from the remarks of his commentators and from several inscriptions (11th-15th century A.D.). The later works like the Kathäkoshas and Räjävatï-Kathe also give some information.
His known and available works written in chaste Sanskrit are as follows—Aptamïmäãsä or Devägamastotra, Yuktyänuáäsana, Svayambhustotra, Jina Stutiáataka or Stutividyä and Ratnakaraîâa Árävkächära. His first known commentator is Akaläna (C.625-75 A.D.) followed by Vidyänandi and others.
There is much controversy regarding the date of Samantabhadra. The traditional date of Samantabhadra is Áaka 60 (138 A.D.), and as B.A. SALETORE observes, “Credence may be given to the tradition that Samantabhadra seems to have lived about 120-185 A.D.1
In the works of Samantabhadra, the description of Jaina ascetics as purely ‘forest recluses’ befits only to the times prior to about 300 A.D. The traditional Digambara chronology places Samantabhadra two generations before Püjyapäda. Püjyapäda is placed in the latter half of the fifth century A.D. Hence, It is justified to hold the view that Samantabhadra belonged to century A.D.2
As known from the Räjavalï-Kathe (1834 A.D.), Samantabhadra was a Tamil. He had close association with Käñchi. The Kathäkoshas (11th to 15th centuries) describe as the naked ascetic of Käñchï. Besides Käñchï, he was also closely associated with the rulers of Karahäûa (modern Karahada), the ancient and probably the first capital of the Kadambas of Banaväsï.
According to tradition, the royal disciple of Samantabhadra was Áivakoûi, Áivakoûi was probably none other than Áivaskanda Árï, the second ruler of the Kadamba dynasty. He is known to have had Jaina learnings. Tradition says that he abdicated the throne in favour of his son Árï Kaîûha who was probably the Kadamba king. He is said to have intervened between Áivaskanda Árï and Áivaskanda Varman (Early part of the 3rd century, a predecessor of Mayüravarman Kadamba of the Chandravalli record assigned to 258 A.D.).
The original name of Samantabhadra was Áäntivarman who was probably a younger son of the Näga chief. He seems to be identical with Killikavarman Choâa, the ruler of Uragapura (or Uraiyur modern Trichinopoly within the Phaîimaîâala or the South Indian federation of Näga chiefs.1 With his namesake, it is possible to identify him with some chief of the Kadamba dynasty.
His personal achievements are to be found for the first time in the 11th century Kathäkoáa of Prabhächandra. In this work, Samantabhadra is represented as calling himself the naked ascetic from Käñchï. He is further shown as the preceptor of Áivarya, the author of the Ärädhanä. That work delineates him as visiting places like Puîâravardhana, Daáapura, Väräîasï, Päûaliputra, Käñchï, Mälava, Sindhu, Ûakka (Punjab) and Karaîäûaka. It appears that Samantabhadra was an itinerant Sädhu and was universally respected for his vast learning and mesmeric personality.
- ÁIVÄRYA: Áivärya is the author of the Ärädhanä, also called Mülärädhaña or Bhagavatï-ärädhanä which is a very important and ancient Prakrit text mainly dealing with the conduct of Jaina ascetics. It is believed to have been the ultimate source of the Jaina Kathäkosha literature which is represented by the Kathäkoshas of Harisheîa (931 A.D.), Prabhächandra (980 A.D.), Árïchandra (1066 A.D.), Brahma Nemidatta, Rämachandra etc. A number of Prakrit, Sanskrit and Kannaâa commentaries were written on this work. The earliest available commentary is the Vïjayodayä-ûikä in Sanskrit written by Aparäjita Süri, also known as Árïvijaya (700 A.D.).
The author Päîitalabhojï Áivärya supplies information at the end of his work by mentioning the names of his three teachers—Ärya Jinanandi Gaîi, Ärya Sarvagupta Gaîi, and Ärya Mitranandi Gaîi. The term “Päîitalabhojï’ is distinctively a Digambara epithet used for their ascetics. Besides his three Gurus, he also mentions Bhadrabähu who is said to have died peacefully in spite of great suffering. The prefix Ärya and the suffix Gani used by Áivärya with the names of his ‘gurus’ are quite similar to those used in the Mathura inscriptions of the Áuõga-Áaka-Kushäîa period. This points out that the author belonged to the North.
The author speaks of a peculiar form of funera1 which shows that the dead body used to be left away in some open space in the forest to be disposed off by birds and beasts. This ptactice was prevailing in a tribe named oreital which lived in South-Western Sindh during the period of Indo-Greeks.
YATIVÔISHABHA : Yati Vôishabha is perhaps the most important author from a historical point of view. He is known to have been the author of three important works—the Chürîï-Sütras on the Kashäyapähuâa of Guîadhara, the Karaîa-Áütras containing Mathematical formulae and the Tilvyapaîîati, an early Prakrit text on the subject of cosmology. Although it mainly deals with the nature, shape, size divisions and subdivisions of the universe, it also incidentally gives much information on Jaina doctrine, Puräîic traditions about the Tïrthaõkaras and other heroes and about ancient Geography and on political history of ancient India such as the dynastic, chronology, commencement of the ‘Áakas’ rule and their eras and so on. At the same time, the work is highly valuable for the study of the development of the science of Mathematics in ancient times. This work has undergone many recensions or transformations.
The question is how much of it corresponds to the original text, and what is the author’s date. Scholars like PREMI, MUKHTAR and UPADHYE assign this work and its author to the end of the fifth century A.D. PHOOL CHANDRA SHASTRI has shown that it must be a later compilation made probably by Jinasena (837 A.D.) on the basis of the original work.
Yati-Vôishabha is held in high esteem and is considered a very ancient scholar by the writers of the Seventh century onwards. His predecessors Äryaãaõkhu and Nägahasti are equally owned and respected in the tradition of both the sects Äryamaõkhu has been assigned to the first century A.D. While Nägahasti has been proved to have belonged to shcent A.D. Yati Vôishabha has been described as Änteväsï (associate, Junior colleague or immediate disciple) of Nägahasti. Hence, Yativôishabha seems to have belonged to 150-180 A.D.1
PÜJYAPÄDA DEVANANDI : Jain tradition, both literary as well as inscriptional, place Püjyapäda Devanandi in between Samantabhadra and Akalaõka (C.625-675 A.D.). His real name was Devanandi but he is generally known by the title ‘Püjyapäda’. He was an eminent author, and a master of several branches of learning. He wrote his works in Sanskrit, both prose and verse, of a high quality. He was in his times, the chief pontiff of the Nandi or Deáïyagaîa, a branch of the Müla Saãgha of Kundakunda’s line. He was probably the first Jaina Guru to devote himself to the writing of valuable secualar works, besides religious ones. He was a great grammarian and also the master of the medicine.
Püjyapäda appears to have been the head of a great center of learning at or near Talkad, the capital of the Western Gaõgas in south Kraîäûaka.
The Western Gaõga rules Durvinïta was a devotee and a pupil of Püjyapäda, Durvinita’s father Avinïta Koõgini is said to have himself appointed this scholarly monk as a teacher of his son even before the latter’s accession to the throne. As Püjyapäda’s fifty year pontificate indicates his long life, his date may safely be fixed, as 464-524 A.D. The known works of this great master are—Jainendra Vyäkarîa, Sarvärthasiddhi, Daáabhaktyädi saãgrah, Samädhitantra, Ishtopadeáa and Säntyäshûaka.1
- SIDDHASENA DIVÄKARA: Siddhasena Diväkara2 is identified by some with Kshapaîaka. Traditionally, he is regarded as one of the nine gems of the court of Vikramäditya. That he flourished in the Gupta period is indirectly proved by the fact that he is mentioned by Püjyapäda (early 5th century) in his Jainendra. According to a tradition among the Jainas, Siddhasena Diväkara performed a miracle during Vikramäditya’s time in the celebrated Mahäkäla temple of Ujjayini. He is the author of the two well known works namely Nyäyävatära and Sanmatitarka Sütra. Both the works deal with logic. Siddhasena also wrote a commentary on the famous work of Umäsväti. In his work Sanmati-Áutra, we find for the first time a comparative study of different Brahmanical and Buddhist systems of Philosophy and their criticism from the Jaina point of view.1 In the Seventh century Chürîï namely Ävaáyaka-chürni, of Jinadäsa, Siddhasena Diväkara is mentioned, Haribhadra (8th century) was also thoroughly acquainted with the philosophy of Siddhasena Diväkara.
- DEVARDHIGANI KSHAMÄÁRAMAÎA: Devardhigaîi Kshamäáramaîa was the great Ávetämbara pontiff who convened a Council of the Ávetämbara scholars at the city of Valabhi (Gujarat) in 453 A.D. It was at this council that the redaction of the entire canonical knowledge that had been preserved by the Ávetämbara section was finally undertaken. There were differences of opinion about the readings of the texts and some of them had several different versions each. It seems that Devardhigaîi acted simply as an editor and he reduced to writing the scriptures which had come down to him by word of mouth. This attempt of preservation by redaction of traditional knowledge opened a new era in the cultural progress of the country. It gave an unprecedented impetus to the creation of voluminous exegetical literature in the form of Niryuktis, Chürîis, Bhäshyas, Vôittis and Ûïkäs, which is very valuable for the study of ancient historical traditions and cultural conditions. The attempt of preservation of Jaina canon by Devardhigani is noteworthy.1
- MÄNATUÕGA: Mänatuõga is the author of the celebrated Bhaktämara of Ädinäth Stotra. According to a tradition, he was a contemporary of Mayüra and Bäîa (606-647 A.D.) at the court of king Harsha. Mänatuõga according to a Paûûävali of the Bôihadgachchha, was a minister of Vairïsiãha (933 A.D.) of the Paramära dynasty.2
- AKALAÕKA: Akalaõka is one of the greatest scholars in the history of Indian Logic. Like majority of ancient thinkers, he gives practically no information regarding his personal life. In the Kathäkoáa of Prabhächandra, Akalaõka has been mentioned as the son of the Minister of king Áubhatuõga of Mänyakheûa. A number of writers beginning from Vädiräja and Prabhächandra refer to Akalaõka’s debating skill and his victory over the Buddhists. The earliest source that refers to this event is a tenth century inscription of the reign of Bütuga II. Later Jaina writers and authors of epigraphs have referred to this feat of Akalaõka with evident pride. The patron of Akalaõka, according to the Kathäkoáa of Prabhächandra was Áubhatuõga, but the Akalaõka Charita mentions one Sähasatuõga in whose reign Akalaõka defeated the Buddhists. Prabhächandra further informs that the debate took place in the court of Himaáïtala, who was evidently a contemporary of Áubhatuõga. But the evidence of Akalaõka Charita is confirmed by the Áravaîa-Belagola inscription No. 67 which refers to Akalaõka’s patron as Áahasatuõga, who is generally identified with Dantidurga (middle of the eighth century). Akalaõka was actually a contemporary of Dantidurga, and flourished in the middle of the eighth century A.D. It has further been suggested that Himaáïtala of Akalaõka tradition should be identified with the king of Kaliõga. Since Akalaõka knows the Buddhists and Brahmanical scholars, who flourished even in the seventh century, we will be justified in placing him in the eighth century A.D.
Apart from his Tattvartharäiavärtika, which is a commentary on the famous book of Umäsvami. Akalaõka is the reputed author of the Ashûaáatï, a precious work of Jaina philosophy dealing mainly with logic. It is a commentary on the Äptamïmäãsa. of Samantabhadra. Another well-known works on logic by him is the Nyäyaviniáchaya. His other works are Laghïyastrayï Prakarana and Svarüpa Sambodhana. A treatise work on expiatory rites called Präyaáchita grantha is also ascribed to him. The Pramäîa Saãgraha is also ascribed to Akalaõka.1
In the eighth century, probably between 705 A.D. and 775 A.D., Haribhadra, the most distinguished Jaina scholar, lived in Rajasthan. He was born in a Brähmaîa family at Chitraküûa, the modern Chitor. He was the Purohita of a king named Jitäri about whom history knows nothing. Being a Brähmaîa by birth, he was thoroughly well acquainted with the Brähmaõical works of Philosophy. He was not only a literary but has authority on Logic. He wrote in both Sanskrit and Prakrit. He was also at home with the Buddhist Logic. He wrote, the well known commentary on Dinnäga’s Nyäyapraveáa.
It is said that Haribhadra was deeply inspired by a Jaina nun; and as a result of it, he embraced Jainism. Being asked by his Guru to write 1444 volumes, he wrote a number of books on Logic, Yoga, Dharma, Ethics etc. Out of them only about fifty are now available. He is the earliest Sanskrit commentator of the canon, and his contributions to Jaina Logic are outstanding. He commented on the Anuyogadvärasütra, Ävaáyakasütra, Daáavaikälikasütra, Nandisütra, Prajñäpaîasütra etc. Besides his commentaries on Ägamas, he wrote the Anekäntajayapatäkä and Anekäntavädapraveáa, in which he not only expounded the Jaina philosophy of Anekänta but also criticised current philosophical systems. He inaugurated a new era in Yoga literature by writing the Yogabibdu and Yogadôishûi-Samuchaya. In his Shad-daráana-Samuchchaya, he gives a brilliant exposition of the different systems of philosophy. He wrote the Dhürtäkhyäna, Samaraichchakahä and Kathäkoáa in Prakrit. In the Samaraichchakahä he throws some light on the condition of Jainism. The rivalary between Jainism and Buddhism was very keen in his time.
Haribhadra Süri raised the powerful voice against the abuses of the Chaityaväsï sect. He found Jaina saints living in Chaityas and maûhas. They used their wealth for their personal good. They put on even coloured or scented clothes. They ate food or sweets fetched by the monks. They sold idols and purchased children in order to make them their disciples.
- SIDDHARSHI: The next distinguished Jaina monk of Rajasthan is Siddharshi born at Árïmäla in Marwar. He was the son of Áubhaãkara. He was initiated and was named Siddharshi. In 906 A.D., he composed the allegorical novel named Upamitibhavaprañchäkathä. The Saãgha being pleased conferred the title of ‘Vyäkhyänakära’ on him.
Later on, he made a deep study of Buddhism, so much so, that even the Buddhists held him in high esteem for his scholarship and highly virtuous life. In course of time, the title of Süri was conferred on him by his Guru.
- JINEÁVARASÜRI: Jineávarasuri occupies a prominent place in Jaina history. His early name was Árïdhara. He and his brother Árïpati were Brähmanas by caste. They came to Dhäränagarï where they met a rich man named Lakshmïpati. He introduced them to Vardhamänasüri. Being impressed by their deep scholarship, Vardhamänasüri initiated them into Jainism and instructed them to preach it.
At this time, the Chaityaväsï sect was very powerful. Actually, Vardhamänasuri rose in revolt against it and founded Vidhimärga; but Jineávarasuri by his efforts organized its followers into a community and made it countrywide. He went to Aîahilapura where the Chaityaväsis were very strong. He stayed in the house of the Purohita Someávara. He defeated Surächärya, the leader of the Chaityaväsïs, in the court of the king Durlabharäja at Päûaîa and got the title of ‘Kharatara’. He established his own sect known as Vidhimärga at Aîahilapura. Later on, it was known as the Kharataragachchha. Then his reputation spread to neighbouring regions like Marwar, Mewar, Malva, Vägaâa, Sindh and Delhi, and a large number of Árävakas became his devoted followers.
Jineávarasuri and his young brother Buddhisägarasüri generally lived and moved together. In 1023 A.D. they were at Jäbälipura (Jalor), where Jineávarasuri wrote commentary on the Ashûakasaõgraha of Haribhadra and Buddhisägarasuri completed the Svopajña Pañchagranthï.
Jineávarasuri brought about a renaissance in Jainism, and, therefore, he is called the ‘Yugapradhäna’. New temples known as Vidhichaityas were built. There came also some change in the form of worship. New Gachchhas, new castes and new Gotras also came into existence. The original Áästras were revised and several commentaries were prepared. He had a large number of disciples, the chief among them were Abhayadeva, Jinachandra and Jinabhadra.1
- JINAVALLABHASÜRI: The next great Jaina saint is Jinavallabhasüri, who was the follower of Chaityaväsi sect in the beginning. At Päûan, he got an opportunity to study the scriptures under Abhayadevasüri, the saint of Vidhimärga. As a rsult, he gave up the Chaityaväsï sect and accepted Vidhimärga. At his directions, his followers constructed the Jaina temples known as Vidhichaityas.
At this time, the followers of the Chaityaväsi sect were powerful in Mewar. With a view to diminishing their influence, Jinavallabhasüri left Pätan for Chitor, where he converted a large number of people to Jainism and celebrated the consecration ceremony of several images and temples. From Chitor, he came to Dhärä. The King invited him to his palace, where he listened to his religious discourses. He was so highly pleased with his extraordinary poetic talent that he offered him a Jägira of three villages and a handsome present in cash. He did not accept either of them but requested that the king should grant two parutthadrammas daily from his customs house for the maintenance of two Kharatara temples.
From Dhärä, Jinavallabhasüri came to Vägaâa, where he addressed large gatherings. He also came to Nagaur where the installation ceremony of Nemijinälaya was performed under his supervision. As he converted several people to Jainism, it was natural for him to from many Gotras.1
- JINADATTASÜRI: Jinadattasüri is one of the great Jaina monks, who propagated Jainism in Rajasthan. He was born at Dhavalakapura in 1075 A.D. in Hümbaâa caste. His parents were Vadhiga and Vähaâadevï. His early name was Somachanda. His dïkshä Guru was Vächaka Devabhadragaîi, and he was given the name of Somachandra Muni. Being impressed by his extreme austerities and genius, Dharmadevopädhyäya made him Ächärya at Chitor in 1112 AD. and named him Jinadattasüri.
Jinadattasüri was widely respected even by the Rajput rulers of Rajputana and Gujarat for his learning and piety. The Chälukyan rulers Karîaräja and his son Siddharäja respected him. Jinadattasüri was a contemporary of Arîoräja Chauhäna of Ajmer, who honoured the Ächärya by visiting him at his own place and by granting his followers a suitable site for a big Jaina temple. He converted a large number of people to Jainism and established many Gotras. Besides, he is said to have given dïkshä to 500 monks and 700 nuns. Having installed Jinachandrasüri on his seat, he expired in 1154 A.D. at Ajmer. On account of his popularity among the masses, he came to be known as Dädäjï.1
- VÄDIÁRIDEVASÜRI: Devasuri was born in 1143 A.D. at Madhuvatï near Mount Abu in the Prägväûa family. He was the son of Vïranäga and Jinadevï. When cholera broke out in the town, Vïranäga left the town and came to Bharoch. The early name of Devasuri was Pürîachandra.
From his very childhood, Pürîachandra was highly intelligent. He impressed a Jaina monk who asked his master to give the boy to him. He was given dïkshä in 1152 A.D. and was named Rämachandra. Within a short time, he became well-versed i the science of tarka, lakshaîa, pramäîa and literature; and scholars began to admire his scholarhip. He defeated his opponents in the discussion held at Dhavalakapura, Kashmir, Sanchor, Chitor, Gopagiri, Dhärä and Bharoch. Impressed by his deep scholarship, the Guru installed him on the seat of Ächärya in 1174 A.D. and gave him the name of Devasüri.
Then Devasuri came to Dhavalakapura on the invitation of Udaya and performed the installation ceremony of the image of Sïmandharasvämi. From there, he travelled to Mt. Abu for pilgrimage. In course of his journey, Árï Devasüri came to Nagaur. Ahidäna, the ruler of this place, received him warmly. In the meanwhile, Siddharäja, the ruler of Gujarat, wanted to besiege Nagaur but when he was informed of the presence of Devasüri, he returned Then he invited Árï Devasuri to Patan and kept him there for four months.
Árï Devasuri defeated the famous Digambara Jaina Saint of Karîätaka named Kumudachandra in the discussion held in the court of the king Siddharäja Jayasiãha. In 1147 A.D., he got the Jaina temple constructed in the town called Phalavardhikä (Phalodhi) and performed the installation ceremony of the image. In the town of Arasana also, the image of Nemijina Was installed.
- HEMACHANDRA: The most prominent Jaina monk is Hemachandra under whom Jainism prospered greatly both in Rajasthan and Gujarat. He was born in 1089 A.D. at Dhandhuka, a town in the district of Ahmedabad and was named Chäõgadeva. His parents were Chächiga and Pähiîï of Árïmoâha caste. Both the parents were adherents of the doctrine of Jina. Pähiîï handed over her son to a monk named Devachandra. The circumstances which led Chäõgadeva to enter the order of Yatis are more or less romantic. Devachandra took the body with him to Cambay where he was first initiated in the temple of Pärávanätha in 1093 A.D. this occasion, the famous Udayana held the usual festival and Chäõgadeva received the name of Somachandra. In 1105 A.D., he was ordained as Ächärya at Nägaur by Devasüri. On this occasion, he again changed hi name and was now cailled Hemachandra.
The parton of Hemachandra was Jayasiãha Siddharäja, who felt attacted and impressed by his deep and wide scholarship, used to listen to his discussion. Hemachandra helped Kumärapäla in securing his accession to the throne. He is said to have foretold that Kumarpal was going to be the future ruler of Gujarat. It was for this reason that he had deep reverence for the Jaina religion. Kumärapäla was originally a devotee of Áiva but was converted to Jainism by Hemachandra. After his conversion which is said to have taken place in 1159 A.D., he aspired to make Gujarat model Jaina state. He personally gave up hunting animals, eating meat and using intoxicants, dice-playing and animal fights. In addition, he erected, the Jaina temples and favoured the literary and scintific efforts of the Jainas.
Hemachandra was called the ‘Omniscient of the Kali age’ (Kalikäla Sarvajña), the title which he well deserved. He was more a scholar than a poet. By his efforts, Jaina literature made considerable progress in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. His contributions to the general Sanskrit literature are also noteworty. He wrote useful and important works on grammar, lexicography, poetics, prosody, philosophy and history.
Hemachandra’s services to education were as remarkable as his literary activities. He trained a number of pupils who have left works on various branches of Sanskrit literature. The chief among those pupils are Rämachandra, Guîchandra, Mahendrasüri, Devachandra, Vardhamänagaîi, Udayachandra, Yaáaáchandra and Bälachandra.1
- JINAKUÁALASÜRI: Jinakuáalasüri is the most popular Jaina saint and is also known as Dädäjï. He was born in the village Samiyäîä in Marwar in 1280 A.D. His original name was Karmaîa. In 1290 A.D., he received initiation from Jinachandrasüri and was named Kuáalakïrti. At Nagaur in 1310 A.D., he was given the title of Vächanächärya by Jinachandrasüri. In 1319 A.D, Jinachandra passed away and the title of Süri was given to Jinakuáala at Patan amidst great rejoicings.
Räjapati of Delhi made arrangement for the sojourn of Jinakuáalasüri. He passed through Kanyänayana, Narhad, Phalodhi, Marukoûa, Nagaur, Merta, Jalor, Árïmäla and at last reached Patan. The members of the Saãgha reqested Jinakuáala to accompany them. He consented and started from patan and reached Áatruñjaya where he performed several religious activities. He worshipped the idol by composing new stotras. Yaáodhara and Devendra were initiated to monkhood by him. He celebrated the installation ceremony of the image of Neminätha. The consecration ceremony of the images of Jinapatisüri and Jineávarasüri was also performed by him. On the occasion of Nandïávaramahotsava, Sukhakrtigaîi was given the title of ‘Vächanächärya.’ Afterwards, he returned to Patan with the Saãgha safely.
In 1324 A.D., Viräûamahotsava was celebrated at Patan with great rejoicings for fifteen days under the guidance of Jinakuáalasüri. The images of the Tirthaõkaras and the Ächäryas were sent to the various places such as Jalor, Devaräjapura, Áatruñjaya etc. Tejapäla celebrated the Nandïávaramahotsava at Patan in which Sumatisära, Udayäsara, Jayasära and Dharmasundarï were initiated into monkhood. The famous Árävaka of Bhïmapallï named Vïradeva called Jinakuáalasüri form Patan to Bhïmapallï and requsted him to accompany the Saãgha to Áatruñjaya. After passing through various cities and villages, the Saãgha reached Áatruñjaya. He celebrated the consecration ceremony of the Vïra Chaitya at Bhïmapallï, Chintämaîi Pärávanätha temple at Jaisalmer and Pärávanätha temple at Jälor.
The Árävakas of Sindh invited Jinakuáalasüri for propagation of Jainism. He went there and organised various ceremonies such as the Pratishûhä, Vratagrahaîa, Mäläropaîa and Nandïmahotsava in order to give an impetus to Jainism. He wandered through various places and impressed the people by his religious discourses. This caused a great religious awakening among the people. He spent a rainy season at Devaräjapura where he caught high fever and died in 1352 A.D.
Jinakuáalasüri was a distinguished scholar, well-versed in different branches of learning like grammar, law, literature, prosody, astronomy, magic etc. He could not contribute so much to literature as he was engaged in other activities. So great was his influence that, in his honour, a number of stutis, stotras, padas and Chhandas have been composed in many a village, city and holy place. The people of Svagachchha, Paragachchha, Sthänakaväsï and Teräpanthï worship him with great devotion.1
- HÏRAVIJAYASÜRI: The most distinguished Jaina teacher at the time of Akbar was Hïravijayasüri. He was the leader of the Tapägachchha sect of the Jainas and was born at Palanapur. He was the som of Kumära and Näthï of the Bïsä Osaväla family. His original name was Hïrajï. He was initiated to religious life by Vijayadänasüri in 1539 A.D. and was named Hïraharsha. After getting education from Muni Hariharsha, he went to Devagiri in the south in order to learõ Nyäyaáästra from Naiyäyika Brähmaîa. He made a close and deep study of various branches of learning.
After his return from the Deccan, Vijayadevasüri made him a Paîâiûa in 1551 A.D. Next year, he was made a Upädhayäya at Näâläi. Then in the same year, he was made a Süri at Sirohi. On this occasion, Chäõga Mehatä, a descendant of Dhannä Poraväla, the builder of Ranakpur temple, celebrated a great festival.
In 1582 A.D. when Akbar heard of the lofty virtues and deep learning of Hïravijaya, he ordered the Viceroy of Gujarat to request him to visit his court. In response to the summons of the vicerory, the monk went to Ahmedabad where he exchanged views with the royal representative. He refused to accept all the costly gifts presented to him and, in accordance with the rules of his order, he started on his long journey ot Fatehpur Sikri on foot.
On his way, passing through Bïsalapur, Mahäsana, Patan, Baradi, Siddhapur and other places, Hïravijaya reached Saratara. At this place lived a Bhïla Chief named Arjuna. He along with his eight wives came to hear Sürijï’s sermon, and he took a vow not to kill any innocent animal. He then went to Abu; and Räva Surtäna of Sirohi welcomed him and took a vow to refrain from drinking, hunting and meat eating. After that, passing through Sanganer, Chätsu, Bayänä and Mathura, he reached Fatehpur Sikri where he was accorded a royal reception; and Abul Fazl was asked to look after his comforts until the emperor found leisure to converse with him. After much discussion upon the problems of religion and philosophy first with Abul Fazl, the Muslim luminary of the age, and then with Akbar, he paid a visit to Agra. At the close of the rainy season, he returned to Fatehpursikri.
From the inscription by Hemavijaya dated 1593 A.D., in the porch of the eastern entrance of the Ädinätha temple of Áatrunjaya hill, it appears that Hïravijaya persuaded the emperor in 1592 A.D. to issue an editct forbidding the slaughter of animals for six months, to abolish the confiscation of the property of the deceased persons, the sujijia tax and Áukla, to set free many captives, snared birds and animals and to present Áätrunjaya to the Jainas. Fishing was also prohibited at Fatehpursikri.
In 1596 A.D., Hïravijayasüri came to Nägaur where he spent the rainy season. Mahajala, the finance minister of the king Jagamala, treated him with great respect. Indraräja, an official of Bairat, invited him; but he could not go and sent hi pupil Kalyäîavijaya for the performance of the consecration ceremony. After that, he went to Abu and then to Sirohi where he spent the rainy season on the persuasion of the ruling chief. On his advice, Räva Surtäna abolished some taxes. Once the Räva had imprisoned one hundred innocent Árävakas due to certain misunderstanding. The leaders of the Saãgha had tried their best to secure their release but the Räva did not listen to them At last, he released them on the advice of Sürijï.
From Sirohi, Hïravijaya came to Patan where he spent the next rainy season. From there, he started for Pälithänä. The function was organized in his honour which was attended by several Jainas. He also passed the rainy season at Uîä. Äjamkhän, the governor of Gujarat, came to pay his respects. It was all due to Süri’s magnetic personality and the honour given to him by Akbar. At this time, Jämasähiba of Jämanagara with his minister named Äbajï Bhaîasälï reached Uîä to pay his compliments to the Ächärya. Hïravijaya also induced the official Khän Muhammad to give up violence. He celebrated the consecration ceremony of the temple in 1595 A.D. and in the same year, he starved himself to death in the approved Jaina fashion.1
- JINACHANDRA: Jinachandra was a famous Ächärya of the Kharataragachchha sect. He was born in 1508 A.D. at Khetsar in Jodhpur of Árïvant Áäha and Áirïyadevï of Bïsä Osaväla family. His orginal name was Sultan. He received his initiation in 1547 A.D. from Jinamäîikyasüri and his dikshä name was Sumatidhïra. In 1555 A.D., he obtained the title of Suri form Guîaprabhasüri.
While Akbar was holding his court at Lahore, he heard the fame of the Süri and wanted to hear him. He suãmoned Mantrïávara Karmachandra Bachchhävata and requested him to invite the sage to his court. Considering his old age and hot season, Karmachandra pleaded that it would be difficult for him to come from Cambay. Then, the emperor asked him to write a letter to send his disciple Mänasiãha whom the Süri sent along with six other religious followers. Receiving also an urgent letter from Karmachandra, the Süri started his journey on foot, gradually reached Sirohi and observed the Chaturmäsa at Jalor. Afterwards, he started, and passing through many villages and cities, reached Lahore in 1591 A.D. with thirty- one Jaina Paîâitas in a great procession and was courteously received by the emperor. After a religious discourse on Ätman, ahiãsä etc., he was conducted to his residence. He used to come daily to the palace for the discourse on religion. Akbar used to address him as a Great Master (Bôihadguru).
Hearing of the destruction of the Jaina temples at Dwarka, Jinachandra prevailed upon Akbar to issue an imperial farmän for the protection of the Jaina holy places such as Áatruñjaya, Pälithänä and Girnar. The necessary order was sent to Azamkhän, the Subedär of Ahmedabad. The places of pilgrimage were put in charge of Karmachandra.
Just before starting for Kashmir, Akbar, met the Süri and at his instance issued a farmän ordering the prohibition of the slaughter of animals for seven days (Navamï to Pürîimä, every year in the month of Äshäâha. Akbar with the disciples of Jinachandra namely Mänasiãha, Harshaviáäla and some others reached Kashmir and observed the vow of non-violence for eight days. He returned to Lahore in 1592 A.D. At this instance, Jinachandra gave the title of Ächärya to Mänasiãha, calling him Jinasiãhasüri. On the advice of Karmachandra, Akbar gave the title of ‘Yugapradhäna’ or ‘Chief of the Age’ to Jinachandra. At the persuasion of Süriji, Akbar gave protection for a year to all animals of the sea adjoining Cambay, the palce of pilgrimage.
Jinachandra was held in high esteem by Jahangir also. In 1611 A. D., being incensed at the misconduct of the dissolute Darsaîi, Jahangir not only banished him but ordered that members of other Jaina sects should also be ousted from the realm. This caused wide-spread consternation amongst all sections of the Jainas. The news reched Jinachandrasüri who travelled from Patan to Agra and called on the emperor. After a prolonged discussion on religion, Sürijï succeeded in persuading the emperor to withdraw the order. He breathed his last in 1613 A.D. at Bilärä in Marwar.1
- JINASIÃHASÜRI: After Jinachandrasüri, his paûûadhara Jinasiãhasüri became the leader of the Kharataragachchha. In Rajasthan, he mostly lived at Bikaner, Sirohi etc. In the Árï Jinasiãhasürigïta of Räyasamundra, it is related that he had great influence on Jahangir. At his request, the emperor assured safety to all living creatures. He conferred upon him the title of ‘Yugapradhäna’. In 1616 A.D., Jinasiãhsüri spent the Chäturmäsa at Bikaner. In the Jinaräjasüriräsa composed in 1624 A.D. by Árisära, it is written that Jahangir was much anxious to see him, and he sent an officer to Bikaner to invite him. But unfortunately, he died in 1617 A.D. on his way to Agra.
The event mentioned in the Jaina räsa is more or less of the legendary character, intended to glorify the Jaina order, and can only be accepted when supported by some contemporary evidence. The attitude of Jahangir to Jinasiãha (Alias Mänasiãha) and towards the Jainas, as it is made to appear in them, does not seem to have been correctly represented. At the time of Khusru’s rebellion, Mänasiãha prophesied that Jahangir’s reign would last only for two years. This encouraged Räyasiãha of Bikaner to rebel. He was, however, pardoned by Jahangir who waited for an opportunity to punish Mänasiãha. In 1616 A.D. when Jahangir went to Gujarat, he persecuted the Jainas as their temples were the centres of disturbance and their religious leaders were accused of immoral practices. He summoned Mänasiãha to the court but the latter took poison on his way from Bikaner and died. Evidently there seems to be more truth in these facts than the above concocted story.
In early times, carrer was thrown open to talents, and talented Jainas captured many important offices. In those days, the heads of different departments of the State-Provincial Governors, Prime Ministers and Daîâanäyakas were known as Mantrïs and Ministers and acted as Commanders of the Army.
- ÁRUTAKÏRTI: Árutakïrti was the General of the Kadambas. He and his descendents were great patrons to Jainism. They were devoted to theÄchäryas of the Yäpanïya Saãgha. From his inscription,1 it is known that he donated Badovara land for his own merit to the Arhantas. This land was situated in Kheûaka village which he got from his master Kadamba ruler named Käkusthya Varmä. In another inscription,2 Árutakïrti has been praised, and he has been mentioned as Bhojaka or belonged to Bhoja dynasty. He was a favourite of Käkusthyavarma. Môigeáavarmä, grandson of Käkusthya Verma, assigned Kheûa village in charity to the wife of Árutakïrti and mother of Dämakïrti. Jayakïrti, elderson of Dämakïrti, gave the Kheûaka village to Ächärya Kumäradatta of the Yäpanïya Saãgha for the merit of his parents.
- CHÄMUÎÂARÄYA: Chämuîâaräya was well known by the name ‘Räya’. He was a great warrior, sincere, and devoted to Jainism. We get information about his life from several inscriptions of his time and the Chamuîâaräya Puräîa written in the Kaîîada language. He was born in the Brahmakshatra Kula as known from his inscription.1 He was the Senäpati (Commander of the Gaõga ruler Räyamalla IV, and also his father Märasiãha III. Räyamalla IV and Märasiãha III were the feudatories of the Räshûraküûa rulers Kôishîa III and Indra IV, and they won victories in battles. If we read inscriptions2 along with the Chämuîâaräya Puräîa, it becomes clear that Gaõga rulers Märasiãha and Rächamalla attained victories for their masters Räsûraküûa rulers Krishaîa III and Indra IV through their Senäpati Chämuîâa Räya. In his inscriptions, he was given several titles showing his bravery.
Chämuîâa Räya installed the famous big image of Bähubali, a feat of sculptural art in monolith at Sravaîabelagola3. He had two teachers namely Ajitasena and Nemichandra Siddhänta Chakravartï. It is known from the Áravaîabelagola inscription4 that this Senäpati built a Basadi at Chikka beûûa. From another inscription,5 it is clear that his son Jinadevaîîa, who was a disciple of Ajitasena Muni, also constructed a basadi. He seems to be the foremost for the establishment and uplift of Jinaáäsana.
- ÁANTINÄTHA: We know about Áäntinätha from the inscription.6 He was a naural poet. His title was Sarasvatï Mukha-Mukhara. His fame was wide. He requested Lakshma king for transforming a wooden Jaina temple into stone. The name of this temple was Mallikämoda Áantinätha.
There were several Jaina Senäpatis associated with the Hoysala dynasty during the twelfth century A.D. The most famous ruler of this dynasty was Vishîuvardhana. The credit for his vast conquests goes to the eight Jaina Senäpatis. Their names were Gaõgaräja, Boppa, Puîisa, Baladevaîîa, Mariyäne, Bharata, Aicha and Vishîu. The Hoysala dynasty became famous in the South because of these Senäpatis.
- GAÕGA RÄJA: The chief among these Senäpatis was Gaõgaraja.1 We know about his life from two dozen inscriptions. There is mention of his conquests. He gave different kinds of charities to the Jaina Munis and temples. His two Jaina teachers were Meghachandra Siddhäntadeva and Áubhachandra Siddhäntadeva. He renovated several fallen Jaina temples. One Jaina temple was known by his peculiar title Drohagharatta. The Hoysala ruler Vishîuvardhana assigned village and gave other charities to this temple in order to increase his merit.
- BOPPA: Daîâeáa Boppadeva, son of Gaõgaräja, was a great warrior and devoted to Jainism. He built two Jaina temples known as Áäntiávara Vasadi and Trailokya-rañjana Vasadi (Boppaîa Chaityälaya). He has been praised for his valour. In 1134 A.D., he attacked the enemy, repulsed his powerful army and defeated the Kongas.2
- PUÎISA: One of the warrior companions of Gaõgaräja, one was Puîisa. He was the minister of peace and war (Sändhivigrahika) of the Hoysala king vishîuvardhana. His heroic deeds in the battles have been described in the inscription.1 He conquered several countries, and presented them to his master Vishîuvardhana. Puîisa was large hearted like Gaîgaräja. He rendered equal service to humanity and religion. It is known from the inscription2 that he restored by returning the lost belonging of the traders peasants, Kirätas and others who lost their belongings, he tried to restore them by returning. He also helped by bringing them up. He donated land to the attached Vasadis with his own Triküûa Vasadi at Arakottara of Aîîenäd and adorned Gaõgavädi like the Gaõgas with Vasadis.
- BALADEVAÎÎA: Baladevaîîa was also the Senäpati of Visênuvardhana. He was the third son of king Arasäditya and Ächämbike. His two elder brothers were Pamparäya and Harideva. In the inscription,3 he was given titles Mantriyüthägraîi, Guîï, Sakalasachivanätha, Jinapädäãdhri sevaka etc.
- MARIYANE AND BHARATA: The two brothers Daîâanäyaka Mariyane and Bharata were Generals of the Hoysala ruler Vishîuvardhana. Some inscriptions4 give introduction to their dynasty. They were related to the Hoysala dynasty. Vishnuvardhana understanding Mariyäne Daîâanäyaka his Paûûadäne (Räjya Gajendra) made him Senäpati. These two brothers were warrior, as well as devoted to religion. In the inscription,1 different virtues of Bharata have been praised, It has been mentioned that his wealth was meant for the Jaina temples, kindness for all beings, his soul for the worship of Jïnaräja and charity for Munis. From the two Áravaîabelagola-inscriptions2, it is known that he got eighty new basadïs built, and renovated two hundred old basadis of Gaõgaväâi. The teacher of these two brothers was Gaîâavimukta Vrati, disciple of the Ächärya Maghanandi of Deáïgaîa. Pustaka gachchha. These two brothers were living in the time of Narasiãha, son of Vishîuvardhana.3 These two got sovereignty of three villages including Sindageri by paying five hundred Honnus to the ruler Narasimha.
- AICHA : The nephew of Gaõgaräja was Aicha who was the General of Vishnuvardhana. From the inscription4, it is known that he got constructed several Jaina temples at the places Kopana, Belgula etc., and died in saintly way of Sallekhanä. Boppa, son of Gaõgaräja, got built Nishadyä in memory of his cousin.
- VISHÎU DAÎDÄDHIP: Vishîu Daîâädhipa was another Senäpati of Vishîuvardhana.5 He conquered the southern province within half a month. He was the right hand of Vishîuvardhana. He got him married with the daughter of his Prime Minister. He was given the post of Mahäprachaîâa Daîâanätha and Sarvädhikärï. This Senäpati was religious and charitable. He performed several public deeds, and got constructed a Jaina temple in the capital Dorasamudra. His teacher’s name was Árïpäla Traividyadeva to whom he donated a village and lands for the management of Jaina temple and Ähäradäna to saints.
- MÄDIRÄJA: One Jaina Minister of Vishnuvardhana was Mahäpradhäna Mädiräja. In one inscription,1 his religious virtues have been praised. He was Adhipati of Árïkaraîa, and he influenced the audience hall by his oratory. He kept the account of the treasury. His teacher was Árïpäla Traividyadeva. The four Senäpatis of Narasimha, successor of Vishîuvardhana were Devaräja, Hulla, Áañtiyaîîîa and Iávara Chamüpa.
- DEVARÄJA: There is mention of Devaraja in the inscription.2 His gotra was Kauáika. He has been told Árï Jinadharmanirmalam-barahimakara and Árï Hoysala Mahïáaräjyabhübhrinnilaya Maîipradïpa Kalaáa. Being pleased by his faithfulness and devotion to religion, king Narasiãha gave him village Süranahalli where Devaräja built the Jaina temple. The Hoysala ruler gave ten Honnus in charity for Ashûavidhärchana and Ähäradäna and named the village Pärávapura.
- HULLA: Hulla was General of Hoysala king Narasimha. Like Chämuîâaräya, he made efforts for the progress of Jainism. He is known from several inscriptions3. During the reign of Hoysala Vishîuvardhana, Narasiãha and Balläla, Hulla rendered service to the Hoysala kingdom.
- ÁÄNTIYAÎÎA: Áäntiyaîîa was the commander of the Hoysala ruler Narasiãha.1 He was the son of Pärisaîîa and Bammaladevï. He was the son-in-law of Parïsaîîa Mariyäne. In the inscription, he has been called Mahäpradhäna and Paûûisa Bhaîâärï (Superintendent of Spears). Parisaîîa Mariyäne defeated the enemies in the battlefield and sacrificed his life. Narasiãha made his son Santiyanna, the master of Karuguîâa and Daîâanäyaka of the army. Áäntiyaîîa got the basadi built in the memory of his father and granted charity for its security. His teacher Mallisheîa was Paîâita.
- IÁVARA CHAMÜPA: Iávara Chamüpa has been mentioned as Senäpati of the Hoysala ruler Narasiãha in the inscription.2 He was the son-in-law of Mahäpradhäna, Sarvädhikärï and Daîdanäyaka Chamüpa. Iávara Chamüpati repaired the Jaina temples and his wife Mächiyakka constructed a Jaina temple and a tank at the holy place Maydabolala. His teacher’s name was Gaîâavimukta Munipa.
- RECHARASA: Even during the reign of Ballala II, successor of Narasïãa, there were some Jaina Senäpatis who rendered valuable service to the Hoysala Kingdom. One of them was Recharasa. He was devoted to Jainism. He installed the Sahaáraküta Jaina image at Arasiyakere. For the management of the temple, he got the village Indarahälu from the king Ballala II and entrusted it to his teacher Sägaranandi Siddhäntadeva. The name of the above Jaina temple was Elekoûi.1 In 1182 A.D., Recharasa was Daîâädhinätha of the Kalachuri ruler Bijjala. He got several regions from the Kalachuri rulers. One of them was Nagarakhaîâa. He granted charity to Áantinätha Jaina temple at the place Mäguâi there.2 From the Áravaîa-belagola inscription,3 it is known that he performed the installation ceremony of Áantinätha and entrusted the Basadi to Sägaranandi of Kolhapura. In this inscription, he has been called ‘Vasudhaika-bändhava.
- BUDHIRÄJA: Another Senapati of Hoysala Ballala II was Büdhiräja. He has been called Mantrïávarä and Áandhivigrahika in the inscription4. He possessed Chaturvidha Päîâitya, and he could compose poetry both in Sanskrit and Kaîîaâa. In 1173 during the time of Pattabandhotsava of king Balläla, he got built the Triküta Jinälaya at the place Marikali of Sïgenäâa, and he presented the village Marikali to his teacher Väsupüjya Siddhäntädeva for the worship of temple, renovation, Ähäradäna etc.
- CHANDRAMAULI: Chandramauli was the Minister of Hoysala king Balläla. He was well versed in Bhärata áästra, Ägama, Logic, Grammar, Upanishad, drama, poetry, etc., and was the right hand of the king Balläla.5 Though he was Áaiva, his wife Achaladevï was highly devoted to Jainism. He was liberal towards Jainism. His wife got constructed the Pärávanatha temple of Áravaîabelagola, and Minister Chandra Mauli himself requested the king Balläla to donate the village Bammeyana Halli village in charity for worship of the temple.
- NÄGADEVA: Nägadeva was the Jaiana Minister of Ballala II. He was the son of Bommadeva Sachiva. It has been mentioned in the inscription1 that he was the protector of Jaina temple, and the king made him Paûûanasvämï. His teacher’s name was Nayakïrti Siddhäntadeva. After erecting Nrïtya raõgaáälä and Áiläkuttima in front of Pärávadeva at the Tïrtha of Áravaîabelgolaa, he got built a Nishidhi in memory of the department teacher. He got Nagara-Jinälaya known as ‘Árïnilaya’ at Áravaîabelagola, and donated land for it. He appointed Áravaîabelagola natives ‘Vaîijas’, descendants of Khaîâali and Mülabhadra.
- MÄDEVA DAÎDANÄTH: Among the Jaina Ministers, Mahadeva Daîâanätha was noteworty. He was Mahapradhäna of Mahämaîâaleávara Ekkalarasa. His teacher’s name was Sakalachandra Bhaûûäraka. It is known from the inscription2 that he got constructed the beautiful Jaina temple at a place named Uddhare in 1198, and named it Eraga Jinälaya. He gave several charities for worship and renovation of the temple, and different charities from Ekkalarasa.
- KAMMAÛA MÄCHAYYA: In the inscription3 of 1200 A.D. found from the village Kumbeyana halli, a name of another Jaina Minister is mentioned. He was Mahäpradhäña, Sarvädhikärï and Tanträdhishûäyaka Kammaûa Mächayya. He donated to Parivädimalla Jinalaya in Kumbeyanahalli village with his father-in-law in 1200 A.D., Mahapradhäna Sarvädhikärï, Hariyaîîa performed the Pratishûhä of Kumbeyanahalli’s deva.
- AMÔITA: Amôita was another Daîâa-näyaka of Ballala II as known from the inscription.1 He was Mähäpradhäna, Sarvädhikäri Mahäpasäyasa (Äbhüshanädhyaksha) and Bherudana Morttädashûayaka (Adhyaksha of Upädhidhärïs). He has been told in the inscription as Kavikulaja and Chaturthavarna (Áudra). He has been said as Dhärmika, Áubhamati Puîyädhika, Mantrichüâämaîi and Saumyaramyäkriti. He got built a Jaina temple called ekkoûi at Äkkulanghere in 1203 A.D. He performed Ashtavidhapüjana of Áantinätha before all Näyakas, citizens and peasants, and donated land for Ähäradäna to Munis. He got built a temple, big tank and one sattara at the birth place Lokkuîâï along with his brothers and established one Agrahära and a water-hut. He was liberal even towards the Non-Jainas. He got constructed a temple of Amôiteávara at his birth place.
- ÏCHAÎA: Ïchaîa is mentioned in the inscription2 of 1205 A.D. He got built such a Jaina temple at Velagavattinäâa during the reign of Ballala II, as noticed in that region. Hence this region became Kopaîa.
- MÄDHAVA: Mädhava Danâanäyaka is also found mentioned in the inscription3. He has been told as belonging to the family of Vïramahadevaîîa. His teacher was Mädhavachandra Bhaûûäraka. He died as Samädhimaraîa after giving up all family relations and after construction the Jaina temple. In this inscription, there is mention of another Daîâanäyaka Machigauâa. His teacher was Mädhava Chandra Bhaûûäraka. He attained heaven by Samädhividhi.
25 KÜCHIRÄJA : A Jaina Minister Küchiräja of the Yädava king Mähädeva of Devagiri is found mentioned in the inscription.1 He was a pupil of Padmasena. After the death of his wife Lakshmïdevï, he got the Jaina temple built in her name and gave it Pogale gachchha of Sena Gaîa. He requested the king to assign a village for the management of a Jaina temple. After meeting the local Gauda people, he himself donated and got donations from others.
- IRUGAPPA: Jaina Ministers and Senäpatis rendered valuable services to the Vijayanagara kingdom. The name of Irugappa is noteworthy among them. From his inscriptions2, it is known he was both Mahämantrï and Senäpati. His father was Chaicha (Vaichappa) Daîâeáa, and his teacher was Siãhanandi. He established the Kunthunätha Jaina temple. He also composed the Nänärthanäma mälä. There is mention of his donation and the construction of Maîâapa in the two inscriptions3 found at Tiruppa Ruktikuîru near Kañjïvaram.
- GOPA: Gopa was a Senäpati of Devaräya4. He was the ruler of Nägarakhaîâa.5 His two Jaina teachers were Paîâitächärya and Árutamunipa Gopa dies by Samädhividhi.
- MUÑJALA: Muñjala was a Minister of king Karîa, and contiued to hold office under Siddharäja. He saved the king Karîa from a fall and won Mayaîalladevï’s secret blessings. On another occasion, he helped Jayasiãhadeva, Karîa’s son. When the siege of Dhära was indefinitely prolonged, Siddharäja took a vow to refrain from food until he had captured the fort of Dhära. At this time, Muñjala intervened and persuaded Siddharäja to fulfill his vow by breaking Dhära made of flour into pieces. He is said to have taken an important part in the capture of Dhära. After taking Dhära, Siddhäräja had taken a vow that he would enter Aîahilaväâa mounted on an elephant, with Yaáovarman, holding an unseathed sword in hand, on the back seat of the Howdah. Muñjala pointedout to the king the risk he had undertaken by taking that vow. The king was unwilling to break his vow but Muñjala persuaded him to fulfil it by giving in Yaáovarman’s hand a wooden sword.1
- ÁÄNTU OR SAMPATKARA: Áäntu or Sampatkara was another Jaina Minister of Siddharäja. He was the Prime Minister of Karîa also. In the beginning of his career, he was a Governor of Läûa in Broach. By dint of his merit, he rose to the rank of the Chief Minister of Karîa. His proficiency in Statecraft and his success in political affairs are specially mentioned by Bilhaîa, He had sent an army under Sachchika to fight the Sultan of Ghazni whom it defeated on the banks of the Indus. Áäntu is said to have put an end to the tyranny of Madanapäla, maternal uncle of king Karîa. Taking advantage of the King’s absence from the capital, the king of Mälwa invaded Gujarat. As an able Statesman, he tried to avoid the enemy knocking at the door. Áäntu did not disclose the fault of others and gave an opportunity to the wrong doer to improve.1
- ÄSUKA: Another Jaina Minister of Siddharäja was Äsuka. He was a Mähämätya or Prime Minister between 1122-23 A.D. and 1124-25 A.D. With his advice and assent, Jayasimha made a pilgrimage to the Áatruñjaya hill and gave a grant of twelve villages to the temple of Ädinätha. He attended the famous debate between Devasüri and Kumudachandra.2
- SAJJANA: Sajjana was another Jaina officer of Siddharäja. After the conquest of Soratha, he was appointed Governor of the Province. This is confirmed by an inscription in Neminätha’s temple built by him on Giranära, Sajjana’s temple in Giranära is the largest temple on the hill.3
- VAGBHATA: According to the commentator of the Vägbha-ûälaõkära, Vägbhaûa was a Prime-minister of Jayasimhadeva. He was probably a son of Udayana.4 As known from the Dvyäáraya, he was also a Prime Minister of Kumärapäla. This fact is confirmed by the Näâola copper plates of V.S. 1213. He built a stone temple to Ädinätha on the Áatruñjaya hill in 1154-55 A.D. and founded Vägbhaûapura at the fort of the hill. In this city, Vägbhaûa built a temple of Pärávanätha and called it Tribhuvanavihära after King’s father.1
- CHANDRASÜRI: Chandrasüri, the author of the Munisuvrata’s Charitra, was the Governor of Läta before he entered the order of Jaina monks.2
- AMBAÂA OR ÄMRABHAÛA: Ämra or Ämrabhaûa was another, Mantrï of Kumärapäla. He was the second son of Udayana. He built the Áakunikavihära in Broach in V.S. 1211 or V.S. 1222. The Jainas of Broach believe that the remains of this temple are found in a mosque.3
- CHÄHAÂA: The Udepur inscription of V.S. 1222 informs that Chähaâa was a daîâanäyaka or Kumärapäla in Malwa. He was probably Chähaâa, third son of Udayana. From an inscription on Giranära, it seems, he had seven sons, the eldest of whom was a treasurer of Kumärapala. By dint of merit, he (the eldest son) rose to the rank of Prime Minister. From the Praáasti to the Pôithvïchandra-Charita of Áäntisüri, it is clear that Kumärasïmha, Chähaâa’s eldest son, was the Prime Minister in V.S. 1225.4
- MHADEVA: The Kiräâu inscription of V.S. 1209 and the Bäli inscription of V.S. 1219 speak of Mahädeva as the Prime Minister of the king. We do not know much about this Mahädeva. He was probably the son of Dädäka, a Prime Minister of Siddharäja and the Governor of Ujjain in V.S. 1195.5
- PÔITHVÏPÄLA: The Praáasti to the Mallinätha Charita informs that Prithvïpäla was the Prime Minister of Kumärapäla. This Pôithvïpäla repaired Vimalaáähaá temple on Mount Äbü.1
- DAÎDANÄYAKAS: In V.S. 1202, Sahajiga was the Daîâanäyaka of Saurashtra. In V.S. 1207, Sajjana was the Dandanäyaka of Chitoda. We do not know who this Sajjana was. He was probably the daîâanäyaka of Saurashtra in the time of Siddharäja and built the stone temple on Giranära. In V.S. 1210, 1213 and 1216, Vaijaladeva was the daîâanäyaka of Näâola. In V.S. 1222, Ambaka, son of Räîiga, was the daîâanäyaka of Saurashtra.2
- YAÁAHPÄLA: Yaáahpäla was a Jaina Minister of Ajayapäla. He completed the Moh-aparäjaya, an allegorical drama, celebrating the conversion of Kumärapäla to Jainism, in this reign. His father’s name was Dhanadeva and mother’s name Rukmini. Dhanadeva was a Minister of Siddharäja or Kumärapäla.3
- OTHER OFFICIALS: In V.S. 1247, Sobhanadeva was the governor of Läûadeáa and Rämasimha the Mudrädhikärï, Ambaâa Mantri and Älhädana Daîâanäyaka were the other Jaina officers of Bhima II.4
- PÄHILA: Pahila was the Minister of the Chandella ruler Dhaõga governing Jejäbhukti now called Bundelkhand. The Khajuräho inscription dated 953-954 A.D. in the temple of Pärávanätha records a number of gifts and endowments of gardens by one Pähila who claims to have been held in esteem by king Dhaõga. The devotion of the Grahapati family to which Pähila belonged is also evidenced by Áäntinätha image inscription of V.S. 1132 in which it is found that during the reign of Kïrttivarman, the image of Áäntinätha was installed by a group of his hereditary Ministers namely Pähilla and Jiju. They were disciples of Väsavachandra. Another statue was setup by Sälhe, the son of Pähilla in 1157-58 A.D. during the prosperous reign of Madanavarman, and the sons of Sälhe were Mahegaîa, Mahichandra, Árïchandra, Jinachandra and Udayachandra.1
- SÄHU KUÁARÄJA: Sähu Kuáaräja Jaisaväla was the Minister of the Tomara ruler Vïramadeva (1402-23 A.D.) of Gwalior, He was devoted to Jainism. Padmanäbha Käyastha wrote the Yäáodhara Charita during the reign of Vïramadeva by the inspiration of the Minister, Sähu Kuáaräja Jaisaväla.2 Kuáaräja also built the Jaina temple of Chandraprabhu in Gwalior.
- KAMALASIÃHA: Kamalasimha was the Chief Minister of Âüõgarasiãha (1425-59 A.D.) He erected a huge image of Ädinätha in V.S. 1497, and its consecration ceremony was performed by Raidhü. Kamalasiãha also inspired others to install several images. He was a patron of the great poet Raidhü and encouraged him to write several works in Prakrit, Apabhramsa and Hindi. Asapati was also the Minister of Âüõgasasiãha.
JAINA STATESMEN OF THE SULTÄNS OF MÄÎÂU
- NARADEVA SONÏ: Hoshang Shah honoured the Jainas by associating them with his government. They had a reputation for their honesty in handling cash. Hoshang Shäh appointed Naradeva Sonï as his Bhaîâägärika (treasurer) and associated him in his Council. Narasiãha had become famous for his charities, as his son Sangräm Singh Sonï mentions that his father’s charities knew no bounds and all recipients returned to their places after receiving full satisfaction from Naradeva.1
- SANGRÄM SINGH SONÏ: During the reign of Mahmud Khalji, we find Sangräm Singh, son of Naradeva Sonï, occupying the same position that his father had enjoyed during the reign of Hoshang shah. That Sangräm Singh enjoyed the confidence of Sultan Mahmud is borne out from the Praáasti of Buddhisägara, Sangram Singh accompanied Mahmud Khalji in his Deccan campaigns and completed his Buddhisägara at Pratishûhänpura (Paiûhän) on the Godavari where he seems to have gone for a holy dip in 1463 A.D. In order to retain the favour of the Sultän, he did not fail to praise him in his composition. Sangram Singh Sonï retained his position throughout the reign of Nasir Shah.2
- MAÎÂANA: Maîâana another Jaina of Árïmäla caste, became well known in the reign of Hoshang Shah. Maîâana was a successful businessman and earned a good deal of wealth through his business. While he extended his charities, and lavishly donated for the entablishment of Jaina monasteries. He neither neglected his business nor failed to assist Sultan Hoshang Shah with his financial aids. Sultan Hoshang Shah also in return honoured him.1
- JASAVÏRA: There was another Jaina family flourishing in Mänâu during the reign of Mahmud Khalji I. In this family Jasavira became quite prominetn. He visited many of the places of Jaina pilgrimage and distributed charity everywhere. He set up fifty-two Saãghapatis and was himself honoured with the title of ‘Samgheávara‘. Jasavïra was also associated with the government. He held an important post in the principality (Jägir) of Shehzädä Ghiyas Shäh.
Jaina merchants used to go either for trade or for pilgrimage, and it is not unlikely that they used to bring information about the internal condition prevailing in the kingdoms they visited and supplied them to their rulers. We find that in 1454, Jasavïra visited Mewar and also the court of Ränä Kumbha where he was honoured by the Räîä. It is possible that he might have visited the kingdom of Mewar in order to collect information.2
- PUNJARÄJA: That the Jainas were happy and prosperous in his reign is borne out from the praises that have been lavished on Mäîâu in the Praáasti of the Kalpa Sütra transcribed in 1198 A.D. The Jainas had become more closely associated with the administration and received various titles from Sultan Ghiyath Shah. Punjaräja was made Wazir of the Khälsä lands and was given the title of ‘Mafar-ul-Mulk.’1
- PADÄRTNA OF RÄMPURÄ: From the two inscriptions of Rämpurä, it is known that Padärtha was of the Ragheraväla Caste. The Chandrävata ruler Durgabhänu of Rämpurä appointed the royal Padärtha as his Finance Minister. Durgabhanu’s son Chandra is said to have raised Padärtha to the status of Prime Minister. He gained a position of power and influence as Prime Minister. He was greatly devoted to the Tïrthaõkaras. He made gifts of food and clothes to the Saãgha while setting out to see the festival in Jaina temple. The pillar inscription records the excavation and the consecration of the well by Padärtha.2
- MINISTERS OF THE CHAUHÄNAS OF CHANDRAVÄDA :Rämasimha was the Diwän of the Chauhana ruler Chandrapäla. He built the Jaina temple in 996-999 A.D. and installed the image of Chandraprabhu in it. Amritapala, a Minister of Abhayapäla, constructed the Jaina image at Chandraväda. Soâusahu, Minister of Jaheda, got the Bhavishyadatta Kathä written in Apabhraãáa in 1173 A.D.3
Almost every state of Rajasthan and every principality or jägïra was served by more than one Jaina minister of manager. Naturally, all of them were not pious people; but some of them led a life of lofty ideals and were deeply devoted to their masters who could not but respect the general principles of their religion. The ministers and officers preached by practice and not by precepts. Their masters and all others who came into close contact with them were deeply impressed by the simplicity of their personal life and began to respect the religion which was responsible for their high morality, their high official position, social status, learning, loyalty and devotion. They are too numerous to be described but a bare outline of the life of some of them seems to be necessary.
- VIMALA: We have no information about the Jaina statesmen of Rajasthan before Vimala1 who is the most famous Jaina statesman of the eleventh century. He was a son of Vïra, the Mahattama of the King Mülaräja, and rose to the position of the Minister of Bhïma I by sheer dint of his military skill. Probably, he fought against Mahamüd Ghaznï with his master. According to the Prabandhas, he defeated the twelve Sämantas. It cannot be wholly legendary and may contain some elements of truth. They may be deputies or generals left by Mahmüd Ghaznï after his return from India. He also assisted his master in restoring Sauräshtra and Kachchha which became independent taking advantage of the Muslim invasion.
Afterwards, Vimala helped his master Bhïma in capturing Chandrävatï, a place near Abu, from Dhandhuka. Bhïma made him a governor in recognition of his services. In course of time, Vimala restored friendship between Dhandhuka and Bhïma. Bhïma returned his kingdom to Dhandhuka but kept Vimala as his representative of Abu as before.
Vimala was a deeply religious and self-sacrificing man. He led an extremely simple life and lavished almost all of his immense personal wealth on the construction of a wonderful temple on Mount Abu.
- UDAYANA: Udayana was the well-known statesman in the time of Chälukyan rulers namely Siddharäja and Kumärapäla. He was a native of Marwar, born at Jalor. He was a Jaina by religion and Árïmäla by caste At the suggestion of some persons, he went to Karîävatï and stayed at the place of a painter, named Lachhi. Fortune smiled on him and he became a rich man. In course of time, he won name and fame; and he was appointed as the governor of Khambhat by Siddharäja.
Udayana was a devout Jaina and enormously rich. He was responsible for the initiation of Hemachandra at the age of eight, when he was the governor of Cambay. According to the Prabandhachintämaîi, it was he who persuaded his father Chächiga to consent for the initiation of his son. When Kumärapäla was wandering as an exile persecuted by the fiery wrath of his uncle, it was Udayana who gave him shelter. Ther is little doubt that he remained in touch with him throughout his exile and made efforts to secure him the throne.
Udayana was a true follower of Jainism. Once Kumärapäla sent him against the king of Soraûha. he left his army in Vardhamänapura and went to Vimalächala. While worshipping, he saw a rat with a burning wick entering a hole in the wooden temple. Seeing this, Udayana determined to build a stone temple and vowed to take only one meal till the task was accomplished. Then he reached the camp and marched against Sunsars. In a battle, the imperial army was defeated; but he was mortally wounded. The minister thought that he was dying before having rebuilt the temples of Vimalächala and Bhôigukachchha. His officers assured him that his sons Vägbhaûa and Ämrabhaûa would carry out his plans. He passed away peacefully when his sons assured him to fulfil his vow. When Kumärapäla heard about his death, he was much grieved. Udayana had four sons Vägbhata, Chähaâa, Ambaâa and Sola. Vägbhaûa and Ambaâa became the Prime Minister and Minister respectively in his reign.1
- VASTUPALA: Vastupäla, the prime minister of the Väghela king Vïradhavala of Dhavalaka or Dholka during the thirteenth century, was not only a statesman but also great patron of art and literature. Vastupäla and his twin brother Tejapäla were born in an aristocratic Prägväûa family of Aîahilaväâa in 1205 A.D. They were the sons of Kumäradevï, the widow remarried to Aávaräja, a military commander of the Väghelas. During their childhood, they lived with their father in a town called Sumhalakapura which was given to him by the Chälukyan king as a reward for his services.1 After the death of Aávaräj, the two brothers with their mother went to Maîâalï where they lived until the death of their mother. After that, they seem to have begun their political career. He served first under Bhïmadeva and his services were lent to the court of Dhavalakka only afterwards.2 We do not know when Vastupäla joined the services of Bhïma, but it is certain that he end his brother were appointed at Dhavalakka in 1220 A.D.
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONSOLIDATION : When Vastupäla was appointed the governor of Stambatirtha or Khambhat, he improved the economic conditions of the people and reformed administration. fort this purpose, he devised an excellent administrative machinery in order to put an end to Matsyanyäya. He put a check on unscrupulous people who were making money by base means and indulging in piracy.3 In this way, he succeeded in checking corruption with an iron hand. All these measures naturally brought about confidence among the people.4 He also improved the moral tone of the people. As a result of it, life and property became safe and secure, and thus it led to the prosperity of trade and commerce.
WARLIKE DEEDS : After establishing peace in the kingdom, Vastupäla launched upon the career of conquests. Saãkha, the ruler of Läûa, claimed the port of Stambha, which was in the possession of Vïradhavala and attacked it. After a fierce fight at a place called Vaûakupa (Vaâavä) near Stambatïrtha, Saãkha was defeated. The Yädava King Siãhana of Devagiri from the south and the four Märwärï rulers from the north made a joint attack on the kingdom of Vïradhavala. Showing shrewd statesmanship on this occasion, Vastupäla became successful in making truce with the four chiefs from Devagiri.
The Prabandhas describe several other warlike deeds of Vïradhavala and his two ministers. First of all, they conquered the rulers of Vämanasthalï (Modern Vanthalï, near Junagarh). Säõgana and Chämunâa, the brothers of Vïradhavala’s queen Jayataladevï declined to pay homage to Vïradhavala.5 They were slain in a combat. The great riches of the palace of Vanasthalï fell into the hands of Vïradhavala. Vïradhavala led another attack against Bhïmasiãha of the Pratïhara clan ruling at Bhadreávara in Kutch but could not conquer him: he had to return only after making a peace treaty.1 By it, a new friend was made and Kutch border became free from danger. After this Vïradhavala thought of subduing Ghüghula, a chief ruling at Godraha (Modern Godhrä) in the Mahïtaûa region on the banks of the river Mahï. Tejapäla, who was sent with a strong force, captured Ghüghula and put him in a wooden cage.2
During the reign of Vïradhavala, there was the attack of Sultan Mojdin of Delhi on Gujarat but it was successfully repulsed by the strategy of Vastupäla. Mojdin may be identified with the slave ruler IItutmish who ruled from 1211 A.D. to 1236 A.D. The Sultan Iltutmish undertook a number of expeditions to Rajputana and Gujarat. He captured Jalor sometimes between 1211A.D. and 1216 A.D. and Mandor about 1226 A.D. In one of these, he might have attacked Gujarat. The enemy was encircled by Dhärävarsha of Chandrävatï from the north and Vastupäla from the southafter his army of Cahdruavatï from the north and Vastupäla from the south after his army had entered a mountain pass near Abu. Consequently, the Sultan had to retreat. After some time, the Sultan’s mother was going on pilgrimage to the holy Mecca and had come to a port of Gujarat where she was robbed by the pirates. Vastupäla returned the old woman’s property after receiving her with great respect and also provided for her comfort and safety. While returning from Meccat she took Vastupäla with her to Delhi and introduced him to the Sultan. Vastupäla obtained a promise from the Sultan to keep friendship with Vïradhavala and thus made his kingdom safe. Coming from Delhi, he was received by Vïradhavala with great honour.3
- PILGRIMAGES OF VASTUPÄLA: According to the Prabandhas, Vastupäla had made thirteen pilgrimages to Áatruñjaya and Girnar. In childhood, he went to both the places with his father Aávaräja in 1193 A.D. and 1194 A.D. After becoming a minister, he led the Saãghas to Áatruñjaya and Girnar in 1221 A.D., 1234 A.D, 1235 A.D., 1236 A.D. and 1237 A.D. The pilgrimage of 1221 A.D. was probably the most important one as it is described with remarkable accuracy and poetic skill in contemporary works like the Kïrtikaumudï, the Sukôitasaãkïrtana and Dharmäbhyudaya.
PUBLIC WORKS : Vastupäla and Tejapäla are remembered more for the cultural activities inspired by their munificience. They brough about a cultural renaissance. They built a large number of public works like temples, rest houses, tanks, wells etc. Their munificience and philanthropy extended to a large number of places in the whole of Gujarat, Saurashtra and Marwar. Their public works extended to Árïáaila in the South, Prabhäsa in the West, Kedära in the North and Benares in the East.1 They were confined not only to the Jainas but were meant for all. They constructed hospitals, dharmaáäläs, Maûhas, Áiva temples and even mosques2. Besides, the famous Jaina temple of Abu at Delaväâä generally known as Luîavasahï temple was constructed by him.
PATRON OF LEARNING AND LITERATURE : Vastupäla was not only a philanthropist and patron of art but at the same time, a great patron of learning. He had established three public libraries in Aîahilaväâ, Stambhatïrtha and Bhrigukachchha by spending an enormous wealth.3 His personal library was also very rich and contained more than one copy of all important Áästras.4 He was highly liberal towards poets and scholars. While giving patronage to scholars, he made no distinction between Jaina and non-Jaina. He gave large wealth to the Brähmaîas having poetical skill.
Moreover, Vastupäla was credited with a critical faculty which enabled him to detect defects in poetic compositions by others and to make improvements in them. He was himself a poet too. His poetic name was Vasantapäla. His first poem was the Ädinäthastotra in the form of hymn in praise of Ädiávara on the Áatruñjaya hills.5 He has also written several Stotras like the Neminäthastotra, Ambikästotra and a short Arädhanä of ten verses. He was also proficient in composition of Süktis. In the Abu Praáasti, Someávara has spoken highly of his originality in the field of poetry.6 He has composed the Naranäräyaîananda of Arjuna and Kôishîa.
LITERARY CIRCLE OF MAHÄMÄTYA VASTUPÄLA : Several poets and the scholars circled round Vastupäla and not of the royal court of the Väghelas. There is no doubt that these poets and scholars came to the Väghelas court and sometimes received gifts from their ruler. But these writers praised the Väghela kings not so much as they did Vastupäla. It indicates that all of them were dependent upon Vastupäla, and it was mainly through him that their literary efforts were appreciated. And hence, we are justified in calling these writers as the literary circle of Vastupäla. The names of these writers are Someávara, Harihara, Nänäka, Yaáovïra, Subhaûa, Arisiãha, Amarachandrasüri, Vijayasenasüri, Udayaprabhasüri, Jinabhadrasüri, Narachandra, Narendraprabhasüri, Bälachandra, Jayasiãhasüri and Mäîikyachandra.
- RESTORATION OF THE KINGDOM BY TEJÄGADAHÏYA TO MÄLADEVA: In Jodhpur state, there were several leading Jainas who rendered valuable services to the ruling chiefs. Among them, the name of Tejä Gadahïyä is well-known. He was a great warriour and a faithful servant of Mahäräjä Mäladeva. In about 1541 A.D., Shershah attacked Jodhpur with large forces but he could not defeat the brave Räjputs so easily. He, therefore, took recourse to treachery and became successful in capturing Jodhpur from the Räûhoâas. Shershah was so much impressed by their valour that he remarked “I had nearly lost the empire of Hindustan for a handful of Bäjra (Millet).”
Shershah appointed his deputy Hamajä to govern Jodhpur. According to the Osvälavaãáävalï,1 Tejä Gadahïyä restored the kingdom of Jodhpur to his master Mäladeva after putting Hamajä to death. It shows his bravery as well as devotion towards his master.
- HEROIC AND PHILANTHROPIC DEEDS OF MUHAÎOTA JAYAMALA: Muhaîota Jyamala was a great warrior and philanthropist. The Mughal emperor gave two districts of Jalor and Sanchor to Mahäräja Gajasiãha who appointed Muhaîota Jayamala as the governor. Jayamala carried on the administration successfully. He defeated 500 Maräûhäs who invaded Sanchor. When a dreadful famine broke out in 1630 A.D., he distributed grains free of charge among the needy and distressed. Besides, he spent his entire property in these charitable activites.
- MUHAÎOTA NAIÎASÏ AS AN ADMINISTRATOR: The son of Muhaîota Jayamala was Muhaîota Naiîasï, who was a historian as well as an administrator. He acted as the dïväna of Jasawantasiãha. He compiled a history of Marwar on the line of Abul Fuzl. He introduced the census sustem and improved the administration by removing many lägas and begäras. He has written a five-yearly report describing the districts, villages, their income, quality of land, tanks, wells and different castes in Märwari language on the model of Äini-Akbarï of Abul Fuzl.
Muhaîota Naiîasï was a devout Jaina and possessed spotless character. He was loyal but frank and brave but lenient. He led an extremely simple life strictly according to the tenets of Jainism.
- RATANASIÃHA AS A WARRIOR: Ratanasimha Bhaîdärï served Abhayasiãha with great zeal and devotion. He was a great warrior. In 1730 A.D., Mahäräja Abhayasiãha was appointed as a Viceroy of Ajmer and Gujarat. After a period of 3 years, he placed Ratanasiãha Bhaîdarï in the sole charge of the province. He worked there from 1733 A.D. to 1737 A.D. The Mughal power was on decline so that authority of the emperor was defied by the Maräûhäs on the one hand and by his refractory governors on the other. Ratanasiãha, therefor, had to spend his whole time either in waging the wars against the Maräûhäs or putting down the overpowerful governors.
Ratanasiãha had not been long in his new office when the Maräûhäs under their leader Jadujï Däbhade visited Gujarat. In order to save the province from their ravages, he had to purchase their retreat at an enormous expense.
Bhävasiãha, the hereditary governor of Vïramagäm, was a source of trouble to him. In 1734 A.D., he had to issue orders to Jawahmard Khan for the arrest of the delinquent. Jawahmard Khan, of course went to Viramagam and took him into custody but was forced by his supporters to release him.
In 1735 A.D., Soharabkhan was appointed as the governor of Viramagam but Ratanasiãha did not like his appointment. Soharab Khan leaving Sadak Ali as his deputy in Junagarh marched for Vïramagam. Ratanasiãha also with assistance of Mominkhan and others proceeded towards Vïramagam. A battle was fought between the two. The troops of Soharab Khan fled away and he himself was killed in the battle. Bhävasiãha of Vïramagam was waiting for the revenge. He, therefore, entered into an alliance with the Maräûhäs and treacherously admitted them into the city. Dämajï. the Maräûhä leader, assumed the control of Viramagam and expelled the Märawärï administrator Kalyäna and left his agent Raõgojï. Raõgojï advanced as far as Bavla near Dholka pillaging and devastating the country. Ratanasiãha marched against him and drove him back to Viramagam. He, however, laid siege to it. At this time, Pratäparäva advanced towards Ahmedabad. When Ratanasiãha knew it, he at once raised the siege of the town and returned to Ahmedabad.
In 1737 A.D., Muhammad Shah became displeased with Abhayasiãha and appointed Meminkhan as the Viceroy of Gujarat in his place. When Ratanasiãha Bhaîdärï became aware of the change, he at once wrote to his master for the orders. The reply from Abhaysiãha was that Ratanasiãha Bhaîâäri should resist Memimkhan if he could. He prepared to defend Ahmedabad while Meminkhan prepared for the march of his army. Meminkhan also made his friendship with the Maräûhäs. But Ratanasiãha was a great diplomat and made attempts not to make the union of these two parties. In the end, he entered into negotiation with Meminkhan and left the city after receiving a large sum of money from him.
After the death of Jorävarasiãha, the chief of Bikaner in 1745 A.D., there started a war of succession between the two claimants namely Gajasiãha and Amarasiãha. With the aid of Ûhäkura Kuáalasiãha and Mehatä Bakhtävarasiãha, Gajasiãha succeeded in securing the gaddi, upon which Amarsiãha took up the cause of the disappointed claimant and marched a large force in command of Ratansimaha Bhaîdärï against Gajasiãha. A decisive battle was fought in 1747 A.D. and Ratanasiãha Bhaîâärï was killed fighting gallantly.1
Professionally a soldier and statesman, Ratanasiãha was almost a Sädhu in his private life. Naturally, he was greatly respected not only by Jainas but also by non-Jainas including the Muslims.
- ÁAMASERA BAHÄDURA AS A GENERAL: Áamasera Bahädura, who was the commander in chief of Mahäräja Vijayasiãha, participated in several battles. In the battle fought in Gaurwar province, he showed excellent bravery in 1792 A.D. In recognition of his gallantry and heroism on battlefields, Mahäräjä Vijayasiãha became highly pleased and conferred upon him unique honour of Rävä Räjä and a jägïra worth 29,000/-.1 He was a very pious man and stories regarding his charity and purity are still current in Marwar.
- LOYALTY OF DHANARÄJÄ: After conquering Ajmer from the Maräûhäs in 1787 A.D., the ruling chief of Jodhpur made Dhanaräja its governor, The Maräûhäs soon recovered their losses and four years later again invaded Marwar. Two sanguinary battle of Merta and Pätan were fought in which Märwärïs were defeated.
In the meantime, the Maräûhä General De Boighe had attacked and invested Ajmer. Dhanaräja, the governor of the place, stood the siege heroically and successfully. Vijayasiãha, seeing the disastrous result of Pätan, issued him order to surrender the place to the enemies and return to Jodhpur. It was too exacting a demand on his brave and chivalrous nature. He would neither consent to a disgraceful surrender nor would he be guilty of disobedience to his master. He was thus placed in dilemma. Eventually, he decided to end his life. He had the diamond ring on his finger he had the gem pulverised and swallowed the powder. ‘Go and tell the prince’, cried the departing hero,’thus only, I could testify my obedience and over my dead body alone, could a Märäûhä enter Ajmer.’
- DIPLOMACY AND LOYALTY OF INDRARÄJA: Indraräja Siõghï was a real diplomat as well as a loyal servant of his master. Jagatsiãha, the ruler of Jaipur, espoused the cause of Mänasiãha’s rival Dhoõkalasiãha and attacked Marwar with a large army. Mahäräjä Süratasiãha of Bikaner, Pinâärï Amirakhan and several other Sardars also joined him. Jaipur forces took the possession of Märoûha, Merta, Parbatsar, Nagaur, Pälï, Sojat etc. and even the city of Jodhpur. Only the fort remained under the possession of Mähäräjä. At this time, Siõghï Indraräja and Bhaîdärï Gangäräma requested Mäharäjä Mänasiãha to let them out through the secret path of the fort. The prince acceded to the request and sent them outside the fort. Both of them went to Merta where they collected a large force. They won Amïrakhan, the leader of the Pinâärïs, to their side by offering him a bribe of one lakh. After that, Siõghï Indraräja, Bhaîdärï, Gangäräma and Ûhäkura Áivanäthasiãha of Kuchäman left for Jaipur. When the Mahäräjä of Jaipur came to know, he sent a large army under the command of Räya Áivaläla. Several skirmishes took place but not decisive battle was fought. At last, Amïrakhän and Siõghï Indraräja succeeded in rounting the Jaipur forces at Fägï near Tonk. When this news reached Jagatasiãha, he immediately raised the siege of Jodhpur and left for his counry.
Mahäräjä Mänasiãha highly honoured Indraräja on his return to Jodhpur and made him his chief minister. After that, Indraräja besieged Bikaner and compelled the Mahäräjä to pay four lakhs of rupees as a price for raising his siege. He also saved his master from the serious plot of Amïrakhan. When he invaded Bikaner, Amïrakhän in his absence got the pattä of the districts of Parbatsar, Märoûha, Dïdwänä and Sambhar. The Pathans of Amïrakhan reached Jodhpur and demanded their salaries and the possession of four districts from Indraräja, who asked them to produce the relevant document. When it was placed before him, he swallowed it up. This act infuriated the Pathans who killed the Sõghï then and there. When this news reached the Mahäräjä, he expressed his deep sorrow over his death and ordered for the royal funeral. In return of his valuable services, Mahäräjä Mänasiãha gave the jägïra of twenty-five thousand and dïvänagï to his son Fateharäja.1
BIKANER AND JAINA STATESMEN
- RESTORATION OF THE KINGDOM TO KALYÄÎASIÃHA BY THE EFFORTS OF NAGARÄJA: In Bikaner State, there were some Jaina statesmen who not only controlled the civil affairs of the state with great skill but also took part even in military affairs. Among them, the mane of Nägaräja is well-known. He was a faithful servant of his master Jaitrasiãha. When Mäladeva, the ruler of Jodhpur, wanted to conquer Bikaner, Jaitrasiãha sent Nägaräja to the court of Shershah for help. Jaitrasiãha lost his life fighting against Mäladeva who took possession of Bikaner. Nägaräja, persuaded Shershah for the invasion of Marwar. Mäladeva was badly defeated, and it enabled Kalyäîasiãha, the son of Jaitrasiãha, to restore his hereditary kingdom.
Tradition has it that Nagaräja was a great man in all respects. He was a God-fearing man, and his every act was inspired by lofty ideals. He gave great charities, respected Sädhus and led a very abstemious life.
- MILITARY AND PHILANTHROPIC ACTIVITIES OF KARMACHANDRA: Karmachandra was an able statesman, a great general and a religious man. He was the chief minister of Räyasiãha. When Abhayasiãha, the ruler of Jaipur, invaded Bikaner, he advised his master to make peace because the state was not prepared for the disastrous war. By his efforts, Akbar gave the title of Räjä to Räyasiãha. When Mirza Ibrahim of Nagaur attacked Bikaner, he repulsed him. Later on, he against Gujarat under Mughal standard. He extended the bounds of the Bikaner state by occupying Sojat, Jalor and some portion of Sindh.
Karmachandra rendered valuable services to his community and religion. he led many Saãghas to the holy places. In 1555 A.D., he celebrated the official entry of Jinachandrasüri at Bikaner with great rejoicings. During the famine of 1578 A.D, he made every endeavour to relieve the starving population by setting up depots for the free distribution of grain. He redovered a large number of images from the Mohammedans into whose hands they had fallen and deposited them in the Chintämîi temples at Bikaner. It was through his efforts that Jainism secured the place in the heart of Akbar. In 1592 A.D., on the suggestion of Karmachandra, Akbar invited Jinachandrasüri from Cambay and received the holy visitor at Lahore with high honour.
Karmachandra was a farsighted statesman. When Räyasiãha, the ruler of Bikaner, was becoming more and extravagant, he made the last and determined dffort to bring the king to senses at the cost of his personal loss. The treasury became empty and the future of the state appeared gloomy. His enemies poisoned the ears of the Räjä against him. Räyasiãha determined to arrest Karmachandra and to put him to death. Anyhow, it became known to Karmachandra who at once fled from Bikaner and sought the protection of Akbar. The emperor treated him with kindness and assigned him an honourable post in his court.1
63 SUPPRESSION OF REFRECTORIES BY AMARACHANDRA SURÄÎÄ : Amarachanda Suränä rose to the position of eminence during the reign of Mahäräjä Süratasiãha. He was sent with an army against Zabatakhan, the chief of Bhattis. Zabatakhan fought for 5 months, but in the end, he had to surrender the fort to Amarachanda. In recognition of his service, Amarachandra was made dïväna of the state.
In 1808 A.D., Süratasiãha despatched a large force under the command of Amarachandra to check the march of advancing army under Indraräja Siõghavï, sent by Mahäräjä Manasiãha of Jodhpur. However, no major incident took place and it was with the good offices of Amarachanda that the reconciliation between the two states was brought about.
Amarachanda was then appointed to suppress the refractory nobles of Bikaner. He carried out his task most successfully with iron hand. He exacted a heavy fine from the Ûhäkura of Saraubi and then attacked Ratanasiãha Baidvant and hanged him on the spot. He next invaded Bhattis and ruthlessly butchered them all except one. Soon after, he attacked the leading Ûhäkura chiefs Naharasiãha and imprisoned them. In 1815 A.D., he was sent with an army against Áivasiãha of Churu, who committed suicide. And thus, Churru fell into the hands of Amarachanda. Mahäräjä Süratasiãha highly appreciated his svices and conferred on him the special honour.
The continuous success of Amarachanda Suräîä could not be borne by his enemies who formed a conspiracy to bring about his downfall. In 1817 A.D., he was falsely accused of intriguing with Amïrakhan, the leader of the Piîdärïs, and was executed in a most brutal manner by the Mahäräjä.1
UDAIPUR AND JAINA STATESMEN
64 SHELTER TO PRINCE UDAISIÃHA BY ÄÁÄÁAHA : The Udaipur state was served by a number of Jaina soldiers, statesmen and administrators with singular devotion and loyalty. One of them is Äáäáäha who was the Kiledära of Kumbhalmer. He aflorded asylum to the infant prince Udaisiãha against the clutches of Banavïra. Although in the beginning, when Pannä Dhäya approached him for protection of Udaisiãha, Äáäáäha was reluctant to give him shelter. But latr on, it was on the persuasion of his mother that he acceded to the request of Pannä. In order to maintain secrecy, he bagan to call Udaisiãha as his nephew. When Udaisiãha came of age, Äáäáaha along with a handful of chiefs installed Udaisiãha on the gaddï, and this saved the dynasty from ruin.1
- LOYALTY OF MEHTA CHÏLAJÏ :Another officer who proved loyal to Udaisiãha in his hour of crisis was Mehatä Chïlajï. Though he was the Kiledära of the fort of Chitor under Banavïra, his real desire was to restore the fort to the rightful claimant Udaisiãha. When the latter besieged the fort of Chitor, Mehatua Chïlajï sent all the sectets of the fort to Udaisiãha and thus helped him in capturing the fort.2
- BHÄMÁÄHA, THE SAVIOUR OF MEWAR: Bhämäáäha, who was the dïväna of Mahäräîä Pratäpa, set the noble example of high sense of patriotism and loyalty. When Mahäräîa Pratäpa was in desperate need of mony to continue the struggle with the Mughal emperor, Bhämäáäha, the embodiment of truth and loyalty, came to his help and disclosed the secrecy of the hidden treasure, as it was written in bhaï, which was under his possession. This enabled Mahäräîä to collect his scattered forces and to renew war against Akbar. The result was that Räîä Pratäpa in a short campaign regained the whole Mewar except Chitor, Ajmer and Mandalgarh.3
- MILITARY AND PHILANTHROPIC DEEDS OF DAYÄLADÄSA: Saõghavï Dayäladäsa, Dïväna of Mahäräîä Räjasiãha, was a great general and philanthropist. When Mewar was attacked by Aurangzeb in 1679 A.D., Dayäladäsa fought on the side of Mahäräîä and gave an example of undaunted heroism. Besides, Dayäladäsa was also sent to check the advance of the Mughal forces from the side of Malwa.
Not only the military general but he was also deeply religious minded and a devout Jaina. It was on accoutn of his personal efforts that Mahäräîä issued orders for the observance of Ahiãsä in the area of Upäsarä. Dayäladäsa also constructed a beautiful Jaina temple in the shape of a fort on the mountain just near Räjasamanda.4
- MEHATÄ AGARACHANDA AS A DIPLOMAT AND STATESMAN: Mehatä Agarachanda proved himself to be the successful diplomat and able statesman of the eighteenth century A.D. At this time, the politicalsituation of India as well as of Mewar was surcharged with fear and suspicion and of India as well as of Mewar was surcharged with fear and suspicion and anarchy was rampant. The props of the Mughal empire seems to be failing and the Maräûhas taking advantage of such situation were plundering and devastating the territory. In Rajasthan too, princes were disunited and were indulgung in mutual quarrels and family feuds. Mahäräîä Arisiãha was a man of unscrupulous temperament. As a result of it, his faithful Saradäras became hostile to him and coquetted with the Maräûhä chiefs. The Maräûhäs inflicted a severe defeat on Mahäräîä and forced him to pay a heavy war indemmity. Mähäränä could pay only 33 lakhs and for the rest, he gave the districts of Jïvaâä, Jïram and Nïmach etc. to Sindhia Taking advantage of the weakness of Mahäräîä, Holkar also occupied the fertile area of Nimbäâä. Under such state of affairs, Mahäräîä made Mehatä Agarachanda his Dïväna.
With uncommon tactfulness and personal intrepidity, Mehatä succeeded in bringing about a rapprochement between the two rival and hostile groups of the Sardäras and thus restord peace. In order to achieve this object, he occupied Mandalgarh which was the stronghold of the rebellious Sardäras. Naturally, this pleased Mahäräîä who first appointed him as the governor of Mandalgarh and afterwards gave him the paûûä of that place.
Agarachanda again came to Mahäräîä’s rescue when fictitious Ratanasiãha organized a conspiracy with the help of Sindhia and some of the Mewar chiefs. Though Mahäräîä’s forces fought with undaunted heroism, they were defeated; and Agarachanda and other chiefs were made captives. He was asked by the Maräûhäs to recognize Ratanasiãha as the righful claimant but, true to his master’s loyalty, he declined to do so. Anyhow with the help of Áivachanda, he was able to free himself from the clutches of the enemy.1
Mehatä Agarachanda also served Mahäräîä Bhïmasiãha who gave shelter to Chüîâävatas of Rämpura. This incited the anger of Sindhia of Gwalior who sent forces against Mahäräîä under the command of Äkhä and Läkhä. A dreadful battle was fought and in the end, Mehatä Agarachanda emerged victorious. When the chief of Shahpura took away the district of Jahazapur, Mehatä Agarachanda fough against him and seized Jahazapur back.
Mehatä Agarachanda was not only a skilful general but also an able administrator. He successfully carried on the administration of Mandalgarh by providing facilities to the people. He constructed tanks and repaired the fort. He was also a man of letters. In his last days, he wrote some works which rflect upon his dipolomatic insight and scholarship.
- FARSIGHTEDNESS OF MEHATÄ DEVÏCHANDA: Mehatä Devïchanda was a farsighted statesman. He was also truthful and highly devoted to his master and state. When under some pressure Mahäräîä Bhïmasiãha became ready to hand over the fort of Mandalgarh to the famous Jhälä Jälimasiãha, Devïchanda paid no heed to his instructions and continued to occupy the fort. Being a farsighted statesman, he knew the future dangers. Jhälä Jälimasimha made preparations to annex Mandalgarh. First of all, he constructed a fort at Luhandi near Mandalgarh for invasion. Not only this, he occupied three villages of Mewar. Devïchanda at once attacked Jhälä, routed his forces and forced him to flee away. Mahäräîä became highly pleased and wanted to offer him the post of Chief Ministership. He declined to accept and remained only a chief councillor.1
JAINA STATESMEN OF JAIPUR
In the history of Jaipur, the Jaina statesman occupy a high and prominent place. About fifty Jainas acted as Dïvänas and rendered valuable services to the state. Under their patronage, Jainism made a great progress. They got various copies of the Jaina Áästras prepared and constructed a number of temples and images. They were also warriors and good administrators. The achievements of some of them shall be described here.
- NÄNU’S CONTRIBUTION TO JAINISM: Saha Nänu was the Prime Minister of Mänasiãha Kachchhäväha ruler of Ämber who was deputed as the Governor of Bangadeáa by Akbar. It seems that Säha Nänu had to visit Bengal several times in connection with his duties towards his Master. He got the Yaáodhara Charitra written in V.S. 1659 at Akachchhapura (Akabarapura), near Champänagarï in Baõgadeáa from Bhaûûäraka Jñänakïrti in the Ädinätha temple. He built twenty Jaina temples of the Tïrthaõkaras at Sammedaáikhara and led pilgrimage to this holy place several times.
- WARLIKE DEEDS OF VIMALADÄSA :Vimaladäsa was the Dïväna of both Mahäräjä Rämasiãha I (1668 A.D.-1690 A.D.) and Viáanasiãha. He was a great warrior and lost his life in the battle of Lälasoûa. A chhatrï was also built in his memory.
- RESTORATION OF THE KINGDOM OF AMBER BY RÄMACHANDRA: After Vimaladäsa, his son Rämachandra became the chief minister who served both Viáanasiãha and his successor Sawäi Jayasiãha. He restored the kingdom of Amber to Sawäi Jayasiãha. In 1707 A.D., the Mughal emperor Bahädura Shah invaded Amber and occupied it. He appointed Saiyyad Hussain as the governor. Jayasiãha abandoned his kingdom along with his chief minister Rämachandra and took shelter under Mahäräîä of Chitor. Rämachandra wanted to free Amber from the clutches of the enemy. With this object in view, he organized his forces which compelled Hussain Khän to leave Amber in favour of Sawäi Jayasiãha. In recognition of his services, Mahäräja assigned him a piece of land and his name also began to appear on his coins. Formerly there was written Dïväna Rämachandra on the golden coin but now ‘Bande Dïväna Rämachandra’ was inscribed,1
Rämachandra was also famous as a man of justice. When there was a possibility of conflict between the chiefs of Jodhpur and Jaipur over the partition of Sambhar, he was appointed as an intermediary from both the sides. He divided Sambhar equally between the two parties and his decision was accepted. In return of his services, he was given about 5000 maunds of salt yearly.
- DEVOTION OF KÔIPÄRAMA TOWARDS HIS MASTER: Another able Jaina statesman of Sawäi Jayasiãha was Kôipäräma who was and envoy at Delhi. He was the faithful servant of his master. Vijayasiãha, the rival of Sawäi Jayasiãha, won the Mughal emperor and his vazir Kamaruddin to his side by a promise to give five crores of rupees and five thousand cavalry. Räva Kôipäräma knew the secrecy of the plot through Daurankhan and cautioned his master. Jayasiãha took the measures of safeguard against his enemies. He became highly pleased with Kôipäräma and gave the village of Manoharapura to him.2
- VIJAYARAMA CHHÄBARÄ AS A DIPLOMAT :Vijayaräma Chhäbarä was also one of the ministers of Sawäi Jayasiãha. The sister of Sawai Jayasiãha was going to be married to the Mughal emperor Bahädurshah, but it was due to the efforts of Vijayaräma Chhäbarä that she was married to Räva Budhasiãha Hädä, the king of Bundi. Further as a successful diplomat, he became successful in bringing the hostiliteis betwiin the Mughal emperor Bahädurshah and Sawäi Jayasiãha to a close.
- HARISIÃHA AS AN ADMINISTRATOR: Sawäi Jayasiãha obtained the Ijärä of the Áekhävätï district from the Mughal authorities. He, therefore, invervened in this affair for the first time in 1726 A.D. and 1727 A.D. He appointed a competent banker named Harisiãha to collect the tribute. The Qaimkhani Nawabs held this place as watan for more than a century. At first, the Qaimkhani chief declined to pay the tribute; and disturbances also took place before the authority could be established. As the troops under the command of Harisiãha were insufficient to secure the Darbar’s possession in Jhunjhunu, he entered into a series of agreement with local leaders to secure their assistance in suppressing the trouble. In the end, he became successful in establishing the authority of Sawäi Jayasiãha in Áekhävatï.1
- RAYACHNDA AS A DIPLOMAT: The marriage question of Kôishîäkumärï between the rulers of Jaipur and Jodhpur was settled by the efforts of Räyachanda. Kôishîäkumärï, the daughter of Mahäränä Bhïmasiãha of Udaipur, was first going to be married to the Jodhpur. As the ruling chief of Jodhpur died before the marriage, it was decided to marry her to Jagatsiãha, the chief of Jaipur. This was considered to be an insult of the Jodhpur House by Mahäräjä Mänasiãha. In about 1805 A.D., the preparations for the struggle started on both the the sides. Anyhow Räyachanda settled the question peacefully between the two parties. Both Jaipur and Jodhpur chiefs promised not to marry Kôishîäkumärï. The sister of Jagatasiãha was married to Mänasiãha and the daughter of Mänasiãha was given to Jagatsiãha.
The peace thus established could not last long. Again, there started a struggle on the question of Dhoõkalasiãha. Hearing the news of the invasion of Jaipur by Räûhoâa forces with the help of Amïrakhan, Jagatsiãha had to raise the siege of Jodhpur fort and march towards Jaipur. At this critical time, Räyachanda by giving bribery of one lakh won Amïrakhän to his side and saved both the town and life of his master.
- ÁIVAJÏLÄLA AS ADMINISTRATOR AND WARRIOR: Áivajïläla became famous both as an administrator and warrior. There was no systematic order in the collection of Muamala during the reign of Mahäräjä Pratäpasiãha and there were several irregularities. Áivajïläla became successful in removing them all and collecting a large amout of money. He achieved a remarkable success in the task of the procudtion and the distribution of salt entrusted to him. He also participated in several battles fought by the Mahäräjä of Jaipur against the Piîâärïs and Rathoâas. In appreciation of his services, Mahäräjä of Jaipur gave him special honour.
- SAÕGHÏ JHOTÄRÄMA AS A DIPLOMAT: Saõghï Jhotäräma was a shrewd diplomat in the nineteenth century A.D. Such was his powerful influence in the court of Jaipur that Tod remarked it as the faithless court, the Jhootä darbära and the Baniyäräja. But these expressions indicate only the partisan character. It was only due to the prejudice of the author against the hesitation of Jaipur state in accepting the British alliance bacause of the influence of Jhotäräma who knew the future consequences. The British Government took Bairïsäla of Samod, the leading nobles of the state to their side. Between Jhotäräma and Rävala Bairïsäla, there came into existence the deadly enmity. In order to bring the downfall of Jhotäräma, schemes were devised. He was credited with the crime of murdering his young master in 1835 A.D. When he knew the jealousy, he himself resigned the post of ministership. He was ordered to go to Dausä, where he was kept under strict restrictions. He could neither write nor read. Santris and Chaparasis remained there to gaurd him. Even after that, the plots were devised by Rävala Bairïsäla who was in power.
- KÔISHÎADÄSA: Kôishîadäsa, a rich merchant of the Bagheraväla caste, was the Prime-Minister of Kishore Siãha Chauhän of Kotah Kishore Siãha was the Sämanta of the Mughal Emperor Aurangazeb. Kôishîadäsa was highly devoted to Jainism. Even during the reign of Aurangzeb, Krishnadäsa constructed a Jaina temple of Mahävïra and celebrated the installation ceremony of the temple as well as images with his wife and sons in 1689 A.D. at Chändkheâï. He could build the Jaina temple because Aurangzeb was in the South where Kishore Siãha was serving him faithfully. Krïshîadäsa was sincere to his master Kishore Siãha. Even then repeated explanations were demanded as to why the temple was being built against the express imperial policy. But the local authorities continued to send evasive replies because they knew that the emperor’s end was high.
In 1835 A.D., the assault was committed upon the person on the British Resident Major Alves when he was returning from a visit of ceremony at the palace. It caused the death of Mr. Blake, the assistant agent to the Governor Genera. Jhotäräma was residing at Dausä under confinement. He with his brother and son were arrested because some letters were seized both at Dausä and Agra. As a matter of fact, these letters seem to be forged. For the trial of this case, the court met in 1836 A.D. The judges appointed for the trial were the puppets in the hands of the British Government. He and his brother were sentenced to death by the court but the Governor General in Council however took a different view of this case. The sentences of death in their case was commuted to imprisonment for life and the fort of Chunar was designated as the place of their confinement.1
The numerous Jaina statesmen, soldiers and administrators who served various important states of Rajputana for several centuries wielded naturally a great influence in the respective states. Their influence was very helpful to the spread and dissemination of Jainism in Rajasthan. They secured respect for Jaina Sädhus, arranged maintenance of Jaina temples, helped in running Jaina schools, encouraged the well-equipped Jaina libraries and in several other ways ensured respect for Jainism even by those who were not its followers. Rajasthan has been ruled for the last one thousand years by Räjputs who had no hesitations in shedding the blood. That Jainism flourished in their dominious is due to the influence of the Jaina Sädhus and the leading Jaina house-holders. Besides, there were a large number of Jaina businessmen and almost in every state, a few of them even multimillionaires. Some of them were mighty bankers and the Räjput rulers who suffered from the chronic want of necessary funds for maintaining the armies and running the administration depended mostly on loans from these rich magnates; and what is true of the rulers, was true in still greater degree of the people in general in all the states. Thus, the mercantile Jaina community wielded a great influence in the society; and their religion was naturally respected by the people. It is due to the influence of Jainism that the population of Rajasthan ruled by Rajputs remained vegetarian in larger majority than any other part of India.
There were some Árävakas who were great patrons of Jainism. They were wealthy and spent their wealth for the propagation of Jainism. They were of high character. The important Árävaks known to us are as follows :
- 1. RÄHAÂA: Rähaâa was intelligent, popular, religious and noble minded. He worshipped the image according to the rules of his faith, praised the Jaina monks, listened to their sermons, gave money in charity to the poor, performed penance to the best of his abilities and observed the vows of a Jaina layman.
- ÄBHAÂA :The Prabandha chintämaîi gives information about Ähaâa, a rich Jaina of the time of Kumärapala. Ähaâa began life as a poor man. Once fortune smiled upon him and he became very rich. He was a follower of Hemasüri, and performed the religious ceremonies of the Jainas with great faith. He was a great donor.2
- CHHAÂAKA SHETH AND KUBERA: Chhaâaka Sheûh and Kubera were Jaina multi-millionaires of the time of Kumärapäla.3 According to Yaáahpäla, a contemporary of Kubera, Kubera had six crore gold coins, 8000 mans of silver, 80 mans or jewels, 50,000 horses, 1000 elephants, 80,000 cows, 500 ploughs, 500 shops, 500 carriages etc. It seems to be an exaggeration, but there is no doubt that he was very wealthy.
- JAGADU: Jagadu was the son of Sola, Several stories are told about Jagadu. Sarvananda Süri informs us that fortune smiled upon Jagadu and the latter became very rich without any great effort on his part. The great famine occurred for three years from V.S. 1313 to 1315 or V.S. 1315 to 1317. There may or may not be on exaggeration about the amount of corn distributed by Jagadu but certain it is that he opened alms-houses in various parts of the country, gave corn to the poor very viberally and helped Vïsaladeva of Aîahilaväâa and other kings of India by giving them corn in the days of famine.
Jagadu’s several pious and religious deeds are known. He built several Jaina temples at Bhadreávara, Dhañka, Wadhawana, Devakula etc. and set up images also in them. he made three pilgrimages to Giranära and Áatruñjaya. He dug wells in many villages and towns.
The date of Jagadu’s death is not known. From Jagaducharitra, it seems that he survived for some years after the great famine. He must have died bofore V.S. 1331.1
- PETHAÂA: Pethaâa was another prominent Jaina of this period. His father’s name was Deda. His guru advised him to seek fortune in Maîâapadurga. Pethaâa acted according to the advice of his spiritual preceptor and became exceedingly rich King Jayasiãha Paramära of Malwa honoured him much and gave him ensigns of royalty.
Dharmaghosha Süri, who had induced him to seek fortune in Malwa, came to Maîâapadurga and advised Pethaâa to build Jaina temple. Pethaâa acting according to the Süri’s suggestion, built eighty-four Jaina temples in different parts of India. His edifice at Maîâava gaâha was superb. It was adorned with gold knob and staff costing eighteen lakhs. On the Áatruñjaya hill, Pethaâa built a temple Áäntinätha. He also built a Jaina temple at Devagiri. He spent large sums of money to erect this temple and called it ‘Amulyapräsäda‘. This temple was completed in 1218-79 A.D.
Pethada made pilgrimage to Áatruñjaya, Giranära and Mount Äbu. He had taken the vow ‘Parigraha-Pramäîa Vrata‘ or the fifth vow or a Jaina layman when he was at Vidyäpura (Vijapura).1
- JHÄÑJHANA: Pethada’s son Jhäñjhaîa was a chip of the old block. He married Saubhägyadevï, daughter of Bhïma Sheth of Delhi. In 1284 A.D., he started from Maîâapadurga with Dharmaghosha Süri and Jaina Saãgha and made a pilgrimage to Áatruñjaya and Giranära. On the way, he halted at Balapura, Chitraküûa (Chitor), Arbudagiri, Chandrävatï, Praáhädanapura (Pälanpura), Aîahilapura, Täranagiri (Täraõgä), Karîävatï and several other places. At Baläpura, Jhäñjhaîa set up twenty-four images and built a temple to Pärávanätha at Karähetaka, at the suggestion of Dharmaghosa, his preceptor. At Karnävatï, he rewarded a bard for composing a good poem, set free ninety-six prisoners and took his meals with Säraõgadeva of Gujarat.
According to the Upadeáataraõginï, Jhañjhaîa Shäh, hearing that Äbhu Árïmälï of Tharapadra or Tharada, who had the biruda of ‘Paáchima Maîâalika‘ did not take his meals without feeding the Jainas that paid visits to this place, went to Tharapadra with a Jaina congregation of 32,000 and put up at Äbhu’s place. Äbhu Shäh was, on that day, engaged in religious ceremonies, but his brother Jinadäsa feasted the congregation and gave presents to the Jainas. Next day, Jhäñjhaîa fell at the feet of Äbhu and begged forgiveness for putting him to a severe test
Jhäñjhaîa, like his father, was an excellent follwer of Jina, on influential member of the Jaina, community and great donor.1
- SAMARASIÃHA: Samarasiãha, who repaired the temple of Ädinätha on the Áatruñjaya Hill, belonged to Upakeáa Vaãáa. Aîahilaväâa was Samarasiãha’s domicile of choice. Samarasiãha was a well-known jeweller in the old capital of Gujarat. He exercised great influence at court. When Ädinätha’s temple on the Áatruñjaya Hill was destroyed by the Muslims, he obtained a ‘firmäna‘ to repair the temple. When the Jainas came to know of the ‘firmäna, they gave a rousing reception to Samara Shäh. Samara Shäh, then made up his mind to make tomake a pilgirmage to the holy hill in the company of the Jaina congregation to set up the image of Ädinätha in the newly constructed temple. The Jaina monks and the prominent Jainas joined the congregation. Alapakhana, Subedär of Gujarat, who had granted permission to rebuild the temple, gave ten guards to protect the congregation.
When the congregation reached Pälitänä, Samarasiãha Shäh pitched tents. About this time, his brothers Sahajapäla from Devagiri and Sähaîa from Khambhat came to Pälithänä with congregation. In 1315 A.D., Samarasiãha installed the image of Ädinätha in the completed temple, on the holy hill. The honour of performing the ceremony at the time of setting up the images is shared by Siddhäsüri of Upakeáa-gachchha and Ratnäkara Süri of Tapägachchha. A festival was held by Deáala, Samara Shäh’s father to celebrate this event. From Pälitañä, Samaraáaha went to Giranära with the congregation and worshipped Neminätha. From Giranära, he went to Devapattana where he was given a rousing reception by the king. The congregation then went to Div. From Div, the congregation went to Aîahilaväâa. The Jaina Saãgha gave a rousing reception to him. According to the Näbhinandanoddhara Prabandha, Emperor Gyäsuddïn was much pleased with Samaraáäha and highly honoured him. He was appointed as the ‘Subedär’ of Telaõgadesa where he set free many prisoners and obliged many chieftäins.1
- KARMA ÁÄHA: Karma Áäha was the son of Osavaãáï Toläáäha of Chitor by his wife Lilu. He was a well-known cloth merchant in Chitor. Once when Bahädura Áäha, prince of Gujarat, paid a visit to Chitor, he came to know Karma Áäha from whom he bought cloth. The young prince liked Karma Áäha and soon became his friend. When he wanted money to return to Gujarat, Karmaáäha gave him a lakh unconditionally. In 1526 A.D., Bahädura Áäha became the king of Gujarat. When Karma Áäha came to know this, he went to Ahmedabad where he was well received by the king who returned the money lent to him and asked the Baniä merchant if he could do any thing for him. Thereupon, Karmaáäha requested Bahädura áäha to give him a firmäna to repair the temple on Áatruñjaya hill. The king granted his request and gave him the ‘firmäna’.
In 1531 A.D., Karmaáäha repired Samarasiãha’s temple on the Áatruñjaya hill. Punâarïkasvämi’s temple was erected by him in 1531 A.D. The Räyana Pädukä temple in Adreávaratunka was also erected by him in 1531 A.D. Chakreávarïdevi’s temple in Adeávara-tunka was also erected by him in 1531 A.D.1
- PÄÂÄÁÄHA: Päâäáäha was also known as Bhaãsäáäha. This name originated from Päâä of Bhaiãsä meaning buffalo. According to traditions, he belonged to Thubona in Bundelakhand. He was of Gahoi caste. He used to deal in räõgä (brass) and became prosperous.
Päâäáäha was devoted to Jainism, and built many temples and images of Áäntinätha. There are beautiful images of Áäntinätha Kunthunätha, and Aranätha in Käyotsarga pose at Bajaraõga gaâha. These were installed in V.S. 1236. He also set up the Áäntinätha Jaina image at Gurilagiri, Muõgävalï Tahasil, Guna District. The Jaina temples at Aharajï, Khänapurä, Jhälarapäûan, Thubon, Bhiyädanta, Bardi, Bhäbhona, Satna, Sujhekä, Pahäda, Pacharai Seranajï, Sonägiri etc. were all constructed by Pädäáäha.
CANONICAL LITERATURE OF THE SVETAMBARAS
The canonical texts are broadly divided into two groups : (1) Aõgapaiûûha, and (2) Aõgabähira. The Aõgapaiûûha group include the Aõgas, and the Aõgabähira group is classified into fivesub-groups. This the canonical texts may be subsumed under six heads (1) Aõga (2) Upäõga, (3) Paiîîä (4) Cheyasutta (5) Mülasutta and (6) Cülikäsutta All these works are in Prakôta.
The Aõgas are twelve in number. They are as follows : (i) Äyäraõga (ii) Süyagaâaõga, (iii) Ûhäîäõga (iv) Samaväyäõga, (v) Viyähapaîîtti (Bhagavatï), (vi) Näyädhammakahäo, (vii) Uväsagadasäo, (viii) Aõtagaâadasäo (ix) Anuttarovaväiyadasäo, (x) Paîhavägaraîäiã (xi) Vivägasuya and (xii) Diûûhiväya (not extant now).
The Upäõgas are also twelve in number. They are : (i) Ovaväiya, (ii) Räyapaseîaiya (iii) Jïväbhig (iv) Paîîavaîîä, (v) Süriyapaîîatti, (vi) Jambuddïvapaîîatti, (vii) Candapaîîtti (viii) Niryävaliyao (ix) Kappavaâaãsiyäo (x) Pupphiyao, (xi) Pupphaculiyao and (xii) Vaîhidasäo
The Paiîîäs are ten in number : (i) Causaraîa (ii) Äurapaccakkhäîa, (iii) Mahäpaccakkhäîa (iv) Bhattapariîîä, (v) Taõdulaveyaliya, (vi) Saãthäraga (vii) Gacchäyära, (viii) Gaîivijjä, (ix) Deviõdatthaya and (x) Maraîasamähï
The Cheyasuttas are six in number : (1) Nisïha, (ii) Mahänisïha, (iii) Vavahära, (iv) Dasäsuyakkhandha (v) Kappa (Bôhatkalpa) and (vi) Pañcakappa (Jiyakappa)
The Mülasuttas are four in number : (i) Uttarajjhayaîa, (ii) Dasaveyäliya (iii) Ävassya and (iv) Piîdanijjutti (Ohanijjutti)
The Cülikäsuttas are two in number : (i) Nandï and (ii) Anuyogadara.
Thus the told number of Ägamas are fortyfive. The Sthänakaväsïs and the Teräpaõthis accept only Thirty-two Ägamas. (1) Eleven Aõgas (2) Twelve Upäõgas, (3) Four cheyasuttas (leaving asida) Mahänisïha and Jiyakappa) (4) Three Mülasuttas (leaving aside Piîdanïjjutti) and (5) Two Cülikäsuttas. The Digambaras do not accept these forty-five Agämas.
CANONICAL LITERATURE OF THE DIGAMBARAS
The canonical texts are broadly divided into two goups : (i) Aõgapaiûûha and (2) Aõgabähira (1) The Sarvärthasiddhi of Püjyapäda and the Dhavalä of Vïrsena include in the Aõgapaiûûha group following twelve Aõgas (i) Äyära, (ii) Südayada, (iii) Ûhäîa, (iv) Samaväya (v) Viyähapaîîatti, (vi) Nähädhammakahä (vii) Uväsayajjhayaîa, (viii) Aõtayaâadasä (ix) Aîuttarovavädiyadarä (x) Paîhaväyaraîa (xi) Vivägasutta and (xii) Ditûhiväda.
(2) The Aõgabähira group include the following : (i) Sämäiya, (ii) Cauvïsattho, (iii) Vaõdaîä (iv) Paâikkmaîa (v) Veîaiya, (vi) Kidiyamma (vii) Dasaveyäliya, (viii) Uttarajjhayaîa (ix) Kappavavaharo (x) Kappäkappiya, (xi) Mahäkappiya (xii) Puîdarïya, (xiii) Mahäpuîdarïya and (xiv) Îisïhiya
The Digambaras believe that the texts of both the groups are not extant now except some portion of Dïûûhiväya, the twelfth Aõga.
The Diûûhiväya comprises fourteen Puvvas, namely, (i) Uppadapuvva, (ii) Aggeîiyapuvva (iii) Vïruyä îuvädapuvva (iv) Atthiîatthipavädepuvva, (v) Näîapavädapuvva, (vi) Saccapavädapuvva, (vii) Ädapavädapuvva, (viii) Kammapavädepuvva (ix) Paccakkhäîanämadheyapuvva (x) Vijjäîuvädapuvva, (xi) Kalläîanämadheyapuvva. (xii) Päîäväyapuvva, (xiii) Kiriyävisälapuvva and (xiv) Lokabiõdusära puvva.
Dherasena (C.A.D.40-75) had a partial and fragmentary knowledge of the Aggeniyapuvva ineluded in the twelfth Aõga known as Diûûhivaya. He imparted the knowledge of this Puvva to Puÿpadanta and Bhutabali, who composed the Volume known as Ÿaûkhaîâägama which deals with the doctrine of Karma in great detail. Since the work was completed on the fifth day of the bright fortnight of the month of Jyeÿûha, this day has since been known as the festival of Sruta-Pañcami.
Like Dharasena there was another saint named Guîadhara (C.A.D. 25) who had a partial and fragmentary knowledge of the Îäîapaväd a puvva included in the twelfth Aõga known as Diûûhivaya. He wrote Kaÿaya-pahuâa which deals with the passion of attachment, avesion etc.
- Published in JSB, I. 4, p. 71.
- See R. Narsimhachar, Inscriptions at Áravaîabelgola (EC, Vol. II, Bangalore, 1923).
- See Appendix A (iii)
- JSHI, p. 120.
- JSLS, pt. II, No.95.
- Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 69.
- Pravachanasära ed. by A.N UPADHYE
- JSHI, pp. 134-136.
- JSHI, p. 148.
- CHJ, p. 325.
- JSHI, pp. 146-147.
- CHJ, p. 325.
- JSHI, pp. 128-131
- JSHI, pp. 137-141
- JSHI, pp. 153-161.
- CHJ, p. 327.
- JSHI, p. 164
- JSHI, pp. 152-153.
- MTA, p. 464.
- CHJ, pp. 328-329.
- Purätanaprabandhasaõgraha, pp. 103-05 and Präbhävakacharitra, pp. 183-212.
- Aitihäsika Jaina Kävyasaõgraha, p. 4, Yugapradhäna Jinachandrasürï, p. 10 & Kharataragachcha-bôihadguruväedli.
- Kharataragachchha Bôihadgurvdvali & Aitihäsika Jaina Kävyasaãgraha, pp. 14-6.
- Aitihäsika Jaina Kävyasaingraha, pp.14, 46 and 363 and Kharataragachchhabrihadgureäcali.
- The Life of Hemachandrächärya.
- Dädä Árï Jinakuáalasüri and Kharataragachchha Bôihadgurvävali.
- Akbar the Great by Smith, pp. 116-168 and Sürïávara aura Samräû Akbar.
- Kharataragachchha Bôihadgurvävali, Aitihäsika Jainakävya-Saõgraha, pp. 58, 81 and 82 and Yugapradhäna Jinachandrasüri.
- JSLS, No. 96.
- Ibid, No. 100
- JSLS, III, No. 165.
- Ibid, No. 152, 165, and 155.
- Ibid, No. 395.
- Ibid, I No. 122.
- Ibid, III, No.157.
- Ibid, III No. 204.
- JSLS, pp. 125-126.
- JSLS, III, p. 126.
- JSLS, III No. 264.
- Ibid, No. 264.
- Ibid, III No. 296.
- Ibid, No. 307, 308 and 411.
- JSLS, No. 307.
- Ibid, Nos. 154 and 355.
- Ibid, No. 411.
- Ibid, No.304.
- Ibid, No. 305.
- JSLS, III, No. 319.
- Ibid, III No. 324.
- Ibid III No. 348, 362, 363, 381 and 396.
- JSLS, III, No. 347.
- Ibid, No. 352.
- JSLS, III, No. 465.
- Ibid, No. 408.
- Ibid, No. 429.
- Ibid, No. 379.
- Ibid, No. 409.
- JSLS, III, No. 428.
- Ibid, No. 431.
- Ibid, No. 437.
- JSLS, III, No. 452.
- Ibid No. 451.
- Ibid No. 540.
- JSLS, III, No. 511.
- Ibid, No. 581, 585 and 587.
- Ibid III, No. 581 and 587.
- Ibid No. 609 and 610
- Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 5-7.
- Ibid, p. 10.
- Ibid, p. 10
- Ibid, P. 11.
- Jainism in Gujarat, p. 88
- Ibid, p. 11.
- Ibid, p. 88-89.
- Ibid, p. 87.
- Ibid, p. 89-90.
- Jainism in Gujarat, p. 90.
- Ibid, p. 90-91.
- Ibid, p. 108.
- Ibid, p. 113.
- KMTA, p. 453.
- JGPS, I, p. 5.
- UPENDRA NATH DEY : Medieval Malwa, pp. 422-428.
- UPENDRA NATH DEY : Medieval Malwa, pp. 422-428.
- UPENDRA NATH DEY : Medieval Malwa, pp. 422-28.
- EI, XXXVI, pp. 121-123.
- Vimalacharitra. See also Purätanaprabandhasaõgraha (Vimalavasatiprabandha, pp. 81-82.)
- Prabandhachintämani, pp. 67-68 and pp. 104-105.
- Vastupälacharitra, Chapter I.
- Naranäräyaîananda, XVI, 35.
- Krïtikaumudï, IV, 16.
- Vastupälacharitra IV, 40.
- Prabandhakoáa of Räjaáekhara, p. 103.
- Prabanandhaskoáa of Räjaáekhara, pp. 104 f.
- Ibid., pp. 107 f.
- Ibid., pp. 119 f. See also Prabanandhachintämani, p. 103.
- Vividhatïrthakalpa, p. 79. see also Prabandhakoáa, p. 130
- Prabandhakoáa, pp. 129 f.
- Vastupälacharitra, p. 80.
- Naranäräyaîananda. XVI, 39.
- Prächïna Jaina Lekha Saõgraha, No. 64.
- Anekänta, II p. 249,
- Some distinguished Jainas pp. 60-63. and also Jodhpuraräjya kä Itihasa, pt. II, pp. 638-641.
- HOO, p. 55.
- HOO, pp. 59-63.
- HOO, pp. 100-104. See also Karmachandravaãáaprabandha and Karmachandravaãáotkïrtanakävyam.
- Some Distinguished Jainas, pp. 71-74.
- HOO. pp. 70-71.
- Ibid., pp. 71-72.
- Udaipurarajya ka Itihasa, pp. 1304-05, and Vïravinoda, p. 251.
- Udaipur Räjya Kä Itihäs, pp. 1304-05.
- Udaipuraräjya Kä Itihäs, pp. 1311, and HOO, pp. 77-82.
- HOO, pp. 87-88 and Udaipur Räjya kä Itihäsa, pp. 1315-16.
- Vïraväîï, I pp. 68-83 and Räjputuana Kä Itihäs by Ojha, pp. 915-16.
- Annals & Antiquities of Rajasthan, p. 592.
- Report on Panchäpana Singhänä, pp. 9-10, See also A report on the Land Tenures and Special powers of certain Thikanedars of the Jaipur State, pp. 45-46.
- Jaipur State Trials.
- Jainism in Gujarat, p. 102.
- Ibid, p. 103.
- Ibid, p, 103.
- Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 152-158.
- Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 159-160.
- Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 161-162.
- Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 172-180.
- Jainism in Gujarat, pp. 236-240.