ANCIENT JAIN TÏRTHAS AND HISTORICAL PLACES
The Tï¿½rthas are connected with the incidents of the lives of the Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas and other great persons. The places, where the Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas were born, first renounced the ï¿½aï¿½sï¿½ra and initiated into religious life, practised austerities and achieved kavalajï¿½ï¿½na (omniscience), are known as Kalyï¿½ï¿½aka Kshetras. The places where the Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas realised emancipation are called Nï¿½rvï¿½ï¿½a Kshetras. Such places are Kailï¿½ï¿½a, Champï¿½, Pï¿½vï¿½, Urjayanta and Sammeda ï¿½ikhara. The places, where the great ascetics lived and achieved liberation, are also known as the Tirthas. Generally, such Tï¿½rthas were established on the basis of imagination in medieval times in order to increase their importance. At times, the idols in certain places are believed to bestow great favours on their devotees. Hence such places are also considered as Atiï¿½ayakshetras. Some sites are important from the point of view of art and history.
The Prï¿½kï¿½it Nirvï¿½ï¿½akï¿½nï¿½a of Kundakunda1 and Sanskrit Nirvï¿½ï¿½a Bhakti of Pï¿½jyapï¿½da give information about the ancient Jaina Tï¿½rthas. As ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dhara mentions these belong to earlier period than the 13th centry A.D. The Sakalatï¿½rtha Stavana by Siddharshi (of the 12th century A.D.) contains a list of holy places. The Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa of Jinaprabhasï¿½ri written in about the 14th century A.D. gives a biref history of the holy places. The number of Tï¿½rthas increased in the medieval period. There are even different traditions about the origin of some of these Tï¿½rthas. In the medieval Jaina literature, we come across many examples where rich Jainas led a Saï¿½gha or a large group of people to the places of pilgrimage. Bhaiya Lal has written The Nirvankala. (Bhora) in V.S. 1741 in Hindi language giving the list of holy places.1 In commemoration of this act, they are given the honorific title of Saï¿½ghapati by the Jainas. It is felt that they are helpful in creating self-enlightenment (Atmajï¿½gï¿½iti) in the minds of the people who visit them. When Jainism began to decline, some of the Jaina Tï¿½rthas have been forgotten, and were even occupied by other sects. These ancient Jaina Tï¿½rthas have been classified on regional basis.
BIHAR, BENGAL AND ORISSA
SAMMEDA Ï¿½IKHARA : The Sammeda ï¿½ikhara mountain is situated in the Girdi District of Bihar. Excluding ï¿½ishabha, Vï¿½supï¿½jya, Neminï¿½tha and Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, the remaining twenty Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas got emancipation on this mountain. In honour of the twenty-third Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara, Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha, the place is known as Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha hill. On the different summits of the mountain, twenty temples containing the foot-prints of the twenty Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas have been erected to commemorate their memories. Guï¿½abhadra in the Uttara Purï¿½ï¿½a, Ravisheï¿½a in the Pï¿½dma Purï¿½ï¿½a, Jinasena in the Harivaï¿½ï¿½a Purï¿½ï¿½a and other Jaina literary works mention it as Nirvï¿½ï¿½a Bhï¿½mi of Twenty Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas and innumertable Munis.2 Muni Arvinda, poet Mahï¿½chandra (Say 1587), Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Ratnachandra (Sam. 1683) and others led pilgrimage to this holy place. From the Praï¿½asti of Yaï¿½odhara Charita1dated V.S. 1659 of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Jï¿½ï¿½nakï¿½rti, it is known that Nï¿½nu, Minister of king Mï¿½nasiï¿½ha of Amber in Rajasthan, built twenty temples of the twenty Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas respectively.
PÏ¿½VÏ¿½PURA : Tï¿½rthaï¿½kar Mahï¿½vï¿½ra attained liberation at Pï¿½vï¿½pura. It is situated in the Patna District. Some scholars identify it with Pï¿½vï¿½purï¿½ of the Nalanda District, while others suggest that it was near Kuï¿½inï¿½rï¿½, the place of Buddha’s death in Gorakhpur District. Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Yaï¿½ahkï¿½rti (15th century) of Gwalior describes Pï¿½vï¿½pura in the Jiï¿½aratti.2
RÏ¿½JAGÏ¿½IHA : Rï¿½jagï¿½iha remained associated with the activities of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. According to the Jaina tradition, it was also the birth-place of Munisuvrata. A few Jaina antiquities of the Gupta period were also found from this place. Even in later times, Jaina monks in Gujarat and South India used to visit this ancient city.
PÏ¿½Ï¿½ALI-PUTRA : Pï¿½ï¿½ali-putra is now known as Patna. Several early Jaina teachers such as Bhadrabï¿½hu I, Sthï¿½labhadra Mahï¿½giri and Suhastin were connected with this city. The Jaina philosopher Umï¿½svï¿½ti composed his Tattvï¿½rthadhigamsï¿½tra here in this city. The first Jaina council was held here during the reign of Nanda for deciding the scriptures (Vï¿½chanï¿½). In Jinaprabha’s time, Pï¿½ï¿½aliputra was consider to be sacred. Muni Sudarï¿½ana attained Nirvana from here.
CHAMPÏ¿½ : This celebrated city was the capital of Aï¿½ga Janapada. It remained associated with the Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas Vï¿½supï¿½jya and Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. It is the only one place where the five Kalyï¿½ï¿½akas of Vasupï¿½jya were held. Mahï¿½vï¿½ra also spent three years of his missionary life in Champï¿½. At this time, Dadhivï¿½hana was the ruler of this city. There was the Chaitya of Pï¿½rï¿½abhara existing here. The work Daï¿½avaikï¿½lika was composed at this place by ï¿½ayambhava. The Vï¿½supï¿½jya temple of this place was recognised as a celebrated shrine, and several literary texts from the early period mention the Vï¿½supï¿½jya temple complex of this city. Jinasena II, the author of the Harivaï¿½ï¿½a, describes this temple-complex. He also refers to the Mï¿½nastambha of this great temple. Jinaprabha mentions in the Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa that this city was destroyed by the Bengal Sultan Shamsuddiï¿½n in V.S. 1360.1
VAIÏ¿½Ï¿½LÏ¿½ : The anciant city of Vaiï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ is identified with the modern town of Basï¿½ï¿½ha a suburb of Vaiï¿½alï¿½ Mahï¿½vï¿½ra was born here, and it was connected with the childhood of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. It was the capital of Vajji republic, and Chetaka was the influential king. Even before the birth of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, the teachings of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha were accepted by a number of people of this town including Mahï¿½vï¿½ra’s parents.2
BHADDILAPURA : Bhaddilapura was the capital of Malaya. It is said that this place was visited by Ariï¿½ï¿½hanemi and was the birth place of the tenth Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Sitalnath. It is identified with Bhadia, a village near Kukuhï¿½ hill about nine km. from Hunterganja in the Hazaribagh District.3 According to Jaina Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½s of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha the first twenty-six pontificates belong to Bhaddalapura. After that, the 27th pontiff transferred his seat from Bhaddalapura to Ujjain. According to the four Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½s, Bhaddalapura is identified with Bhilsa in Malwa while the fifth, which is the oldest, tells us that it was in the South. It is reasonable to identify this place with Bhadrika or Bhadrï¿½vatï¿½ located near Ellora.1 It was one of the early capitals of the Imperial Rï¿½shtrakï¿½tas.
MITHILA : According to the Jaina tradition, Malli and Naminï¿½tha were botn in Mithilï¿½, Mahï¿½vï¿½ra himself stayed for six years in this city. The Jaina rebel Assmitta was associated with this city in the third century B.C. According to the Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa, this ancient city was situated on the confluence of the Bï¿½ï¿½agaï¿½gï¿½ and the Gaï¿½ï¿½akï¿½ and was known as Jagai in Jinaprabha’s time.2
KÏ¿½KANDÏ¿½ : Kï¿½kandï¿½ is generally identified with Kï¿½kan in Munger District. This Tï¿½rtha is associated with the birth of the ninth Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Pushpadanta.3 According to J.C. JAIN4, Khukund in Gorakhpur District of U.P is modern site of Kï¿½kandï¿½. Mahï¿½vï¿½ra is said to have visited this place. Kï¿½kandiyï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ of the Jaina ï¿½ramaï¿½aas was named after this place.
GAYÏ¿½ : Jï¿½ï¿½ï¿½asï¿½gara, who flourished in the sixteenth century, in his Sarvatï¿½rthavandanï¿½ associates Gaya with Akalaï¿½ka, and mentions that the latter had erected the temples of Sambhavanï¿½tha, Nemi and Supï¿½rï¿½va at that town.5
KOÏ¿½Ï¿½TÏ¿½RTHA : Koï¿½iï¿½ilï¿½ Tï¿½rtha has been described in the Purï¿½ï¿½as such as the Harivaï¿½ï¿½a Purï¿½ï¿½a andPadmapurï¿½ï¿½a. Some scholars indentify it with the Kumï¿½rï¿½ Mountain of Udayagiri and Khaï¿½ï¿½agiri, and with Mï¿½lalï¿½ mountain of Ganjam District in Kaliï¿½ga.1 In the Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa, it has been described near Daï¿½ï¿½rï¿½a Mountain in Magadha.2 On the basis of Brihat Kathï¿½ Koï¿½a and also Prabhï¿½chandra’s Kathï¿½ Koï¿½a, it has been located in Varendra (North Bengal).3
PUÏ¿½Ï¿½RAVARDHANA : There was the Puï¿½ï¿½ravardhaniyï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ mentioned in the Kalpasï¿½tra. At the time of Hiuen-Isang’s Visit (in the seventh century), there were numerous Digambara Jainas at this town. The Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa mentions the Vï¿½ra temple at Puï¿½ï¿½ra-parvata which may be identical with Puï¿½ï¿½ravardhana.4
TÏ¿½MRALIPTI : Tamralipti was the famous port in Bengal in ancient times. Even in Mahï¿½vï¿½ra’s time, the residents of Tï¿½mralipta were attaracted towards the religion of the Nirgranthas. The Tamralipti ï¿½akhï¿½ of the ï¿½ramaï¿½as was named after this place. Prabhï¿½chandra’s Kathï¿½koï¿½a (11th century) refers to the Pï¿½rï¿½va temple of this town.5
KHAÏ¿½Ï¿½AGIRI : Khaï¿½ï¿½agiri situated in Kaliï¿½ga (Orissa) was associated with Jainism from the Nanda period (4th century B.C.). The evidence of Khï¿½ravela inscription shows that it was known as Kumï¿½rï¿½ hill in the second or first century B.C. This particular name is found in the tenth century epigraph from the same hill, and also in the Bï¿½ihatkathï¿½koï¿½a of Jarisheï¿½a, composed in 931 A.D. The inscriptions of Udyotakeï¿½arï¿½ proves that this hill, continued as a popular Jaina centure, for a very long time, and the evidence of Harisheï¿½a’s work alos proves the same.
UTTAR PRADESH, DELHI REGION, HARYANA, HIMACHAL PRADESH, PUNJAB AND MADHYA PRADESH
AYODHYÏ¿½ : This ancient Tï¿½rtha of Ayodhyï¿½ is represented as the birth place of the five Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas, namely ï¿½ishabha, Ajita, Abhinanï¿½ana, Sumati and Ananta. Jinaprabha saw a number of Jaina temples in this town. Probably, the earliest temple of this town, was dedicated to the Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara which has been mentioned in the Paumachariyam. It has recognised as eternally very pious place of the Jainas.
VÏ¿½RÏ¿½Ï¿½ASÏ¿½ : According to the Jaina traditions, Varï¿½ï¿½asï¿½ is associated with the two Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas, namely Supï¿½rï¿½va and Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. Jinaprabha mentions the Pï¿½rï¿½va temple-compex of Vï¿½rï¿½ï¿½asï¿½. Jï¿½ï¿½nasï¿½gara (16th century) has mentioned two temples of Pï¿½rï¿½va and Supï¿½rï¿½va of this city.8 Acarya Samathabhara (2 A.D) composed Brhassvabhu stotra here.
AHICHCHHATRA : Ahichchhatra is identical with the present Ramnagar in Bareilly District. Jinaprabha has connected this place with Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha, and he mentions two Jaina temples. The Nirvï¿½ï¿½akï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a written in the 12th century refers to this Jaina Tï¿½rtha.1
Ï¿½RÏ¿½VASTÏ¿½ : ï¿½rï¿½vastï¿½ is situated in Bahraich District. According to the Jaina tradition, this place was the birth place of the third Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Sambhavanï¿½tha. This city was visited byr Mahï¿½vï¿½ra himself. ï¿½rï¿½vastikï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ of the ï¿½ramaï¿½as was named after this city. The discovery of the pre-Gupta Jaina images from this place proves that it was a Jaina sacred place in earlier days. The Sambhavanï¿½tha temple was standing during the time of Jinaprabha, who gives an interesting informaton of its being destroyed by Alauddï¿½n’s general Habbasa. There is mention of this city in the Brihaï¿½kathï¿½koï¿½a of Harisheï¿½a.2
HASTINÏ¿½PURA : According to the Jaina tradition, Hastinï¿½pura was the birth place of the Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas ï¿½antinï¿½tha, Kunthunï¿½tha and Aranï¿½tha. In ancient times, the Jainas forgot about the exact location of this place. it appears from the Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa that this place was practically rediscovered by Jinaprabha. The shrines of ï¿½ï¿½nti, Kunthu, Arahanï¿½tha and Mallinï¿½tha were installed in his time.3
KÏ¿½MPILYA : Kampilya is identified with modern Kampil in Farrukhabad District. It is claimed to be the birth place of the 13th Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara. According to Jaina canonical tradition, ï¿½samitta, the fourth Niï¿½hava (Schism), flourished 220 years after Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. Early Jaina inscriptions have been discovered from this place. The author of the Vividhatï¿½rtha refers to this Tï¿½rtha.1
MATHURA : Mathura is recognized as a great Jaina Tï¿½rtha because Jambusvï¿½mï¿½ attained Nirvï¿½ï¿½a here, The Devanirmita (divine made) Stï¿½pa of this place belonged to the third of second century B.C. A few sculptures of this place belonged to the pre-christian period. The Jaina sculptures and ï¿½yï¿½gapaï¿½ï¿½as of the Kushï¿½ï¿½a period discovered in large number prove the great popularity of Jainism. People of common classes such as iron-smiths, gold-smiths, potters and perfumers followed Jainism. The names of Kulas and ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½s mentioned in the Jaina inscriptions confirm to those found in the text of the Kalpasï¿½tra. Jainism also continued during the Gupta period as known from the remains. The Paï¿½chastï¿½panikï¿½ya sect of the Digambaras originated from this place. Bappabhaï¿½ï¿½asï¿½ri visited this holy place. The Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa mentions this Tï¿½rthas. From the Brihatkathï¿½koï¿½a, it is known that Jainism was popular here. Five hundered and fourteen stupas were built or broken lod stï¿½pas during the reign of Akbar when this Tï¿½rtha was renovated by Sï¿½ha ï¿½odara. Jainism suffered greatly in Mathura from time to time because of invasions.2 Chinese Huensang (7 century) has recorded in his travels that there were more than five hundred Jain temples here3.
SIÏ¿½HAPURA : Siï¿½hapuri is the place, where according to the Jaina tradition, the 11th Tï¿½rthï¿½nkara ï¿½reyï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a was born. There is a controversy among scholars about the identification of this place. Some identify this place with Sï¿½rnï¿½th. The evidence of Yuan Chwang seems to suggest that this place is identical with Siï¿½hapura, situated in the salt range (Punjab, Pakistan), which has been described by that pilgrim as connected with a ‘founder’ of the ‘White-Cloth’ sect.
According to the Digambaras, this place sacred to Neminï¿½tha, was located on the river Kï¿½verï¿½. Jï¿½ï¿½nasï¿½gra, who lived in the 16th century, has described this place. It was also called Narasiï¿½hapaï¿½ï¿½ana.1
KAUÏ¿½Ï¿½MBÏ¿½ : Kauï¿½ï¿½mbi is identified with the present Kosam in the Allahabad District. According to the Jaina tradition, this place was birth place of the sixth Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Padmaprabha. Mahï¿½vï¿½ra is known to have visited this place personally during the reign of Udayana. The Kalpasï¿½tra suggests that there was a ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½ named after this city. Jinaprabha has also written on this Tï¿½rtha.2
PABHÏ¿½SÏ¿½ : Pabhï¿½sï¿½ is situated near Kauï¿½aï¿½bï¿½ in Allahabad District. There Jaina inscriptions of the ï¿½uï¿½ga period have been discovered here. These inscrptions inform that Ashï¿½ï¿½hasena constructed the caves in the Pabhosï¿½ mountain for the Arahantasof the Kï¿½ï¿½yapagotra. Some ancient Jaina sculptures have also been discovered here. One is a magnificent sitting icon of Padmaprabha.3
CHANDRAPURÏ¿½ : Chandrapurï¿½ is stituated near Varï¿½ï¿½asï¿½, and it has been identified with the place of the same name. According to the Jaina tradition, it was the birth place of the eight Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Chandraprabha. Jinaprabha mentions this Tï¿½rthas in theVividhatï¿½rthakalpa.1
RATNAPURÏ¿½ : Ratnapur is located in the Faizabad District. According to the Jaina traditions, it was the birth place of Dharmanatha, the 15th Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara. Jinaprabha describes it as situated near Ayodhyï¿½.2
DEVAGARH : Devagarh is situated in the Lalitpur District. It was the great centre of Jainism during the early medieval period. The earliest Jaina epigraph from this place is dated 862 A.D. of the reign of Pratihï¿½ra Bhoja. In the ninth century A.D., it was called Luachchhagira. Afterwards, it was given the name Kï¿½rtigiri. A Chandella epigraph also was discovered from this place. There was the temple of ï¿½antinï¿½tha here. From the inscriptions of the 15th century A.D., it is known to be a centre of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha. A large number of Jaina images of the Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas, Yakshas and Yakshï¿½s have been unearthed here.3
CHANDRAVÏ¿½Ï¿½A : Chandravï¿½ï¿½a is a place on the Yamunï¿½ near Firozabad in Agra District. It is sacred to Chandraprabha. The Jaina temple of this Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara was constructed in 996 A.D. This town was founded by the Chauhï¿½na ruler Chandrapï¿½la who was the follower of Jainism. This ruler and his successors ruled up to the 16th century A.D. Most of these rulers, and all their Ministers were devoted to Jainism.1
Ï¿½AURÏ¿½PURA : (Sauryapura) According to the Tiloyapaï¿½natti, Harivaï¿½ï¿½apurï¿½ï¿½a and ï¿½rï¿½dhanï¿½ Kathï¿½ Koshaof Nemidatta, Arishï¿½anemi was born at ï¿½aurï¿½pura. This place is identified with the place near Bateï¿½vara in Agra District. The remains of old Jaina temples and images have been discovered at this place. In the medieval period, it remained a seat of the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha. Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Viï¿½vabhï¿½shaï¿½a of this Saï¿½gha constructed the Jaina temple and performed its installation ceremony in 1667 A.D.2
UCHCHANAGARA : It is difficult to identify Uchchanagara correctly on the basis of present state of knowledge. J.C. JAIN identifies it with Bulandshahar. It was, in all probability, in Rajasthan or Sindh. An early Jaina ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½, mentioned in the Therï¿½valï¿½, originated from this place. It is mentioned several times in the Kharataragachchha Bï¿½ihad Gurvï¿½vali, and it was intimately connected with the activity of the monks of the Kharatarai gachchha.3
DELHI : The ancient name of Delhi was Yoginï¿½pura in the pre-Muslim period. The king Madanapala of this place gave a cordial reception to the Jaina saint of the Kharatara gachchha in V.S. 1222. The Kharatara gachchha Paï¿½ï¿½avali informs that Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha temple existed here. Even in the Muslim period, the Jainas played an important part in the religious affairs of Delhi. The Prabandhakoï¿½a of Rï¿½jaï¿½ekhara was written here in 1317 A.D. The well-known Pheru belonged to Delhi and he accepted the teachings propounded by the Jaina saints. A temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra was built in Delhi around 1328 A.D., under the patronage of Muhammad Bin Tughluq. Afterwards, also the manuscripts of Jaina works were written at Yoginipura or Delhi.1
RUDRAPALLI : Rudrapalli was situated near Delhi. The Rudrapallï¿½ya Gachchha originated from this place in 1147 A.D. TheKharatara Gachchha Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½vali mentions two temples of this place namely those of Pï¿½rï¿½va and ï¿½ishabha.2
ASHÏ¿½Ï¿½PADA : Ashï¿½ï¿½pada is generally identified with Kailï¿½ï¿½a, and according to the Jaina tradition, Rishabha attainedNirvï¿½ï¿½a on the summit of this mountain. The Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa also mentions this Tï¿½rtha.3
KANYÏ¿½NAYANA : Kanyï¿½nayana was probably situated near Delhi. The icon of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra was installed in the existing Chaityï¿½laya of this place in V.S. 1233 by the Kharatara ï¿½chï¿½rya Jinapati This Tï¿½rtha, according to the Vividhatirthakalpa, was destroyed by the Muslims in V.S.1385, and afterwards, the author of this work, namely Jinaprabha, with the help of Muhammad Bin Tughluq, repaired the Tï¿½rtha and once more, installed the icon of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra,4 in the same temple-complex of Kanyï¿½nayana.
ROHITAKA : The modern name of this place is Rohtak in Haryana. A Yaksha shrine of this place is mentioned in the Upï¿½ï¿½ga text, the Nï¿½rayavalikï¿½. It is also mentioned in the Bï¿½ï¿½hatkathï¿½koï¿½a. A temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha of this place was in existence during the time of Emperor Babar in V.S. 1584 and 1586. The temple was under the supervision of the Digambara monks of the Kï¿½sï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha.1
NAGARAKOÏ¿½Ï¿½A : Nagarakoï¿½ï¿½a is situated in the Dharmsala District of Himachal Pradesh. It is mentioned in several Jaina works. The Kharataragachchha Gurvavï¿½li proves that there was a temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinatha at this place in the 13th century. The Vijï¿½aptitriveï¿½ï¿½ by Jayasï¿½gara in 1426 A.D. mentions this place as a Mahï¿½tï¿½rtha and also calls it by the name Suï¿½armapura. It also mentions the great ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha temples-complex of this place. The same work also mentions the temples of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, ï¿½dinï¿½tha and Neminï¿½ta of this place. The king of this place in V.S. 1484 was patron of Jainism. The Nagarakoï¿½ï¿½a Chaityaparipï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ of Jayasï¿½gara mentions also these four Jaina temples of this place and also the temple of Ambikï¿½.2
TAXILA : Taxila remained associated with Jainism in early times as known from the archaeological remains. The Vividhatï¿½rthakalparecognizes it as a Jaina Tï¿½rtha and associates this place with Bï¿½hubali.1
UJJAIN : Mahï¿½vï¿½ra is known to have visited Ujjain where he did penance in a cemetery when Rudra and his wife tried in vain to interrupt him. Jaina traditions ascribe that Pradyota was a follower of Jainism and tried for its propagation. Chandragupta Maurya was admitted to monkhood of Ujjain. When ï¿½rya Suhastin visited Ujjain in order to worship the image of Jï¿½vanta Svï¿½mï¿½, Avanti Sukumï¿½la took the vocation of monkhood from him. After the death of Avanti Sukumï¿½la, a stï¿½pa was erected in order to commemorate him and the image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha was installed in it. After some time, the stï¿½pa became barren, and it was known by the name of Kuï¿½uï¿½geï¿½vara (God of the great Forest). Vikramï¿½ditya of Ujjain is known to have been devoted to Jainism It was a seat of the Pontiffs of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha. In the middle of the thirteenth century, Devadhara seems to have been the head of a Jaina monastery at Ujjain. In the Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa, Jinaprabhasï¿½ri mentions Kuï¿½uï¿½geï¿½avara of Ujjain.2
DAÏ¿½APURA : Daï¿½apura is identified with the modern city Mandsor. After Siï¿½hagiri had taught him the eleven Aï¿½gas, Vajra went from Daï¿½apura to Bhadragupta at Avanti (Ujjayinï¿½) to learn the twelfth viz. the Dï¿½ishï¿½ivï¿½dï¿½ï¿½ga. Daï¿½apura is the birth place of the Jaina saint ï¿½ryarakshita who learned from Vajra nine Pï¿½rvas, and a fragment of the tenth, and taught them to his pupil Durbalikï¿½pushpamitra. The seventh schism in Jainism occurred at this place. Jinaprabhasï¿½ri mentions Supï¿½rï¿½va at Daï¿½apura.1
VIDIÏ¿½A : The king Pradyota is said to have installed the Jï¿½vantasvï¿½mï¿½ (lifetime) image of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra at Vidiï¿½ï¿½. Jaina traditions aver that Vajrasvï¿½mï¿½ and other Jaina Pontiffs obtained liberation in the hills Kunjarï¿½varta and Rathï¿½varta in the neighbourhood of Vidiï¿½ï¿½, now known as Bhilsa. Three stone images of Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas of the fourth or fifth century A.D. made by Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½dhirï¿½ja Rï¿½magupta have been discoverd from Vidiï¿½ï¿½. The Udayagiri cave inscription of 425-426 A.D. in the neighbourhood records the installation of an image of the Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha by ï¿½ankara, the disciple of saint Goï¿½arman. Jinaprabhasï¿½ri refers to Mahï¿½vï¿½ra of Bhï¿½ilasvï¿½mï¿½gaï¿½ha.2
MAÏ¿½GALAPURA : Maï¿½galapura was sacred to Abhinandana, the fourth Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara as mentioned by Jinaprabhasï¿½ri in theTï¿½rthakalpa. The ï¿½ï¿½sanachatustriï¿½ï¿½atikï¿½ of Madanakï¿½rti also refers to Abhinandana Jina of Maï¿½galapura. it was destroyed by the Muslims apparently in the 13th century and was again rebuilt. Jinaprabha tells that this temple once received a grant of land from Jayasiï¿½ha II, the Paramï¿½ra king of Malwa who ruled in the third quarter of the 13th century.3
CHÏ¿½LAGIRI : Chï¿½lagiri, known to be the Siddhakshetra, is situated in the West Nimar. it is now identified with the present Baï¿½awï¿½nï¿½. According to the Prakrit Nirvï¿½ï¿½a Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a. Indrajï¿½ta kumbhakarï¿½a Munis have attained liberation from here. Mandanakï¿½rti, a scholar of the 12th or 13th century A.D., tells the image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha as Bï¿½ihaddeva in the ï¿½ï¿½sanachatustiï¿½ï¿½atikï¿½. There are two inscriptions dated 1166 A.D. engraved in the Jaina temple. In one, Rï¿½machandra Muni has been praised and in the other, Muni Lokï¿½nanda, Devï¿½nanda and thier disciples who built this temple. It is possible that the king Arkakï¿½rti, at the preaching of Muni Rï¿½macahndra, got the main temple and big image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha excavated in the hill. This is larger than the Buddha image excavated in the hill of Baniyan in Afghanistan. It is 84 feet in height. There are two images of Munisuvrata dated V.S. 1231, two of Pï¿½rï¿½va dated V.S. 1242 and one of Neminï¿½tha dated V.S. 1380 in this temple. The image and temple were renovated in 1516 A.D.
Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka ï¿½rutasï¿½gara in the Bodhaprabhï¿½ita has described this Tï¿½rtha. According to Jï¿½ï¿½nasï¿½gara in the Sarvatï¿½rthavandaï¿½ï¿½ mentions fifty-two Saï¿½ghapatis who performed the installation ceremony of several images. The number of images installed in V.S. 1380 was large.1
PAVAGINI (UÏ¿½A) : ï¿½ï¿½a is situated in the West Nimar. It is known to be the Siddha Kshetra by the name of Pï¿½vï¿½giri which is popular known as Ï¿½NA. It is mentioned in the Prakrit Nirvï¿½ï¿½akï¿½nï¿½a that Svarï¿½abhadra and four Munis attained Nirvï¿½ï¿½ahere. Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Guï¿½akï¿½rti mentions it in the Tï¿½rthavandanï¿½ Saï¿½graha while Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka ï¿½rutasï¿½gara refers to it in the Bodha-prabhï¿½ita ï¿½ï¿½kï¿½.1 The Chaubara Derï¿½ II and the Goleï¿½vara temple are the Jaina temples of the Paramï¿½ra period here. In the two Jaina temples, a few colossal Jaina images of the twelfth century have been found. An epigraph mentions the Paramï¿½ra ruler Udayï¿½ditya. The Valleï¿½vara temple appears to be built by Rï¿½ja Ballï¿½la. These archaeological remains2 prove that ï¿½ï¿½a became a Jaina Tï¿½rtha even in the 11th century A.D.
SIDDHAVARAKÏ¿½Ï¿½A : Siddhavarakï¿½ï¿½a is known to be the Siddhakshetra, and it has been mentioned in the Prï¿½kï¿½ita Nirvï¿½ï¿½a Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a. It is believed that the two Chakravatï¿½s, ten Kï¿½madevas, and three and half Koï¿½i Munis attained Nirvï¿½ï¿½a from Siddhavarakï¿½ï¿½a located in the west on the bank of the Revï¿½. The images of Chandraprabhu and other Tï¿½rthankaras have been discovered in its neighbourhood.3
DROÏ¿½AGIRI : In the Prakrit Nirvï¿½ï¿½akï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a, Droï¿½agiri has been mentioned as Nirvï¿½ï¿½a-Kshetra. From the top of the hill of this place Gurudatta, Munis etc. obtained Nirvï¿½na. In the Sanskrit Nirvï¿½ï¿½a Bhakti, only its name has been given. Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka ï¿½rutasï¿½gara refers to its name the Bodhaprï¿½bhï¿½ta ï¿½ï¿½kï¿½. Droï¿½agiri is generally identified with a small hill near the village Droï¿½agiri in the Chhatarpur District. It has the temple of ï¿½diï¿½vara and also a few other shrines. The earliest temple dedicated to ï¿½dinï¿½tha, has an epigraph of V.S. 1549.1
SONÏ¿½GIRI : Sonï¿½giri, a Siddhakshetra, is situated in the Datia District. From the Prakrit Nirvï¿½ï¿½akï¿½nï¿½a, it is known that Naï¿½ga, Anaï¿½ga etc five and half Koï¿½i Munis obtained liberation after performing penances.2 An inscription3 found in the pedestal of an image of the temple No. 76 has been assigned to the seventh century A.D. Several other image inscriptions of the period between 1200 and 1600 A.D. have also been discovered from different temples of this Tï¿½rth. These inscriptions prove that this Tï¿½rth began to be recognised from the early times.
RESHANDÏ¿½GIRI : According to the Prakrit Nirvï¿½ï¿½akï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a, Varadatta etc five Munis obtained Moksha from the top of the Reshandï¿½giri. Hence, it is known as the Nirvï¿½ï¿½a Kshetra. The other name of this place is Nainï¿½giri. This place has been located in the Chhatarpur District. It is dedicated to Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. One temple and thirteen images were discovered in the excavation. One inscription dated V.S. 1109 engraved on the wall indicates the time of the temple and images.4
AHÏ¿½RA : Ahï¿½ra is situated in Tikamgarh District. Some people say that it is Atisï¿½ya Kshetra while others regard it as Siddaha Kshetra. According to them, Madanakumï¿½ra obtained Keval Jï¿½ana from the Tï¿½rtha of Mallinï¿½tha, and Shri Nishkaï¿½vala from theTï¿½rtha of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. Actually, the ancient name of this place was Madaneï¿½asï¿½garapura, named after the Chandella ruler Madanavarman. This place is known to be associated with one Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha who built a Jain temple here. There are inscriptions dated V.S. 1123 and V.S. 1136 engraved on the images available here.
GWALIOR : The mountain in Gwalior is known as and it preserves Gopï¿½chala. Two rock-cut 40 feet height bidol to payrath in sing posibles along with fiftin hours Swker Jain scuepire reliefs at this place, The highters in India one showing Tirthankarara standing in meditation and the other representing a Jina meditating in the Padmï¿½sana posture, seem to be of the Gupta period2. Bappabhaï¿½ï¿½asï¿½ri built a Mahï¿½vï¿½ra temple at this place. During the Tomara period, Jainism became a great dynamic and cultural force. Temples and caves were built, and numerous images were installed in them during the medieval period. Raidhï¿½, who was a great poet, belonged to this place.
BADNAWAR : Badnawar is situated in the Dhar District. Its ancient name was Vardhamï¿½napura kept after the Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Vardhamï¿½na. Jinasena of the Puï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ta Saï¿½gha finished the Harivaï¿½ï¿½a Purï¿½ï¿½a at (Vaï¿½hamï¿½na) Vardhamï¿½napura in 783 A.D. Harisheï¿½a, who belonged to the Puï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½asï¿½gha, composed the Kathï¿½kosha in 931 A.D. at Vardhamï¿½napura3. Some image inscriptions with the name of Puï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½asaï¿½gha have been discovered at this place. Most of the Jaina images with the 12th-13th centuries inscriptions of the Paramï¿½ra period have been discovered here.
DHÏ¿½RA : Dhï¿½ra was the capital of the Paramï¿½ra rulers, and it remained associated with Jainism. Devasena wrore theDarï¿½anasï¿½ra in V.S. 990 (933 A.D.) in the Jaina temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha at Dhï¿½ra. Nayanandi composed the Sudarsana-Charitain 1043 A.D. while staying in the Jinavaravihï¿½ra of Dhï¿½ra. Madankï¿½rti of the 13th century has also mentioned the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½va at Dhï¿½ra. Dharasena lived in Dhï¿½ra, and his disciple was Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, a learned ï¿½chï¿½rya. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dhara migrated to Dhï¿½ra from Mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½algarh in 1192 A.D. because of the Muslim invasion. Jaina ï¿½chï¿½ryas of the Kharatara Gachchha visited Dhï¿½ra from time to time. In 1207 A.D. (V.S. 1264), Jinapati visited Dhï¿½ra and propagated Vidhimï¿½rga in the temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha. Jinavallabha Sï¿½ri, Jinadattasï¿½ri and others also visited Dhï¿½ra for the propagation of Jainism.1
KHAJURÏ¿½HO : Khajurï¿½ho is situated in Chhatarpur District, and there are templse of ï¿½ï¿½nti, Pï¿½rï¿½va and ï¿½dinï¿½tha. These Jaina temples are important from artistic point of view. The Jaina ï¿½cï¿½rya Vï¿½savachandra has been represented as the teacher of king Dhaï¿½ga. The inscription dated 953-954 A.D. in the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha records a number of gifts and endowments by one Pï¿½hila who claims to have been held in esteem by king Dhaï¿½ga. The devotion of the Grahapati family to which Pï¿½hila belonged is also evidenced by ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha image inscription of V.S. 1132. This place has a large number of Jaina images of the tenth to the twelfth century A.D.2 Seven dancing damsels at the outer portion of Shatinath temple are world- famous.
NALAKACHCHHAPURA : Nï¿½lakachchhapura is located in Dhï¿½r District. It was connected with the activities of the great scholar ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dhara who wrote his works in the Neminï¿½tha temple of this place. It is alos mentioned along with Dhara in the colophon of a manuscript dated V.S. 12951.
TRIPURI : Tripuri was the old capital of the Kalachuris, and is situated near Jabalpur. A Jaina temple of this place called Trilokatilaka, has been mentioned by Uadayakï¿½rti who flourished in all probability in the 13th century. Some of the beautiful Jina icons from Tewar (present Tripuri) have been preserved in the Jabalpur Museum.2
BAHURIBAND : It is situated in Jabalpur District. That Jainism flourished during the Kalachuri period is shown by the Bahuriband stone inscription of Gayï¿½karï¿½a and other archaeological remains. This inscription records that one Mahï¿½bhoja, son of Sï¿½dhu Sarvadhara, erected a temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha. The inscription further notes that white canopy over it was, built by Sï¿½tradhï¿½ra. The image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha was consecrated by the ï¿½chï¿½rya Subhadra who belonged to the line of Deï¿½ï¿½gaï¿½a in the ï¿½mnï¿½ya of Chandrakara ï¿½chï¿½rya.3
GYARASPUR : Gyï¿½raspur is situated at a distance of 28 kms. from Vidisha. As it is believed to be the place of penance (Tapobhï¿½mi), It is regarded as Kalyï¿½ï¿½a Kshetra. It is alos an art centre.1 The Mï¿½ladevï¿½ temple, which is partly rock-cut and partly structural, is a mature example of Pratï¿½hara temple style. From the decorative motifs and architectural factures, this temple appears to be of the ninth century A.D. The Bï¿½jrï¿½maï¿½ha is an example of rare class of temple. Some scholars consider it to be a Jaina temple. The sculptures enshrined in the temple of Mï¿½lï¿½devï¿½ are remarkable from the artistic point of view. The beautiful figure of ï¿½ï¿½labhaï¿½jikï¿½ from Gyaraspur has attained world wide renown for its finely arranged coiffure, sharp and prominent facial feautes. Some people regard it as Atiï¿½ayakshetra.
LAKSHMAÏ¿½Ï¿½ : Lakshmanï¿½ Tï¿½rtha, sacred to Padmaprabha, is situated in Jhï¿½buï¿½ District. It is mentioned in thePravï¿½sagï¿½tikï¿½ of Jayï¿½nanda (15th century) as a great Jaina centre with more than one hundred temples and 2000 devotees.2
AMÏ¿½JHARÏ¿½ : Amï¿½jharï¿½ is identified with modern Amjherï¿½ in Dhï¿½ra District. It is dedicated to Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha and it became a Jaina Tï¿½rtha from roughly 1500 A.D.3
MÏ¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½AVAGAÏ¿½HA : Mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½avagaï¿½ha. sacred to Supï¿½rï¿½va, is situated in Dhï¿½r District, and at present, is known as Mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½u. There is also an old temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha at this place. Sumatisï¿½gara (16th century) and Jï¿½ï¿½nasï¿½gara (C.1575 A.D.) have mentioned the Mahï¿½vï¿½ra temple of this place. During the reign of the Sultans of Mï¿½ï¿½du, it became a great Tï¿½rtha.1
TÏ¿½LANAPURA : Tï¿½lanapura in Dhï¿½r District is sacred to ï¿½dinï¿½tha and is respected by both the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras and the Digambaras. There are a few old icons in this temple-complex. One image was installed by Viï¿½ï¿½lakï¿½rti of the Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha in 1268 A.D.2
KUÏ¿½Ï¿½ALAPURA : Kuï¿½ï¿½alapura is situated in Damoha District. According to the Tiloyapaï¿½ï¿½ati of Yativï¿½ishbha, ï¿½rï¿½dhara attained liberation from Kuï¿½ï¿½alagiri. There is mention of Kuï¿½ï¿½alapura in the Sanskrit Nirvï¿½ï¿½a Bhakti of Pï¿½jyapï¿½da. The main deity at this Tï¿½rtha is of ï¿½shabha 6th century A.D. but not of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, as is generally believed. ThisTï¿½rtha was renovated by Mahï¿½rï¿½ja Chhatrasï¿½la in V.S. 1757 through the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas. It is regarded as the famous Atiï¿½aya Kshetra3 and at this place there also exists sixty Jain temples.
THUVAUNA : Thuvauna, dedicated to ï¿½dinï¿½tha, is situated in Gunï¿½ District. It is said that a ï¿½rï¿½vaka named Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha belonged to this place, and built the jaina temple. This Tï¿½rtha is believed to be the famous Atiï¿½aya Kshetra.4 Here there are 26 temples as in these temples various idols are 30 feet in height.
BAJARAÏ¿½GA GAÏ¿½HA : Bajaraï¿½ga gaï¿½ha is situated at a distance of 07 kms. from Guï¿½ï¿½. There are three Kï¿½yotsarga images of Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas ï¿½aï¿½tinï¿½tha. Araha Nï¿½tha and Kuntunï¿½tha. Their installation ceremony was performed in V.S. 1236 by Lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha who belonged to the Gahoï¿½ Vaiï¿½ya caste. The main deity (Mï¿½lanï¿½yaka) of this place was of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha. the Jaina images of V.S. 1075, 1115, 1225, 1312, 1320, 1321 and 1329 have been found here. There images prove the antiquity of this place. It is well-known as the Atiï¿½aya–Kshetra.1
BÏ¿½Ï¿½HÏ¿½ CHANDERÏ¿½ : Bï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ Cahnderï¿½ is at a distance of fourteen kms. from the modern Chanderï¿½. This place was ruled by the Chandellas. This place flourished between V.S. 1335 and V.S. 1334. It became a great art centre. Innumetable Jaina images of this period have been discovered. These Jaina images possess peculiar certain characteristics. No inscription and ï¿½rï¿½vatsa are found on these Jaina images. Some Jaina images have no symbols. These Jaina images are important from the artisic point of view.2
SIHONIÏ¿½ : Sihoniï¿½ is situated at a distance of 30 kms. from Mureï¿½ï¿½. About 141 Jaina images of the 11th century A.D. are found here. The there Jaina images of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha, Kunthunï¿½tha and Arahanï¿½tha wer together installed here. These there were Kï¿½madevas and Chakrivatï¿½s, and were the natives of Hastinï¿½pura. Sihoniï¿½ is known to be Atiï¿½aya Kshetra because of the image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha.3
RAJASTHAN, GUJARAT AND MAHÏ¿½RÏ¿½SHÏ¿½RA
NAGARÏ¿½ : Nagarï¿½ is situated eighteen kms. north of Chittor. Its ancient name was Madhyamikï¿½, The Madhyamikï¿½ branch of the Jaina Saï¿½gha organization, as mentioned in the Sthirï¿½vali of the Kalpasï¿½tra, became famous after the name of this place. Priyagrantha, the second pupil of Susthita and Supratibudha, founded this branch probably in the second century B.C. A Kushï¿½ï¿½a inscription of the second century A.D. mentioning Madhyamikï¿½ sï¿½khï¿½ has been found at Mathurï¿½. An inscription of the third or second century B.C., which states that something was constructed for the welfare of all living beings, has been discovered at this place.1
JHÏ¿½LRÏ¿½ PÏ¿½Ï¿½AN : The ancient name of Jhï¿½lrï¿½pï¿½ï¿½an is said to be Chandravatï¿½ which was situated on the banks of Chandrabhï¿½ga. There was a famous old temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha which is unique for the point of view architects which was built by Sï¿½ha Pï¿½pï¿½ in 1046 A.D., and its installation ceremony was performed by Bhavadevasï¿½ri. An inscription dated 1109 A.D. on a pillar of Sï¿½tsalï¿½kï¿½puhï¿½ri records the death of ï¿½reshï¿½ Pï¿½pï¿½. This temple was often visited by ï¿½rï¿½vakas and Jaina ï¿½chï¿½ryas. An inscription of 1047 A.D. records the name of a visitor to the shrine. Jaina ï¿½chï¿½ryas used to reside at this place because we find a vast number of funeral memorials termed ‘Nishedhikas‘ of Jaina priests.2
BAYÏ¿½NÏ¿½ : Bayï¿½nï¿½ is situated about forty-eight kms. to the South-West of Bharatpur. Its ancient names were ï¿½rï¿½pathï¿½ and Brahmavï¿½ï¿½a. An inscription of 994 A.D. on the image of Jina reveals that it was caused to be made in accordance with the instructions of ï¿½ï¿½rasena of apparently the Vï¿½gaï¿½a Saï¿½gha by three brothers. During the Muslim period, the activities of Jainism remained unrestrained. Images were installed in the Jaina temples, and manuscripts prepared in order to present them to monks. The installation ceremonies of images were performed in 1403, 1439, 1448 and 1456 A.D. at Brahmavï¿½da, another name of Bayï¿½nï¿½. A copy of theï¿½tmaprabodhana was written in 1490 A.D. at ï¿½rï¿½pathï¿½, the alternative name of Bayï¿½nï¿½.1
BHINMÏ¿½L : The old name of Bhimï¿½l, which is situated about one hundred sixty nine kms. south of Jodhpur is ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la. An inscription of 1276 A.D. found here tells that Mahï¿½vï¿½ra in person came to ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½la. It is supported by the ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lamï¿½hï¿½tmya, a work of the 13th century A.D. Siddhasena Sï¿½ri refers to this place as a holy place in theSakalatï¿½rthastotra. Dhanapï¿½la of the 11th Century informs about the Jaina image of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. Jinaprabhasï¿½ri in the Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa mentions it as a holy place of Vï¿½ra. Besides, there were other Jaina temples such as ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha and Pï¿½rï¿½vanatha. The ï¿½rï¿½mï¿½lï¿½s among the Jainas originated from this place. They were converted to Jainism by the Jaina saints about the eighth century A.D.2
VASANTAGARH : Vasantagarh is situated eight Kms. to the south of Piï¿½ï¿½wï¿½rï¿½ and its old names were Vatï¿½kara, Vaï¿½anagara and Vï¿½ï¿½ishï¿½hapura. The inscription of the seventh or eighth century A.D. engraved on the walls of this temple definitely proves its ancientry. Besides, a pair of images of Rï¿½shabhadeva with the inscription of 687 A.D. has been discovered from under the ground. It is the earliest Jaina inscription discoverd in Rajasthan. It is recorded that Droï¿½ovaka Yaï¿½odeva caused to be constructed the beautiful pair of Jaina images. The Jaina temple of this place appears to be renovated in 1450 A.D. by Maï¿½isundara Sï¿½ri during the reign of Kumbhakarï¿½a1
MANDOR : Maï¿½ï¿½or, the ancient capital of Mï¿½rwï¿½r, is situated at a distance of eight kms. from Jodhpur. Its old names were Maï¿½ï¿½odara and Mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½avyapura durga. Kakkuka, the Pratï¿½hï¿½ra ruler of this place, was a great patron of Jainism. He constructed a Jaina temple at Ghaï¿½iyï¿½lï¿½. There are remains of the Jaina temple of the tenth century A.D. In 1186 A.D., the ï¿½rï¿½vakas of this place went on pilgrimage with the Saï¿½gha led by Abhayakumï¿½ra to the holy places. The ï¿½rï¿½vakas of Maï¿½ï¿½or built, and repaired temples of other places, and placed images in them. In 1311 A.D., Gosala with his brother and sons renovated the temple of Vimalavasahï¿½ at ï¿½bï¿½. In 1461 A.D., Saï¿½jaka of Maï¿½ï¿½or with the members of his family prepared Nandiï¿½vara Paï¿½ï¿½ikï¿½, and installed it durring the reign of Chï¿½chigadeva in the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha at Jaisalmer through Jinachandrasï¿½ri. The Maï¿½ï¿½ovara gotra of the Osavï¿½las became famous after Maï¿½ï¿½or. The Maï¿½ï¿½ora-gachchha, a branch of the Kharatara-gachchha, originated from this place in 1497 A.D.1
GHAÏ¿½IYÏ¿½LÏ¿½ : At a distance of thirtyfive kms. north west of Jodhpur is situated the town of Ghaï¿½iyï¿½lï¿½. In early times, It was famous by the names of Rohiï¿½saka and Rohiï¿½sakï¿½pa. The Pratï¿½hï¿½ra ruler was a patron of Jainism, and caused ot be built a temple of the god Jina for the several merchants whom he invited to settle there, He entrusted this temple to the community, presided over by the ascetics, Jambava and ï¿½mraka and the merchant Bhï¿½kuta in the Gachchha of the holy Dheneï¿½vara. on the right side of the temple is sculptured the figure of a Jaina goddess seated on a lion.2
MERTÏ¿½ : At a distance of one hundred seventeen kms. north- east of Jodhpur stands the town of Mertï¿½. Its ancient names were Meï¿½antaka and Meï¿½atapura. In medieval times, it was called Medanï¿½pura. After converting the Yaksha, Kaï¿½ameï¿½a and a large number of Brï¿½hmaï¿½as to Jainism, Abhayadevasï¿½ri, who lived in the eleventh century A.D., caused the temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra to be built in this city. At the request of the Chauhï¿½na king Mï¿½ladeva, Jinachandrasï¿½ri in 1322 A.D., visited Mertï¿½. In 1323 A.D., Seï¿½ha Rï¿½yapati of Delhi, while leading Saï¿½gha to holy places along with Jinakuï¿½alasï¿½ri, came to Mertï¿½. The activities of Jainism continued even during the Muslim period. Copies of the manuscripts were written and images installed in them. Hï¿½ravijaya Sï¿½ri, on whom Akbar conferred the ritle of Jagadguru, visited this place. Samaysundara, a distinguished scholar of medieval times, wrote several works from Mertï¿½. ï¿½ï¿½ntikuï¿½ala in his ï¿½rï¿½ Gaudï¿½ Pï¿½rï¿½va Tï¿½rthamï¿½lï¿½, written in 1670 A.D., refers to Mertï¿½ as a holy place of the Jainas.1
OSIÏ¿½ : Osiï¿½ is situated fiftytwo kms north-west of Jodhpur. The Jaina temple dedicated to Mahï¿½vï¿½ra was famous. It appears to have been first built at the end of the eighth century A.D. Osiï¿½ remained specially associated with Jainsim. It is known as the cradle of a class of Baniï¿½s called Osavï¿½las. It is said that Ratnaprabhasï¿½ri visited this place and converted the king and his subjects to Jainism. At the request of the temple committee, a merchant called Jindaka renovated the temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. The temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra continued as a holy place. The Nï¿½bhinandana Jinodhï¿½ra written by Kakkasï¿½ri in 1338 A.D. gives us useful information about the town. Siddhasena Sï¿½ri refers to Osia as a holy place in the Sakalatï¿½rthastotra. Upakeï¿½a gachchha was also named after Osiï¿½. From the Upakeï¿½a gachchha prabandha, it is known that the Muslim army while passing through destroyed the town in 1195 A.D.2
JÏ¿½LOR : Jalor is situated about one hundred twenty one kms. south of Jodhpur. From the Kuvalayamï¿½lï¿½ composed in 778 A.D. by Uddyotanasï¿½ri, it is clear that it was a flourishing town adorned with temples and buildings of rich men. The famous Jaina temples were of ï¿½dinï¿½tha, Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha and ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha. Jï¿½lor was regarded as a holy place of the Jainas in early times. Siddhasenasï¿½ri pays high respect to it in his Tï¿½rthamï¿½la. The Vidhichaitya movement gained strength, and popularity by the frequent visits of the Jaina saints to this place. In 1168 A.D., Jinachandrasï¿½ri visited this place and propagated the teachings of Vidhimï¿½rga to the ï¿½rï¿½vakas. Jineï¿½varasï¿½ri remained specially associated with this place. Jï¿½lor was a seat of learning in early times. Uddayotana Sï¿½ri, Buddisï¿½gara and Jineï¿½vara Sï¿½ri composed their respective works. Jinabhadrasï¿½ri founded ï¿½ï¿½strabhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ra at this place in the fourteenth century A.D.1
DÏ¿½Ï¿½WÏ¿½NÏ¿½ : ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½wï¿½nï¿½ is situated at a distance of two hundred nine kms. north-east of Jodhpur. It remained associated with Jainism from very early times. Jineï¿½varasï¿½ri, who visited this place in the tenth century A.D. composed the Kathï¿½koï¿½a. ï¿½rï¿½dattasï¿½ri of the Pï¿½rnatala gachchha, the teacher of the famous scholar Hemachandrasuri, visited Dï¿½ï¿½wï¿½nï¿½ and addressed the ruler Yaï¿½obhadra of this place. Yaï¿½obhadra got a big Jaina temple constructed known as Chauvï¿½sa Jinï¿½laya. Siddhasena Sï¿½ri mentions this holy place in his Sakalatï¿½rthamï¿½lï¿½.2
NÏ¿½LAKAÏ¿½Ï¿½HA (Rajora Garh) : Nï¿½lakaï¿½ï¿½ha (Rï¿½jorgarh) is situated fortyfive kms. to the south-west of Alwar. In the tenth century A.D., its name was Rï¿½jyapura and it was capital of the Baï¿½a Gurjara Rï¿½jputs. Jainism made marked progress during the reign of the Baï¿½a-Gurjaras. Jaina saints performed penances in some caves. By their inspiration, their followers constructed magnificent temples, and images in them. An inscription dated V.S. 979 (923 A.D) of the reign of king Sï¿½vaï¿½a records the construction of the temple as well as the installation of an image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha therein at Rajyapura by Saravadeva, son of Dedullaka, and grandson of Arbhaï¿½a of Dharkaï¿½a family. Three life-size Jaina figures are all standing upright. One colossal Jaina figure known as Nowgaza is said to have been built by Bhaiï¿½sï¿½ Mahï¿½jana during the reign of some Baï¿½a Gujara ruler.1
SANCHOR : Sanchor is situated about two hundred kms. south–west of Jodhpur. Its old name was Satyapura. Under the Muslim rule, It was named Mahamudï¿½bï¿½d. Sanchor was a great centre of Jainism. Because of the celebrated temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, it was considered a holy place of the Jainas. In the old Chaityabandana stotra of Jagachintamani, this Tï¿½rth has been described with deep devotion. Dhanapï¿½la composed the poem Satyapurï¿½ya Mahï¿½vï¿½ra Utsï¿½ha in honour of the order of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. From the account of Jinaprabhasï¿½ri, it was believed to have been built by Nï¿½haï¿½a of Maï¿½ï¿½or. This Jaina temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra was destroyed by the Mulsims. Sanchor, being a holy place, was visited by Jaina saints such as Jinakusalasï¿½ri and Jinapadmasï¿½ri from time to time. Some of them composed their literary works, and got the copies of manuscripts prepared in order to spread knowledge. It was a birth place of the great scholar named Samayasundara.1
CHÏ¿½TSU : Chï¿½tsu is situated about fortytwo kms. south of Jaipur. Its early name was Champï¿½vatï¿½. the temple, crowning the hill, was originally a temple of the eighth century A.D. The religious activities of Jainism continyed during the reign of the Muslim ruler Ghiyï¿½suddï¿½n. Under the patronage of the Solaï¿½kï¿½ ruler Rï¿½machandra, a feudatory ruler of Saï¿½grï¿½ma Siï¿½ha of Mewï¿½r, Jainism flourished exceedingly. Several copies of manuscripts were prepared, and the consecration of the images took place. Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Chndrakï¿½rti of Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha seems to have removed his seat from Chitor to this place. It also became a centre of learning in medieval times. ï¿½hakurra, and author of the sixteenth century A.D., composed some Apabhraï¿½ï¿½a works here.2
NÏ¿½GDÏ¿½ : Nagda is situated at the fort of the hill of Ekaliï¿½gajï¿½. Its old names are Nï¿½gahï¿½ida and Nï¿½gadraha. The temple, now, known as the temple of Padmï¿½vatï¿½ was originally the famous temple of Pï¿½rï¿½avanï¿½tha. The Jaina temple known as Adbhudjï¿½ is so called, because it contains a wonderful image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha. It was constructed by a merchant named Sï¿½raï¿½ga of the Poravï¿½la caste during Kumbhakaraï¿½a’s reign. Nï¿½gdï¿½ was well known as a holy place of the Jainas in early times. Viï¿½ï¿½lakï¿½rti’s disciple named Madanakï¿½rti, who lived in the thirteenth century A.D., prayed to Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha of Nï¿½gadraha along with other Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas in the ï¿½ï¿½sanachatustriï¿½ï¿½atikï¿½. Jinaprabhasuri also refers to it in his Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa, written in 1332 A.D. This Tï¿½rtha has been described in the Tï¿½rthaï¿½ï¿½lï¿½s of the late period. Sundarasï¿½ri composed an independent stotra in devotion to Nï¿½gahï¿½ida Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha.1
Ï¿½HÏ¿½R : ï¿½hï¿½r is about three kms. east of Udaipur city. Its ancient names were ï¿½ghaï¿½apura and ï¿½tpura. Jainism flourished here under the patronage of the Guhila rulers. Pradyumnasï¿½ri of Chandra Gachchha is siad to have defeated the Digambara saints in discussions in the royal court of Allaï¿½a at ï¿½ghï¿½ï¿½a. From the Rï¿½sasaï¿½graha, it is known that the Minister of Allaï¿½a, built the Jaina temple, and got the image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha installed through Yaï¿½obhadrasï¿½ri of Saï¿½ï¿½eraka Gachchha who passed away in 972 A.D. This is further confirmed from the Jaina inscription fond on devakulikï¿½ of the Jaina temple. In this inscription, Mayï¿½ra, ï¿½rï¿½pati and Mattaï¿½a have been described as Akshapatalikas respectively of Allaï¿½a, Naravï¿½hana and ï¿½aktikumï¿½ra. They might have constructed this Jaina temple. Dhanadeva, who lived in the tenth century A.D., refers ot the temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra in his poem ‘Satyapurï¿½ya Mahï¿½vï¿½ra Utsï¿½ha, Siddhasenasï¿½ri, an author of the twelfth century, refers to this place in the Sakalatï¿½rtha Stotra. Jagachandrasï¿½ri was a great Jaina ascetic who performed hard penances. Seeing him, Jaitrasiï¿½aha, the ruler of Mewar, gave him the title Tapï¿½ in 1228 A.D. at ï¿½ghï¿½ï¿½a., By the inspiration of Jaina saints several copies of manuscripts were prepared under the royal patronage. Jhï¿½njhaï¿½a, in the company of his teacher Dharmaghoshasï¿½ri, organized the Saï¿½gha to holy places and visited ï¿½ghï¿½ï¿½a also.1
CHITOR : Chitor is situated at a distance of about one hundred eight kms. to the north-east of Udaipur city. Its ancient name was Chitrakï¿½ï¿½a. The great Jaina scholar named Haribhadrasï¿½ri of the eighth century was a native of this place. He wrote theDhï¿½rtï¿½khyï¿½na at Chitor. Vï¿½rasena learnt the Shaï¿½khaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½gama and the Kashï¿½yaprabhï¿½ita from Elï¿½chï¿½rya at Chitor. Harisheï¿½a, who originally a resident of Chitor, wrote the Dharmaparï¿½kshï¿½ in 987 A.D. Jinavallabha made Chitrakï¿½ï¿½a his headquarters for the propagation of Vidhimï¿½rga in the early twelfth century A.D. The reformed temples were established at his persuatsion. After Jinavallabha, the function of Paï¿½ï¿½a ceremony of Jinadattasï¿½ri was celebrated in 1112 A.D. with great rejoicings. Vï¿½didevasï¿½ri defeated ï¿½ivamï¿½rti in discussions. This place was also a seat of Digambara Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas in the twelfth century A.D. The kings and officers, though followers of Brahmanical religion, were highly influenced by the teachings of the Jaina ï¿½chï¿½ryas. The ruler Samarasiï¿½ha issued an ordinance prohibiting the slaughter of animals in his kingdom on certain days.
Chitor was considered to be a holy place of the Jainas as known from the Sakalatï¿½rtha Stotra of Siddhasenasï¿½ri. The Jaina Kï¿½rtistambha was built in honour of the Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Adinï¿½tha by Punasiï¿½ha, the son of Jijï¿½ of the Bhaghervï¿½la caste during the reign of Kumbha. Kumbha’s treasurer Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rï¿½ Belï¿½, a Jaina erected the charming temple known as Sriï¿½gï¿½ra Chaurï¿½ in honour of the Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha. Some Chittrakï¿½ï¿½a Chaitya Paripï¿½ï¿½ï¿½s, written in the fifteenth and the sixteenth centuries, are important as they point out that there were temples of different Gachchhas. Various copies of manuscripts on religion and philosophy were prepared for presentation to the Jaina monks in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.1
SHERGARH : Shergarh is about one hundred forty-five kms. to the south-west of Koï¿½ah. Its ancient name was Koï¿½avardhana. In the tenth century A.D., one Rï¿½japï¿½ta Saradï¿½ra installed three Jaina images, which are now in dilapidated condition. An inscription of 1105 A.D. records how a great festival of the Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Neminï¿½tha was celebrated at the new Chaitya. At this time, the Jaina saint Vï¿½rasena was residing here in 1134 A.D, Devapï¿½la caused to be made the ratnatraya (images of three Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha, Kunthanï¿½tha, and Aranï¿½tha); and performed their installation ceremony in association with his son, parents, relatives and Genï¿½hins at Koï¿½avardhana.2
NÏ¿½GAUR : Nagaur, the chief town of the District of the same name, is situated in Jodhpur Division. It was known by various name such as Nï¿½gapura, Nagapattana, Ahipura and Bhujaï¿½ga-nagara. From the literary sources, it is known as a great centre of Jainism. Jayasiï¿½hasï¿½ri wrote the Dharmopadeï¿½amï¿½lï¿½vivaraï¿½a in 858 A.D. Chandrasï¿½ri started to write the Upadeï¿½avï¿½itti in 1177 A.D. In 1105 A.D., Hemachandrasï¿½ri was ordained as ï¿½chï¿½rya by Devasï¿½ri. Jinavallabhasï¿½ri and Jinadattasï¿½ri of the Kharatara gachchha visited this place, and established Vidhichaityas in the twelfth century A.D. In the fifteenth century A.D., Jinabhadrasï¿½ri set up grantha-bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ra at this place. Bhaï¿½ï¿½arï¿½ka Ratnakï¿½rti established a different seat of the Mulasaï¿½gha at Nagaur in the fifteenth century A.D. The Nagaura Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ra containing about 15,000 manuscripts is famous. Nï¿½gapurï¿½ya gachchha, a branch of the Tapï¿½gachchha, among the Jainas, originated from Nï¿½gaur. There were several Jaina temples at this place. Siddhasena refers to Nï¿½gaur as a holy place in the Sakalatï¿½rtha Stotra. The temple of Nï¿½rï¿½yaï¿½avasahï¿½ built in 860 A.D. was in existence in the Seventeenth century A.D. as known from the Nï¿½gaurachaitya Paripï¿½ï¿½i. Dhanadeva got the installation ceremony of the temple of Neminï¿½tha performed from Jinavallabhasï¿½ri. ï¿½hï¿½kura Achalasiï¿½ha of this place got the ordinance from Qutbuddin, the Khilji Sultan of Delhi for pilgimage to holy places in 1317 A.D.1
KHAÏ¿½Ï¿½ELÏ¿½ : At a distance of fortyfive kms. from Sikar stands the town of Khaï¿½ï¿½elï¿½. Its old name as known from literary sources were Khaï¿½ï¿½illa and Khaï¿½ï¿½elapura. Jinasenï¿½chï¿½rya, in the line of the saint Aparï¿½jita, is said to have converted the Chauhï¿½na ruler of this place with his subjects to Jainism, and formed the Khaï¿½ï¿½elavï¿½la caste. When this incident took place, is not definitely known. Probably, it happended in the eighth century A.D. because the Khaï¿½ï¿½elavï¿½la caste is not known to be in existence earlier. Its earliest mention is found in the inscription of 1197 A.D. When these Khaï¿½ï¿½elavï¿½las increased in number, They formed gotras after the names of villages, surnames, etc. From a Praï¿½asti of the Dharmaratnï¿½kara written in 998 A.D., it is known that its author Jayasena visited Khaï¿½ï¿½alika, and there, he impressed the people with his teachings. In 1287 A.D., Jinaprabhasï¿½ri also came to Khanï¿½elapura and he converted the people to Jainism by his teachings. Brï¿½maï¿½ika, a pupil of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Jinachandra of Mï¿½lasï¿½gha, paid visit to Khaï¿½delapura in 1461 A.D. Khaï¿½ï¿½elï¿½ remained a great holy place of the Jainas as is mentioned in Sakalatï¿½rtha Stotra of Siddhasenasï¿½ri. Probably, Khaï¿½ï¿½ila gachchha among the Jainas was named after this place. There are remains of an old Jaina temple at this place.
KÏ¿½MÏ¿½N : Kï¿½mï¿½n lies at a distance of sixtyfour kms. from Bharatpur. There are remains of the old Jaina temples. Kï¿½myaka gachchha originated from this place, Durgadeva, the Jaina author, furnished the Rishï¿½asamuchchaya in a fine temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinatha at Kumbhanagara ruled over by Lakshmï¿½nivï¿½sa. Kumbhanagara may be identified with Kï¿½man. As regards the king Lakshmï¿½nivasa, he may be the Sï¿½rasena ruler named Lakshmaï¿½a.2
HATHUÏ¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½ : Hathuï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ is about five kms. south-east of Bijapura, and its old name was Hastikuï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. In the tenth century, it was a capital of the Rï¿½strakï¿½tas who were the followers of Jainism. Vidagdha, at the preaching of Vï¿½sudevï¿½chï¿½rya, built a temple of ï¿½ishabhadeva at Hathuï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, and also made a grant in favour of his teacher Balaprasï¿½da and the temple. His son Mammaï¿½a renewed this grant. Dhavala, son of Mammaï¿½a, renovated the Jaina temple built by his grand-father. After the rule of the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½as, Hathuï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ probably suffered from the Muslim attack, which is responsible for the change of Mï¿½lanï¿½yakafrom ï¿½ishabhadeva to Mahï¿½vï¿½ra in the temple of this place. Gradually, it became a famous holy place by the name of Rï¿½ï¿½aMahï¿½vï¿½ra. Pilgrims from different places came to visit it. ï¿½ilavijayasï¿½ri and Jinatilakasï¿½ri describe their holy place in their Tï¿½rthamï¿½lï¿½s. The Hastikuï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ya gachchha was started by Vï¿½sudevï¿½chï¿½rya in the tenth century A.D. after the name of this place.1
VARMAN : At a distance of forty-five kms. from ï¿½bï¿½ station, there stands a village of Varmï¿½ï¿½. Its old name was Brahmï¿½ï¿½a. Varmï¿½ï¿½ remained a stronghold of Jainism. Siddhasenasï¿½ri refers to this place in the Sakaltï¿½rtha Stotra, Brï¿½hmaï¿½aka Gachchhaamong the Jainas originated from the place Varmï¿½n, whose ancient name was Brï¿½hmaï¿½a-Mahï¿½sthï¿½na. The Mahï¿½vï¿½ra Jaina temple of this gachchha was built in 1185 A.D. or even before by the ï¿½rï¿½vakas of this place2.
NÏ¿½Ï¿½OL : Nï¿½ï¿½ol, now a village, is situated at a distance about thirteen kms. from Jawï¿½lia Station. It was the capital of the Chauhï¿½nas. Jainism made a striking progress here under the patronage of the Chauhï¿½na rulers. This town became one of the celebrated Paï¿½chatï¿½rthas of the Jainas of Mï¿½rwï¿½r. The Jaina temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra was very famous. The king Aï¿½varï¿½ja, who was a feudatory of Kumï¿½rapï¿½la, gave commands for the strict observance of Ahiï¿½sï¿½ on certain days. In 1171 A.D., ï¿½lhaï¿½adeva also forbade the slaughter of animals on certain days, ï¿½lhaï¿½adeva and his son Kï¿½rtipï¿½la made gifts to the temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra.1
KORÏ¿½Ï¿½ : The old name of Korï¿½ï¿½, situated twenty-six kms. to the south-west of Saï¿½ï¿½era, is Koraï¿½ï¿½aka. Korï¿½ï¿½ was a famous place of pilgrimage of the Jainas. In the tenth century A.D., Dhanapï¿½la, in his poem Satyapuramahï¿½vï¿½rautsï¿½ha refers to the temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra of Koranta. This place is also mentioned in the Sakalatï¿½rtha Stotra of Siddhasena Sï¿½ri. According to the Prabhï¿½vaka Charitra, Koraï¿½ï¿½apura was a prosperous town inhabited by rich people who were devoted to their religion. This town remained a place of pilgrimage in medieval times also. Megha, ï¿½ï¿½lavijaya and Jï¿½ï¿½vimalasï¿½ri describe this place in their Tï¿½rthamï¿½lï¿½s. The people of this place led Saï¿½ghas to holy places. Koraï¿½ï¿½a gachchha originated from this place.2
SAÏ¿½Ï¿½ERÏ¿½ : Saï¿½ï¿½erï¿½ is about sixteen kms. north-west of Bï¿½li in Jodhpur Division. It seems to have been founded by Yaï¿½obhadrasï¿½ri in the tenth century A.D. Saï¿½ï¿½erï¿½ remained a great centre of Jainism in the past. Siddhasena. Sï¿½ri mentions this place in the list of holy places in his Sakalatï¿½rtha Stotra. Saï¿½ï¿½eraka gachchha founded by Yaï¿½obhadrasï¿½ri, originated from this place in the tenth century A.D. Its early name was Vï¿½labha gachchha. Its early influential ï¿½chï¿½ryas Yaï¿½obhadrasï¿½ri ï¿½ï¿½lisï¿½ri and Sumatisï¿½ri rendered valuable services to Jainism. There were two Jaina temples of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra and Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha of Saï¿½ï¿½eraka gachchha. The chauhï¿½na rulers of Nï¿½ï¿½ol patronized the activities of Jainism, at Saï¿½ï¿½erï¿½.1
NÏ¿½Ï¿½LÏ¿½Ï¿½ : Nï¿½ï¿½iï¿½ï¿½ is a small village six kms. north-west of Desï¿½rï¿½ in Jodhpur Division, Jainism flourished greatly at this place under the patronage of the Chauhï¿½na rulers. There were two old temples of Neminï¿½tha and Mahï¿½vï¿½ra here. Kings, feudatories and their subjects made donations to these temples. These temples were destroyed by the Muslims, and therefore rebuilt by the Saï¿½ghas of the various places. Nï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ï¿½ also remained a holy place even in medieval times. The founder of Kaï¿½uï¿½ sect, named Kaï¿½uï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ha, was born here in 1440 A.D. ï¿½ï¿½ntikuï¿½ala mentions the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha in his Gauï¿½ï¿½ Pï¿½rï¿½vatï¿½rthamï¿½lï¿½ written in 1610 A.D. Samayasundara, a poet of the Seventeenth century A.D., has given a lively and beautiful description of Nï¿½ï¿½ulï¿½ï¿½, and its Neminï¿½tha temple in his poem. ï¿½ï¿½tavijaya also refers to it in his Tï¿½rthamï¿½lï¿½.2
PÏ¿½LI : Pï¿½li is situated seventy-two kms. south-east of Jodhpur. It remained a place of pilgrimage of the Jainas. Siddhasenasï¿½ri offers high respect to this place in his Sakalatï¿½rtha Stotra. This place was well known by the name Pï¿½rï¿½abhadra Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. Madanakï¿½rti mentions Palli Jineï¿½vara along with other holy places in the ï¿½asanachatuï¿½triï¿½ï¿½atikï¿½, written in the thirteenth century A.D. Viï¿½vanï¿½tha, pupil of some old Bhattï¿½raka, records Pï¿½liï¿½ï¿½ntijina in the list of holy places. This definitely proves that there was a Jaina temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha of the Digambara Jainas in early times. Pï¿½li was visited by the Jaina saints from ime to time. Some monks devoted themselves to learning, and writing literary works. Copies of the manuscripts were prespared. Pallivï¿½la gachchhaamong the Jainas was named after Pï¿½li in 1093 A.D. Kumarapï¿½la’s ordinanace of forbidding the slaughter of animals on certain days was strictly enforced at this place. The caste of Pallivï¿½las among the Jainas was named after Pï¿½li in about the eight century A.D.1
KHEDA : Kheï¿½a, the old capital of the Rï¿½ï¿½hors of Marwar, is situated at a distance of eight kms. from Nagara. Kheï¿½a was a great centre of Jainism. Siddhasenasï¿½ri refers to it as a holy place. It was frequently visited by Jinapati Sï¿½ri, and other saints. Different functions were organized by people in honour of Jaina saints. There was the existence of Jaina temple of ï¿½ishabha in the twelfth century A.D. Uddharaï¿½a constructed a beautiful temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha at this place, whose consecration ceremony was performed by Jinapatisï¿½ri in 1201 A.D. The Chauhï¿½na ruler Pï¿½ithvï¿½rï¿½ja of Ajmer paid visit to Kheï¿½a in order to see Uddharaï¿½a. Lakshmï¿½gaï¿½i, a poet of the fourteenth century, describes it in his ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha Devarï¿½sa. From the old remains, it is known that there was also Jaina temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra at Kheï¿½a in early times.1
AJMER : Ajmer former called as Ajayameru was founded by the Chuahana ruler Ajaipï¿½la in about 1123 A.D. It was frequently visited by Jaina saints for the propagation of Jainism. During the reign of Arhorï¿½ja, Jinadatta Sï¿½ri came to this place to perform the installation ceremony of the Jaina temple built by ï¿½hakura ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½datta. He died here, and was cremated at a place, which came to be known as Dï¿½dï¿½bï¿½rï¿½. His disciple Jinapatisï¿½ri spent the rainy season in 1178 A.D. The Saï¿½gha of Ajmer participated in a pilgrimage to holy place organized by Abayakumara with Jinapati Sï¿½ri. In the thirteenth century A.D., it was a seat of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of the Mulasaï¿½gha. There are strong traditions among the Jainas that presently known as Aï¿½hï¿½ï¿½-din-kï¿½-Jhoï¿½para was a Jaina temple. Jaina Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas and their disciples rendered a valuable sevice to Jaina literature in medieval time. Several copies of the manuscripts were prepared.2 Soï¿½s temple is renowned for golden painting wood carvings and Samavasarana (replica of the discouse assembly of Tirthankar).
NARAIÏ¿½Ï¿½ : Naraiï¿½ï¿½ is a small station on the metre-gauge line of the Western Railway between Phulera and Ajmer. Its ancient name was Nï¿½rï¿½yaï¿½a. During the reign of the Chauhï¿½nas, it became a great centre of Jainism. Siddhasenasï¿½ri in his Sakalatï¿½rthastotra mentions it as a holy place of the Jainas. Jaina saints used to reside here. The Bijauliï¿½ rock inscription dated 1169 A.D. tells that Pï¿½ï¿½yarï¿½sï¿½, one of the ancestors of Lolï¿½ka of the Prï¿½gvï¿½ï¿½a caste, built the temple of Vardhamï¿½na. Dhanapï¿½la, an author of the eleventh century A.D, refers to the famous temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra of this place in his poem ‘Satyapurï¿½ya Mahï¿½vï¿½ra Utsaha. From the archaeological remains of images, pillars, doorways and other remains discovered from the underground, it appears that they belonged to the temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. It was excellent in construction from the architectural point of viw. It was probably destroyed by the Muslim invasions in the twelfth century A.D.1
NARHAÏ¿½ : Narhaï¿½ is situated at a distance of eight kms. from Pilani in Jhunjhunu District. Its ancient name was Narabhaï¿½a. It remained a place of pilgrimage in early medieval period. The Saï¿½gha, which started on pilgrimage to Hastinï¿½pura in 1318 A.D. along with Jinachandrasï¿½ri, stayed at this place to worship Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha and they were all cordially welcomed. The ï¿½rï¿½vakas of this place also joined this Saï¿½gha for pilgrimage to Hastinï¿½pura. In 1319 A.D., on his way to Mertï¿½ from Delhi, Jinachandrasï¿½ri stayed at Narhaï¿½. In 1323 A.D., when Jinakuï¿½alasï¿½ri started on a pilgrimage to holy places such as Ujjayanta, he dropped at Narhad to worship the image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha installed by Jinadattasï¿½ri in the twelfth century A.D. Vinayaprabhasï¿½ri, an author of the fourteenth century A.D., in his Tï¿½rthayï¿½trï¿½stavana mentions this holy place, and refers to the image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha.2
BAGHERÏ¿½ : Bagherï¿½ is situated about seventy-four kms. south-east of Ajmer. It was a stronghold of Jainism. Frm the Bijauliï¿½ Rock inscription dated 1169 A.D., it is known that Vaiï¿½ravaï¿½a, the ancestor of Lolï¿½ka, built many a temple at Bagherï¿½ and other places. This place was a seat of the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha in the twelfth century A.D. They placed several Jaina images in the temples of this place. The images of Jaina goddesses found here are notworthy from the artistic point of view. The importance of Bagherï¿½ is further clear from the fact that the Bagheravï¿½lï¿½ caste among the Jainas originagted from this place in the eighth century A.D.1
HARASAUR : Harasaur is situated between Pushkar and Degï¿½nï¿½ in the District of Nagaur, and its early name seems to be Harshapura Jainism prospered here under the Chauhï¿½na rulers. Siddhasenasï¿½ri mentions this town in his Sakaltï¿½rtha Stotra. Harshapura gachchha a branch of ï¿½rï¿½ Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha Kula, originated probably from this place. Some Jaina ï¿½chï¿½ryas of this gachchha were very powerful, and they had a great influence over their contemporary rulers. The name of this Gachchha is mentioned in the inscription of 1496 A.D. found at Nagaur. A Jaina stone image with the inscription of 996 A.D. has been also discovered. One of the Mahï¿½jana castes named Harasaurï¿½ originated from this place.2
MÏ¿½ROTH : At a distance of eleven kms. from Cuchï¿½man Road Station in Nagaur District stands the town of Mï¿½roï¿½h. It remained a stronghold of Jainism from early times. Many Jaina images of the eleventh and twelfth centuries have been found here. From some of their inscriptions, it seems that their consecration was performed by Sakalakï¿½rti of the Mï¿½thura Saï¿½gha in 1165 A.D. (V.S. 1232). The temples of the early period could not survive by now, however there are four Jaina temples of the medieval period. Beï¿½irï¿½ma Ajmerï¿½ performed an installation ceremony of the temple of ï¿½dinï¿½tha Chaityï¿½laya in 1328 A.D. Chandraprabhu Chaityï¿½laya was built by Jï¿½vanadï¿½sa Pï¿½ï¿½odï¿½ in 1425 A.D. Rï¿½masiï¿½ha, the chief minister of Bairï¿½sï¿½la, performed an inauguration ceremony of the temple and images with great rejoicings in 1737 A.D. through Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Anantakï¿½rti of Ajmer.1
CHANDÏ¿½VATÏ¿½ : Chandrï¿½vatï¿½, situated near ï¿½bï¿½, was the capital of the Paramï¿½ras. As it remained a place of pilgrirmage, it was visited by Jaina saints, scholas and laymen from time to time. Sidhasenasï¿½ri refers to this place in the Sakala Tï¿½rtha Stotra. Jinaprabhasï¿½ri, author of the Vividha Tï¿½rtha kalpa, Written in 1389 A.D., describes the city as full of wealth, and he also mentions the temple of Chandraprabhu. Megha in his Tï¿½rthamï¿½lï¿½ (written in about 1443 A.D.) describes its prosperity and compares it to Lï¿½ï¿½kï¿½. According to him, there were about 1800 Jaina temples and the most prominent among them was the temple of ï¿½ishabha. From the Upadeï¿½a Saptati of Somadharma written in 1446 A.D., it is known that there were 444 Jaina temples, ï¿½ï¿½lavijaya in his Tï¿½rthamï¿½lï¿½ of 1689 A.D. writes that there were about 1800 beautiful Jaina temples at the time of Vimala. All these statements show that there was a large number of Jaina temples in the past. The predecessor of Padmadevasï¿½ri, who lived in 1235 A.D., built the Jaina temple of Chandraprabhu. When Peï¿½haï¿½akumï¿½ra and Saï¿½garï¿½ma, ministers of the Sultan of Malwa, came for a pilgrimage to this place, they constructed the Jaina temples.1
BÏ¿½RMER : Bï¿½rmer is situated at a distance of about two hundred nine kms. south-west of Jodhpur. Jaina saints such as Jineï¿½varasï¿½ri, Jinakuï¿½alasï¿½ri and Jinapadmasï¿½ri visited this place and urged the ï¿½rï¿½vakas to organize religious functions. Vinayaprabhasï¿½ri in his Tï¿½rthamï¿½lï¿½ mentions the temples of ï¿½ishabha and ï¿½ï¿½nti. There was also the temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. The ï¿½rï¿½vakas from various places such as Jaisalmer, Lï¿½ï¿½ahï¿½ida and Pï¿½lanpur came to participate in them.2
BARODÏ¿½ : Barodï¿½, the old capital of Vï¿½gaï¿½a, is situated at a distance of forty-five kms. from Dungarpur. Its early name was Vaï¿½apadraka. It was also a centre of Jainism in early times. Vinayaprabhasï¿½ri, an author of the fourteenth century, refers to temple of this place in his Tï¿½rthayï¿½trï¿½ Stavana. There are several remains of the old Jaina temples. One of them is the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. Jinachandrasï¿½ri of the Kharatara gachchha performed the installation ceremony here. Various copies of the Jaina manuscripts were writtin here in medieval times.3
Ï¿½Ï¿½NGARPUR : ï¿½ungarpur is located at a distance of about one hundred five kms. south of Udaipur. It was the capital of the same name. From the Pravï¿½sajï¿½tikï¿½traya of Jayï¿½nanda written in 1370 A.D., it is known that there were five Jaina temples and about nine hundred Jaina families living at that time. The Jainas were given high posts of Ministers of the State. They constructed temples and celebrated the consecration of the images with pomp and show. Dï¿½ï¿½garpur was visited by the Jaina saints from time to time, and manuscripts were presented to them as a mark of honour. In 1404 A.D., Prahlï¿½da, the Minister of Rï¿½vala Pratï¿½pa Siï¿½ha, constructed a Jaina temple. It is clear from the Guruguï¿½aratnakara Kï¿½vya that Sï¿½lha, who was the chief Minister of Somadï¿½sa, renovated the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. The Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha and the Kï¿½sï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha had a great stronghold at ï¿½ï¿½ngarpur.1
TAHANGARH : Tahangrah is twenty-three kms. to the south of Bayï¿½nï¿½. Its old name was Tribhuvanagiri. During the reign of the Yï¿½davas, Jainism remained specially associated with Tahangarh. Pradyumnasï¿½ri defeated his opponents in the coutrs of the rulers of Sapï¿½dalaksha and Tribhuvanagiri. Kardamabhï¿½pati, the ruler of this place, is said to have been initiated to monkhood by Abhayadevasï¿½ri. Jinadattasuri and his disciples visited this place. From the Upakeï¿½a gachchha Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½vali, it is known that there was an old temple of this gachchha. From a Praï¿½asti of the Jinadattachariu written in 1218 A.D., it is known that Lakshmaï¿½a fled to Vilï¿½sapura from Tribhuvanagiri in panic on accoutn of the Muslim persecutions.1
JAISALMER : Jaisalmer was the capital of the Bhï¿½ï¿½ï¿½s, and it was founded after 1163 A.D., They were great patrons of Jainism which made a striking progress during their reign. The great Jaina temples of Chintamaï¿½i Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha, ï¿½ishabhadeva, ï¿½aï¿½tinï¿½tha. Sambhavanï¿½tha and Mahï¿½vï¿½ra in the fort of Jaisalmer constructed one after another in period between the twelfth and the fifteenth centuries were excellent. Scholars here pursued their literary activities. It is said that hinabhadrasï¿½ri, who live in the fifteenth century A.D, spent the best part of his life in establishing the store- house of knowledge at this place. Various copies of the manuscripts brought from other places for presentation were prepared. The installation ceremony of the images was performed.2
ALWAR : There is a definite evidence of the association of Jainism with Alwar from the fifteenth century A.D. In the Tï¿½rthamï¿½lï¿½s, Alwar, a place of pilgrimage, was known as Rï¿½vaï¿½a Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. Jaina literature was written in Alwar. There is mention of its name in the inscription. In 1531 A.D, a ï¿½rï¿½vaka of Alwar installed the image of Sumatinï¿½tha through Siddhasï¿½ri. An inscription of 1589 A.D. records the building of a temple of Rï¿½vaï¿½a Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha at Alwar. It is a place of pilgrimage known as ï¿½ï¿½vaï¿½a Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha Tï¿½rtha. It means that Rï¿½vaï¿½a worshipped the image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha at this place. It is legendary, but it points out the importance of Alwar as a centre of Jainism.1
Ï¿½MBER : ï¿½mber is situated at a distance of ten kms. from Jaipur. Jainism flourished exceedingly during the reign of the Kachchhavï¿½ha rulers who were on friendly terms with the Mughal Emperors of Delhi. A large number of Jaina temples were constructed, and images placed in them. Various copies of manuscripts were written for presentation to Jaina monks by the ï¿½rï¿½vakas, Encouraged by their preachings, they also led Saï¿½ghas to holy places from this place. Even the Jaina pontiffs of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha transferred their seat from Chï¿½tsu to ï¿½mber in the eighteenth century A.D. The ï¿½ï¿½strabhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ra was established by Mahendrakï¿½rti at this place, and it became famous by the name of Mahendrakï¿½rti Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ra.2
BIJAULIA : Bijaulia became a holy site of the Jainas after the manifestation of an image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha in the twelfth century A.D. In accordance with the instructions or his preceptor Jinachandrasuri, Lolï¿½ka, a Poravï¿½la Mahï¿½jana, constructed or repaired the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha, and surrounded it with seven smaller temples. The Chauhï¿½na ruler Pï¿½ithvï¿½rï¿½ja II, who lived in 1168 A.D., gave the village Morï¿½jharï¿½, and Someï¿½vara endowed the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha with a village named Revï¿½nï¿½ in charity. The Bijauliï¿½ inscription records various donations made to the temple by certain persons of the neighbouring places. A mythological treatise called the Uttama ï¿½ikhara Purï¿½ï¿½a was composed and engraved on a large rock nearby. Being a holy place of the Jainas, this place was visited by the Jaina saints from time to time. In early times, It was a seat of the Jaina ï¿½chï¿½ryas of the Mï¿½thura Saï¿½gha. The author of the Bijauliï¿½ inscription dated 1170 A.D. was Guï¿½abhadra, a Mahï¿½muni, who belonged to the Mï¿½thura Saï¿½gha. Afterwards, it became centre of the activities of the Mulasaï¿½gha. There are two inscriptions of 1408 and 1426 A.D. when the Jaina pontiff Subhachandra was living. On one side of the pillar is engraved the name of Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka, ï¿½rï¿½ Padmanandi and on the other Bhattï¿½rakaï¿½ï¿½bhachandra.1 It is said that the Upasarga on Parvanatha took place in here.
KEÏ¿½ORÏ¿½YA PAÏ¿½Ï¿½ANA : Keï¿½orï¿½yapaï¿½ï¿½ana, located at a distance of fifteen kms. in the north-east of Kotah was a Jaina holy place. It was famous for the temple of Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Muni Suvrata. In this temple, Nemichandra wrote the Bï¿½ihad-dravya-Saï¿½graha. Madanakï¿½rti mentions it as a place of pilgrimage in the ï¿½ï¿½sana-chatustriï¿½ï¿½atikï¿½. In the Prï¿½kï¿½ita Nirvï¿½ï¿½akï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a and the Apabhraï¿½ï¿½a Nirvï¿½ï¿½abhakti also, there is a reference to this temple of Munis Suvrata. Now, it is known as Bhuvidevara for its being on underground temple. One Kalpavï¿½iksha Paï¿½ï¿½a of Jaina mythology and othe Jaina sculptures were discovered at this place, and they may probably have belonged to this Jaina temple.2
NAÏ¿½Ï¿½ : Naï¿½ï¿½ is at a distance of three kms. from the Railway-Station of the same name on the Ahmedabad-Ajmer line. Nï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ was specially associated with Jainism as the Tï¿½rtha of Jï¿½vitasvï¿½mï¿½. It means that once the life size image of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra was worshipped there. It is legendary, but in the tenth century A.D., there was a temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. A small fragmentary inscription on the door of the shrine dated 960 A.D. definitely proves the existence of Jainism at this time. Nï¿½ï¿½ï¿½vï¿½la or Jï¿½anakï¿½ya gachchha was founded by Prabhï¿½nanda at Nï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. The earliest mention of this Gachchha is found in the inscription of 1045 A.D.1
MÏ¿½Ï¿½GATHALÏ¿½ : Mï¿½ï¿½gathalï¿½, near Mount ï¿½bï¿½, is an old village in Sirohi state. It remained famous as aMahï¿½tï¿½rtha of the Jainas. Jinaprabhasï¿½ri, in the Vividha Tï¿½rtha Kalpa written in 1332 A.D., refers to the temple of Mahï¿½vira of this place. This place was believed to be visited by Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. An inscription of 1369 A.D. tells that an image was consecrated by Keï¿½ï¿½ Ganadhara during the 37th year of the life of ï¿½rï¿½ Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. It is further confirmed by the literary source of the Ashtottarï¿½ Tï¿½rthamï¿½lï¿½. This temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra has been described in the Jaina Tï¿½rthamï¿½lï¿½s as the temple of the Jï¿½vitasvï¿½mï¿½. The temple of Jï¿½vitasvï¿½mï¿½ means to be a temple of the life-time of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. This temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra was renovated from time to time, and the images were installed. A large number of ï¿½rï¿½vakas lived at this place, and they participated in the festivals in connection with the temples held from time to time.2
TALAWÏ¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½ : The old name of Talawï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, situated at a distance of thirteen kms. from Banswara, was Talapï¿½ï¿½aka. It remained a holy place of the Jainas. From the Upadeï¿½akandalï¿½vï¿½itti of Bï¿½lachandra Sï¿½ri, it is known that Pradyumnasï¿½ri, who lived in the tenth century A.D., visited this place and addressed its ruler. Siddhasenasï¿½ri refers to this place in his Sakala-Tï¿½rtha-Stotra. Vinayaprabhasï¿½ri, author of the fourteenth century A.D. in his Tirthayï¿½trï¿½ Stavana, mentions this place and temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha. By the inspiration of Jinabhadrasï¿½ri, the Jaina temple was constructed at this place and images were placed therein. At present, there is a big Jaina temples of Sambhavanï¿½tha, with some images of the eleventh and twelfth centuries.1
MAÏ¿½Ï¿½RA : Maï¿½ï¿½ra is situated at a distance of thirty-two kms. from ï¿½bï¿½. This is famous as a holy place of the Jainas. The famous saint Vï¿½didevasï¿½ri was born at this place in 1086 A.D. Maï¿½ï¿½haï¿½ï¿½ya gachchha originated from village Maï¿½ï¿½ra. Megha, in his Tï¿½rthamï¿½lï¿½ written in about 1442 A.D., refers to the temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra of this place. ï¿½ilavijaya in his Tï¿½rthamï¿½lï¿½ written in 1691 A.D. describes this pace.2
PHALODHI : Phalodhi is at a distance of two kms. from Mertï¿½ Road Station. It became of famous Tï¿½rtha of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha from the twelfth century A.D. It was founded by Dharmaghoshasï¿½ri. It remained closely associated with the Kharatara gachchha of the Jainas. In 1182 A.D, Jinapatisï¿½ri visited this place. Jinaprabhasï¿½ri describes it in his Vividha Tï¿½rtha Kalpa, and Vinaya Upï¿½dhyï¿½ya gives a description of the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. Being a holy place of Jainas, Phalodhi was visited by the Jaina saints and scholars in medieval times.1
JÏ¿½RÏ¿½VALÏ¿½ : Jiravalï¿½, a famous holy place of the Jainas, is situated at a distance of thirty-two kms. from Delwï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. It is known by the name of Jï¿½ravalï¿½ Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. This Tï¿½rtha came into existence in the twelfth century A.D. It got popularity in the fifteenth century, and people from different places began to visit it. The Jaina saints composed the Stotras in honour of the deity. Saï¿½ghavï¿½ Pethaï¿½a and Jhï¿½ï¿½jhaï¿½a of Mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½avagaï¿½ha in Malwa visited this place for pilgrimage. They also constructed a Jaina temple. The ï¿½rï¿½vakas of different places such as Kï¿½lavgrï¿½, Kodinï¿½ra, Vï¿½gharï¿½, Vï¿½salanagara, Pï¿½tana and Stambhatï¿½rtha visited Jï¿½ravalï¿½ in the fifteenth century. Jï¿½rï¿½palli gachchha originated form this place. Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Padmanandi pupil of Prabhï¿½chandra, wrote the Jï¿½rï¿½vallï¿½ Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½ha Stotra in the fifteenth century A.D.2
NAGARA : Nagara is at a distance of five kms. south-west of Jasol in Mï¿½llï¿½nï¿½ District. Its old name was Mahevï¿½ of Vï¿½ramapura. When the image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha was installed in the Jaina temple of this place, the place became famous by the Tï¿½rthaof Nï¿½koï¿½ï¿½ Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. Even before the temple of Pï¿½rsvanï¿½tha, Nagara was considered a holy place of the Jainas. There were temples of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra and ï¿½antinï¿½tha. This holy place was visited by Jaina saints from early times. The Kï¿½rtiratnasï¿½riVivï¿½hala and the Kirtiratnasï¿½ri-Chaupï¿½ï¿½ of Kalyï¿½ï¿½avijaya give information of the town regarding temples, people and other religious activities. The renovation of the Nï¿½koï¿½ï¿½ Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha took place in 1507 A.D. ï¿½ï¿½ntikuï¿½ala mentions it in his Gauï¿½ï¿½ Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha-Tirthamï¿½lï¿½ written in 1612 A.D.1
Ï¿½BÏ¿½ : ï¿½bï¿½ is a celebrated mountain in the south of Sirohi District. A town after the name of the mountain gradually developed at this place. On the basis of the old traditions, It has been described as a place of pilgrimage. From an inscription of 1369 A.D., it is known that Mahï¿½vï¿½ra visited Arbï¿½dabhï¿½mi. It is famous for two celebrated Jaina temples ï¿½ Vimalavasahï¿½ temple and Lï¿½navasahï¿½ temple. The former dedicated to ï¿½dinï¿½tha was built by a Minister named Vimala in 1032 A.D., and latter temple Luï¿½avasahï¿½ dedicated to Neminï¿½tha was built by Tejapï¿½la in 1230 A.D. Both the temples are important from artistic point of view. These are built in white marble and are very widely known for dedicacy of carving, beauty of details and magnificent ornamentaion. Both these temples were repaired and renovated from time to time. The temple of Vimalavasahï¿½ was renovated by the descendants of two brothers Gosala and Bhï¿½ma of Maï¿½ï¿½or. As ï¿½bï¿½ became the holy place of Jainas, several Stavanas, Stotras, Chaityaparipï¿½ï¿½ï¿½s, Tï¿½rthamï¿½las etc. were written about ï¿½bï¿½ by Jaina scholars from the fourteenth century onwards.1
SÏ¿½Ï¿½GÏ¿½NER : At a distance of thirteen kms. to the South of Jaipur stands the town of Sï¿½ï¿½gï¿½ner. This town is specially famous for the Jaina temple called Siï¿½ghï¿½jï¿½ kï¿½ Mandira which is a wonderful specimen of Jaina architecture. This temple seems to have belonged to the tenth century A.D., because there is an inscription of 954 A.D. on a Bandarawï¿½la of the main shrine. During the medieval period, it became a great literary centre. It was visited by Jaina monks from time to time, and therefore manuscript copies were prepared to present them.2 In the Bosenh five storeys of this Sanghiji temple having there are numerous idols of precious stones.
DHULEVA : Dhuleva is situated in Udaipur District. The famous Rishabhadeva temple of this place is popularly known as the Keï¿½ariyï¿½jï¿½ temple because people worship the main deity with Keï¿½ara (Saffron). It seems that the image of ï¿½ishabhadeva and the original temple belonged to the eighth century A.D. The earliest known epigraph from this place is dated 1373 A.D. This temple was renovated, Bï¿½vaï¿½a Jinï¿½laya, Sabhï¿½mï¿½ï¿½apa etc. were constructed, and images were installed at the preaching of the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of the Kashï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha and the Mï¿½lasamgha by the ï¿½rï¿½vakas of the Hï¿½maï¿½a, Narasiï¿½hapura, Bagheravï¿½la, Khaï¿½ï¿½elavï¿½la castes etc. from time to time, It is a famous Atiï¿½aya Kshetra.3
GHOÏ¿½Ï¿½RSÏ¿½ : Ghoï¿½ï¿½rsï¿½ is situated near Pratapgarh. The existence of a Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha temple at this place, is provec by a fragmentary tenth century epigraph, discovered from the ruins of this place.1
GIRANARA : Giranï¿½ra is a group of hills situated in Kathiawar. On the peaks of hills, several beautiful Jaina temples have been erected. Here, the twenty-second Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara, Neminï¿½tha, practised sacrifices, preached religion and attained Moksha. Pradyumnakumï¿½ra, Gajakumï¿½ra, Gaï¿½adhara Varadatta and imnumerable ascetics attained liberation on this place. The antiquity of the place is traced to the time of Rishabhadeva, the first Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara, and it was the scene of various important events in the history of Jaina community.2 It is connected in the Jaina literature with the activities of the Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Neminï¿½tha. The Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa gives vital information about this Tï¿½rtha.
Ï¿½ATRUÏ¿½JAYA HILLS : ï¿½atruï¿½jaya or Siddhagiri is a celebrated place of pilgrimage at Pï¿½litï¿½nï¿½. From here, three Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½upatras and several ascetics attained Moksha. As there are three thousand five hundred Jaina temples, it is known to be the city of temples. Jinaprabhu gives an interesting information of this Tï¿½rtha. In V.S. 1369, the original image of the Mï¿½lanï¿½yaka ï¿½ishabha was destroyed by the Muslims and it was restored by Samara Shï¿½h in V.S. 1371, In V.S. 1686, Ratnasï¿½, Saï¿½ghapatï¿½ of Ahmedabad, installed the image of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha when Shahjahan was ruling.3
AJÏ¿½HARÏ¿½ : Ajï¿½harï¿½ is situated in Junagarh District. The earliest epigraph, from this place is dated in V.S. 1042. This Particular Tï¿½rtha is associated with Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha in Jinaprabha’s celebrated work. Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Sumatisï¿½gara, BhattarakaJï¿½ï¿½nasï¿½gara and Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Jayasï¿½gara mention this Tï¿½rtha.1
AÏ¿½KALEÏ¿½VARA : Aï¿½kaleï¿½vara is situated in Broach District. It is mentioned in the Dhavalï¿½ and other works in connection with ï¿½chï¿½rya Pushpadanta and Bhï¿½tabali. It had a Jaina shrine called Chintï¿½maï¿½i Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha in the sixteenth century. Upï¿½dhyï¿½ya Dharmakï¿½rti wrote the Yaï¿½odhara Charita in V.S. 1657 in the temple of Chintï¿½maï¿½i Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. This Tï¿½rtha remained under the influence of the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of the Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha and the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha. It is famous asAtiï¿½aya Kshetra.2
Ï¿½RÏ¿½SÏ¿½Ï¿½A : ï¿½rï¿½sï¿½ï¿½a was a famous ï¿½vetï¿½mbara centre of pilgrimage and it is at present known as Kumbhï¿½riyï¿½. The Kharatara gachchha Bï¿½ihad Gurvï¿½vali calls it a Mahï¿½tï¿½rtha. The earliest temple of this place was dedicated to Neminï¿½tha. There were also temples of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, Pï¿½rï¿½va, ï¿½ï¿½nti etc. The temples of this place have yielded a number of important epigraphs of the medieval period.3
Ï¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½PALÏ¿½ : ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½palï¿½ is still known as Ashawul and it is almost the site of the present Ahmedabad. It came into the limelight in the days of the Chaulukya Karï¿½a (1066-1092), as we learn from Merutuï¿½ga. Several Jaina manuscripts, dating from the twelfth century, to the last quarter of the 13th century, were copied at this place. There is a reference to the ï¿½rï¿½ Vidyï¿½maï¿½ha of this place in a manuscript of Hemachandra’s Vyï¿½karana Laghu Vritti. This place was destoyed by the Muslims.1
BHADREÏ¿½VARA : Bhadreï¿½vara is a well-known ï¿½vetï¿½mbara Tï¿½rtha of Cutch district, and was the birth place of the great Jaina business maganate Jagaï¿½u. The temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha of this place is well known. In the Jagaï¿½u charita, there is a reference to the Vï¿½ranï¿½tha shrine of this place, which was beautified by that merchant. A separate Jaina temple, containing the icons of all the 24 Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas, was also built by Jagaï¿½u. And lastly, a Paushadhasï¿½la was also erected by that merchant in the same place.2
BHÏ¿½MAPALLI : Bhï¿½mapallï¿½ is a village, fifteen kms. south-west of Pï¿½ï¿½an and was a well-known Jaina centre from the last quarter of the twelfth century. The temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra of this place, was celebrated throughout Gujarat and this Tï¿½rtha was closely associated with the activities of the monks of the Kharatara gachchha.3
BHÏ¿½IGUKACHCHHA : The ancient port city of Bhï¿½igukachchha was associated with the Jaina religion, probably form pre-Christian times. A ï¿½vetï¿½mbara monk called Jinadeva defeated the two Buddhist monks in a debate at this place in the second century A.D. In the Niryukti and Bhï¿½shya commentaries, Bhrigukachchha has been recognized as a Tï¿½rtha, and there are early reference to theï¿½akunikï¿½-vihï¿½ra of this place which was dedicated to the Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Munisuvrata. The earliest datable reference to this temple, occurs in the ninth century works of Jayasiï¿½ha, entitled Dharmopadeï¿½amï¿½lï¿½. Jinaprabha, also in his celebrated work, the Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa gives a short history of this Tï¿½rtha. There was another temple here, called the Mï¿½lavasati.1
CHÏ¿½RÏ¿½PA : Chï¿½rï¿½pa is situated in the Pï¿½ï¿½an Taluk of Mahesï¿½na District. From the Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa, it is famous for the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. The temples dedicated ot ï¿½dinï¿½tha, ï¿½ï¿½nti and others were built afterwards. However, at present, no other temple, except that of Pï¿½rï¿½va, exists in this place. Sumatisï¿½gara writing in the sixteenth century mentions this particular Tï¿½rtha in the Tï¿½rtha Vandanï¿½ Saï¿½graha.2
DARBHAVATÏ¿½ : Darbhavatï¿½ is situated in Baroda District. It is well known for the two temples, dedicated to Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. It is recognized as a Tï¿½rtha in a manuscript of Hemachandra’s Yogaï¿½astravï¿½itti written in V.S. 1251. In an earlier Jaina manuscript, dated V.S. 1211, this place has been mentioned. It has also been mentioned in several other later manuscripts. Jï¿½anasï¿½gara and Jayasï¿½gara have mentioned the pï¿½rï¿½va Temple ï¿½ complex of this place, called by the name ‘Loï¿½ana-Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha‘ in the Tï¿½rthavandanï¿½saï¿½graha. There are also epigraphic references to it.3
DEVAPATTANA : Devapattana is situated in the Junagarh District. It is also known as Prabhï¿½sa Paï¿½ana. According to Jinaprabha, the Chandraprabha temple was founded here after the destruction of Valabhï¿½ in V.S. 845. Merutuï¿½ga has also mentioned this Tï¿½rtha in his Prabandha Chintï¿½maï¿½i. Hemachandra and Kumï¿½rapï¿½la showed their respect for this great Tï¿½rtha. Jinaprabha has also referred to the Pï¿½rï¿½va temple of this place.1
DHAVALAKKAPURA : The present name of the ancient town Dhavalakapura is Dholkï¿½, situated is Ahmedabad District. It has still a few Jaina temples, including the great Kalikuï¿½ï¿½a Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha-shrine. The Purï¿½tana Prabhanda Saï¿½graha mentions the Simandhara Svï¿½min temple of this town, built by the merchant called ï¿½dï¿½. It was popularly known as ï¿½dï¿½vasati and it was consecrated by Devï¿½chï¿½rya in the first quarter of the twelfth century. This work also refers to the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½va of this town and associates him with the celebrated saint Abhayadeva, the author of the Aï¿½ga commentaries. This town was closely associated with the religous activities of the two great Jaina Ministers, namely Vastupï¿½la and Tej Ahpï¿½la. In V.S. 1372, the Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ari-ka-charita of Kamalaprabhasï¿½ri was written at this town.2
GANDHÏ¿½RA TÏ¿½RTHA : Gandhï¿½ra Tï¿½rtha, on the sea-coast in Broach District, came into limelight only during the days of the great Hï¿½ravijaya, in the sixteenth century. It has the temples of both Pï¿½rï¿½va and Mahï¿½vï¿½ra and also an interesting image of Hï¿½ravijaya himself. The icon of Pï¿½rï¿½va was consecrated by Vijayasenasï¿½ri, the most important disciple of Hï¿½ravijaya. The Diagambaras also had a temple, dedicated to ï¿½dinï¿½tha at this place.3
GHOGHÏ¿½ : Ghoghï¿½ is situated in Bhavnagar District, near the sea-shore, It is well known for the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. A copy of the Neminï¿½tha Charita was written in V.S. 1512, at this town. The Jaina images from V.S. 1276 to V.S. 1379 are found in the ï¿½vetï¿½mbara temples while images of V.S. 1511, V.S. 1513, V.S. 1643 and 1679 belong to Digambara Jaina temples. Probably, the Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha temple of this place, is referred to by the term ‘Ghoghamandira‘ in a literary record of V.S. 1575.1
Ï¿½Ï¿½AR : Idar is situated in the present Sï¿½bar Kï¿½ntha District. It was also known as Ilï¿½durga, Ilï¿½padra etc. It was an old Tï¿½rtha, being associated with ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha. Jinapati in his Tï¿½rthamï¿½lï¿½ mentions a temple of ï¿½diï¿½vara which was built by Kumï¿½rapï¿½la in this place. We have also an Idaranï¿½yaka Rishabhadeva Stavana by Munisundara and Iltï¿½durga ï¿½isabha-Jinastotra by Somasundarasï¿½ri. The Digambaras also had a separate potifical seat at this place. The Palya vidhï¿½na kathï¿½ of Digambara Brahma ï¿½rutasï¿½gara was written during the reign of Bhï¿½nu of ï¿½ï¿½ar.2
JAMAÏ¿½APURA : Jamaï¿½apura, situated in Mahesï¿½na District has the temple of Chandraprabha. The Jï¿½maï¿½akï¿½ya gachchhaoriginated at this place and is mentioned in a metal icon of V.S. 1285.3
MAHUVÏ¿½ : Mahuvï¿½ is situated in Bhavnagar District. In the Vividha tï¿½rtha kalpa, it has been mentioned as Madhumatï¿½. It is mentioned in the Tï¿½rthamï¿½lï¿½ of Vinayavijaya composed in the fourteenth century A.D. This place is sacred to Mahï¿½vï¿½ra.4
MAHUVÏ¿½ : There is another place named Mahuvï¿½ in Surat District. It is a famous Atiï¿½aya Kshetra by the name ‘Sri Vignahï¿½ra ï¿½ pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. Its ancient name was Madhukara Nagara or Mandï¿½kanagara. Brahma Jï¿½ï¿½nasï¿½gara described the importance of the Tï¿½rtha in the Sarvaatï¿½rtha vandanï¿½. Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Vï¿½dichandra, disciple of Bhaï¿½ï¿½araka Prabhï¿½chandra of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha Sarasvatï¿½gachchha, composed the Jï¿½ï¿½nasï¿½ryodaya drama in V.S. 1648.1
MODHERA : Modhera situated in Mahesï¿½na District was connected with Jainism from the eighth century. According to thePrabhï¿½vakacharita, Bappabhaï¿½ï¿½i was initiated by Siddhasena, at this place, apparently in the eighth century. The Prabhï¿½vaka Charitaand the Vividha tï¿½rtha kalpa refer to the temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra here. At present, the temple of this place is dedicated to Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. The Moï¿½hera gachchha originated from this place.2
PATTANA : Pattana is situated in Mahesï¿½na District, and its ancient name, was Aï¿½ahilapura. It remained a great centre of Jainism from the eighth century to the late medieval period. According to the Prabhï¿½vaka charita and the Vividhatï¿½rtha kalpa, the great Pï¿½rï¿½va temple of this place was built by the Chï¿½potkaï¿½a king Vanarï¿½ja and it came to be known as the Vanarï¿½ja vihï¿½ra. Afterwards, many other Jaina temples were built, at this town. Jinaprabha mentions the great temple of Arishï¿½anemi of this town and he represents it as the Tï¿½rtha, sacred to that Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara. The Kharatara gachchha Bï¿½ihad gurvï¿½vali repeatedly mentions the ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha of this place, which was apparently in existence before 1300 A.D. A temple of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra was built here during the time of Jinapati of the Kharatara gachchha in 118 A.D. Several Jaina works were written at this place. Great Jaina saints and writers remained associated with this town in one way or other. Even in Muslim period, there were more than hundred Jaina temples at this town.1
PÏ¿½VÏ¿½GAÏ¿½HA : Pï¿½vï¿½gaï¿½ha is situated in the Panch Mahï¿½la District, and its ancient name was Pï¿½vï¿½giri. According to the Prakrit– Nï¿½rvï¿½ï¿½a Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a, the two sons of Rï¿½machandra attained Nirvï¿½na after performing penances. It is a Siddhakshetra or Nirvï¿½ï¿½a kshetra. Besides five Koï¿½i kings of Laï¿½adeï¿½a obtained liberation here. Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakaGuï¿½akï¿½rti, ï¿½rutasï¿½gara, Jï¿½ï¿½nasagara, Chimaï¿½ï¿½ Paï¿½ï¿½ita regarded this place as Siddha kshetra. This Tï¿½rtha was in existence in the fifteenth century and the earliest epigraph from this place is dated in V.S. 1613.2
PRAHLÏ¿½DANAPURA : The modern name of the ancient Tï¿½rtha Prahlï¿½danapura is Palanpur, and it is located in Banï¿½s-Kantha. The Kharatara Gachchha Bï¿½ihad gurvï¿½vali repeatedly refers to this place and mentions several temple including those of Chandraprabha and Yugï¿½dideva. Several temples including those of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, Rishabha, Nemi, Pï¿½rï¿½va and Nandiï¿½vara were built in V.S. 1305 during the time of Kharatara ï¿½chï¿½rya Jineï¿½vara II at this town. At present, the Pï¿½rï¿½va temple of this place is the most important Jaina shrine. The earliest reference ot Prahalï¿½danapura is found in a Jina manuscript dated V.S. 1274.1
Ï¿½ANKHEÏ¿½VARA : Saï¿½kheï¿½vara situated in Mahesï¿½na District was associated with Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha from early times. The Kharatara Gachchha Brihad gurvï¿½vali mentions this temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. The Kharatara gachchha ï¿½chï¿½ryas like Jinachandra III and Jinakuï¿½ala visited this place, When Jinachandra III first came to this place in V.S. 1352, it was known as a great Tï¿½rtha. Jinaprabha in his celebrated work has devoted a Kalpa on it. The Digambara writers like Sumatisï¿½gara and Jï¿½anasagara have mentioned the temple-complex of ï¿½ankheï¿½vara. Sajjana and Vastupï¿½la were also associated with this Tï¿½rtha.2
STAMBHAPURA : The great Tï¿½rtha Stambhapura, now known as Khambhat Cambay, is of the medieval period. The earliest reference to this place is found in the Kavi grant of Rashï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a Govinda III, dated ï¿½aka 749. According to the Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa, this place came to be associated with Jainism from the days of Abhayadeva, the author of the nine Aï¿½gas. That Abhayadeva was the founder of this Tï¿½rtha, sacred to Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha, is also supported by the evidence of the Prabhï¿½vakacharita and also the Prabadha Chintï¿½maï¿½i. A manuscript of the original Bhagavatï¿½, which was copied at Stambhatï¿½rtha between V.S. 1110 and 1119, is probably the earliest Jaina work to refer to this holy place. This shows that even in Abhayadeva’s life time, it was recognised as a Tï¿½rtha. Hundreds of Jaina manuscripts were afterwards copied here and other temples were also built in this place.1
SURAT : Surat is an important station of the Western Railway, and its ancient name was Sï¿½ryapura. The important Jaina temples of this place were of Chandraprabhu, ï¿½dinï¿½tha and Vï¿½supï¿½jya. Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Jï¿½ï¿½nasï¿½gra mentions Chandraprabhu temple as Atiï¿½aya in his Sarvatï¿½rtha vandanï¿½. Adinï¿½tha Jinï¿½laya and Vï¿½supï¿½jya Jinï¿½laya became literary centres. Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Devendrakï¿½rti, disciple of Padmanandi, established the seat of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha at Surat, and he established theRatnï¿½kara caste after converting seven hundred families to Jainism. Devendrakï¿½rti performed the installation of several images in Avanti region. Surat was also a seat of the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of the Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha. A temple of ï¿½ishabha of this place has been mentioned in a literary record of V.S. 1664.2
TÏ¿½RAÏ¿½GÏ¿½ : Tï¿½raï¿½ga, a sacred hill situated in the Mahesana- District, became a holy place of the Jainas. Its ancient name was Tï¿½rï¿½pura. According to the Prï¿½krit Nirvï¿½ï¿½a Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a, Varadatta Varaï¿½ga, Sagaradatta, three and half Koï¿½i Munis etc. attained Nirvï¿½na. Tï¿½raï¿½gï¿½ was mentioned by Guï¿½akï¿½rti in the Tirtha vandanï¿½ written in the fifteenth century A.D. ï¿½rutasï¿½gara, Megharï¿½ja Dilasukha etc. also described this Tï¿½rtha. It became famous as Nirvï¿½ï¿½a Kshetra.3
Taraï¿½gï¿½ became a holy place of the ï¿½vetï¿½mbaras from the days of Kumï¿½rapï¿½la. A magnificent temple of Ajitanï¿½tha, the second Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara, was built by this great king on this hill. Jinaprabha also associates this hill with Ajitanï¿½tha.1
THARÏ¿½DA : Tharï¿½da is situated in the District Banas Kantha, and its ancient name was Thï¿½rï¿½padra. The well known play Mahï¿½rï¿½ja- Parï¿½jaya was first enacted in the Kumï¿½ravihï¿½ra temple, dedicated to Mahï¿½vï¿½ra of this place. Tarï¿½padra gachchha originated from this place. At present, this Tï¿½rhta is sacred to ï¿½diï¿½vara.2
Ï¿½NÏ¿½ : ï¿½nï¿½ siturated in Junagarh District is dedicated to ï¿½dinï¿½tha, It was known as Unnatapura. It is mentioned in the fourteenth century work of Vinayavijaya called Tï¿½rthamï¿½la.3
UPARIYÏ¿½LÏ¿½ : Upadiyï¿½lï¿½ is situated in the Surendranagar District. This place, sacred to ï¿½diï¿½vara, is mentioned in the fifteenth century works of Jayasï¿½gara, called Chaitya–Paripï¿½ï¿½i.4
VALABHÏ¿½ : Valabhï¿½ is situated in Bhavanagar District. Before its destruction in the last quarter of the eighth century by the Muslims, it was a great centre of Jainism and the Jaina canon was first edited here in the fifth century. It became a great centre of ï¿½vetï¿½mbara Jainism by the fifth century A.D. The discovery of the sixth century Jaina icons from the ruins of this place also proves that it was a Jaina centre in the Gupta period. The temples of Chandraprabha and Mahï¿½vï¿½ra existed before the eighth century A.D. This city has also been mentioned in the Bï¿½ihat Kathï¿½ Koï¿½a which was written in 931 A.D.1
VAÏ¿½Ï¿½LÏ¿½ : Vaï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ Tï¿½rtha, sacred to Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha, is situated in the Sabar Kantha District. It was known in ancient times as Vatapalli. The Kharatara-gachchha-gurvavï¿½li mentions the Pï¿½rï¿½va temple of this place. This proves that the Pï¿½rï¿½va temple of this town existed in the middle of the twelfth century.2
SAJODA : Sajoda is situated at a distance of eighth kms. from Ankleshwar in Bharoch District. It is an Atiï¿½aya Kshetra. Here is an old Digambara Jaina temple. The Jaina image of ï¿½ï¿½talanï¿½tha and that of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha have been discovered here. The image of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha is an artistic, and belongs to seventh or eighth century A.D.3
DHÏ¿½RÏ¿½Ï¿½IVA : The great Dharï¿½ï¿½iva Tï¿½rtha is situated at a distance of five kms. from the town of Osmï¿½nï¿½bad. It has a few very old Pï¿½rï¿½va icons, some of which were probably fashioned from the fifth to the eighth century A.D. The history of this Tï¿½rthahas been given both in Harishena’s Bï¿½ihat Kathï¿½ Koï¿½a and the Karakaï¿½ï¿½achariu of Kanakï¿½mara. There is little doubt that the famous caves of Dhï¿½rï¿½ï¿½iva, which were near the city of Terï¿½pura, were quaite well known in the early medieval period. These caves may belong to the third century A.D.1
GAJAPANTHÏ¿½ : Gajapanthï¿½ is situated in Nasik District. As seven Balabhadras and eight Koï¿½i Yï¿½davas attained liberation according to the Prï¿½krit Nirvï¿½ï¿½a Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a from Gajapanthï¿½, it is regarded as Siddha Kshetra of Nirvï¿½ï¿½a Kshetra. Only the name of Gajapanthï¿½ has been mentioned in the Sanskrit Nirvï¿½na Bhakti of Pï¿½jyapada. It is mentioned by several authorities, including Gunabhadra, Asaga (10th century), Sumati, Jayasï¿½gara and others. Asaga in his ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha charita clearly refers to it, as situated near Nasik. The old Jaina remains from the fourth to the eighth century have been discovered in the region of this place.2
KÏ¿½RAÏ¿½JÏ¿½ : Kï¿½raï¿½jï¿½ is situated in Akola District. This Tï¿½rtha emerged into the limelight in the fifteenth century. Jï¿½ï¿½nasï¿½gara mentions Chandranï¿½tha (Chandra Prabhu) temple of this place. Afterwards, a temple of Pï¿½rï¿½va was also built in this place. There is the second Chandraprabha temple at this place. These temples have the respective seats of Senagaï¿½a, Kï¿½shï¿½ha Saï¿½gha and Mï¿½la Saï¿½gha Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas. ï¿½ï¿½lavijya. (17th century) in his Tï¿½rthamï¿½la, has given a very detailed account of this Tï¿½rtha, which shows that it was a flourishing Jaina centre in his time.3 In this place, in Kastha Saï¿½gha temple 11th century remarkable wooden carving and precious stone idols.
KOLHÏ¿½PURA : Kolhï¿½pura was a celebrated Digambara Tï¿½rtha in early times. The epigraphic evidence suggests that Jainism was popular in Kolhapur region. The inscription of ï¿½ilï¿½hï¿½ra king Vijayï¿½ditya dated Saka Saï¿½vata 1073 is important. There are other inscriptions discovered here, and in the neighbourhoood. There are temples in which images of the twelfth century are found.1
MÏ¿½Ï¿½GÏ¿½-TÏ¿½Ï¿½GÏ¿½ : Mï¿½ï¿½gï¿½-Tï¿½ï¿½gï¿½ is situated in Mangi-Tungi District. According to the Prakrit Nirvï¿½ï¿½a Kaï¿½ï¿½a, Rï¿½ma, Sugrï¿½va, Hanumï¿½na and several Munis attained Nirvï¿½ï¿½a here. Hence it is called Siddha Kshetra. In the Sanskrit Nirvï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Bhakti of Pï¿½jyapada, Balabhadra is known to have obtained Nirvï¿½ï¿½a from Tuï¿½gagiri. The later writers Udayakï¿½rti, ï¿½rutasï¿½gara, Abhayachandra and others have also mentioned Mï¿½ngtuï¿½gï¿½ as Siddha Kshetra. The earliest epigraph from this place is dated in V.S. 1443 (1387 A.D.).2
MUKTÏ¿½GIRI : According to the Prï¿½krit Nirvï¿½na Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a and the Sanskrit Nirvï¿½ï¿½a Bhakti, Muktï¿½giri is Sidha Kshetra or Nirvï¿½na-Kshetra because three and half Koï¿½i Munis attained liberation. Its ancient name was Meï¿½ï¿½hï¿½giri. It is mentioned by the later medieval Digambara writers including Jï¿½ï¿½nasï¿½gara, Sumatisagara and others. There are about fifty-two Jinï¿½layas. Most of them belonged from V.S. 1545 to V.S. 1950.3
NÏ¿½SIKYA : The well-known Nï¿½sik or Nï¿½sikya is recognised as a Tï¿½rtha in the Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa. The work mentions the Jï¿½vitasvï¿½mï¿½ Tribhuvanatilaka Chandraprabha temple of this place. Thre is a sepatate Kalpa, on this celebraed Tï¿½rtha of Nï¿½sikya. This temple of Chandraprabha of Nasik has been mentioned in the Prabhï¿½vaka Charita.1
PAIÏ¿½HÏ¿½N : Paiï¿½hï¿½n is situated in Aurangabad District, and its ancient name was Pratishï¿½hï¿½na. According to the tradition, Jainism gained a firm foothold at this town as early as the time of the Sï¿½tavï¿½hana king Hï¿½la. Jinaprabha has written three separate Kalpas on this Tï¿½rtha which was considered, sacred to Munisuvrata. It is further learnt from this work that the saint Kï¿½lakï¿½chï¿½rya visited this town, 993 years after the Nirvï¿½ï¿½a of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. It is famous by Munisuvratanï¿½tha Atiï¿½aya Digambara Jaina Kshetra.2
RÏ¿½MATEKA : Rï¿½maï¿½eka is in Nagpur District. Its ancient name was Rï¿½magiri. This place was connected with Jainism from very early period. It is mentioned by Vimala in his Paumachariyam, and by Ravisheï¿½a in his Padma Purï¿½ï¿½a and also by Jinasena II in his Harivaï¿½ï¿½a. Rï¿½machandra is known to have constructed several Jaina temples at Rï¿½magiri. Kï¿½lidï¿½sa also mentions Rï¿½magiri in the Meghadï¿½ta. The identification of Rï¿½magiri is controversial.3
SIRPURA : Sirpur is situated in ï¿½kolï¿½ District, and its ancient name was ï¿½rï¿½pura. This Tï¿½rtha is famous by the name ofAntariksha Parï¿½vanï¿½tha. The worship of this Antariksha Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha has been mentioned in the Prï¿½krit Nirvï¿½ï¿½a Kï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a. Madanakï¿½rti has mentioned this Tï¿½rtha in his ï¿½asana Chatuï¿½triï¿½atikï¿½. Besides Lakshamaï¿½a, Gunakï¿½rti, Megharaja, Sumatisï¿½gara Jï¿½ï¿½nasagara, Jayasagara, Chimaï¿½ï¿½ Paï¿½ï¿½ita, Somasena, Harsha etc. have mentioned AntarikshaPï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. The Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha temple of this place was known even to Jinaprabha who wrote a Kalpa on this Tï¿½rtha. ï¿½ilavijaya has also mentioned it. Aila ï¿½rï¿½pï¿½la is known to have constructed this temple probably in the tenth century A.D. The old Digambara Jaina images and other remains have been discovered at this place.1
UKHALADA : Ukhalada is located in Parbhanï¿½ District. It has yielded a number of inscribed Jina images which show that the temple here was in existence before 1215 A.D. It was a Digambara shrine under the monks of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha, Sarasvatï¿½ gachchha.2
DAULATÏ¿½BAD : The ancient name of Daulatabï¿½d was Devagiri. It was considered a Jaina Tï¿½rtha. Jinaprabha wrote a section of his Tï¿½rtha Kalpa at this town. At this place, a Jaina work was copied in V.S. 1383. ï¿½rï¿½bhushaï¿½a of the Kï¿½shï¿½hï¿½ Saï¿½gha, Nanditata gachchha composed his Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha Purï¿½ï¿½a in V.S. 1654 in the Pï¿½rï¿½va temple of Devagiri. It has also been called a Mahï¿½sthï¿½na.3
TAGARAPURA : Tagarapura was known as Terï¿½pura, and the Jaina caves here were well-known in earlier times. Both Harishena and Kanakï¿½mara have mentioned the Pï¿½rï¿½va Tï¿½rtha of this place. Tagarï¿½ is mentioned in the Seventy century Churï¿½i on the Uttarï¿½dhyana and the Vyavahï¿½rabhï¿½shya also proves its association with Jainism. It seems that in earlier times, it was a ï¿½vetï¿½mbara stronghold, and only at a later period, it came under the influence of the Digambaras.1
KARÏ¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½AK, Ï¿½NDHARA PRADESH AND TAMILÏ¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½U
Ï¿½RAVAÏ¿½A BELAGOLA : ï¿½ravaï¿½abelagola is situated in the Hassan District. As ï¿½ramaï¿½as or Jaina ascetics used to live in large number, the place was named as ï¿½ravanabelagola. It comprises two hills, namely, Chandragiri and Vindhyagiri, and a white pond in between. The Emperor Chandragupta Maurya came here along with his preceptor Bhadrabï¿½hu and stayed here for many years as an ascetic and breathed his last according to the Jaina fashion, namely that of Sallekhaï¿½ï¿½. On the Chandragiri mountain, there are caves for the residence of ascetics and fourteen large temples. The foot-prints of Bhadrabï¿½hu Svï¿½mï¿½ are kept in one of the caves. On the Vindhyagiri mountain, there are in all ten temples and the exquisitely beautiful statue of Gommaï¿½eï¿½vara. The importance of ï¿½ravaï¿½abelagola is further enhanced by the existence of several ancient inscriptions of great historical values.2 It is to be noted that the image of Bahubali King as Gomatesvar is 58 th height carved out of one stone standing without of lateral support. The image is the latest one.
ALBÏ¿½R (ABBALÏ¿½RU) : Albï¿½r is situated in Dharwar District. The well known Ablï¿½r epigraph dated C. 1200 A.D proves that this place had a Jaina temple before 1200 A.D. which was destroyed by Ekï¿½ntada Rï¿½mï¿½yya, the ï¿½aiva teacher.1
AÏ¿½AKI : Aï¿½aki was an important center of Jainism in Gulbarga District and has yielded a few epigraphs of the twelfth century. The Koppa Jinï¿½laya of this place was dedicated to the god Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. Its ancient name was ï¿½dakki and it had some other Digambara temples.2
ANNIGERI (ANNIGERE) : Annigeri was a Jaina centre of the Dharwar District. The earliest Jaina temple of this place was built in 751 A.D. The temple of this place was in charge of the monks of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha and Balï¿½tkï¿½ragaï¿½a.3
ARASIBÏ¿½Ï¿½I : Arasibï¿½ï¿½i was a well known Jaina centre of the Bijapur District. It came into the limelight from the eleventh century.4
AYYÏ¿½VALE (AIHOLE) : Ahihole in Bijapur District has supplied a Jaina epigraph dated 634 A.D., composed by the poet Ravikï¿½rti. This inscription shows that in the first half of the seventh century, there was a Jinendra temple, built of stone at this place. Another epigraph records the reconstruction of the same temple. The merchants of this particular place were quite influential in South India.5
BADLI : Badli is a place in Belgaum District. An epigraph from this place discloses the existence of a Jaina shrine, called Brahma Jinï¿½laya, which was built by Mï¿½rasiï¿½ha.1
BALIGRÏ¿½MA : Baligrama is situated in Shimoga District. This was a famous Jaina ï¿½ï¿½rtha associated with the Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha. This temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha was originally built by Jayasiï¿½ha II (1015-1043 A.D.) of the Western Chï¿½lukya dynasty.2
BANDALIKE : Bandalike is situated in Shikarpur Tï¿½luk of Shimoga District, and its Sanskrit name is Bï¿½ndhavapura. This place was recognized as a Tï¿½rtha, as early as the first quarter of the tenth century A.D. The ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha temple of this town was well known throughout Karï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aka.3
BAÏ¿½KÏ¿½PURA : Baï¿½kï¿½pura, a great Jaina Tï¿½rtha of Dharwar District, became a Jaina centre from the ninth century A.D., as it is learnt from the Praï¿½asti of Guï¿½abhadra’s Uttarapurï¿½ï¿½a. It was founded by Baï¿½keyarasa, a sï¿½manta of the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½a Amoghavarsha I, who ruled in the ninth century A.D. Jaina inscriptions of later times also have been discovered from this place. Even in the seventeenth century, it was considered a flourishing Jaina Tï¿½rtha by ï¿½ilï¿½vijaya who visited the Jaina Tï¿½rthas of South India in the second half of that century.4
BELUR : Belur is in Hassan District, and it was associated with Jainism from the early medieval period, and a few epigraphs have been discovered from the ruined temples of this place.1
BHÏ¿½RAÏ¿½GÏ¿½ : Bhï¿½raï¿½gï¿½ is a place located in Shimoga District. It was well known for the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha which was built before 1415 A.D.2
BHAÏ¿½KAL : Bhaï¿½kal in North Kanara District was founded in the fifteenth century and was associated with the Jainas, from the very beginning of its existence. We find references to several temples of this place in the epigraphs, discovered from this town. The shrines, dedicated to Pï¿½rï¿½va and Mahï¿½vï¿½ra are quite famous. Another temple, called the Ratnatraya basadi, dedicated to Aranï¿½tha, Mallinï¿½tha and Survrata, was built in the sixteenth century. It is learnt from an epigraph that this town owed its existence to the saint Vijayakï¿½rti of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha.3
BILIGI : Biligi was a Jaina centre of North Kanara District. It was associated with the Jaina religion from the sixteenth century. It appears that the Ratnatraya basadi was the earliest Jaina temple of this town. It was built, according to an epigraph of that temple, in the early sixteenth century.4
CHANDAKAVATE : Chandakavate is situated in the Sindgi Taluk of Bijapur District, and its ancient name was Chandrikï¿½vaï¿½a. This place has been mentioned as the seat of a line of Jaina teachers of the Sena Saï¿½gha. This Tï¿½rtha contains a few Jaina epigraphs, including one dated 1068 A.D. The earliest guru of the line, who had the seat, at this place, was Dharmasena, who founded a monastery at this place in the early ninth century A.D. His disciple Kumï¿½rasena was a very influential monk, who afterwards left this Tï¿½rtha for Mulgund.1
DVÏ¿½RASAMUDRA : Dvï¿½rasamundra is situated in the Hassan District. The Puï¿½isa Jinï¿½laya of this place, was built in the eleventh century, and was probably the earliest Jaina shrine of Dvï¿½rasamudra. It was dedicated to Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. Another temple, built by Boppa, the son of the famous Gaï¿½garï¿½ja, the Jaina general of Vishï¿½uvardhana, was given the name Vijaya-Pï¿½rï¿½va Jinï¿½laya. There was another temple dedicated to ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha, at this place.2
YALBARGI : Erambarge was the old name of Yalbargi in the Raichur District. It was also known as Erambarapuram. There was a temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha at this place. Some other Jaina shrines of this town are known; it was once a flourishing Jaina centre.3
GABBÏ¿½R : Gabbï¿½r is a place in Raichur District, and had a Jina temple called Nagara-Jinï¿½laya or Brahma Jinï¿½laya in the twelfth century.4
GERASOPPE : Gerasoppe in North Kanara District, was associated with Jainism, at least from 1378 A.D., the date of the earliest dated Jaina epigraph from this town. Another name of Gerasoppe was Kshemapura. The epigraphs found from this town, disclose the existence of several Jaina temples, the earliest of which was probably the temple of Anantanï¿½tha, built by a rich woman, called Rï¿½makka before 1392 A.D. Others epigraphs refer to the temples of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½ha (1421 A.D.), Neminï¿½tha (15th century), Vardhamï¿½na etc. of that town. According to a somewhat later epigraph (1560 A.D), the Anantanï¿½tha temple was actually built by Rï¿½makka’s husband Yojana Seï¿½ï¿½i. The same epigraph also mentions the temple of Neminï¿½tha of Gerasoppe. Viï¿½vabhï¿½shaï¿½a of the Balï¿½tkï¿½ra gaï¿½a, who flourished in the third quarter of the seventeenth century, has mentioned the temple of Pï¿½rï¿½va of this place and the earlier writer Jnanasï¿½gara has also described the three Pï¿½rï¿½va temples of this place. There is therefore little doubt that this town was intimately associated with Jainism from the fourteenth century.1
HÏ¿½Ï¿½UVALLI : Haï¿½uvalli was also known as Saï¿½gï¿½tapura and is now situated in North Kaï¿½ara District. The rulers of this area were champions of the Jaina faith and there was a pontifical seat of the Digambaras which started from the middle of the fifteenth century.2
HALE SORAB : Hale Sorab, which has yielded a few epigraphs of the fourteenth cenury, is in Shimoga District.3
HANTURU : Hanturu is situated in Chikmagalur District and had a very large Jaina temple-complex.2
HASSAN : Hassan is the headquarters of the same name. The name of the Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha temple of this place has been mentioned in the seventeenth century Digambara writer Viï¿½vabhï¿½shaï¿½a.3
HAÏ¿½Ï¿½ANA : Haï¿½ï¿½ï¿½na is situated in Tumkur District. It had a Jaina shrine called Nakhara Jinï¿½laya.4
HATTIYAMATTURA : Hattiyamattura is a place in Dharwar District. It had a Jina temple during the days of the Yï¿½davas.5
HERAGÏ¿½ : Heragï¿½ is a place in Hassan District. It had once a great Jaina temple-comlex, dedicated to Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha.6
HIRE-ABLI : Hire-Abli located in Shimoga District has yielded a very large number of epigraphs. There was a famous temple of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha in this place.7
HOGEKERI : Hogekeri is situated in Shimoga District. Its former name was Vogeyakera. It had a well-known Pï¿½rï¿½va temple, from which a few epigraphs of the fifteenth century have been discovered.8
HONWÏ¿½Ï¿½ : The ancient name of Honwï¿½ï¿½ located in Bijapur District, was Ponnavï¿½ï¿½a. A great temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha, called Tribhuvanatilaka, existed in this place, as early as the eleventh century. There were two other shrines, dedicated to Pï¿½rï¿½va and Supï¿½rï¿½va respectively at this place.1
HOSAHOLLU : Hosahollu situated in Mandya District had once very large Jaina temple-complex called Trikï¿½ï¿½a Jinï¿½laya, in the early twelfth century.2
HUMCHA : Humcha is a great Jaina centre of Shimoga District. Its ancient name was Pomburcha. This place has yielded a very large number of important Jaina epigraphs. The earliest Jaina temple of this place was built in the ninth century. Epigraphs of this place mention Pï¿½liyakka temple, Paï¿½ï¿½ana-svï¿½mi temple, Nokkiyabbe temple, Urvitilaka temple and some other temples. As late as the seventeenth century, it was considered a Tï¿½rtha, as its name is found in the list of Jaina Tï¿½rthas of South India, given by ï¿½ilï¿½vijaya. The Digambara writers like Jï¿½ï¿½nasï¿½gara, Viï¿½vabhï¿½shaï¿½a, Jinasï¿½gara and Topakavi have mentioned this Tï¿½rtha. Some of the surviving temples of this place are important for the historians of the Indian architecture.3
IÏ¿½GALEÏ¿½VARA : Iï¿½gleï¿½vara is situated in Bijapur District, and it was a stronghold of the Digambara Jainas. The sect Iï¿½galeï¿½vara bali belonging to the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha and Pustaka gachchha, was evidently associated with this place. Several epigraphs of this place, are known. There was a temple called Tirthada basadi at this place. The earliest epigraph of this village is dated 1189 A.D. The monks of this particular bali were known throughout Karï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aka.1
INGALGI : The earlier name of the place Ingalgi situated in Gulbarga District was Ingunige. It is and old place associated with Jainism. The earliest epigraph from this place is dated 1094 A.D. The Mahumï¿½ï¿½ikyadeva temple (probably Mahï¿½vï¿½ra) of this place, was built, according to this epigraph, in that year, by Jï¿½kaladevï¿½, a prominent queen of the Emperor Vikramï¿½ditya VI.2
KÏ¿½Ï¿½AKOL : Kï¿½ï¿½akol was a Tï¿½rtha situated in Dharwar District. It has yielded a number of epigraphs which prove that it existed as a Jaina sacred place, before the thirteenth century.3
KALBHÏ¿½VI : The ancient name of Kalbhï¿½vï¿½ in Belgaum District was known as Kumudavï¿½da in the eighth century. It had a Jaina temple of that time. This temple was under the supervision of the monks of the Maitï¿½pa anvaya and the Kï¿½reya gaï¿½a, which was a section of the famous Yï¿½panï¿½ya Saï¿½gha.4
KALHOLI : The ancient name of Kalholi situated in Belgaum District was known as Kalpole or Sindana Kalpole. From an inscription of 1204 A.D., it is learnt that there was a temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha at this place. This temple was under the supervision of the monks of the Hanasoge Section of the Pustka gachchha, the Mulasaï¿½gha and the Kundakunda anvaya.5
KÏ¿½RAKALA : Kï¿½rakala in South Kanï¿½ra District emerged as a Jaina Tï¿½rtha in the fifteenth century. There were several temples at this place, including one dedicated to Gommaï¿½eï¿½vara and another to Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. The local kings, of this area, gave full patronage to the Jainas and their temples. Karakala is extremely well known for its famous Jaina Mï¿½nastambha. This place was under the supervision of the monks of the Panasoge ï¿½ï¿½khï¿½. The great icon of Bahubali, of this place, was built by Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½yarï¿½ya in 1432 A.D. A detailed account regarding some Jaina shrines of this place can also be obtained from an epigraph of the place dated 1586 A.D. The sixteenth century Digambara writer, Jï¿½ï¿½nasï¿½gara has also mentioned the famous statue of Gommaï¿½eï¿½vara and also a temple of Neminï¿½tha of this place. The seventeenth century writer Viï¿½vabhï¿½shaï¿½a has also mentioned this place as a Jaina Tï¿½rtha.1
KOPAÏ¿½A : Kopana, a celebrated Tï¿½rtha, is situated in Raichur District. It emerged into the limelight in the ninth century A.D., and it was considered a most important Tï¿½rtha from that time. Several epigraphs, inscribed after 1000 A.D., are also known, and we have references to some Jaina shrines of this place, including the Kuï¿½a Jinï¿½laya. Even in the epigraphs from ï¿½ravaï¿½a-Belgola and other places, we get references to Kopaï¿½a as Mahï¿½tï¿½rtha.2
KUPPAÏ¿½URU : Kuppaï¿½uru Tï¿½rtha is Shimoga district was well-known for its Pï¿½rï¿½va temple, which was known as Brahma-Jinï¿½laya. Its antiquity goes back to the eleventh century.3
LAKSHMEÏ¿½VARA : The ancient Lakshmeï¿½vara Tï¿½rtha in Dharwar District existed from the sixth century A.D., and the ï¿½aï¿½kha Jinendra of this place was known throughout Karï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aka. There were several other temples at this holy Tï¿½rtha. Some of them were apparently built by the Western Gaï¿½gas during their reign and some afterwards. Among the prominent Jina temples, we can mention Tï¿½rtha basadi, Mukkara basadi, Ganga-Kandarpa Jinamandira, Peramï¿½ï¿½i-Chaityï¿½laya, ï¿½rï¿½ Vijaya basadi, Marudevï¿½ basadi, Dhavala Jinï¿½laya, Gogiya basadi, ï¿½nesejjaya basadi and also a temple, dedicated to ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha. That the ï¿½nesejjaya basadi of this place was one of the most prominent Jina temples of South India, is also proved by the famous Ablur epigraph Which mentions it specially in connection with the eight hundred Jaina temples. It was originally built by Kuï¿½kumadevï¿½, the younger sister of Chï¿½lukya Vijayï¿½ditya. We have also other epigraphs from the same Tï¿½rtha. As late as the seventeenth century, this place was known as JinaTï¿½rtha.1
LAKKUÏ¿½Ï¿½I : The ancient name of Lakkuï¿½ï¿½i in Dharwar District was Lokkiguï¿½ï¿½i, and there were once several Jaina temples in this place. The great Jaina lady Attimabbe, constructed in the first decade of the eleventh century, a Jaina temple at this place. The temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha, of this place, is mentioned in an epigraph of 1185 A.D. There was also a temple of Neminï¿½tha at this village.2
MALKHEÏ¿½ : The ancient name of Malkheï¿½ in Gulbarga District is Maleyakheï¿½a, and it represents Mï¿½nyakheï¿½a of the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½tas. It was considered to be great Jaina Tï¿½rtha by the Jainas in the medieval period. It is mentioned by both Jï¿½ï¿½nasï¿½gara and Viï¿½vabhï¿½shï¿½a. The latter writer refers to its Neminï¿½tha temple which is mentioned by the fouteenth century epigraph.1
MALEYÏ¿½RA : Maleyï¿½ra was a very important Jaina Tï¿½rtha sacred to Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha. It is situated in Mysore District and has yielded a number of epigraphs, the earliest of which is dated in 1181 A.D. The Vijayanï¿½tha temple (probably Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha) is mentioned in several later inscriptions.2
MASKI : Maski situated in Raichur District was considered a Jaina centre, in the medieval period. There were two Jaina temples, including one called Jagadekamalla Jinï¿½laya, apparently named after Jayasiï¿½ha II.3
MATTÏ¿½VARA : The ancient name of Mattï¿½vara situated in Chikmagalur District was Mattavï¿½ra. It has yielded epigraphs, which prove that it was very closely associated with Jainism, from the eleventh century. The earliest epigraph, from thisl place, bears the date 1069 A.D. Other inscriptions discovered from this show that the Hoysala kings took active interest in he Jaina shrine of this village.4
MÏ¿½Ï¿½ABIDRI : The important Digambara Jaina Tï¿½rtha Mï¿½ï¿½abidri is situated in the South Knara District, and it is also known as Biï¿½ure and Bedarï¿½. The earliest Jaina epigraph, from this place, is dated 1504 A.D. A copper plate inscription from this place, dated 1546 A.D., discloses the name of Chandranï¿½tha (i.e. Chandraprabha) temple of this place and records some grant for the temple, by the local ruler of Biligi. This temple of Chandraprabha is mentioned by the sixteenth century writer Jï¿½ï¿½nasï¿½gara and also by Viï¿½vabhï¿½shaï¿½a. Jï¿½ï¿½nasagara also mentions the Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha temple of this place, which too is mentioned in a copper plate inscription, found from this place, dated 1563 A.D. The temple of Chandraprabha, according to the earlier inscription, was known as Tribhuvana Chï¿½ï¿½ï¿½maï¿½i temple. An inscription of 1622 A.D. mentions one Tribhuvanatilaka temple of this place. From this town were discovered invaluable manuscripts of the entire Dhavalï¿½ and Jayadhavalï¿½. The seventeenth century writer ï¿½ï¿½lavijaya has mentioned nineteen Jaina temples of this place, including the temples of ï¿½diï¿½vara, ï¿½ï¿½ntiï¿½vara, Chandraprabha and Pï¿½rï¿½va. He has also referred to the palm-leaf manuscript, preserved at this town.1
NIRALGI : Niralgi in Dharwar District, had a temple, called Mallinï¿½tha Jineï¿½vara in the twelfth century. An epigraph of 1147 A.D. of the reign of Jagadekamalla II, from this place, mentions a Jaina ï¿½chï¿½rya of the Mulasaï¿½gha, Sï¿½rastha gaï¿½a and Chitrakï¿½ï¿½a.anvaya.2
HALSI : The ancient name of Halsi situated in Belgaum District is Palï¿½ï¿½ikï¿½. This place is a Tï¿½rtha of great importance. Palï¿½ï¿½ikï¿½ had a Jaina temple, which was probably built in the fourth century A.D. In all probability, it was dedicated to ï¿½ishabha. The Kadamba kings were good patrons of Jainism. It appears that there were several Jaina temples at Palï¿½ï¿½ikï¿½, in the early period. At present, there is no trace of Jainism at Halsi.1
HUNGUND : The ancient name of Hungund in Bijapur District is Ponnuguï¿½ï¿½a. There were at least three Jaina temples at this place namely Tribhuvanatilaka Jinï¿½laya, Mahï¿½ï¿½rï¿½manta basadi and Arasara basadi of the eleventh century.2
HÏ¿½LI : The ancient name of Hï¿½li in Belgaum District was Pï¿½li. It had a well-known temple-comlex, called Mï¿½ï¿½ikyatï¿½rtha basadi. It was apparently a sacred place of the Jainas. There were several Jaina temples, at this place, and an epigraph of the eleventh century, refers to the monks of the Yï¿½panï¿½ya Saï¿½gha and Punnï¿½gavï¿½ikshamï¿½la gaï¿½a.3
RÏ¿½YABÏ¿½G : Rï¿½yabï¿½g, in Belgaum District, was once a flourishing Jaina Centre under the Raï¿½ï¿½a kings. A few inscriptions have been discovered from the local ï¿½dinï¿½tha temple of this place. The earliest epigraph is dated 1041 A.D.4
Ï¿½RÏ¿½RAÏ¿½GAPAÏ¿½Ï¿½AÏ¿½A : ï¿½rï¿½raï¿½gapaï¿½ï¿½aï¿½a near Mysore town had temples of ï¿½ishabha, Pï¿½rï¿½va and Mahï¿½vï¿½ra during ï¿½ilavijaya’s time.
TAVANIDHI : Tavanidhi, sacred to ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha in Shimoga District, has yielded a few Jaina epigraphs of the Thirteenth century. It was also known as Tavanandi. It was a surely Jaina sacred place where Jaina monks embraced voluntary death.1
TENAGALI : Tenagali, a place in the Gulbarga District, had a Jina temple of the twelfth century.2
UCHCHHAÏ¿½GI : Uchchhaï¿½gi is situated in Dharwar District. This was a holy place, sacred to the Jainas from quite early times. There was a shrine at this place, under the supervision of the Yï¿½panï¿½yas.3
UDRI : Udri in Shimoga District has yielded a very good number of Jaina epigraphs of the medieval period. At this place, there was a ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha temple which was built at the close of the twelfth century by a Jaina General called Mahï¿½deva Daï¿½ï¿½anï¿½tha in ï¿½aka Saï¿½vat. 1119 during the rule of the Hoysala Ballï¿½la II.4
UPPINA-BETGIRI : Uppina-Betgiri in Raichur District came into prominence in the tenth century A.D. It had a Jina temple called Jayadhï¿½ra Jinï¿½laya, which was built by a Rï¿½shtrakï¿½ï¿½a Governor called ï¿½ankaragaï¿½ï¿½a, in the tenth century.5
VAÏ¿½AVÏ¿½LA : Vaï¿½avï¿½la is situated in South Kanï¿½ra District. According to Viï¿½vabhï¿½shaï¿½a, there was ï¿½antinï¿½tha temple here, during the seventeenth century.6
VÏ¿½RAÏ¿½GA : The ancient name of Vï¿½raï¿½ga situated in South Kanara District was Varï¿½ï¿½ganï¿½. It had several temples in the late medieval period. A fifteenth century epigraph found at this place, discloses the existence of the Neminï¿½tha temple. ï¿½ï¿½lavijaya, a monk of the seventeenth century, has mentioned this temple.1
VÏ¿½RAPURA : Vï¿½rapura is mentioned as a Tï¿½rtha in an epigraph of the twelfth century, found from Seï¿½am, in Gulbarga District. Its exact identification is still unknown.2
YÏ¿½LBARGI : Yï¿½lbargi, in Raichur District, has yielded a number of Jaina antiquities of the early medieval period. It was surely a Jaina Tï¿½rtha and its earlier name was Eraï¿½barageya. There existed here a temple of Pï¿½rï¿½va, which was under the supervision of the monks of the Deï¿½ï¿½ gaï¿½a, and Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha.3
BODHAN : Bodhan is situated in Nizamabad District. The original Jina temple of this place was afterwards destroyed by the Muslims, and converted into a mosque. A teacher called Munichandra Siddhï¿½ntadeva, has been mentioned in a damaged Jaina epigraph of the time of the Western Chï¿½lukya Emperor Vikramï¿½ditya VI. This epigraph also mentions a Jina temple of this place. Its ancient name was Podanapura.4
GUÏ¿½IVÏ¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½ : Guï¿½ivï¿½dï¿½ is situated in Krishna District. It has a medieval temple of Paarï¿½vanï¿½tha.1
HEMÏ¿½VATÏ¿½ : Hemï¿½vatï¿½ is situated in Anantapur District. It was once the capital of the Nolamba pallavas and a damaged epigraph from this place of the ninth century mentions a local Jaina temple. Its ancient name was Henjeru.2
PENUGOÏ¿½Ï¿½A : Penugoï¿½ï¿½a situated in Anantpur District, is known for its Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha temple. It has yielded a few Jaina antiquities. In the sixteenth century, it was considered an important Digambara Jaina centre.3
JINAGIRI : The ancient Jaina Tï¿½rtha of Jinagiri is situated in South Arcot District. It was known by several names such as Uchchandvï¿½lamalai, Vaï¿½apï¿½li, Varatirumalai, Tirumetrisai, Nï¿½rapattiraï¿½ï¿½u and Perumapalli. Several Tamil epigraphs from this place are known. It was the home of Vï¿½ranandi of Nandi Saï¿½gha. The monks of this place, afterwards popularised Jainism in other places of Tamil Nadu. The main icon of the present temple is that of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha.4
JINA-KÏ¿½Ï¿½CHÏ¿½ : Jina Kï¿½ï¿½chï¿½ is another celebrated Jaina Tï¿½rtha, near Kï¿½ï¿½chï¿½ in the District of the same name. Its history goes back to the days of the Pallavas. The presiding deity of the Tï¿½rtha is Vardhamï¿½na, and some seventeen epigraphs, ranging from the twelfth century to the sixteenth, have been found from this temple-complex. Several inscriptions belong to the reign of Chola kings like Kulottuï¿½ga I, and Vikrama Chola. Four epigraphs, of the time of the Vijayanagara, kings like Bukka II and Krishnadeva are also known. There is little doubt that it was the greatest Jaina centre of Tamil Nadu from early times to modern period. It was also known as Trailokyavallabha temple. There is also a temple of Chandraprabha near the main temple of Vardhmï¿½na.1
KALUGUMALAI : The ancient place Kalugumalai situated in Tirunelveli District was once a flourishing centre of Jainism. Inscriptions from the third century B.C. to the eleventh century A.D. have been found from this site.2
KÏ¿½Ï¿½CHÏ¿½ : Kï¿½nchï¿½ was a stronghold of Jainism during the post-Christian period. The great Samantabhadra was a resident of this city. An eighth century epigraph form this city of the time of Nandivarman II refers ot an Arhat temple of this city.3
ODALAVÏ¿½Ï¿½I : Odalavï¿½ï¿½i situated in the Polï¿½r Tï¿½luk had a Jaina temple of the thirteenth century. It was dedicated to Gommaï¿½anï¿½tha.4
TIRUMALAI : Tirumalai, a well known Tï¿½rtha, is situated in the North Arcot District. It is famous for the magnificent standing image of Neminï¿½tha. A few Jaina inscriptions of this place prove that it was a Jain sacred palce even before 1000 A.D.5
VIJAYAMAGALAM : Vijayamagalam, sacred to Chandraprabha, was a well-known Jaina centre in the present Erode District (Periyar). It was known as Kurumbunadu. Its antiquity goes back to the sixth century A.D.1
- This work is a later work, and its author is different from the real Kundakuna.
- Jinabhareti Samgndha PP 454-456.
- BBDJT, III, pp. 148-152.
- JGPS, I, P. 112, No. 171.
- BBDJT, III, p. 112.
- CHJ, II, No. 41, p. 293.
- Ibid, II, No. 275, p. 353
- JLAIDJC, p. 272.
- K.D. Bajpai Feliciation Volume.
- CHJ, II, p. 323.
- CHJ, II, p. 313.
- JDAIDJC, p. 291.
- CHJ, No. 73, p. 302.
- BBDJT, III, Appendix I, pp. 23-27.
- CHJ, No. 140, p. 318.
- CHJ, II, No. 204, pp. 335-336.
- Ibid, II, No. 250, p. 348.
- Ibid, II, No. 135, p. 317.
- CHJ, II, No. 22 p. 287.
- Ibid, II, No. 280, p. 354.
- CHJ, II, No. 8, p. 284.
- Ibid, II, No. 238, pp. 45-46.
- Ibid, II, No. 89, pp. 305
- CHJ, II, No. 124, pp. 314.
- Ibid, No. 159, p. 322.
- CHJ, II, Nos. 234 and 235, pp. 343-344.
- Ibid, II No. 132, p. 316.
- Ibid, II, No. 187, p. 330.
- CHJ, II, No. 42, pp. 293-294.
- Ibid, II, No. 216, p. 238.
- Ibid, II, No. 54, p. 297, JUPJ, pp. 56-60, BBDJI, pp. 179-194.
- CHJ, No. 43, JUPH, p. 64.
- JUPJ, pp. 44-46, BBDJI, pp. 66-72.
- CHJ, No. 262, p. 350.
- CHJ, No. 290, pp. 356-357.
- Ibid, No. 220, p. 339.
- Ibid, No. 21, p. 287.
- Ibid, No. 127, p. 314.
- CHJ, No. 219, p. 339.
- Ibid, No. 174, pp. 326-327.
- CHJ, No. 253, p. 349.
- CHJ, No. 154, p. 321.
- BBDJI, III, pp. 287-297.
- BBDJI, III, pp. 302-316.
- BBDJI, III, pp. 316-326.
- BBDJI, III, pp. 150-160.
- Ibid, III, p. 59.
- JSLS, IV No. 5
- BBDJI, III, pp. 160-168.
- BBDJI, III, pp. 116-127.
- KMTA, I, P. 289.
- Ibid, II, p. 364.
- MTA, pp. 400-405.
- KMTA, p. 453.
- CHJ, II, No. 176, p. 327.
- Ibid, II, No. 261, p. 350
- KMTA, p. 410.
- KMTA, pp. 371-372, p. 378.
- CHJ, II, No. 144, p. 318.
- Ibid, II, No. 12, p. 285.
- CHJ, II, No. 153, pp. 320-321.
- Ibid, No. 248, p. 347; BBDJT, pp. 298-300.
- BBDJT, pp. 179-202.
- Ibid, pp. 84-86.
- BBDJT, pp. 78-84.
- Ibid, pp. 102-103.
- Ibid, pp. 29-33.
- ACTR, p. 99.
- Ibid, p. 136.
- ACTR, pp. 153-154.
- Ibid, pp. 161-163.
- ACTR, p. 166.
- ACTR, pp. 173-175
- Ibid., p. 176.
- ACTR, pp. 178-179.
- Ibid., pp. 182-184.
- ACTR, p. 187-191.
- Ibid, p. 194.
- ACTR, pp. 197-198.
- ACTR, pp. 201-203.
- Ibid, pp. 207-208.
- ACTR, p. 217.
- ACTR, pp. 223-224.
- ACTR, pp. 231-233.
- Ibid, p. 240.
- ACTR, pp. 247-249.
- ACTR, pp. 262-263.
- Ibid, p. 269.
- ACTR, pp. 271-273.
- Ibid, pp. 274-275.
- ACTR, p. 284.
- Ibid, pp. 285-285.
- ACTR, pp. 287-288.
- Ibid, pp. 290-292.
- ACTR, pp. 294-296.
- ACTR, pp. 299-300.
- Ibid, pp. 305-307.
- ACTR, pp. 317-318.
- Ibid, p. 324.
- ACTR, pp. 326-327.
- Ibid, p. 328.
- ACTR, p. 340.
- ACTR, pp. 344-345.
- Ibid, pp. 352-353.
- Ibid, pp. 356-357.
- ACTR, pp. 359-360.
- ACTR, pp. 361-362.
- Ibid, pp. 371-78.
- ACTR, p. 384.
- Ibid, p. 391.
- ACTR, pp. 403-404.
- Ibid, p. 415.
- ACTR, P. 416.
- Ibid, pp. 418-419.
- ACTR, pp. 420-21.
- Ibid, pp. 422-23.
- ACTR, pp. 425-27.
- Ibid, pp. 427-431.
- ACTR, pp. 432-433.
- ACTR, pp. 449-455.
- Ibid, pp. 455-457.
- BBDJI, pp. 106-127.
- ACTR, p. 413.
- Jaina Community ï¿½ A Social Survey, p. 256.
- CHJ, No. 227, p. 341.
- CHJ No. 9, BBDJI, IV, pp. 200-201.
- Ibid, No. 13, pp. 285-286; BBDJI, IV, pp. 195-198.
- Ibid, No. 16, p. 286.
- CHJ, No. 20, p. 287.
- Ibid, No. 32, p. 290.
- Ibid, No. 36, p. 291.
- CHJ, No. 38, p. 292.
- Ibid, no. 46, pp. 394-395.
- Ibid, no. 51, p. 296.
- CHJ, No. 57, p. 298.
- Ibid, No. 60, p. 299.
- Ibid, No. 73, p. 302.
- CHJ, No. 75, p. 303.
- Ibid, No. 99, p-307.
- Ibid, No, 107, p. 309.
- Ibid, No. 150, p. 320.
- BBDJI, pp. 185-188.
- CHJ, No. 164, pp. 323-24.
- CHJ, No. 192, p. 332.
- BBDJI, IV, pp. 178-185.
- CHJ, No. 200, pp. 334-335.
- Ibid, No. 226, pp. 340-41.
- CHJ, No. 241, pp. 345-346.
- BBDJI, Iv, pp. 189-195.
- Ibid, Iv, pp. 137-138.
- CHJ, No. 251 p. 348.
- Ibid, No. 256, p. 349.
- Ibid, No. 269, p. 352.
- Ibid, No. 270, p. 352.
- CHJ, No. 276, pp. 353-354.
- Ibid, No. 273, p. 353.
- BBDJI, pp. 198-199.
- CHJ, No. 59, p. 299; BBDJI, p. 248.
- Ibid, No. 71, p. 301; Ibid, pp. 203-207.
- Ibid, No. 130, BBDJI, p. 303.
- CHJ, No. 138; BBDJI, p. 233-237.
- BBDJI, pp. 208-217; CHJ No. 155.
- Ibid, pp. 319-330.
- CHJ, No. 181, pp. 328-229.
- Ibid, No. 201, p. 235; BBDJI, p. 274.
- Ibid, No. 212, pp. 336-337, BBDJI, pp. 311-316.
- BBDJI, pp. 288-303; CHJ, no. 239.
- CHJ, No. 266, p. 351.
- Ibid, II, No. 55, p. 297.
- CHJ, II, No. 245, No. 347.
- Jaina Community ï¿½ A Social Survey, p. 257.
- CHJ, No. 2, p. 283.
- Ibid, No. 5, p. 283-284.
- Ibid, No. 18, p. 287.
- Ibid, No. 19, p. 287.
- Ibid, No. 19, p. 287.
- CHJ, No. 24, p. 288.
- Ibid, No. 27, p. 288.
- Ibid, No. 28, p. 289.
- Ibid, No. 29, p. 289.
- CHJ, No. 31, p. 290.
- Ibid, No. 33, p. 290.
- Ibid, No. 35, p. 291.
- Ibid, No. 39, p. 292.
- CHJ, No. 45, p. 294.
- Ibid, No. 66, pp. 300-301.
- Ibid, No. 68, p. 301.
- Ibid, No. 70, p. 301.
- CHJ, No. 74, pp. 302-303.
- Ibid, No. 82, p. 304.
- Ibid, No. 83, p. 304.
- CHJ, No. 84, p. 304.
- Ibid, No. 85, p. 304.
- Ibid, No. 86, p. 304.
- Ibid, No. 90, p. 305.
- Ibid, No. 91, p. 305.
- Ibid, No. 93, pp. 305-306.
- Ibid, No. 94, p. 306.
- Ibid, II, 95, . 306.
- CHJ, No. 96, p. 306.
- Ibid, No. 97, p. 307.
- Ibid, No. 98, pp. 306-307.
- CHJ, II, No. 100, p. 307.
- Ibid, No. 101, pp. 307-308.
- Ibid, No. 119, p. 313.
- Ibid, No. 121, p. 313.
- Ibid, No. 122, p. 313.
- CHJ, II No. 129, p. 315.
- Ibid, No. 139, p. 318.
- Ibid, No. 142, p. 318.
- CHJ, II, No. 145, pp. 318-319.
- Ibid, No. 148, pp. 319-320.
- CHJ, II, No. 151, p. 320.
- Ibid, No. 152, p. 320.
- Ibid, No. 158, p. 322.
- Ibid, No. 160, pp. 322-323.
- CHJ, II, No. 165, p. 324.
- Ibid, No. 184, 329.
- CHJ, II, No. 189, p. 331.
- Ibid, No. 199, p. 334.
- Ibid, II, No. 203, p. 375.
- Ibid, II No. 217, p. 338.
- CHJ, II, No. 252, p. 348.
- Ibid, II, No. 254, p. 349.
- Ibid, II, No. 263, pp. 350-351.
- Ibid, II, No. 264, pp. 351.
- Ibid, II, No. 271, p. 352.
- Ibid, II, No. 274, p. 353.
- CII, II, No. 281, pp. 354-355.
- Ibid, No. 288, p. 356.
- Ibid, No. 289, p. 356.
- CHJ, II, No. 40, pp. 292-293.
- CHJ, II, No. 81, p. 304.
- Ibid, II, No. 92, p. 305.
- Ibid, II, No. 195, p. 333.
- Ibid, II, No. 110, p. 310.
- CHJ, II, No. 111, pp. 310-311.
- Ibid, II, No. 123, p. 313.
- Ibid, II, No. 125, p. 314.
- Ibid, II, No. 185, p. 329.
- Ibid, II, No. 259, pp. 349-350.
- CHJ, II, No. 286, p. 355.
- Ibid, No. 288, p. 355.