ANCIENT JAIN TÏRTHAS AND HISTORICAL PLACES
The Tïrthas are connected with the incidents of the lives of the Tïrthaõkaras and other great persons. The places, where the Tïrthaõkaras were born, first renounced the Áaãsära and initiated into religious life, practised austerities and achieved kavalajñäna (omniscience), are known as Kalyäîaka Kshetras. The places where the Tïrthaõkaras realised emancipation are called Nïrväîa Kshetras. Such places are Kailäáa, Champä, Pävä, Urjayanta and Sammeda Áikhara. The places, where the great ascetics lived and achieved liberation, are also known as the Tirthas. Generally, such Tïrthas were established on the basis of imagination in medieval times in order to increase their importance. At times, the idols in certain places are believed to bestow great favours on their devotees. Hence such places are also considered as Atiáayakshetras. Some sites are important from the point of view of art and history.
The Präkôit Nirväîakänâa of Kundakunda1 and Sanskrit Nirväîa Bhakti of Püjyapäda give information about the ancient Jaina Tïrthas. As Äáädhara mentions these belong to earlier period than the 13th centry A.D. The Sakalatïrtha Stavana by Siddharshi (of the 12th century A.D.) contains a list of holy places. The Vividhatïrthakalpa of Jinaprabhasüri written in about the 14th century A.D. gives a biref history of the holy places. The number of Tïrthas increased in the medieval period. There are even different traditions about the origin of some of these Tïrthas. In the medieval Jaina literature, we come across many examples where rich Jainas led a Saãgha or a large group of people to the places of pilgrimage. Bhaiya Lal has written The Nirvankala. (Bhora) in V.S. 1741 in Hindi language giving the list of holy places.1 In commemoration of this act, they are given the honorific title of Saãghapati by the Jainas. It is felt that they are helpful in creating self-enlightenment (Atmajägôiti) in the minds of the people who visit them. When Jainism began to decline, some of the Jaina Tïrthas have been forgotten, and were even occupied by other sects. These ancient Jaina Tïrthas have been classified on regional basis.
BIHAR, BENGAL AND ORISSA
SAMMEDA ÁIKHARA : The Sammeda Áikhara mountain is situated in the Girdi District of Bihar. Excluding Ôishabha, Väsupüjya, Neminätha and Mahävïra, the remaining twenty Tïrthaõkaras got emancipation on this mountain. In honour of the twenty-third Tïrthaõkara, Pärávanätha, the place is known as Pärávanätha hill. On the different summits of the mountain, twenty temples containing the foot-prints of the twenty Tïrthaõkaras have been erected to commemorate their memories. Guîabhadra in the Uttara Puräîa, Ravisheîa in the Pädma Puräîa, Jinasena in the Harivaãáa Puräîa and other Jaina literary works mention it as Nirväîa Bhümi of Twenty Tïrthaõkaras and innumertable Munis.2 Muni Arvinda, poet Mahächandra (Say 1587), Bhaûûäraka Ratnachandra (Sam. 1683) and others led pilgrimage to this holy place. From the Praáasti of Yaáodhara Charita1 dated V.S. 1659 of Bhaûûäraka Jñänakïrti, it is known that Nänu, Minister of king Mänasiãha of Amber in Rajasthan, built twenty temples of the twenty Tïrthaõkaras respectively.
PÄVÄPURA : Tïrthaõkar Mahävïra attained liberation at Päväpura. It is situated in the Patna District. Some scholars identify it with Päväpurï of the Nalanda District, while others suggest that it was near Kuáinärä, the place of Buddha’s death in Gorakhpur District. Bhaûûäraka Yaáahkïrti (15th century) of Gwalior describes Päväpura in the Jiîaratti.2
RÄJAGÔIHA : Räjagôiha remained associated with the activities of Mahävïra. According to the Jaina tradition, it was also the birth-place of Munisuvrata. A few Jaina antiquities of the Gupta period were also found from this place. Even in later times, Jaina monks in Gujarat and South India used to visit this ancient city.
PÄÛALI-PUTRA : Päûali-putra is now known as Patna. Several early Jaina teachers such as Bhadrabähu I, Sthülabhadra Mahägiri and Suhastin were connected with this city. The Jaina philosopher Umäsväti composed his Tattvärthadhigamsütra here in this city. The first Jaina council was held here during the reign of Nanda for deciding the scriptures (Vächanä). In Jinaprabha’s time, Päûaliputra was consider to be sacred. Muni Sudaráana attained Nirvana from here.
CHAMPÄ : This celebrated city was the capital of Aõga Janapada. It remained associated with the Jaina Tïrthaõkaras Väsupüjya and Mahävïra. It is the only one place where the five Kalyäîakas of Vasupüjya were held. Mahävïra also spent three years of his missionary life in Champä. At this time, Dadhivähana was the ruler of this city. There was the Chaitya of Pürîabhara existing here. The work Daáavaikälika was composed at this place by Áayambhava. The Väsupüjya temple of this place was recognised as a celebrated shrine, and several literary texts from the early period mention the Väsupüjya temple complex of this city. Jinasena II, the author of the Harivaãáa, describes this temple-complex. He also refers to the Mänastambha of this great temple. Jinaprabha mentions in the Vividhatïrthakalpa that this city was destroyed by the Bengal Sultan Shamsuddiïn in V.S. 1360.1
VAIÁÄLÏ : The anciant city of Vaiáälï is identified with the modern town of Basäâha a suburb of Vaiáalï Mahävïra was born here, and it was connected with the childhood of Mahävïra. It was the capital of Vajji republic, and Chetaka was the influential king. Even before the birth of Mahävïra, the teachings of Pärávanätha were accepted by a number of people of this town including Mahävïra’s parents.2
BHADDILAPURA : Bhaddilapura was the capital of Malaya. It is said that this place was visited by Ariûûhanemi and was the birth place of the tenth Tïrthaõkara Sitalnath. It is identified with Bhadia, a village near Kukuhä hill about nine km. from Hunterganja in the Hazaribagh District.3 According to Jaina Paûûävalïs of the Mülasaãgha the first twenty-six pontificates belong to Bhaddalapura. After that, the 27th pontiff transferred his seat from Bhaddalapura to Ujjain. According to the four Paûûävalïs, Bhaddalapura is identified with Bhilsa in Malwa while the fifth, which is the oldest, tells us that it was in the South. It is reasonable to identify this place with Bhadrika or Bhadrävatï located near Ellora.1 It was one of the early capitals of the Imperial Räshtrakütas.
MITHILA : According to the Jaina tradition, Malli and Naminätha were botn in Mithilä, Mahävïra himself stayed for six years in this city. The Jaina rebel Assmitta was associated with this city in the third century B.C. According to the Vividhatïrthakalpa, this ancient city was situated on the confluence of the Bäîagaõgä and the Gaîâakï and was known as Jagai in Jinaprabha’s time.2
KÄKANDÏ : Käkandï is generally identified with Käkan in Munger District. This Tïrtha is associated with the birth of the ninth Tïrthaõkara Pushpadanta.3 According to J.C. JAIN4, Khukund in Gorakhpur District of U.P is modern site of Käkandï. Mahävïra is said to have visited this place. Käkandiyä Áäkhä of the Jaina Áramaîaas was named after this place.
GAYÄ : Jñäñasägara, who flourished in the sixteenth century, in his Sarvatïrthavandanä associates Gaya with Akalaõka, and mentions that the latter had erected the temples of Sambhavanätha, Nemi and Supäráva at that town.5
KOÛÏTÏRTHA : Koûiáilä Tïrtha has been described in the Puräîas such as the Harivaãáa Puräîa and Padmapuräîa. Some scholars indentify it with the Kumärï Mountain of Udayagiri and Khaîâagiri, and with Mälalï mountain of Ganjam District in Kaliõga.1 In the Vividhatïrthakalpa, it has been described near Daáärîa Mountain in Magadha.2 On the basis of Brihat Kathä Koáa and also Prabhächandra’s Kathä Koáa, it has been located in Varendra (North Bengal).3
PUÎÂRAVARDHANA : There was the Puîâravardhaniyä Áäkhä mentioned in the Kalpasütra. At the time of Hiuen-Isang’s Visit (in the seventh century), there were numerous Digambara Jainas at this town. The Vividhatïrthakalpa mentions the Vïra temple at Puîâra-parvata which may be identical with Puîâravardhana.4
TÄMRALIPTI : Tamralipti was the famous port in Bengal in ancient times. Even in Mahävïra’s time, the residents of Tämralipta were attaracted towards the religion of the Nirgranthas. The Tamralipti Áakhä of the Áramaîas was named after this place. Prabhächandra’s Kathäkoáa (11th century) refers to the Päráva temple of this town.5
KHAÎÂAGIRI : Khaîâagiri situated in Kaliõga (Orissa) was associated with Jainism from the Nanda period (4th century B.C.). The evidence of Khäravela inscription shows that it was known as Kumärï hill in the second or first century B.C. This particular name is found in the tenth century epigraph from the same hill, and also in the Bôihatkathäkoáa of Jarisheîa, composed in 931 A.D. The inscriptions of Udyotakeáarï proves that this hill, continued as a popular Jaina centure, for a very long time, and the evidence of Harisheîa’s work alos proves the same.
UTTAR PRADESH, DELHI REGION, HARYANA, HIMACHAL PRADESH, PUNJAB AND MADHYA PRADESH
AYODHYÄ : This ancient Tïrtha of Ayodhyä is represented as the birth place of the five Tïrthaõkaras, namely Ôishabha, Ajita, Abhinanâana, Sumati and Ananta. Jinaprabha saw a number of Jaina temples in this town. Probably, the earliest temple of this town, was dedicated to the Tïrthaõkara which has been mentioned in the Paumachariyam. It has recognised as eternally very pious place of the Jainas.
VÄRÄÎASÏ : According to the Jaina traditions, Varäîasï is associated with the two Tïrthaõkaras, namely Supäráva and Pärávanätha. Jinaprabha mentions the Päráva temple-compex of Väräîasï. Jñänasägara (16th century) has mentioned two temples of Päráva and Supäráva of this city.8 Acarya Samathabhara (2 A.D) composed Brhassvabhu stotra here.
AHICHCHHATRA : Ahichchhatra is identical with the present Ramnagar in Bareilly District. Jinaprabha has connected this place with Pärávanätha, and he mentions two Jaina temples. The Nirväîakäîâa written in the 12th century refers to this Jaina Tïrtha.1
ÁRÄVASTÏ : Árävastï is situated in Bahraich District. According to the Jaina tradition, this place was the birth place of the third Tïrthaõkara Sambhavanätha. This city was visited byr Mahävïra himself. Árävastikä Áäkhä of the Áramaîas was named after this city. The discovery of the pre-Gupta Jaina images from this place proves that it was a Jaina sacred place in earlier days. The Sambhavanätha temple was standing during the time of Jinaprabha, who gives an interesting informaton of its being destroyed by Alauddïn’s general Habbasa. There is mention of this city in the Brihaûkathäkoáa of Harisheîa.2
HASTINÄPURA : According to the Jaina tradition, Hastinäpura was the birth place of the Tïrthaõkaras Áantinätha, Kunthunätha and Aranätha. In ancient times, the Jainas forgot about the exact location of this place. it appears from the Vividhatïrthakalpa that this place was practically rediscovered by Jinaprabha. The shrines of Áänti, Kunthu, Arahanätha and Mallinätha were installed in his time.3
KÄMPILYA : Kampilya is identified with modern Kampil in Farrukhabad District. It is claimed to be the birth place of the 13th Tïrthaõkara. According to Jaina canonical tradition, Äsamitta, the fourth Niîhava (Schism), flourished 220 years after Mahävïra. Early Jaina inscriptions have been discovered from this place. The author of the Vividhatïrtha refers to this Tïrtha.1
MATHURA : Mathura is recognized as a great Jaina Tïrtha because Jambusvämï attained Nirväîa here, The Devanirmita (divine made) Stüpa of this place belonged to the third of second century B.C. A few sculptures of this place belonged to the pre-christian period. The Jaina sculptures and Äyägapaûûas of the Kushäîa period discovered in large number prove the great popularity of Jainism. People of common classes such as iron-smiths, gold-smiths, potters and perfumers followed Jainism. The names of Kulas and Áäkhäs mentioned in the Jaina inscriptions confirm to those found in the text of the Kalpasütra. Jainism also continued during the Gupta period as known from the remains. The Pañchastüpanikäya sect of the Digambaras originated from this place. Bappabhaûûasüri visited this holy place. The Vividhatïrthakalpa mentions this Tïrthas. From the Brihatkathäkoáa, it is known that Jainism was popular here. Five hundered and fourteen stupas were built or broken lod stüpas during the reign of Akbar when this Tïrtha was renovated by Säha Ûodara. Jainism suffered greatly in Mathura from time to time because of invasions.2 Chinese Huensang (7 century) has recorded in his travels that there were more than five hundred Jain temples here3.
SIÃHAPURA : Siãhapuri is the place, where according to the Jaina tradition, the 11th Tïrthänkara Áreyäãáa was born. There is a controversy among scholars about the identification of this place. Some identify this place with Särnäth. The evidence of Yuan Chwang seems to suggest that this place is identical with Siãhapura, situated in the salt range (Punjab, Pakistan), which has been described by that pilgrim as connected with a ‘founder’ of the ‘White-Cloth’ sect.
According to the Digambaras, this place sacred to Neminätha, was located on the river Käverï. Jñänasägra, who lived in the 16th century, has described this place. It was also called Narasiãhapaûûana.1
KAUÁÄMBÏ : Kauáämbi is identified with the present Kosam in the Allahabad District. According to the Jaina tradition, this place was birth place of the sixth Tïrthaõkara Padmaprabha. Mahävïra is known to have visited this place personally during the reign of Udayana. The Kalpasütra suggests that there was a Áäkhä named after this city. Jinaprabha has also written on this Tïrtha.2
PABHÜSÄ : Pabhüsä is situated near Kauáaãbï in Allahabad District. There Jaina inscriptions of the Áuõga period have been discovered here. These inscrptions inform that Ashäâhasena constructed the caves in the Pabhosä mountain for the Arahantas of the Käáyapagotra. Some ancient Jaina sculptures have also been discovered here. One is a magnificent sitting icon of Padmaprabha.3
CHANDRAPURÏ : Chandrapurï is stituated near Varäîasï, and it has been identified with the place of the same name. According to the Jaina tradition, it was the birth place of the eight Tïrthaõkara Chandraprabha. Jinaprabha mentions this Tïrthas in the Vividhatïrthakalpa.1
RATNAPURÏ : Ratnapur is located in the Faizabad District. According to the Jaina traditions, it was the birth place of Dharmanatha, the 15th Tïrthaõkara. Jinaprabha describes it as situated near Ayodhyä.2
DEVAGARH : Devagarh is situated in the Lalitpur District. It was the great centre of Jainism during the early medieval period. The earliest Jaina epigraph from this place is dated 862 A.D. of the reign of Pratihära Bhoja. In the ninth century A.D., it was called Luachchhagira. Afterwards, it was given the name Kïrtigiri. A Chandella epigraph also was discovered from this place. There was the temple of Áantinätha here. From the inscriptions of the 15th century A.D., it is known to be a centre of the Mülasaãgha. A large number of Jaina images of the Tïrthaõkaras, Yakshas and Yakshïs have been unearthed here.3
CHANDRAVÄÂA : Chandraväâa is a place on the Yamunä near Firozabad in Agra District. It is sacred to Chandraprabha. The Jaina temple of this Tïrthaõkara was constructed in 996 A.D. This town was founded by the Chauhäna ruler Chandrapäla who was the follower of Jainism. This ruler and his successors ruled up to the 16th century A.D. Most of these rulers, and all their Ministers were devoted to Jainism.1
ÁAURÏPURA : (Sauryapura) According to the Tiloyapaînatti, Harivaãáapuräîa and Ärädhanä Kathä Kosha of Nemidatta, Arishûanemi was born at Áaurïpura. This place is identified with the place near Bateávara in Agra District. The remains of old Jaina temples and images have been discovered at this place. In the medieval period, it remained a seat of the Bhaûûärakas of the Mülasaãgha. Bhaûûäraka Viávabhüshaîa of this Saãgha constructed the Jaina temple and performed its installation ceremony in 1667 A.D.2
UCHCHANAGARA : It is difficult to identify Uchchanagara correctly on the basis of present state of knowledge. J.C. JAIN identifies it with Bulandshahar. It was, in all probability, in Rajasthan or Sindh. An early Jaina Áäkhä, mentioned in the Therävalï, originated from this place. It is mentioned several times in the Kharataragachchha Bôihad Gurvävali, and it was intimately connected with the activity of the monks of the Kharatarai gachchha.3
DELHI : The ancient name of Delhi was Yoginïpura in the pre-Muslim period. The king Madanapala of this place gave a cordial reception to the Jaina saint of the Kharatara gachchha in V.S. 1222. The Kharatara gachchha Paûûavali informs that Pärávanätha temple existed here. Even in the Muslim period, the Jainas played an important part in the religious affairs of Delhi. The Prabandhakoáa of Räjaáekhara was written here in 1317 A.D. The well-known Pheru belonged to Delhi and he accepted the teachings propounded by the Jaina saints. A temple of Mahävïra was built in Delhi around 1328 A.D., under the patronage of Muhammad Bin Tughluq. Afterwards, also the manuscripts of Jaina works were written at Yoginipura or Delhi.1
RUDRAPALLI : Rudrapalli was situated near Delhi. The Rudrapallïya Gachchha originated from this place in 1147 A.D. The Kharatara Gachchha Paûûävali mentions two temples of this place namely those of Päráva and Ôishabha.2
ASHÛÄPADA : Ashûäpada is generally identified with Kailäáa, and according to the Jaina tradition, Rishabha attained Nirväîa on the summit of this mountain. The Vividhatïrthakalpa also mentions this Tïrtha.3
KANYÄNAYANA : Kanyänayana was probably situated near Delhi. The icon of Mahävïra was installed in the existing Chaityälaya of this place in V.S. 1233 by the Kharatara Ächärya Jinapati This Tïrtha, according to the Vividhatirthakalpa, was destroyed by the Muslims in V.S.1385, and afterwards, the author of this work, namely Jinaprabha, with the help of Muhammad Bin Tughluq, repaired the Tïrtha and once more, installed the icon of Mahävïra,4 in the same temple-complex of Kanyänayana.
ROHITAKA : The modern name of this place is Rohtak in Haryana. A Yaksha shrine of this place is mentioned in the Upäõga text, the Nïrayavalikä. It is also mentioned in the Bôïhatkathäkoáa. A temple of Pärávanätha of this place was in existence during the time of Emperor Babar in V.S. 1584 and 1586. The temple was under the supervision of the Digambara monks of the Käsûhä Saãgha.1
NAGARAKOÛÛA : Nagarakoûûa is situated in the Dharmsala District of Himachal Pradesh. It is mentioned in several Jaina works. The Kharataragachchha Gurvaväli proves that there was a temple of Áäntinatha at this place in the 13th century. The Vijñaptitriveîï by Jayasägara in 1426 A.D. mentions this place as a Mahätïrtha and also calls it by the name Suáarmapura. It also mentions the great Áäntinätha temples-complex of this place. The same work also mentions the temples of Mahävïra, Ädinätha and Neminäta of this place. The king of this place in V.S. 1484 was patron of Jainism. The Nagarakoûûa Chaityaparipäûï of Jayasägara mentions also these four Jaina temples of this place and also the temple of Ambikä.2
TAXILA : Taxila remained associated with Jainism in early times as known from the archaeological remains. The Vividhatïrthakalpa recognizes it as a Jaina Tïrtha and associates this place with Bähubali.1
UJJAIN : Mahävïra is known to have visited Ujjain where he did penance in a cemetery when Rudra and his wife tried in vain to interrupt him. Jaina traditions ascribe that Pradyota was a follower of Jainism and tried for its propagation. Chandragupta Maurya was admitted to monkhood of Ujjain. When Ärya Suhastin visited Ujjain in order to worship the image of Jïvanta Svämï, Avanti Sukumäla took the vocation of monkhood from him. After the death of Avanti Sukumäla, a stüpa was erected in order to commemorate him and the image of Pärávanätha was installed in it. After some time, the stüpa became barren, and it was known by the name of Kuâuãgeávara (God of the great Forest). Vikramäditya of Ujjain is known to have been devoted to Jainism It was a seat of the Pontiffs of the Mülasaãgha. In the middle of the thirteenth century, Devadhara seems to have been the head of a Jaina monastery at Ujjain. In the Vividhatïrthakalpa, Jinaprabhasüri mentions Kuâuãgeáavara of Ujjain.2
DAÁAPURA : Daáapura is identified with the modern city Mandsor. After Siãhagiri had taught him the eleven Aõgas, Vajra went from Daáapura to Bhadragupta at Avanti (Ujjayinï) to learn the twelfth viz. the Dôishûivädäõga. Daáapura is the birth place of the Jaina saint Äryarakshita who learned from Vajra nine Pürvas, and a fragment of the tenth, and taught them to his pupil Durbalikäpushpamitra. The seventh schism in Jainism occurred at this place. Jinaprabhasüri mentions Supäráva at Daáapura.1
VIDIÁA : The king Pradyota is said to have installed the Jïvantasvämï (lifetime) image of Mahävïra at Vidiáä. Jaina traditions aver that Vajrasvämï and other Jaina Pontiffs obtained liberation in the hills Kunjarävarta and Rathävarta in the neighbourhood of Vidiáä, now known as Bhilsa. Three stone images of Jaina Tïrthaõkaras of the fourth or fifth century A.D. made by Mahäräjädhiräja Rämagupta have been discoverd from Vidiáä. The Udayagiri cave inscription of 425-426 A.D. in the neighbourhood records the installation of an image of the Tïrthaõkara Pärávanätha by Áankara, the disciple of saint Goáarman. Jinaprabhasüri refers to Mahävïra of Bhäilasvämïgaâha.2
MAÕGALAPURA : Maõgalapura was sacred to Abhinandana, the fourth Tïrthaõkara as mentioned by Jinaprabhasüri in the Tïrthakalpa. The Áäsanachatustriãáatikä of Madanakïrti also refers to Abhinandana Jina of Maõgalapura. it was destroyed by the Muslims apparently in the 13th century and was again rebuilt. Jinaprabha tells that this temple once received a grant of land from Jayasiãha II, the Paramära king of Malwa who ruled in the third quarter of the 13th century.3
CHÜLAGIRI : Chülagiri, known to be the Siddhakshetra, is situated in the West Nimar. it is now identified with the present Baâawänï. According to the Prakrit Nirväîa Käîâa. Indrajïta kumbhakarîa Munis have attained liberation from here. Mandanakïrti, a scholar of the 12th or 13th century A.D., tells the image of Ädinätha as Bôihaddeva in the Áäsanachatustiãáatikä. There are two inscriptions dated 1166 A.D. engraved in the Jaina temple. In one, Rämachandra Muni has been praised and in the other, Muni Lokänanda, Devänanda and thier disciples who built this temple. It is possible that the king Arkakïrti, at the preaching of Muni Rämacahndra, got the main temple and big image of Ädinätha excavated in the hill. This is larger than the Buddha image excavated in the hill of Baniyan in Afghanistan. It is 84 feet in height. There are two images of Munisuvrata dated V.S. 1231, two of Päráva dated V.S. 1242 and one of Neminätha dated V.S. 1380 in this temple. The image and temple were renovated in 1516 A.D.
Bhaûûäraka Árutasägara in the Bodhaprabhôita has described this Tïrtha. According to Jñänasägara in the Sarvatïrthavandaõä mentions fifty-two Saãghapatis who performed the installation ceremony of several images. The number of images installed in V.S. 1380 was large.1
PAVAGINI (UÎA) : Üîa is situated in the West Nimar. It is known to be the Siddha Kshetra by the name of Pävägiri which is popular known as ÜNA. It is mentioned in the Prakrit Nirväîakänâa that Svarîabhadra and four Munis attained Nirväîa here. Bhaûûäraka Guîakïrti mentions it in the Tïrthavandanä Saãgraha while Bhaûûäraka Árutasägara refers to it in the Bodha-prabhôita ûïkä.1 The Chaubara Derä II and the Goleávara temple are the Jaina temples of the Paramära period here. In the two Jaina temples, a few colossal Jaina images of the twelfth century have been found. An epigraph mentions the Paramära ruler Udayäditya. The Valleávara temple appears to be built by Räja Balläla. These archaeological remains2 prove that Üîa became a Jaina Tïrtha even in the 11th century A.D.
SIDDHAVARAKÜÛA : Siddhavaraküûa is known to be the Siddhakshetra, and it has been mentioned in the Präkôita Nirväîa Käîâa. It is believed that the two Chakravatïs, ten Kämadevas, and three and half Koûi Munis attained Nirväîa from Siddhavaraküûa located in the west on the bank of the Revä. The images of Chandraprabhu and other Tïrthankaras have been discovered in its neighbourhood.3
DROÎAGIRI : In the Prakrit Nirväîakäîâa, Droîagiri has been mentioned as Nirväîa-Kshetra. From the top of the hill of this place Gurudatta, Munis etc. obtained Nirväna. In the Sanskrit Nirväîa Bhakti, only its name has been given. Bhaûûäraka Árutasägara refers to its name the Bodhapräbhôta ûïkä. Droîagiri is generally identified with a small hill near the village Droîagiri in the Chhatarpur District. It has the temple of Ädiávara and also a few other shrines. The earliest temple dedicated to Ädinätha, has an epigraph of V.S. 1549.1
SONÄGIRI : Sonägiri, a Siddhakshetra, is situated in the Datia District. From the Prakrit Nirväîakänâa, it is known that Naõga, Anaõga etc five and half Koûi Munis obtained liberation after performing penances.2 An inscription3 found in the pedestal of an image of the temple No. 76 has been assigned to the seventh century A.D. Several other image inscriptions of the period between 1200 and 1600 A.D. have also been discovered from different temples of this Tïrth. These inscriptions prove that this Tïrth began to be recognised from the early times.
RESHANDÏGIRI : According to the Prakrit Nirväîakäîâa, Varadatta etc five Munis obtained Moksha from the top of the Reshandïgiri. Hence, it is known as the Nirväîa Kshetra. The other name of this place is Nainägiri. This place has been located in the Chhatarpur District. It is dedicated to Pärávanätha. One temple and thirteen images were discovered in the excavation. One inscription dated V.S. 1109 engraved on the wall indicates the time of the temple and images.4
AHÄRA : Ahära is situated in Tikamgarh District. Some people say that it is Atisäya Kshetra while others regard it as Siddaha Kshetra. According to them, Madanakumära obtained Keval Jñana from the Tïrtha of Mallinätha, and Shri Nishkaõvala from the Tïrtha of Mahävïra. Actually, the ancient name of this place was Madaneáasägarapura, named after the Chandella ruler Madanavarman. This place is known to be associated with one Päâäáäha who built a Jain temple here. There are inscriptions dated V.S. 1123 and V.S. 1136 engraved on the images available here.
GWALIOR : The mountain in Gwalior is known as and it preserves Gopächala. Two rock-cut 40 feet height bidol to payrath in sing posibles along with fiftin hours Swker Jain scuepire reliefs at this place, The highters in India one showing Tirthankarara standing in meditation and the other representing a Jina meditating in the Padmäsana posture, seem to be of the Gupta period2. Bappabhaûûasüri built a Mahävïra temple at this place. During the Tomara period, Jainism became a great dynamic and cultural force. Temples and caves were built, and numerous images were installed in them during the medieval period. Raidhü, who was a great poet, belonged to this place.
BADNAWAR : Badnawar is situated in the Dhar District. Its ancient name was Vardhamänapura kept after the Jaina Tïrthaõkara Vardhamäna. Jinasena of the Puîîäta Saãgha finished the Harivaãáa Puräîa at (Vaâhamäna) Vardhamänapura in 783 A.D. Harisheîa, who belonged to the Puîîäûasãgha, composed the Kathäkosha in 931 A.D. at Vardhamänapura3. Some image inscriptions with the name of Puîîäûasaãgha have been discovered at this place. Most of the Jaina images with the 12th-13th centuries inscriptions of the Paramära period have been discovered here.
DHÄRA : Dhära was the capital of the Paramära rulers, and it remained associated with Jainism. Devasena wrore the Daráanasära in V.S. 990 (933 A.D.) in the Jaina temple of Pärávanätha at Dhära. Nayanandi composed the Sudarsana-Charita in 1043 A.D. while staying in the Jinavaravihära of Dhära. Madankïrti of the 13th century has also mentioned the temple of Päráva at Dhära. Dharasena lived in Dhära, and his disciple was Mahävïra, a learned Ächärya. Äáädhara migrated to Dhära from Mäîâalgarh in 1192 A.D. because of the Muslim invasion. Jaina Ächäryas of the Kharatara Gachchha visited Dhära from time to time. In 1207 A.D. (V.S. 1264), Jinapati visited Dhära and propagated Vidhimärga in the temple of Áäntinätha. Jinavallabha Süri, Jinadattasüri and others also visited Dhära for the propagation of Jainism.1
KHAJURÄHO : Khajuräho is situated in Chhatarpur District, and there are templse of Áänti, Päráva and Ädinätha. These Jaina temples are important from artistic point of view. The Jaina Äcärya Väsavachandra has been represented as the teacher of king Dhaõga. The inscription dated 953-954 A.D. in the temple of Pärávanätha records a number of gifts and endowments by one Pähila who claims to have been held in esteem by king Dhaõga. The devotion of the Grahapati family to which Pähila belonged is also evidenced by Áäntinätha image inscription of V.S. 1132. This place has a large number of Jaina images of the tenth to the twelfth century A.D.2 Seven dancing damsels at the outer portion of Shatinath temple are world- famous.
NALAKACHCHHAPURA : Nälakachchhapura is located in Dhär District. It was connected with the activities of the great scholar Äáädhara who wrote his works in the Neminätha temple of this place. It is alos mentioned along with Dhara in the colophon of a manuscript dated V.S. 12951.
TRIPURI : Tripuri was the old capital of the Kalachuris, and is situated near Jabalpur. A Jaina temple of this place called Trilokatilaka, has been mentioned by Uadayakïrti who flourished in all probability in the 13th century. Some of the beautiful Jina icons from Tewar (present Tripuri) have been preserved in the Jabalpur Museum.2
BAHURIBAND : It is situated in Jabalpur District. That Jainism flourished during the Kalachuri period is shown by the Bahuriband stone inscription of Gayäkarîa and other archaeological remains. This inscription records that one Mahäbhoja, son of Sädhu Sarvadhara, erected a temple of Áäntinätha. The inscription further notes that white canopy over it was, built by Sütradhära. The image of Áäntinätha was consecrated by the Ächärya Subhadra who belonged to the line of Deáïgaîa in the Ämnäya of Chandrakara Ächärya.3
GYARASPUR : Gyäraspur is situated at a distance of 28 kms. from Vidisha. As it is believed to be the place of penance (Tapobhümi), It is regarded as Kalyäîa Kshetra. It is alos an art centre.1 The Mäladevô temple, which is partly rock-cut and partly structural, is a mature example of Pratïhara temple style. From the decorative motifs and architectural factures, this temple appears to be of the ninth century A.D. The Bäjrämaûha is an example of rare class of temple. Some scholars consider it to be a Jaina temple. The sculptures enshrined in the temple of Mälädevï are remarkable from the artistic point of view. The beautiful figure of Áälabhañjikä from Gyaraspur has attained world wide renown for its finely arranged coiffure, sharp and prominent facial feautes. Some people regard it as Atiáayakshetra.
LAKSHMAÎÏ : Lakshmanï Tïrtha, sacred to Padmaprabha, is situated in Jhäbuä District. It is mentioned in the Praväsagïtikä of Jayänanda (15th century) as a great Jaina centre with more than one hundred temples and 2000 devotees.2
AMÏJHARÄ : Amïjharä is identified with modern Amjherä in Dhära District. It is dedicated to Pärávanätha and it became a Jaina Tïrtha from roughly 1500 A.D.3
MÄÎÂAVAGAÂHA : Mäîâavagaâha. sacred to Supäráva, is situated in Dhär District, and at present, is known as Mäîâu. There is also an old temple of Áäntinätha at this place. Sumatisägara (16th century) and Jñänasägara (C.1575 A.D.) have mentioned the Mahävïra temple of this place. During the reign of the Sultans of Mäîdu, it became a great Tïrtha.1
TÄLANAPURA : Tälanapura in Dhär District is sacred to Ädinätha and is respected by both the Ávetämbaras and the Digambaras. There are a few old icons in this temple-complex. One image was installed by Viáälakïrti of the Käshûhä Saãgha in 1268 A.D.2
KUÎÂALAPURA : Kuîâalapura is situated in Damoha District. According to the Tiloyapaîîati of Yativôishbha, Árïdhara attained liberation from Kuîâalagiri. There is mention of Kuîâalapura in the Sanskrit Nirväîa Bhakti of Püjyapäda. The main deity at this Tïrtha is of Ôshabha 6th century A.D. but not of Mahävïra, as is generally believed. This Tïrtha was renovated by Mahäräja Chhatrasäla in V.S. 1757 through the Bhaûûärakas. It is regarded as the famous Atiáaya Kshetra3 and at this place there also exists sixty Jain temples.
THUVAUNA : Thuvauna, dedicated to Ädinätha, is situated in Gunä District. It is said that a Árävaka named Päâäáäha belonged to this place, and built the jaina temple. This Tïrtha is believed to be the famous Atiáaya Kshetra.4 Here there are 26 temples as in these temples various idols are 30 feet in height.
BAJARAÕGA GAÂHA : Bajaraõga gaâha is situated at a distance of 07 kms. from Guîä. There are three Käyotsarga images of Jaina Tïrthaõkaras Áañtinätha. Araha Nätha and Kuntunätha. Their installation ceremony was performed in V.S. 1236 by Läâäáäha who belonged to the Gahoï Vaiáya caste. The main deity (Mülanäyaka) of this place was of Áäntinätha. the Jaina images of V.S. 1075, 1115, 1225, 1312, 1320, 1321 and 1329 have been found here. There images prove the antiquity of this place. It is well-known as the Atiáaya–Kshetra.1
BÜÂHÏ CHANDERÏ : Büâhï Cahnderï is at a distance of fourteen kms. from the modern Chanderï. This place was ruled by the Chandellas. This place flourished between V.S. 1335 and V.S. 1334. It became a great art centre. Innumetable Jaina images of this period have been discovered. These Jaina images possess peculiar certain characteristics. No inscription and Árïvatsa are found on these Jaina images. Some Jaina images have no symbols. These Jaina images are important from the artisic point of view.2
SIHONIÄ : Sihoniä is situated at a distance of 30 kms. from Mureîä. About 141 Jaina images of the 11th century A.D. are found here. The there Jaina images of Áäntinätha, Kunthunätha and Arahanätha wer together installed here. These there were Kämadevas and Chakrivatïs, and were the natives of Hastinäpura. Sihoniä is known to be Atiáaya Kshetra because of the image of Áäntinätha.3
RAJASTHAN, GUJARAT AND MAHÄRÄSHÛRA
NAGARÏ : Nagarï is situated eighteen kms. north of Chittor. Its ancient name was Madhyamikä, The Madhyamikä branch of the Jaina Saãgha organization, as mentioned in the Sthirävali of the Kalpasütra, became famous after the name of this place. Priyagrantha, the second pupil of Susthita and Supratibudha, founded this branch probably in the second century B.C. A Kushäîa inscription of the second century A.D. mentioning Madhyamikä säkhä has been found at Mathurä. An inscription of the third or second century B.C., which states that something was constructed for the welfare of all living beings, has been discovered at this place.1
JHÄLRÄ PÄÛAN : The ancient name of Jhälräpäûan is said to be Chandravatï which was situated on the banks of Chandrabhäga. There was a famous old temple of Áäntinätha which is unique for the point of view architects which was built by Säha Pïpä in 1046 A.D., and its installation ceremony was performed by Bhavadevasüri. An inscription dated 1109 A.D. on a pillar of Sätsaläkïpuhäri records the death of Áreshï Pïpä. This temple was often visited by Árävakas and Jaina Ächäryas. An inscription of 1047 A.D. records the name of a visitor to the shrine. Jaina Ächäryas used to reside at this place because we find a vast number of funeral memorials termed ‘Nishedhikas‘ of Jaina priests.2
BAYÄNÄ : Bayänä is situated about forty-eight kms. to the South-West of Bharatpur. Its ancient names were Árïpathä and Brahmaväâa. An inscription of 994 A.D. on the image of Jina reveals that it was caused to be made in accordance with the instructions of Áürasena of apparently the Vägaâa Saãgha by three brothers. During the Muslim period, the activities of Jainism remained unrestrained. Images were installed in the Jaina temples, and manuscripts prepared in order to present them to monks. The installation ceremonies of images were performed in 1403, 1439, 1448 and 1456 A.D. at Brahmaväda, another name of Bayänä. A copy of the Ätmaprabodhana was written in 1490 A.D. at Árïpathä, the alternative name of Bayänä.1
BHINMÄL : The old name of Bhimäl, which is situated about one hundred sixty nine kms. south of Jodhpur is Árïmäla. An inscription of 1276 A.D. found here tells that Mahävïra in person came to Árïmäla. It is supported by the Árïmälamähätmya, a work of the 13th century A.D. Siddhasena Süri refers to this place as a holy place in the Sakalatïrthastotra. Dhanapäla of the 11th Century informs about the Jaina image of Mahävïra. Jinaprabhasüri in the Vividhatïrthakalpa mentions it as a holy place of Vïra. Besides, there were other Jaina temples such as Áäntinätha and Pärávanatha. The Árïmälïs among the Jainas originated from this place. They were converted to Jainism by the Jaina saints about the eighth century A.D.2
VASANTAGARH : Vasantagarh is situated eight Kms. to the south of Piîâwärä and its old names were Vatäkara, Vaûanagara and Väáishûhapura. The inscription of the seventh or eighth century A.D. engraved on the walls of this temple definitely proves its ancientry. Besides, a pair of images of Rïshabhadeva with the inscription of 687 A.D. has been discovered from under the ground. It is the earliest Jaina inscription discoverd in Rajasthan. It is recorded that Droîovaka Yaáodeva caused to be constructed the beautiful pair of Jaina images. The Jaina temple of this place appears to be renovated in 1450 A.D. by Maîisundara Süri during the reign of Kumbhakarîa1
MANDOR : Maîâor, the ancient capital of Märwär, is situated at a distance of eight kms. from Jodhpur. Its old names were Maââodara and Mäîâavyapura durga. Kakkuka, the Pratïhära ruler of this place, was a great patron of Jainism. He constructed a Jaina temple at Ghaûiyälä. There are remains of the Jaina temple of the tenth century A.D. In 1186 A.D., the Árävakas of this place went on pilgrimage with the Saãgha led by Abhayakumära to the holy places. The Árävakas of Maîâor built, and repaired temples of other places, and placed images in them. In 1311 A.D., Gosala with his brother and sons renovated the temple of Vimalavasahï at Äbü. In 1461 A.D., Sañjaka of Maîâor with the members of his family prepared Nandiávara Paûûikä, and installed it durring the reign of Chächigadeva in the temple of Pärávanätha at Jaisalmer through Jinachandrasüri. The Maîâovara gotra of the Osavälas became famous after Maîâor. The Maîâora-gachchha, a branch of the Kharatara-gachchha, originated from this place in 1497 A.D.1
GHAÛIYÄLÄ : At a distance of thirtyfive kms. north west of Jodhpur is situated the town of Ghaûiyälä. In early times, It was famous by the names of Rohiãsaka and Rohiãsaküpa. The Pratïhära ruler was a patron of Jainism, and caused ot be built a temple of the god Jina for the several merchants whom he invited to settle there, He entrusted this temple to the community, presided over by the ascetics, Jambava and Ämraka and the merchant Bhäkuta in the Gachchha of the holy Dheneávara. on the right side of the temple is sculptured the figure of a Jaina goddess seated on a lion.2
MERTÄ : At a distance of one hundred seventeen kms. north- east of Jodhpur stands the town of Mertä. Its ancient names were Meâantaka and Meâatapura. In medieval times, it was called Medanïpura. After converting the Yaksha, Kaâameâa and a large number of Brähmaîas to Jainism, Abhayadevasüri, who lived in the eleventh century A.D., caused the temple of Mahävïra to be built in this city. At the request of the Chauhäna king Mäladeva, Jinachandrasüri in 1322 A.D., visited Mertä. In 1323 A.D., Seûha Räyapati of Delhi, while leading Saãgha to holy places along with Jinakuáalasüri, came to Mertä. The activities of Jainism continued even during the Muslim period. Copies of the manuscripts were written and images installed in them. Hïravijaya Süri, on whom Akbar conferred the ritle of Jagadguru, visited this place. Samaysundara, a distinguished scholar of medieval times, wrote several works from Mertä. Áäntikuáala in his Árï Gaudï Päráva Tïrthamälä, written in 1670 A.D., refers to Mertä as a holy place of the Jainas.1
OSIÄ : Osiä is situated fiftytwo kms north-west of Jodhpur. The Jaina temple dedicated to Mahävïra was famous. It appears to have been first built at the end of the eighth century A.D. Osiä remained specially associated with Jainsim. It is known as the cradle of a class of Baniäs called Osavälas. It is said that Ratnaprabhasüri visited this place and converted the king and his subjects to Jainism. At the request of the temple committee, a merchant called Jindaka renovated the temple of Mahävïra. The temple of Mahävïra continued as a holy place. The Näbhinandana Jinodhära written by Kakkasüri in 1338 A.D. gives us useful information about the town. Siddhasena Süri refers to Osia as a holy place in the Sakalatïrthastotra. Upakeáa gachchha was also named after Osiä. From the Upakeáa gachchha prabandha, it is known that the Muslim army while passing through destroyed the town in 1195 A.D.2
JÄLOR : Jalor is situated about one hundred twenty one kms. south of Jodhpur. From the Kuvalayamälä composed in 778 A.D. by Uddyotanasüri, it is clear that it was a flourishing town adorned with temples and buildings of rich men. The famous Jaina temples were of Ädinätha, Mahävïra, Pärávanätha and Áäntinätha. Jälor was regarded as a holy place of the Jainas in early times. Siddhasenasüri pays high respect to it in his Tïrthamäla. The Vidhichaitya movement gained strength, and popularity by the frequent visits of the Jaina saints to this place. In 1168 A.D., Jinachandrasüri visited this place and propagated the teachings of Vidhimärga to the Árävakas. Jineávarasüri remained specially associated with this place. Jälor was a seat of learning in early times. Uddayotana Süri, Buddisägara and Jineávara Süri composed their respective works. Jinabhadrasüri founded Áästrabhaîâära at this place in the fourteenth century A.D.1
DÏÂWÄNÄ : Âïâwänä is situated at a distance of two hundred nine kms. north-east of Jodhpur. It remained associated with Jainism from very early times. Jineávarasüri, who visited this place in the tenth century A.D. composed the Kathäkoáa. Árïdattasüri of the Pürnatala gachchha, the teacher of the famous scholar Hemachandrasuri, visited Dïâwänä and addressed the ruler Yaáobhadra of this place. Yaáobhadra got a big Jaina temple constructed known as Chauvïsa Jinälaya. Siddhasena Süri mentions this holy place in his Sakalatïrthamälä.2
NÏLAKAÎÛHA (Rajora Garh) : Nïlakaîûha (Räjorgarh) is situated fortyfive kms. to the south-west of Alwar. In the tenth century A.D., its name was Räjyapura and it was capital of the Baâa Gurjara Räjputs. Jainism made marked progress during the reign of the Baâa-Gurjaras. Jaina saints performed penances in some caves. By their inspiration, their followers constructed magnificent temples, and images in them. An inscription dated V.S. 979 (923 A.D) of the reign of king Sävaûa records the construction of the temple as well as the installation of an image of Áäntinätha therein at Rajyapura by Saravadeva, son of Dedullaka, and grandson of Arbhaûa of Dharkaûa family. Three life-size Jaina figures are all standing upright. One colossal Jaina figure known as Nowgaza is said to have been built by Bhaiãsä Mahäjana during the reign of some Baâa Gujara ruler.1
SANCHOR : Sanchor is situated about two hundred kms. south–west of Jodhpur. Its old name was Satyapura. Under the Muslim rule, It was named Mahamudäbäd. Sanchor was a great centre of Jainism. Because of the celebrated temple of Mahävïra, it was considered a holy place of the Jainas. In the old Chaityabandana stotra of Jagachintamani, this Tïrth has been described with deep devotion. Dhanapäla composed the poem Satyapurïya Mahävïra Utsäha in honour of the order of Mahävïra. From the account of Jinaprabhasüri, it was believed to have been built by Nähaâa of Maîâor. This Jaina temple of Mahävïra was destroyed by the Mulsims. Sanchor, being a holy place, was visited by Jaina saints such as Jinakusalasüri and Jinapadmasüri from time to time. Some of them composed their literary works, and got the copies of manuscripts prepared in order to spread knowledge. It was a birth place of the great scholar named Samayasundara.1
CHÄTSU : Chätsu is situated about fortytwo kms. south of Jaipur. Its early name was Champävatï. the temple, crowning the hill, was originally a temple of the eighth century A.D. The religious activities of Jainism continyed during the reign of the Muslim ruler Ghiyäsuddïn. Under the patronage of the Solaõkï ruler Rämachandra, a feudatory ruler of Saõgräma Siãha of Mewär, Jainism flourished exceedingly. Several copies of manuscripts were prepared, and the consecration of the images took place. Bhaûûäraka Chndrakïrti of Mülasaãgha seems to have removed his seat from Chitor to this place. It also became a centre of learning in medieval times. Ûhakurra, and author of the sixteenth century A.D., composed some Apabhraãáa works here.2
NÄGDÄ : Nagda is situated at the fort of the hill of Ekaliõgajï. Its old names are Nägahôida and Nägadraha. The temple, now, known as the temple of Padmävatï was originally the famous temple of Päráavanätha. The Jaina temple known as Adbhudjï is so called, because it contains a wonderful image of Áäntinätha. It was constructed by a merchant named Säraãga of the Poraväla caste during Kumbhakaraîa’s reign. Nägdä was well known as a holy place of the Jainas in early times. Viáälakïrti’s disciple named Madanakïrti, who lived in the thirteenth century A.D., prayed to Pärávanätha of Nägadraha along with other Tïrthaõkaras in the Áäsanachatustriãáatikä. Jinaprabhasuri also refers to it in his Vividhatïrthakalpa, written in 1332 A.D. This Tïrtha has been described in the Tïrthaãäläs of the late period. Sundarasüri composed an independent stotra in devotion to Nägahôida Pärávanätha.1
ÄHÄR : Ähär is about three kms. east of Udaipur city. Its ancient names were Äghaûapura and Ätpura. Jainism flourished here under the patronage of the Guhila rulers. Pradyumnasüri of Chandra Gachchha is siad to have defeated the Digambara saints in discussions in the royal court of Allaûa at Äghäûa. From the Räsasaãgraha, it is known that the Minister of Allaûa, built the Jaina temple, and got the image of Pärávanätha installed through Yaáobhadrasüri of Saîâeraka Gachchha who passed away in 972 A.D. This is further confirmed from the Jaina inscription fond on devakulikä of the Jaina temple. In this inscription, Mayüra, Árïpati and Mattaûa have been described as Akshapatalikas respectively of Allaûa, Naravähana and Áaktikumära. They might have constructed this Jaina temple. Dhanadeva, who lived in the tenth century A.D., refers ot the temple of Mahävïra in his poem ‘Satyapurïya Mahävïra Utsäha, Siddhasenasüri, an author of the twelfth century, refers to this place in the Sakalatïrtha Stotra. Jagachandrasüri was a great Jaina ascetic who performed hard penances. Seeing him, Jaitrasiãaha, the ruler of Mewar, gave him the title Tapä in 1228 A.D. at Äghäûa., By the inspiration of Jaina saints several copies of manuscripts were prepared under the royal patronage. Jhänjhaîa, in the company of his teacher Dharmaghoshasüri, organized the Saãgha to holy places and visited Äghäûa also.1
CHITOR : Chitor is situated at a distance of about one hundred eight kms. to the north-east of Udaipur city. Its ancient name was Chitraküûa. The great Jaina scholar named Haribhadrasüri of the eighth century was a native of this place. He wrote the Dhürtäkhyäna at Chitor. Vïrasena learnt the Shaûkhaîâägama and the Kashäyaprabhôita from Elächärya at Chitor. Harisheîa, who originally a resident of Chitor, wrote the Dharmaparïkshä in 987 A.D. Jinavallabha made Chitraküûa his headquarters for the propagation of Vidhimärga in the early twelfth century A.D. The reformed temples were established at his persuatsion. After Jinavallabha, the function of Paûûa ceremony of Jinadattasüri was celebrated in 1112 A.D. with great rejoicings. Vädidevasüri defeated Áivamürti in discussions. This place was also a seat of Digambara Bhaûûärakas in the twelfth century A.D. The kings and officers, though followers of Brahmanical religion, were highly influenced by the teachings of the Jaina Ächäryas. The ruler Samarasiãha issued an ordinance prohibiting the slaughter of animals in his kingdom on certain days.
Chitor was considered to be a holy place of the Jainas as known from the Sakalatïrtha Stotra of Siddhasenasüri. The Jaina Kïrtistambha was built in honour of the Jaina Tïrthaõkara Adinätha by Punasiãha, the son of Jijä of the Bhagherväla caste during the reign of Kumbha. Kumbha’s treasurer Bhaîâärï Belä, a Jaina erected the charming temple known as Sriõgära Chaurï in honour of the Jaina Tïrthaõkara Áäntinätha. Some Chittraküûa Chaitya Paripäûïs, written in the fifteenth and the sixteenth centuries, are important as they point out that there were temples of different Gachchhas. Various copies of manuscripts on religion and philosophy were prepared for presentation to the Jaina monks in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.1
SHERGARH : Shergarh is about one hundred forty-five kms. to the south-west of Koûah. Its ancient name was Koáavardhana. In the tenth century A.D., one Räjapüta Saradära installed three Jaina images, which are now in dilapidated condition. An inscription of 1105 A.D. records how a great festival of the Jaina Tïrthaõkara Neminätha was celebrated at the new Chaitya. At this time, the Jaina saint Vïrasena was residing here in 1134 A.D, Devapäla caused to be made the ratnatraya (images of three Tïrthaõkaras Áäntinätha, Kunthanätha, and Aranätha); and performed their installation ceremony in association with his son, parents, relatives and Genûhins at Koáavardhana.2
NÄGAUR : Nagaur, the chief town of the District of the same name, is situated in Jodhpur Division. It was known by various name such as Nägapura, Nagapattana, Ahipura and Bhujaõga-nagara. From the literary sources, it is known as a great centre of Jainism. Jayasiãhasüri wrote the Dharmopadeáamälävivaraîa in 858 A.D. Chandrasüri started to write the Upadeáavôitti in 1177 A.D. In 1105 A.D., Hemachandrasüri was ordained as Ächärya by Devasüri. Jinavallabhasüri and Jinadattasüri of the Kharatara gachchha visited this place, and established Vidhichaityas in the twelfth century A.D. In the fifteenth century A.D., Jinabhadrasüri set up grantha-bhaîâära at this place. Bhaûûaräka Ratnakïrti established a different seat of the Mulasaãgha at Nagaur in the fifteenth century A.D. The Nagaura Bhaîâära containing about 15,000 manuscripts is famous. Nägapurïya gachchha, a branch of the Tapägachchha, among the Jainas, originated from Nägaur. There were several Jaina temples at this place. Siddhasena refers to Nägaur as a holy place in the Sakalatïrtha Stotra. The temple of Näräyaîavasahï built in 860 A.D. was in existence in the Seventeenth century A.D. as known from the Nägaurachaitya Paripäûi. Dhanadeva got the installation ceremony of the temple of Neminätha performed from Jinavallabhasüri. Ûhäkura Achalasiãha of this place got the ordinance from Qutbuddin, the Khilji Sultan of Delhi for pilgimage to holy places in 1317 A.D.1
KHAÎÂELÄ : At a distance of fortyfive kms. from Sikar stands the town of Khaîâelä. Its old name as known from literary sources were Khaîâilla and Khaîâelapura. Jinasenächärya, in the line of the saint Aparäjita, is said to have converted the Chauhäna ruler of this place with his subjects to Jainism, and formed the Khaîâelaväla caste. When this incident took place, is not definitely known. Probably, it happended in the eighth century A.D. because the Khaîâelaväla caste is not known to be in existence earlier. Its earliest mention is found in the inscription of 1197 A.D. When these Khaîâelavälas increased in number, They formed gotras after the names of villages, surnames, etc. From a Praáasti of the Dharmaratnäkara written in 998 A.D., it is known that its author Jayasena visited Khaîâalika, and there, he impressed the people with his teachings. In 1287 A.D., Jinaprabhasüri also came to Khanâelapura and he converted the people to Jainism by his teachings. Brämaîika, a pupil of Bhaûûäraka Jinachandra of Mülasãgha, paid visit to Khaîdelapura in 1461 A.D. Khaîâelä remained a great holy place of the Jainas as is mentioned in Sakalatïrtha Stotra of Siddhasenasüri. Probably, Khaîâila gachchha among the Jainas was named after this place. There are remains of an old Jaina temple at this place.
KÄMÄN : Kämän lies at a distance of sixtyfour kms. from Bharatpur. There are remains of the old Jaina temples. Kämyaka gachchha originated from this place, Durgadeva, the Jaina author, furnished the Rishûasamuchchaya in a fine temple of Áäntinatha at Kumbhanagara ruled over by Lakshmïniväsa. Kumbhanagara may be identified with Käman. As regards the king Lakshmïnivasa, he may be the Sürasena ruler named Lakshmaîa.2
HATHUÎÂÏ : Hathuîâï is about five kms. south-east of Bijapura, and its old name was Hastikuîâï. In the tenth century, it was a capital of the Rästrakütas who were the followers of Jainism. Vidagdha, at the preaching of Väsudevächärya, built a temple of Ôishabhadeva at Hathuîâï, and also made a grant in favour of his teacher Balaprasäda and the temple. His son Mammaûa renewed this grant. Dhavala, son of Mammaûa, renovated the Jaina temple built by his grand-father. After the rule of the Räshûraküûas, Hathuîâï probably suffered from the Muslim attack, which is responsible for the change of Mülanäyaka from Ôishabhadeva to Mahävïra in the temple of this place. Gradually, it became a famous holy place by the name of Räûa Mahävïra. Pilgrims from different places came to visit it. Áilavijayasüri and Jinatilakasüri describe their holy place in their Tïrthamäläs. The Hastikuîâïya gachchha was started by Väsudevächärya in the tenth century A.D. after the name of this place.1
VARMAN : At a distance of forty-five kms. from Äbü station, there stands a village of Varmäî. Its old name was Brahmäîa. Varmäî remained a stronghold of Jainism. Siddhasenasüri refers to this place in the Sakaltïrtha Stotra, Brähmaîaka Gachchha among the Jainas originated from the place Varmän, whose ancient name was Brähmaîa-Mahästhäna. The Mahävïra Jaina temple of this gachchha was built in 1185 A.D. or even before by the Árävakas of this place2.
NÄÂOL : Näâol, now a village, is situated at a distance about thirteen kms. from Jawälia Station. It was the capital of the Chauhänas. Jainism made a striking progress here under the patronage of the Chauhäna rulers. This town became one of the celebrated Pañchatïrthas of the Jainas of Märwär. The Jaina temple of Mahävïra was very famous. The king Aávaräja, who was a feudatory of Kumärapäla, gave commands for the strict observance of Ahiãsä on certain days. In 1171 A.D., Älhaîadeva also forbade the slaughter of animals on certain days, Älhaîadeva and his son Kïrtipäla made gifts to the temple of Mahävïra.1
KORÛÄ : The old name of Korûä, situated twenty-six kms. to the south-west of Saîâera, is Koraîûaka. Korûä was a famous place of pilgrimage of the Jainas. In the tenth century A.D., Dhanapäla, in his poem Satyapuramahävïrautsäha refers to the temple of Mahävïra of Koranta. This place is also mentioned in the Sakalatïrtha Stotra of Siddhasena Süri. According to the Prabhävaka Charitra, Koraîûapura was a prosperous town inhabited by rich people who were devoted to their religion. This town remained a place of pilgrimage in medieval times also. Megha, Áïlavijaya and Jñävimalasüri describe this place in their Tïrthamäläs. The people of this place led Saãghas to holy places. Koraîûa gachchha originated from this place.2
SAÎÂERÄ : Saîâerä is about sixteen kms. north-west of Bäli in Jodhpur Division. It seems to have been founded by Yaáobhadrasüri in the tenth century A.D. Saîâerä remained a great centre of Jainism in the past. Siddhasena. Süri mentions this place in the list of holy places in his Sakalatïrtha Stotra. Saîâeraka gachchha founded by Yaáobhadrasüri, originated from this place in the tenth century A.D. Its early name was Välabha gachchha. Its early influential Ächäryas Yaáobhadrasüri Áälisüri and Sumatisüri rendered valuable services to Jainism. There were two Jaina temples of Mahävïra and Pärávanätha of Saîâeraka gachchha. The chauhäna rulers of Näâol patronized the activities of Jainism, at Saîâerä.1
NÄÂLÄÏ : Näâiäï is a small village six kms. north-west of Desürï in Jodhpur Division, Jainism flourished greatly at this place under the patronage of the Chauhäna rulers. There were two old temples of Neminätha and Mahävïra here. Kings, feudatories and their subjects made donations to these temples. These temples were destroyed by the Muslims, and therefore rebuilt by the Saãghas of the various places. Näâläï also remained a holy place even in medieval times. The founder of Kaâuä sect, named Kaâuä Áäha, was born here in 1440 A.D. Áäntikuáala mentions the temple of Pärávanätha in his Gauâï Pärávatïrthamälä written in 1610 A.D. Samayasundara, a poet of the Seventeenth century A.D., has given a lively and beautiful description of Näâuläï, and its Neminätha temple in his poem. Áïtavijaya also refers to it in his Tïrthamälä.2
PÄLI : Päli is situated seventy-two kms. south-east of Jodhpur. It remained a place of pilgrimage of the Jainas. Siddhasenasüri offers high respect to this place in his Sakalatïrtha Stotra. This place was well known by the name Pürîabhadra Mahävïra. Madanakïrti mentions Palli Jineávara along with other holy places in the Áasanachatuátriãáatikä, written in the thirteenth century A.D. Viávanätha, pupil of some old Bhattäraka, records Päliáäntijina in the list of holy places. This definitely proves that there was a Jaina temple of Áäntinätha of the Digambara Jainas in early times. Päli was visited by the Jaina saints from ime to time. Some monks devoted themselves to learning, and writing literary works. Copies of the manuscripts were prespared. Palliväla gachchha among the Jainas was named after Päli in 1093 A.D. Kumarapäla’s ordinanace of forbidding the slaughter of animals on certain days was strictly enforced at this place. The caste of Pallivälas among the Jainas was named after Päli in about the eight century A.D.1
KHEDA : Kheâa, the old capital of the Räûhors of Marwar, is situated at a distance of eight kms. from Nagara. Kheâa was a great centre of Jainism. Siddhasenasüri refers to it as a holy place. It was frequently visited by Jinapati Süri, and other saints. Different functions were organized by people in honour of Jaina saints. There was the existence of Jaina temple of Ôishabha in the twelfth century A.D. Uddharaîa constructed a beautiful temple of Áäntinätha at this place, whose consecration ceremony was performed by Jinapatisüri in 1201 A.D. The Chauhäna ruler Pôithvïräja of Ajmer paid visit to Kheâa in order to see Uddharaîa. Lakshmïgaîi, a poet of the fourteenth century, describes it in his Áäntinätha Devaräsa. From the old remains, it is known that there was also Jaina temple of Mahävïra at Kheâa in early times.1
AJMER : Ajmer former called as Ajayameru was founded by the Chuahana ruler Ajaipäla in about 1123 A.D. It was frequently visited by Jaina saints for the propagation of Jainism. During the reign of Arhoräja, Jinadatta Süri came to this place to perform the installation ceremony of the Jaina temple built by Ûhakura Äáädatta. He died here, and was cremated at a place, which came to be known as Dädäbärï. His disciple Jinapatisüri spent the rainy season in 1178 A.D. The Saãgha of Ajmer participated in a pilgrimage to holy place organized by Abayakumara with Jinapati Süri. In the thirteenth century A.D., it was a seat of Bhaûûärakas of the Mulasaãgha. There are strong traditions among the Jainas that presently known as Aâhäï-din-kä-Jhoãpara was a Jaina temple. Jaina Bhaûûärakas and their disciples rendered a valuable sevice to Jaina literature in medieval time. Several copies of the manuscripts were prepared.2 Soõs temple is renowned for golden painting wood carvings and Samavasarana (replica of the discouse assembly of Tirthankar).
NARAIÎÄ : Naraiîä is a small station on the metre-gauge line of the Western Railway between Phulera and Ajmer. Its ancient name was Näräyaîa. During the reign of the Chauhänas, it became a great centre of Jainism. Siddhasenasüri in his Sakalatïrthastotra mentions it as a holy place of the Jainas. Jaina saints used to reside here. The Bijauliä rock inscription dated 1169 A.D. tells that Püîyaräsï, one of the ancestors of Loläka of the Prägväûa caste, built the temple of Vardhamäna. Dhanapäla, an author of the eleventh century A.D, refers to the famous temple of Mahävïra of this place in his poem ‘Satyapurïya Mahävïra Utsaha. From the archaeological remains of images, pillars, doorways and other remains discovered from the underground, it appears that they belonged to the temple of Mahävïra. It was excellent in construction from the architectural point of viw. It was probably destroyed by the Muslim invasions in the twelfth century A.D.1
NARHAÂ : Narhaâ is situated at a distance of eight kms. from Pilani in Jhunjhunu District. Its ancient name was Narabhaûa. It remained a place of pilgrimage in early medieval period. The Saãgha, which started on pilgrimage to Hastinäpura in 1318 A.D. along with Jinachandrasüri, stayed at this place to worship Pärávanätha and they were all cordially welcomed. The Árävakas of this place also joined this Saãgha for pilgrimage to Hastinäpura. In 1319 A.D., on his way to Mertä from Delhi, Jinachandrasüri stayed at Narhaâ. In 1323 A.D., when Jinakuáalasüri started on a pilgrimage to holy places such as Ujjayanta, he dropped at Narhad to worship the image of Pärávanätha installed by Jinadattasüri in the twelfth century A.D. Vinayaprabhasüri, an author of the fourteenth century A.D., in his Tïrthayäträstavana mentions this holy place, and refers to the image of Pärávanätha.2
BAGHERÄ : Bagherä is situated about seventy-four kms. south-east of Ajmer. It was a stronghold of Jainism. Frm the Bijauliä Rock inscription dated 1169 A.D., it is known that Vaiáravaîa, the ancestor of Loläka, built many a temple at Bagherä and other places. This place was a seat of the Bhaûûärakas of the Mülasaãgha in the twelfth century A.D. They placed several Jaina images in the temples of this place. The images of Jaina goddesses found here are notworthy from the artistic point of view. The importance of Bagherä is further clear from the fact that the Bagheravälä caste among the Jainas originagted from this place in the eighth century A.D.1
HARASAUR : Harasaur is situated between Pushkar and Degänä in the District of Nagaur, and its early name seems to be Harshapura Jainism prospered here under the Chauhäna rulers. Siddhasenasüri mentions this town in his Sakaltïrtha Stotra. Harshapura gachchha a branch of Árï Pärávanätha Kula, originated probably from this place. Some Jaina Ächäryas of this gachchha were very powerful, and they had a great influence over their contemporary rulers. The name of this Gachchha is mentioned in the inscription of 1496 A.D. found at Nagaur. A Jaina stone image with the inscription of 996 A.D. has been also discovered. One of the Mahäjana castes named Harasaurä originated from this place.2
MÄROTH : At a distance of eleven kms. from Cuchäman Road Station in Nagaur District stands the town of Märoûh. It remained a stronghold of Jainism from early times. Many Jaina images of the eleventh and twelfth centuries have been found here. From some of their inscriptions, it seems that their consecration was performed by Sakalakïrti of the Mäthura Saãgha in 1165 A.D. (V.S. 1232). The temples of the early period could not survive by now, however there are four Jaina temples of the medieval period. Beîiräma Ajmerä performed an installation ceremony of the temple of Ädinätha Chaityälaya in 1328 A.D. Chandraprabhu Chaityälaya was built by Jïvanadäsa Päûodï in 1425 A.D. Rämasiãha, the chief minister of Bairïsäla, performed an inauguration ceremony of the temple and images with great rejoicings in 1737 A.D. through Bhaûûäraka Anantakïrti of Ajmer.1
CHANDÄVATÏ : Chandrävatï, situated near Äbü, was the capital of the Paramäras. As it remained a place of pilgrirmage, it was visited by Jaina saints, scholas and laymen from time to time. Sidhasenasüri refers to this place in the Sakala Tïrtha Stotra. Jinaprabhasüri, author of the Vividha Tïrtha kalpa, Written in 1389 A.D., describes the city as full of wealth, and he also mentions the temple of Chandraprabhu. Megha in his Tïrthamälä (written in about 1443 A.D.) describes its prosperity and compares it to Läõkä. According to him, there were about 1800 Jaina temples and the most prominent among them was the temple of Ôishabha. From the Upadeáa Saptati of Somadharma written in 1446 A.D., it is known that there were 444 Jaina temples, Áïlavijaya in his Tïrthamälä of 1689 A.D. writes that there were about 1800 beautiful Jaina temples at the time of Vimala. All these statements show that there was a large number of Jaina temples in the past. The predecessor of Padmadevasüri, who lived in 1235 A.D., built the Jaina temple of Chandraprabhu. When Peïhaâakumära and Saãgaräma, ministers of the Sultan of Malwa, came for a pilgrimage to this place, they constructed the Jaina temples.1
BÄRMER : Bärmer is situated at a distance of about two hundred nine kms. south-west of Jodhpur. Jaina saints such as Jineávarasüri, Jinakuáalasüri and Jinapadmasüri visited this place and urged the Árävakas to organize religious functions. Vinayaprabhasüri in his Tïrthamälä mentions the temples of Ôishabha and Áänti. There was also the temple of Mahävïra. The Árävakas from various places such as Jaisalmer, Läûahôida and Pälanpur came to participate in them.2
BARODÄ : Barodä, the old capital of Vägaâa, is situated at a distance of forty-five kms. from Dungarpur. Its early name was Vaûapadraka. It was also a centre of Jainism in early times. Vinayaprabhasüri, an author of the fourteenth century, refers to temple of this place in his Tïrthayäträ Stavana. There are several remains of the old Jaina temples. One of them is the temple of Pärávanätha. Jinachandrasüri of the Kharatara gachchha performed the installation ceremony here. Various copies of the Jaina manuscripts were writtin here in medieval times.3
ÂÜNGARPUR : Âungarpur is located at a distance of about one hundred five kms. south of Udaipur. It was the capital of the same name. From the Praväsajïtikätraya of Jayänanda written in 1370 A.D., it is known that there were five Jaina temples and about nine hundred Jaina families living at that time. The Jainas were given high posts of Ministers of the State. They constructed temples and celebrated the consecration of the images with pomp and show. Düõgarpur was visited by the Jaina saints from time to time, and manuscripts were presented to them as a mark of honour. In 1404 A.D., Prahläda, the Minister of Rävala Pratäpa Siãha, constructed a Jaina temple. It is clear from the Guruguîaratnakara Kävya that Sälha, who was the chief Minister of Somadäsa, renovated the temple of Pärávanätha. The Bhaûûärakas of the Mülasaãgha and the Käsûhä Saãgha had a great stronghold at Âüngarpur.1
TAHANGARH : Tahangrah is twenty-three kms. to the south of Bayänä. Its old name was Tribhuvanagiri. During the reign of the Yädavas, Jainism remained specially associated with Tahangarh. Pradyumnasüri defeated his opponents in the coutrs of the rulers of Sapädalaksha and Tribhuvanagiri. Kardamabhüpati, the ruler of this place, is said to have been initiated to monkhood by Abhayadevasüri. Jinadattasuri and his disciples visited this place. From the Upakeáa gachchha Paûûävali, it is known that there was an old temple of this gachchha. From a Praáasti of the Jinadattachariu written in 1218 A.D., it is known that Lakshmaîa fled to Viläsapura from Tribhuvanagiri in panic on accoutn of the Muslim persecutions.1
JAISALMER : Jaisalmer was the capital of the Bhäûïs, and it was founded after 1163 A.D., They were great patrons of Jainism which made a striking progress during their reign. The great Jaina temples of Chintamaîi Pärávanätha, Ôishabhadeva, Áañtinätha. Sambhavanätha and Mahävïra in the fort of Jaisalmer constructed one after another in period between the twelfth and the fifteenth centuries were excellent. Scholars here pursued their literary activities. It is said that hinabhadrasüri, who live in the fifteenth century A.D, spent the best part of his life in establishing the store- house of knowledge at this place. Various copies of the manuscripts brought from other places for presentation were prepared. The installation ceremony of the images was performed.2
ALWAR : There is a definite evidence of the association of Jainism with Alwar from the fifteenth century A.D. In the Tïrthamäläs, Alwar, a place of pilgrimage, was known as Rävaîa Pärávanätha. Jaina literature was written in Alwar. There is mention of its name in the inscription. In 1531 A.D, a Árävaka of Alwar installed the image of Sumatinätha through Siddhasüri. An inscription of 1589 A.D. records the building of a temple of Rävaîa Pärávanätha at Alwar. It is a place of pilgrimage known as Ôävaîa Pärávanätha Tïrtha. It means that Rävaîa worshipped the image of Pärávanätha at this place. It is legendary, but it points out the importance of Alwar as a centre of Jainism.1
ÄMBER : Ämber is situated at a distance of ten kms. from Jaipur. Jainism flourished exceedingly during the reign of the Kachchhaväha rulers who were on friendly terms with the Mughal Emperors of Delhi. A large number of Jaina temples were constructed, and images placed in them. Various copies of manuscripts were written for presentation to Jaina monks by the Árävakas, Encouraged by their preachings, they also led Saãghas to holy places from this place. Even the Jaina pontiffs of the Mülasaãgha transferred their seat from Chätsu to Ämber in the eighteenth century A.D. The Áästrabhaîâära was established by Mahendrakïrti at this place, and it became famous by the name of Mahendrakïrti Bhaîâära.2
BIJAULIA : Bijaulia became a holy site of the Jainas after the manifestation of an image of Pärávanätha in the twelfth century A.D. In accordance with the instructions or his preceptor Jinachandrasuri, Loläka, a Poraväla Mahäjana, constructed or repaired the temple of Pärávanätha, and surrounded it with seven smaller temples. The Chauhäna ruler Pôithvïräja II, who lived in 1168 A.D., gave the village Moräjharï, and Someávara endowed the temple of Pärávanätha with a village named Revänä in charity. The Bijauliä inscription records various donations made to the temple by certain persons of the neighbouring places. A mythological treatise called the Uttama Áikhara Puräîa was composed and engraved on a large rock nearby. Being a holy place of the Jainas, this place was visited by the Jaina saints from time to time. In early times, It was a seat of the Jaina Ächäryas of the Mäthura Saãgha. The author of the Bijauliä inscription dated 1170 A.D. was Guîabhadra, a Mahämuni, who belonged to the Mäthura Saãgha. Afterwards, it became centre of the activities of the Mulasaãgha. There are two inscriptions of 1408 and 1426 A.D. when the Jaina pontiff Subhachandra was living. On one side of the pillar is engraved the name of Bhaûûäraka, Árï Padmanandi and on the other Bhattäraka Áübhachandra.1 It is said that the Upasarga on Parvanatha took place in here.
KEÁORÄYA PAÛÛANA : Keáoräyapaûûana, located at a distance of fifteen kms. in the north-east of Kotah was a Jaina holy place. It was famous for the temple of Jaina Tïrthaõkara Muni Suvrata. In this temple, Nemichandra wrote the Bôihad-dravya-Saãgraha. Madanakïrti mentions it as a place of pilgrimage in the Áäsana-chatustriãáatikä. In the Präkôita Nirväîakäîâa and the Apabhraãáa Nirväîabhakti also, there is a reference to this temple of Munis Suvrata. Now, it is known as Bhuvidevara for its being on underground temple. One Kalpavôiksha Paûûa of Jaina mythology and othe Jaina sculptures were discovered at this place, and they may probably have belonged to this Jaina temple.2
NAÎÄ : Naîä is at a distance of three kms. from the Railway-Station of the same name on the Ahmedabad-Ajmer line. Näîä was specially associated with Jainism as the Tïrtha of Jïvitasvämï. It means that once the life size image of Mahävïra was worshipped there. It is legendary, but in the tenth century A.D., there was a temple of Mahävïra. A small fragmentary inscription on the door of the shrine dated 960 A.D. definitely proves the existence of Jainism at this time. Näîäväla or Jñanakïya gachchha was founded by Prabhänanda at Näîä. The earliest mention of this Gachchha is found in the inscription of 1045 A.D.1
MÜÕGATHALÄ : Müõgathalä, near Mount Äbü, is an old village in Sirohi state. It remained famous as a Mahätïrtha of the Jainas. Jinaprabhasüri, in the Vividha Tïrtha Kalpa written in 1332 A.D., refers to the temple of Mahävira of this place. This place was believed to be visited by Mahävïra. An inscription of 1369 A.D. tells that an image was consecrated by Keáï Ganadhara during the 37th year of the life of Árï Mahävïra. It is further confirmed by the literary source of the Ashtottarï Tïrthamälä. This temple of Mahävïra has been described in the Jaina Tïrthamäläs as the temple of the Jïvitasvämï. The temple of Jïvitasvämï means to be a temple of the life-time of Mahävïra. This temple of Mahävïra was renovated from time to time, and the images were installed. A large number of Árävakas lived at this place, and they participated in the festivals in connection with the temples held from time to time.2
TALAWÄÂÄ : The old name of Talawäâä, situated at a distance of thirteen kms. from Banswara, was Talapäûaka. It remained a holy place of the Jainas. From the Upadeáakandalïvôitti of Bälachandra Süri, it is known that Pradyumnasüri, who lived in the tenth century A.D., visited this place and addressed its ruler. Siddhasenasüri refers to this place in his Sakala-Tïrtha-Stotra. Vinayaprabhasüri, author of the fourteenth century A.D. in his Tirthayäträ Stavana, mentions this place and temple of Áäntinätha. By the inspiration of Jinabhadrasüri, the Jaina temple was constructed at this place and images were placed therein. At present, there is a big Jaina temples of Sambhavanätha, with some images of the eleventh and twelfth centuries.1
MAÂÄRA : Maâära is situated at a distance of thirty-two kms. from Äbü. This is famous as a holy place of the Jainas. The famous saint Vädidevasüri was born at this place in 1086 A.D. Maâähaâïya gachchha originated from village Maâära. Megha, in his Tïrthamälä written in about 1442 A.D., refers to the temple of Mahävïra of this place. Áilavijaya in his Tïrthamälä written in 1691 A.D. describes this pace.2
PHALODHI : Phalodhi is at a distance of two kms. from Mertä Road Station. It became of famous Tïrtha of Pärávanätha from the twelfth century A.D. It was founded by Dharmaghoshasüri. It remained closely associated with the Kharatara gachchha of the Jainas. In 1182 A.D, Jinapatisüri visited this place. Jinaprabhasüri describes it in his Vividha Tïrtha Kalpa, and Vinaya Upädhyäya gives a description of the temple of Pärávanätha. Being a holy place of Jainas, Phalodhi was visited by the Jaina saints and scholars in medieval times.1
JÏRÄVALÄ : Jiravalä, a famous holy place of the Jainas, is situated at a distance of thirty-two kms. from Delwäâä. It is known by the name of Jïravalä Pärávanätha. This Tïrtha came into existence in the twelfth century A.D. It got popularity in the fifteenth century, and people from different places began to visit it. The Jaina saints composed the Stotras in honour of the deity. Saãghavï Pethaâa and Jhäñjhaîa of Mäîâavagaâha in Malwa visited this place for pilgrimage. They also constructed a Jaina temple. The Árävakas of different places such as Kälavgrä, Kodinära, Vägharä, Vïsalanagara, Pätana and Stambhatïrtha visited Jïravalä in the fifteenth century. Jïräpalli gachchha originated form this place. Bhaûûäraka Padmanandi pupil of Prabhächandra, wrote the Jïrävallï Pärávanäha Stotra in the fifteenth century A.D.2
NAGARA : Nagara is at a distance of five kms. south-west of Jasol in Mällänï District. Its old name was Mahevä of Vïramapura. When the image of Pärávanätha was installed in the Jaina temple of this place, the place became famous by the Tïrtha of Näkoâä Pärávanätha. Even before the temple of Pärsvanätha, Nagara was considered a holy place of the Jainas. There were temples of Mahävïra and Áantinätha. This holy place was visited by Jaina saints from early times. The Kïrtiratnasüri Vivähala and the Kirtiratnasüri-Chaupäï of Kalyäîavijaya give information of the town regarding temples, people and other religious activities. The renovation of the Näkoâä Pärávanätha took place in 1507 A.D. Áäntikuáala mentions it in his Gauâï Pärávanätha-Tirthamälä written in 1612 A.D.1
ÄBÜ : Äbü is a celebrated mountain in the south of Sirohi District. A town after the name of the mountain gradually developed at this place. On the basis of the old traditions, It has been described as a place of pilgrimage. From an inscription of 1369 A.D., it is known that Mahävïra visited Arbüdabhümi. It is famous for two celebrated Jaina temples – Vimalavasahï temple and Lünavasahï temple. The former dedicated to Ädinätha was built by a Minister named Vimala in 1032 A.D., and latter temple Luîavasahï dedicated to Neminätha was built by Tejapäla in 1230 A.D. Both the temples are important from artistic point of view. These are built in white marble and are very widely known for dedicacy of carving, beauty of details and magnificent ornamentaion. Both these temples were repaired and renovated from time to time. The temple of Vimalavasahï was renovated by the descendants of two brothers Gosala and Bhïma of Maîâor. As Äbü became the holy place of Jainas, several Stavanas, Stotras, Chaityaparipäûïs, Tïrthamälas etc. were written about Äbü by Jaina scholars from the fourteenth century onwards.1
SÄÕGÄNER : At a distance of thirteen kms. to the South of Jaipur stands the town of Säõgäner. This town is specially famous for the Jaina temple called Siõghïjï kä Mandira which is a wonderful specimen of Jaina architecture. This temple seems to have belonged to the tenth century A.D., because there is an inscription of 954 A.D. on a Bandarawäla of the main shrine. During the medieval period, it became a great literary centre. It was visited by Jaina monks from time to time, and therefore manuscript copies were prepared to present them.2 In the Bosenh five storeys of this Sanghiji temple having there are numerous idols of precious stones.
DHULEVA : Dhuleva is situated in Udaipur District. The famous Rishabhadeva temple of this place is popularly known as the Keáariyäjï temple because people worship the main deity with Keáara (Saffron). It seems that the image of Ôishabhadeva and the original temple belonged to the eighth century A.D. The earliest known epigraph from this place is dated 1373 A.D. This temple was renovated, Bävaîa Jinälaya, Sabhämîâapa etc. were constructed, and images were installed at the preaching of the Bhaûûärakas of the Kashûhä Saãgha and the Mülasamgha by the Árävakas of the Hümaâa, Narasiãhapura, Bagheraväla, Khaîâelaväla castes etc. from time to time, It is a famous Atiáaya Kshetra.3
GHOÛÄRSÏ : Ghoûärsï is situated near Pratapgarh. The existence of a Pärávanätha temple at this place, is provec by a fragmentary tenth century epigraph, discovered from the ruins of this place.1
GIRANARA : Giranära is a group of hills situated in Kathiawar. On the peaks of hills, several beautiful Jaina temples have been erected. Here, the twenty-second Tïrthaõkara, Neminätha, practised sacrifices, preached religion and attained Moksha. Pradyumnakumära, Gajakumära, Gaîadhara Varadatta and imnumerable ascetics attained liberation on this place. The antiquity of the place is traced to the time of Rishabhadeva, the first Tïrthaõkara, and it was the scene of various important events in the history of Jaina community.2 It is connected in the Jaina literature with the activities of the Jaina Tïrthaõkara Neminätha. The Vividhatïrthakalpa gives vital information about this Tïrtha.
ÁATRUÑJAYA HILLS : Áatruñjaya or Siddhagiri is a celebrated place of pilgrimage at Pälitänä. From here, three Päîâupatras and several ascetics attained Moksha. As there are three thousand five hundred Jaina temples, it is known to be the city of temples. Jinaprabhu gives an interesting information of this Tïrtha. In V.S. 1369, the original image of the Mülanäyaka Ôishabha was destroyed by the Muslims and it was restored by Samara Shäh in V.S. 1371, In V.S. 1686, Ratnasï, Saãghapatï of Ahmedabad, installed the image of Áäntinätha when Shahjahan was ruling.3
AJÄHARÄ : Ajäharä is situated in Junagarh District. The earliest epigraph, from this place is dated in V.S. 1042. This Particular Tïrtha is associated with Pärávanätha in Jinaprabha’s celebrated work. Bhaûûäraka Sumatisägara, Bhattaraka Jñänasägara and Bhaûûäraka Jayasägara mention this Tïrtha.1
AÃKALEÁVARA : Aãkaleávara is situated in Broach District. It is mentioned in the Dhavalä and other works in connection with Ächärya Pushpadanta and Bhütabali. It had a Jaina shrine called Chintämaîi Pärávanätha in the sixteenth century. Upädhyäya Dharmakïrti wrote the Yaáodhara Charita in V.S. 1657 in the temple of Chintämaîi Pärávanätha. This Tïrtha remained under the influence of the Bhaûûärakas of the Käshûhä Saãgha and the Mülasaãgha. It is famous as Atiáaya Kshetra.2
ÄRÄSÄÎA : Äräsäîa was a famous Ávetämbara centre of pilgrimage and it is at present known as Kumbhäriyä. The Kharatara gachchha Bôihad Gurvävali calls it a Mahätïrtha. The earliest temple of this place was dedicated to Neminätha. There were also temples of Mahävïra, Päráva, Áänti etc. The temples of this place have yielded a number of important epigraphs of the medieval period.3
ÄÁÄPALÏ : Äáäpalï is still known as Ashawul and it is almost the site of the present Ahmedabad. It came into the limelight in the days of the Chaulukya Karîa (1066-1092), as we learn from Merutuõga. Several Jaina manuscripts, dating from the twelfth century, to the last quarter of the 13th century, were copied at this place. There is a reference to the Árï Vidyämaûha of this place in a manuscript of Hemachandra’s Vyäkarana Laghu Vritti. This place was destoyed by the Muslims.1
BHADREÁVARA : Bhadreávara is a well-known Ávetämbara Tïrtha of Cutch district, and was the birth place of the great Jaina business maganate Jagaâu. The temple of Pärávanätha of this place is well known. In the Jagaâu charita, there is a reference to the Vïranätha shrine of this place, which was beautified by that merchant. A separate Jaina temple, containing the icons of all the 24 Tïrthaõkaras, was also built by Jagaâu. And lastly, a Paushadhasäla was also erected by that merchant in the same place.2
BHÏMAPALLI : Bhïmapallï is a village, fifteen kms. south-west of Päûan and was a well-known Jaina centre from the last quarter of the twelfth century. The temple of Mahävïra of this place, was celebrated throughout Gujarat and this Tïrtha was closely associated with the activities of the monks of the Kharatara gachchha.3
BHÔIGUKACHCHHA : The ancient port city of Bhôigukachchha was associated with the Jaina religion, probably form pre-Christian times. A Ávetämbara monk called Jinadeva defeated the two Buddhist monks in a debate at this place in the second century A.D. In the Niryukti and Bhäshya commentaries, Bhrigukachchha has been recognized as a Tïrtha, and there are early reference to the Áakunikä-vihära of this place which was dedicated to the Tïrthaõkara Munisuvrata. The earliest datable reference to this temple, occurs in the ninth century works of Jayasiãha, entitled Dharmopadeáamälä. Jinaprabha, also in his celebrated work, the Vividhatïrthakalpa gives a short history of this Tïrtha. There was another temple here, called the Mülavasati.1
CHÄRÜPA : Chärüpa is situated in the Päûan Taluk of Mahesäna District. From the Vividhatïrthakalpa, it is famous for the temple of Pärávanätha. The temples dedicated ot Ädinätha, Áänti and others were built afterwards. However, at present, no other temple, except that of Päráva, exists in this place. Sumatisägara writing in the sixteenth century mentions this particular Tïrtha in the Tïrtha Vandanä Saãgraha.2
DARBHAVATÏ : Darbhavatï is situated in Baroda District. It is well known for the two temples, dedicated to Pärávanätha. It is recognized as a Tïrtha in a manuscript of Hemachandra’s Yogaáastravôitti written in V.S. 1251. In an earlier Jaina manuscript, dated V.S. 1211, this place has been mentioned. It has also been mentioned in several other later manuscripts. Jñanasägara and Jayasägara have mentioned the päráva Temple – complex of this place, called by the name ‘Loâana-Pärávanätha‘ in the Tïrthavandanäsaõgraha. There are also epigraphic references to it.3
DEVAPATTANA : Devapattana is situated in the Junagarh District. It is also known as Prabhäsa Paûana. According to Jinaprabha, the Chandraprabha temple was founded here after the destruction of Valabhï in V.S. 845. Merutuñga has also mentioned this Tïrtha in his Prabandha Chintämaîi. Hemachandra and Kumärapäla showed their respect for this great Tïrtha. Jinaprabha has also referred to the Päráva temple of this place.1
DHAVALAKKAPURA : The present name of the ancient town Dhavalakapura is Dholkä, situated is Ahmedabad District. It has still a few Jaina temples, including the great Kalikuîâa Pärávanätha-shrine. The Purätana Prabhanda Saãgraha mentions the Simandhara Svämin temple of this town, built by the merchant called Üdä. It was popularly known as Üdävasati and it was consecrated by Devächärya in the first quarter of the twelfth century. This work also refers to the temple of Päráva of this town and associates him with the celebrated saint Abhayadeva, the author of the Aõga commentaries. This town was closely associated with the religous activities of the two great Jaina Ministers, namely Vastupäla and Tej Ahpäla. In V.S. 1372, the Püîâari-ka-charita of Kamalaprabhasüri was written at this town.2
GANDHÄRA TÏRTHA : Gandhära Tïrtha, on the sea-coast in Broach District, came into limelight only during the days of the great Hïravijaya, in the sixteenth century. It has the temples of both Päráva and Mahävïra and also an interesting image of Hïravijaya himself. The icon of Päráva was consecrated by Vijayasenasüri, the most important disciple of Hïravijaya. The Diagambaras also had a temple, dedicated to Ädinätha at this place.3
GHOGHÄ : Ghoghä is situated in Bhavnagar District, near the sea-shore, It is well known for the temple of Pärávanätha. A copy of the Neminätha Charita was written in V.S. 1512, at this town. The Jaina images from V.S. 1276 to V.S. 1379 are found in the Ávetämbara temples while images of V.S. 1511, V.S. 1513, V.S. 1643 and 1679 belong to Digambara Jaina temples. Probably, the Pärávanätha temple of this place, is referred to by the term ‘Ghoghamandira‘ in a literary record of V.S. 1575.1
ÏÂAR : Idar is situated in the present Säbar Käntha District. It was also known as Ilädurga, Iläpadra etc. It was an old Tïrtha, being associated with Áäntinätha. Jinapati in his Tïrthamälä mentions a temple of Ädiávara which was built by Kumärapäla in this place. We have also an Idaranäyaka Rishabhadeva Stavana by Munisundara and Iltädurga Ôisabha-Jinastotra by Somasundarasüri. The Digambaras also had a separate potifical seat at this place. The Palya vidhäna kathä of Digambara Brahma Árutasägara was written during the reign of Bhänu of Ïâar.2
JAMAÎAPURA : Jamaîapura, situated in Mahesäna District has the temple of Chandraprabha. The Jämaîakïya gachchha originated at this place and is mentioned in a metal icon of V.S. 1285.3
MAHUVÄ : Mahuvä is situated in Bhavnagar District. In the Vividha tïrtha kalpa, it has been mentioned as Madhumatï. It is mentioned in the Tïrthamälä of Vinayavijaya composed in the fourteenth century A.D. This place is sacred to Mahävïra.4
MAHUVÄ : There is another place named Mahuvä in Surat District. It is a famous Atiáaya Kshetra by the name ‘Sri Vignahära – pärávanätha. Its ancient name was Madhukara Nagara or Mandükanagara. Brahma Jñänasägara described the importance of the Tïrtha in the Sarvaatïrtha vandanä. Bhaûûäraka Vädichandra, disciple of Bhaûûaraka Prabhächandra of the Mülasaãgha Sarasvatïgachchha, composed the Jñänasüryodaya drama in V.S. 1648.1
MODHERA : Modhera situated in Mahesäna District was connected with Jainism from the eighth century. According to the Prabhävakacharita, Bappabhaûûi was initiated by Siddhasena, at this place, apparently in the eighth century. The Prabhävaka Charita and the Vividha tïrtha kalpa refer to the temple of Mahävïra here. At present, the temple of this place is dedicated to Pärávanätha. The Moâhera gachchha originated from this place.2
PATTANA : Pattana is situated in Mahesäna District, and its ancient name, was Aîahilapura. It remained a great centre of Jainism from the eighth century to the late medieval period. According to the Prabhävaka charita and the Vividhatïrtha kalpa, the great Päráva temple of this place was built by the Chäpotkaûa king Vanaräja and it came to be known as the Vanaräja vihära. Afterwards, many other Jaina temples were built, at this town. Jinaprabha mentions the great temple of Arishûanemi of this town and he represents it as the Tïrtha, sacred to that Tïrthaõkara. The Kharatara gachchha Bôihad gurvävali repeatedly mentions the Áäntinätha of this place, which was apparently in existence before 1300 A.D. A temple of Mahävïra was built here during the time of Jinapati of the Kharatara gachchha in 118 A.D. Several Jaina works were written at this place. Great Jaina saints and writers remained associated with this town in one way or other. Even in Muslim period, there were more than hundred Jaina temples at this town.1
PÄVÄGAÂHA : Pävägaâha is situated in the Panch Mahäla District, and its ancient name was Pävägiri. According to the Prakrit– Nïrväîa Käîâa, the two sons of Rämachandra attained Nirväna after performing penances. It is a Siddhakshetra or Nirväîa kshetra. Besides five Koûi kings of Laûadeáa obtained liberation here. Bhaûûäraka Guîakïrti, Árutasägara, Jñänasagara, Chimaîä Paîâita regarded this place as Siddha kshetra. This Tïrtha was in existence in the fifteenth century and the earliest epigraph from this place is dated in V.S. 1613.2
PRAHLÄDANAPURA : The modern name of the ancient Tïrtha Prahlädanapura is Palanpur, and it is located in Banäs-Kantha. The Kharatara Gachchha Bôihad gurvävali repeatedly refers to this place and mentions several temple including those of Chandraprabha and Yugädideva. Several temples including those of Mahävïra, Rishabha, Nemi, Päráva and Nandiávara were built in V.S. 1305 during the time of Kharatara Ächärya Jineávara II at this town. At present, the Päráva temple of this place is the most important Jaina shrine. The earliest reference ot Prahalädanapura is found in a Jina manuscript dated V.S. 1274.1
ÁANKHEÁVARA : Saõkheávara situated in Mahesäna District was associated with Pärávanätha from early times. The Kharatara Gachchha Brihad gurvävali mentions this temple of Pärávanätha. The Kharatara gachchha Ächäryas like Jinachandra III and Jinakuáala visited this place, When Jinachandra III first came to this place in V.S. 1352, it was known as a great Tïrtha. Jinaprabha in his celebrated work has devoted a Kalpa on it. The Digambara writers like Sumatisägara and Jñanasagara have mentioned the temple-complex of Áankheávara. Sajjana and Vastupäla were also associated with this Tïrtha.2
STAMBHAPURA : The great Tïrtha Stambhapura, now known as Khambhat Cambay, is of the medieval period. The earliest reference to this place is found in the Kavi grant of Rashûraküûa Govinda III, dated Áaka 749. According to the Vividhatïrthakalpa, this place came to be associated with Jainism from the days of Abhayadeva, the author of the nine Aõgas. That Abhayadeva was the founder of this Tïrtha, sacred to Pärávanätha, is also supported by the evidence of the Prabhävakacharita and also the Prabadha Chintämaîi. A manuscript of the original Bhagavatï, which was copied at Stambhatïrtha between V.S. 1110 and 1119, is probably the earliest Jaina work to refer to this holy place. This shows that even in Abhayadeva’s life time, it was recognised as a Tïrtha. Hundreds of Jaina manuscripts were afterwards copied here and other temples were also built in this place.1
SURAT : Surat is an important station of the Western Railway, and its ancient name was Süryapura. The important Jaina temples of this place were of Chandraprabhu, Ädinätha and Väsupüjya. Bhaûûäraka Jñänasägra mentions Chandraprabhu temple as Atiáaya in his Sarvatïrtha vandanä. Adinätha Jinälaya and Väsupüjya Jinälaya became literary centres. Bhaûûäraka Devendrakïrti, disciple of Padmanandi, established the seat of the Mülasaãgha at Surat, and he established the Ratnäkara caste after converting seven hundred families to Jainism. Devendrakïrti performed the installation of several images in Avanti region. Surat was also a seat of the Bhaûûärakas of the Käshûhä Saãgha. A temple of Ôishabha of this place has been mentioned in a literary record of V.S. 1664.2
TÄRAÕGÄ : Täraõga, a sacred hill situated in the Mahesana- District, became a holy place of the Jainas. Its ancient name was Täräpura. According to the Präkrit Nirväîa Käîâa, Varadatta Varaõga, Sagaradatta, three and half Koûi Munis etc. attained Nirväna. Täraõgä was mentioned by Guîakïrti in the Tirtha vandanä written in the fifteenth century A.D. Árutasägara, Megharäja Dilasukha etc. also described this Tïrtha. It became famous as Nirväîa Kshetra.3
Tarañgä became a holy place of the Ávetämbaras from the days of Kumärapäla. A magnificent temple of Ajitanätha, the second Tïrthaõkara, was built by this great king on this hill. Jinaprabha also associates this hill with Ajitanätha.1
THARÄDA : Tharäda is situated in the District Banas Kantha, and its ancient name was Thäräpadra. The well known play Mahäräja- Paräjaya was first enacted in the Kumäravihära temple, dedicated to Mahävïra of this place. Taräpadra gachchha originated from this place. At present, this Tïrhta is sacred to Ädiávara.2
ÜNÄ : Ünä siturated in Junagarh District is dedicated to Ädinätha, It was known as Unnatapura. It is mentioned in the fourteenth century work of Vinayavijaya called Tïrthamäla.3
UPARIYÄLÄ : Upadiyälä is situated in the Surendranagar District. This place, sacred to Ädiávara, is mentioned in the fifteenth century works of Jayasägara, called Chaitya–Paripäûi.4
VALABHÏ : Valabhï is situated in Bhavanagar District. Before its destruction in the last quarter of the eighth century by the Muslims, it was a great centre of Jainism and the Jaina canon was first edited here in the fifth century. It became a great centre of Ávetämbara Jainism by the fifth century A.D. The discovery of the sixth century Jaina icons from the ruins of this place also proves that it was a Jaina centre in the Gupta period. The temples of Chandraprabha and Mahävïra existed before the eighth century A.D. This city has also been mentioned in the Bôihat Kathä Koáa which was written in 931 A.D.1
VAÂÄLÏ : Vaâälï Tïrtha, sacred to Pärávanätha, is situated in the Sabar Kantha District. It was known in ancient times as Vatapalli. The Kharatara-gachchha-gurvaväli mentions the Päráva temple of this place. This proves that the Päráva temple of this town existed in the middle of the twelfth century.2
SAJODA : Sajoda is situated at a distance of eighth kms. from Ankleshwar in Bharoch District. It is an Atiáaya Kshetra. Here is an old Digambara Jaina temple. The Jaina image of Áïtalanätha and that of Pärávanätha have been discovered here. The image of Pärávanätha is an artistic, and belongs to seventh or eighth century A.D.3
DHÄRÄÁIVA : The great Dharäáiva Tïrtha is situated at a distance of five kms. from the town of Osmänäbad. It has a few very old Päráva icons, some of which were probably fashioned from the fifth to the eighth century A.D. The history of this Tïrtha has been given both in Harishena’s Bôihat Kathä Koáa and the Karakaîâachariu of Kanakämara. There is little doubt that the famous caves of Dhäräáiva, which were near the city of Teräpura, were quaite well known in the early medieval period. These caves may belong to the third century A.D.1
GAJAPANTHÄ : Gajapanthä is situated in Nasik District. As seven Balabhadras and eight Koûi Yädavas attained liberation according to the Präkrit Nirväîa Käîâa from Gajapanthä, it is regarded as Siddha Kshetra of Nirväîa Kshetra. Only the name of Gajapanthä has been mentioned in the Sanskrit Nirväna Bhakti of Püjyapada. It is mentioned by several authorities, including Gunabhadra, Asaga (10th century), Sumati, Jayasägara and others. Asaga in his Áäntinätha charita clearly refers to it, as situated near Nasik. The old Jaina remains from the fourth to the eighth century have been discovered in the region of this place.2
KÄRAÑJÄ : Kärañjä is situated in Akola District. This Tïrtha emerged into the limelight in the fifteenth century. Jñänasägara mentions Chandranätha (Chandra Prabhu) temple of this place. Afterwards, a temple of Päráva was also built in this place. There is the second Chandraprabha temple at this place. These temples have the respective seats of Senagaîa, Käshûha Saãgha and Müla Saãgha Bhaûûärakas. Áïlavijya. (17th century) in his Tïrthamäla, has given a very detailed account of this Tïrtha, which shows that it was a flourishing Jaina centre in his time.3 In this place, in Kastha Saãgha temple 11th century remarkable wooden carving and precious stone idols.
KOLHÄPURA : Kolhäpura was a celebrated Digambara Tïrtha in early times. The epigraphic evidence suggests that Jainism was popular in Kolhapur region. The inscription of Áilähära king Vijayäditya dated Saka Saãvata 1073 is important. There are other inscriptions discovered here, and in the neighbourhoood. There are temples in which images of the twelfth century are found.1
MÄÕGÏ-TÜÕGÏ : Mäõgï-Tüõgï is situated in Mangi-Tungi District. According to the Prakrit Nirväîa Kaîâa, Räma, Sugrïva, Hanumäna and several Munis attained Nirväîa here. Hence it is called Siddha Kshetra. In the Sanskrit Nirväîä Bhakti of Püjyapada, Balabhadra is known to have obtained Nirväîa from Tuõgagiri. The later writers Udayakïrti, Árutasägara, Abhayachandra and others have also mentioned Mängtuõgï as Siddha Kshetra. The earliest epigraph from this place is dated in V.S. 1443 (1387 A.D.).2
MUKTÄGIRI : According to the Präkrit Nirväna Käîâa and the Sanskrit Nirväîa Bhakti, Muktägiri is Sidha Kshetra or Nirväna-Kshetra because three and half Koûi Munis attained liberation. Its ancient name was Meîâhägiri. It is mentioned by the later medieval Digambara writers including Jñänasägara, Sumatisagara and others. There are about fifty-two Jinälayas. Most of them belonged from V.S. 1545 to V.S. 1950.3
NÄSIKYA : The well-known Näsik or Näsikya is recognised as a Tïrtha in the Vividhatïrthakalpa. The work mentions the Jïvitasvämï Tribhuvanatilaka Chandraprabha temple of this place. Thre is a sepatate Kalpa, on this celebraed Tïrtha of Näsikya. This temple of Chandraprabha of Nasik has been mentioned in the Prabhävaka Charita.1
PAIÛHÄN : Paiûhän is situated in Aurangabad District, and its ancient name was Pratishûhäna. According to the tradition, Jainism gained a firm foothold at this town as early as the time of the Sätavähana king Häla. Jinaprabha has written three separate Kalpas on this Tïrtha which was considered, sacred to Munisuvrata. It is further learnt from this work that the saint Kälakächärya visited this town, 993 years after the Nirväîa of Mahävïra. It is famous by Munisuvratanätha Atiáaya Digambara Jaina Kshetra.2
RÄMATEKA : Rämaûeka is in Nagpur District. Its ancient name was Rämagiri. This place was connected with Jainism from very early period. It is mentioned by Vimala in his Paumachariyam, and by Ravisheîa in his Padma Puräîa and also by Jinasena II in his Harivaãáa. Rämachandra is known to have constructed several Jaina temples at Rämagiri. Kälidäsa also mentions Rämagiri in the Meghadüta. The identification of Rämagiri is controversial.3
SIRPURA : Sirpur is situated in Äkolä District, and its ancient name was Árïpura. This Tïrtha is famous by the name of Antariksha Parávanätha. The worship of this Antariksha Pärávanätha has been mentioned in the Präkrit Nirväîa Käîâa. Madanakïrti has mentioned this Tïrtha in his Áasana Chatuátriãatikä. Besides Lakshamaîa, Gunakïrti, Megharaja, Sumatisägara Jñänasagara, Jayasagara, Chimaîä Paîâita, Somasena, Harsha etc. have mentioned Antariksha Pärávanätha. The Pärávanätha temple of this place was known even to Jinaprabha who wrote a Kalpa on this Tïrtha. Áilavijaya has also mentioned it. Aila Árïpäla is known to have constructed this temple probably in the tenth century A.D. The old Digambara Jaina images and other remains have been discovered at this place.1
UKHALADA : Ukhalada is located in Parbhanï District. It has yielded a number of inscribed Jina images which show that the temple here was in existence before 1215 A.D. It was a Digambara shrine under the monks of the Mülasaãgha, Sarasvatï gachchha.2
DAULATÄBAD : The ancient name of Daulatabäd was Devagiri. It was considered a Jaina Tïrtha. Jinaprabha wrote a section of his Tïrtha Kalpa at this town. At this place, a Jaina work was copied in V.S. 1383. Árïbhushaîa of the Käshûhä Saãgha, Nanditata gachchha composed his Pärávanätha Puräîa in V.S. 1654 in the Päráva temple of Devagiri. It has also been called a Mahästhäna.3
TAGARAPURA : Tagarapura was known as Teräpura, and the Jaina caves here were well-known in earlier times. Both Harishena and Kanakämara have mentioned the Päráva Tïrtha of this place. Tagarä is mentioned in the Seventy century Churîi on the Uttarädhyana and the Vyavahärabhäshya also proves its association with Jainism. It seems that in earlier times, it was a Ávetämbara stronghold, and only at a later period, it came under the influence of the Digambaras.1
KARÎÄÛAK, ÄNDHARA PRADESH AND TAMILÎÄÂU
ÁRAVAÎA BELAGOLA : Áravaîabelagola is situated in the Hassan District. As Áramaîas or Jaina ascetics used to live in large number, the place was named as Áravanabelagola. It comprises two hills, namely, Chandragiri and Vindhyagiri, and a white pond in between. The Emperor Chandragupta Maurya came here along with his preceptor Bhadrabähu and stayed here for many years as an ascetic and breathed his last according to the Jaina fashion, namely that of Sallekhaîä. On the Chandragiri mountain, there are caves for the residence of ascetics and fourteen large temples. The foot-prints of Bhadrabähu Svämï are kept in one of the caves. On the Vindhyagiri mountain, there are in all ten temples and the exquisitely beautiful statue of Gommaûeávara. The importance of Áravaîabelagola is further enhanced by the existence of several ancient inscriptions of great historical values.2 It is to be noted that the image of Bahubali King as Gomatesvar is 58 th height carved out of one stone standing without of lateral support. The image is the latest one.
ALBÜR (ABBALÜRU) : Albür is situated in Dharwar District. The well known Ablür epigraph dated C. 1200 A.D proves that this place had a Jaina temple before 1200 A.D. which was destroyed by Ekäntada Rämäyya, the Áaiva teacher.1
AÂAKI : Aâaki was an important center of Jainism in Gulbarga District and has yielded a few epigraphs of the twelfth century. The Koppa Jinälaya of this place was dedicated to the god Pärávanätha. Its ancient name was Ädakki and it had some other Digambara temples.2
ANNIGERI (ANNIGERE) : Annigeri was a Jaina centre of the Dharwar District. The earliest Jaina temple of this place was built in 751 A.D. The temple of this place was in charge of the monks of the Mülasaãgha and Balätkäragaîa.3
ARASIBÏÂI : Arasibïâi was a well known Jaina centre of the Bijapur District. It came into the limelight from the eleventh century.4
AYYÄVALE (AIHOLE) : Ahihole in Bijapur District has supplied a Jaina epigraph dated 634 A.D., composed by the poet Ravikïrti. This inscription shows that in the first half of the seventh century, there was a Jinendra temple, built of stone at this place. Another epigraph records the reconstruction of the same temple. The merchants of this particular place were quite influential in South India.5
BADLI : Badli is a place in Belgaum District. An epigraph from this place discloses the existence of a Jaina shrine, called Brahma Jinälaya, which was built by Märasiãha.1
BALIGRÄMA : Baligrama is situated in Shimoga District. This was a famous Jaina Ûïrtha associated with the Tïrthaõkara Áäntinätha. This temple of Áäntinätha was originally built by Jayasiãha II (1015-1043 A.D.) of the Western Chälukya dynasty.2
BANDALIKE : Bandalike is situated in Shikarpur Täluk of Shimoga District, and its Sanskrit name is Bändhavapura. This place was recognized as a Tïrtha, as early as the first quarter of the tenth century A.D. The Áäntinätha temple of this town was well known throughout Karîäûaka.3
BAÕKÄPURA : Baõkäpura, a great Jaina Tïrtha of Dharwar District, became a Jaina centre from the ninth century A.D., as it is learnt from the Praáasti of Guîabhadra’s Uttarapuräîa. It was founded by Baõkeyarasa, a sämanta of the Räshûraküûa Amoghavarsha I, who ruled in the ninth century A.D. Jaina inscriptions of later times also have been discovered from this place. Even in the seventeenth century, it was considered a flourishing Jaina Tïrtha by Áilävijaya who visited the Jaina Tïrthas of South India in the second half of that century.4
BELUR : Belur is in Hassan District, and it was associated with Jainism from the early medieval period, and a few epigraphs have been discovered from the ruined temples of this place.1
BHÄRAÕGÏ : Bhäraõgï is a place located in Shimoga District. It was well known for the temple of Pärávanätha which was built before 1415 A.D.2
BHAÛKAL : Bhaûkal in North Kanara District was founded in the fifteenth century and was associated with the Jainas, from the very beginning of its existence. We find references to several temples of this place in the epigraphs, discovered from this town. The shrines, dedicated to Päráva and Mahävïra are quite famous. Another temple, called the Ratnatraya basadi, dedicated to Aranätha, Mallinätha and Survrata, was built in the sixteenth century. It is learnt from an epigraph that this town owed its existence to the saint Vijayakïrti of the Mülasaãgha.3
BILIGI : Biligi was a Jaina centre of North Kanara District. It was associated with the Jaina religion from the sixteenth century. It appears that the Ratnatraya basadi was the earliest Jaina temple of this town. It was built, according to an epigraph of that temple, in the early sixteenth century.4
CHANDAKAVATE : Chandakavate is situated in the Sindgi Taluk of Bijapur District, and its ancient name was Chandrikävaûa. This place has been mentioned as the seat of a line of Jaina teachers of the Sena Saãgha. This Tïrtha contains a few Jaina epigraphs, including one dated 1068 A.D. The earliest guru of the line, who had the seat, at this place, was Dharmasena, who founded a monastery at this place in the early ninth century A.D. His disciple Kumärasena was a very influential monk, who afterwards left this Tïrtha for Mulgund.1
DVÄRASAMUDRA : Dvärasamundra is situated in the Hassan District. The Puîisa Jinälaya of this place, was built in the eleventh century, and was probably the earliest Jaina shrine of Dvärasamudra. It was dedicated to Pärávanätha. Another temple, built by Boppa, the son of the famous Gaõgaräja, the Jaina general of Vishîuvardhana, was given the name Vijaya-Päráva Jinälaya. There was another temple dedicated to Áäntinätha, at this place.2
YALBARGI : Erambarge was the old name of Yalbargi in the Raichur District. It was also known as Erambarapuram. There was a temple of Pärávanätha at this place. Some other Jaina shrines of this town are known; it was once a flourishing Jaina centre.3
GABBÜR : Gabbür is a place in Raichur District, and had a Jina temple called Nagara-Jinälaya or Brahma Jinälaya in the twelfth century.4
GERASOPPE : Gerasoppe in North Kanara District, was associated with Jainism, at least from 1378 A.D., the date of the earliest dated Jaina epigraph from this town. Another name of Gerasoppe was Kshemapura. The epigraphs found from this town, disclose the existence of several Jaina temples, the earliest of which was probably the temple of Anantanätha, built by a rich woman, called Rämakka before 1392 A.D. Others epigraphs refer to the temples of Pärávanäha (1421 A.D.), Neminätha (15th century), Vardhamäna etc. of that town. According to a somewhat later epigraph (1560 A.D), the Anantanätha temple was actually built by Rämakka’s husband Yojana Seûûi. The same epigraph also mentions the temple of Neminätha of Gerasoppe. Viávabhüshaîa of the Balätkära gaîa, who flourished in the third quarter of the seventeenth century, has mentioned the temple of Päráva of this place and the earlier writer Jnanasägara has also described the three Päráva temples of this place. There is therefore little doubt that this town was intimately associated with Jainism from the fourteenth century.1
HÄÂUVALLI : Haâuvalli was also known as Saõgïtapura and is now situated in North Kañara District. The rulers of this area were champions of the Jaina faith and there was a pontifical seat of the Digambaras which started from the middle of the fifteenth century.2
HALE SORAB : Hale Sorab, which has yielded a few epigraphs of the fourteenth cenury, is in Shimoga District.3
HANTURU : Hanturu is situated in Chikmagalur District and had a very large Jaina temple-complex.2
HASSAN : Hassan is the headquarters of the same name. The name of the Pärávanätha temple of this place has been mentioned in the seventeenth century Digambara writer Viávabhüshaîa.3
HAÛÛANA : Haûûäna is situated in Tumkur District. It had a Jaina shrine called Nakhara Jinälaya.4
HATTIYAMATTURA : Hattiyamattura is a place in Dharwar District. It had a Jina temple during the days of the Yädavas.5
HERAGÜ : Heragü is a place in Hassan District. It had once a great Jaina temple-comlex, dedicated to Pärávanätha.6
HIRE-ABLI : Hire-Abli located in Shimoga District has yielded a very large number of epigraphs. There was a famous temple of Pärávanätha in this place.7
HOGEKERI : Hogekeri is situated in Shimoga District. Its former name was Vogeyakera. It had a well-known Päráva temple, from which a few epigraphs of the fifteenth century have been discovered.8
HONWÄÂ : The ancient name of Honwäâ located in Bijapur District, was Ponnaväâa. A great temple of Áäntinätha, called Tribhuvanatilaka, existed in this place, as early as the eleventh century. There were two other shrines, dedicated to Päráva and Supäráva respectively at this place.1
HOSAHOLLU : Hosahollu situated in Mandya District had once very large Jaina temple-complex called Triküûa Jinälaya, in the early twelfth century.2
HUMCHA : Humcha is a great Jaina centre of Shimoga District. Its ancient name was Pomburcha. This place has yielded a very large number of important Jaina epigraphs. The earliest Jaina temple of this place was built in the ninth century. Epigraphs of this place mention Päliyakka temple, Paûûana-svämi temple, Nokkiyabbe temple, Urvitilaka temple and some other temples. As late as the seventeenth century, it was considered a Tïrtha, as its name is found in the list of Jaina Tïrthas of South India, given by Áilävijaya. The Digambara writers like Jñänasägara, Viávabhüshaîa, Jinasägara and Topakavi have mentioned this Tïrtha. Some of the surviving temples of this place are important for the historians of the Indian architecture.3
IÕGALEÁVARA : Iõgleávara is situated in Bijapur District, and it was a stronghold of the Digambara Jainas. The sect Iõgaleávara bali belonging to the Mülasaãgha and Pustaka gachchha, was evidently associated with this place. Several epigraphs of this place, are known. There was a temple called Tirthada basadi at this place. The earliest epigraph of this village is dated 1189 A.D. The monks of this particular bali were known throughout Karîäûaka.1
INGALGI : The earlier name of the place Ingalgi situated in Gulbarga District was Ingunige. It is and old place associated with Jainism. The earliest epigraph from this place is dated 1094 A.D. The Mahumäîikyadeva temple (probably Mahävïra) of this place, was built, according to this epigraph, in that year, by Jäkaladevï, a prominent queen of the Emperor Vikramäditya VI.2
KÄÂAKOL : Käâakol was a Tïrtha situated in Dharwar District. It has yielded a number of epigraphs which prove that it existed as a Jaina sacred place, before the thirteenth century.3
KALBHÄVI : The ancient name of Kalbhävï in Belgaum District was known as Kumudaväda in the eighth century. It had a Jaina temple of that time. This temple was under the supervision of the monks of the Maitäpa anvaya and the Käreya gaîa, which was a section of the famous Yäpanïya Saãgha.4
KALHOLI : The ancient name of Kalholi situated in Belgaum District was known as Kalpole or Sindana Kalpole. From an inscription of 1204 A.D., it is learnt that there was a temple of Áäntinätha at this place. This temple was under the supervision of the monks of the Hanasoge Section of the Pustka gachchha, the Mulasaãgha and the Kundakunda anvaya.5
KÄRAKALA : Kärakala in South Kanära District emerged as a Jaina Tïrtha in the fifteenth century. There were several temples at this place, including one dedicated to Gommaûeávara and another to Pärávanätha. The local kings, of this area, gave full patronage to the Jainas and their temples. Karakala is extremely well known for its famous Jaina Mänastambha. This place was under the supervision of the monks of the Panasoge Áäkhä. The great icon of Bahubali, of this place, was built by Päîâyaräya in 1432 A.D. A detailed account regarding some Jaina shrines of this place can also be obtained from an epigraph of the place dated 1586 A.D. The sixteenth century Digambara writer, Jñänasägara has also mentioned the famous statue of Gommaûeávara and also a temple of Neminätha of this place. The seventeenth century writer Viávabhüshaîa has also mentioned this place as a Jaina Tïrtha.1
KOPAÎA : Kopana, a celebrated Tïrtha, is situated in Raichur District. It emerged into the limelight in the ninth century A.D., and it was considered a most important Tïrtha from that time. Several epigraphs, inscribed after 1000 A.D., are also known, and we have references to some Jaina shrines of this place, including the Kuáa Jinälaya. Even in the epigraphs from Áravaîa-Belgola and other places, we get references to Kopaîa as Mahätïrtha.2
KUPPAÛURU : Kuppaûuru Tïrtha is Shimoga district was well-known for its Päráva temple, which was known as Brahma-Jinälaya. Its antiquity goes back to the eleventh century.3
LAKSHMEÁVARA : The ancient Lakshmeávara Tïrtha in Dharwar District existed from the sixth century A.D., and the Áaõkha Jinendra of this place was known throughout Karîäûaka. There were several other temples at this holy Tïrtha. Some of them were apparently built by the Western Gaõgas during their reign and some afterwards. Among the prominent Jina temples, we can mention Tïrtha basadi, Mukkara basadi, Ganga-Kandarpa Jinamandira, Peramäâi-Chaityälaya, Árï Vijaya basadi, Marudevï basadi, Dhavala Jinälaya, Gogiya basadi, Änesejjaya basadi and also a temple, dedicated to Áäntinätha. That the Änesejjaya basadi of this place was one of the most prominent Jina temples of South India, is also proved by the famous Ablur epigraph Which mentions it specially in connection with the eight hundred Jaina temples. It was originally built by Kuãkumadevï, the younger sister of Chälukya Vijayäditya. We have also other epigraphs from the same Tïrtha. As late as the seventeenth century, this place was known as Jina Tïrtha.1
LAKKUÎÂI : The ancient name of Lakkuîâi in Dharwar District was Lokkiguîâi, and there were once several Jaina temples in this place. The great Jaina lady Attimabbe, constructed in the first decade of the eleventh century, a Jaina temple at this place. The temple of Áäntinätha, of this place, is mentioned in an epigraph of 1185 A.D. There was also a temple of Neminätha at this village.2
MALKHEÂ : The ancient name of Malkheâ in Gulbarga District is Maleyakheâa, and it represents Mänyakheûa of the Räshûrakütas. It was considered to be great Jaina Tïrtha by the Jainas in the medieval period. It is mentioned by both Jñänasägara and Viávabhüshîa. The latter writer refers to its Neminätha temple which is mentioned by the fouteenth century epigraph.1
MALEYÜRA : Maleyüra was a very important Jaina Tïrtha sacred to Pärávanätha. It is situated in Mysore District and has yielded a number of epigraphs, the earliest of which is dated in 1181 A.D. The Vijayanätha temple (probably Pärávanätha) is mentioned in several later inscriptions.2
MASKI : Maski situated in Raichur District was considered a Jaina centre, in the medieval period. There were two Jaina temples, including one called Jagadekamalla Jinälaya, apparently named after Jayasiãha II.3
MATTÄVARA : The ancient name of Mattävara situated in Chikmagalur District was Mattavüra. It has yielded epigraphs, which prove that it was very closely associated with Jainism, from the eleventh century. The earliest epigraph, from thisl place, bears the date 1069 A.D. Other inscriptions discovered from this show that the Hoysala kings took active interest in he Jaina shrine of this village.4
MÜÂABIDRI : The important Digambara Jaina Tïrtha Müâabidri is situated in the South Knara District, and it is also known as Biâure and Bedarï. The earliest Jaina epigraph, from this place, is dated 1504 A.D. A copper plate inscription from this place, dated 1546 A.D., discloses the name of Chandranätha (i.e. Chandraprabha) temple of this place and records some grant for the temple, by the local ruler of Biligi. This temple of Chandraprabha is mentioned by the sixteenth century writer Jñänasägara and also by Viávabhüshaîa. Jñänasagara also mentions the Pärávanätha temple of this place, which too is mentioned in a copper plate inscription, found from this place, dated 1563 A.D. The temple of Chandraprabha, according to the earlier inscription, was known as Tribhuvana Chüâämaîi temple. An inscription of 1622 A.D. mentions one Tribhuvanatilaka temple of this place. From this town were discovered invaluable manuscripts of the entire Dhavalä and Jayadhavalä. The seventeenth century writer Áïlavijaya has mentioned nineteen Jaina temples of this place, including the temples of Ädiávara, Áäntiávara, Chandraprabha and Päráva. He has also referred to the palm-leaf manuscript, preserved at this town.1
NIRALGI : Niralgi in Dharwar District, had a temple, called Mallinätha Jineávara in the twelfth century. An epigraph of 1147 A.D. of the reign of Jagadekamalla II, from this place, mentions a Jaina Ächärya of the Mulasaãgha, Sürastha gaîa and Chitraküûa. anvaya.2
HALSI : The ancient name of Halsi situated in Belgaum District is Paläáikä. This place is a Tïrtha of great importance. Paläáikä had a Jaina temple, which was probably built in the fourth century A.D. In all probability, it was dedicated to Ôishabha. The Kadamba kings were good patrons of Jainism. It appears that there were several Jaina temples at Paläáikä, in the early period. At present, there is no trace of Jainism at Halsi.1
HUNGUND : The ancient name of Hungund in Bijapur District is Ponnuguîâa. There were at least three Jaina temples at this place namely Tribhuvanatilaka Jinälaya, Mahäárïmanta basadi and Arasara basadi of the eleventh century.2
HÜLI : The ancient name of Hüli in Belgaum District was Püli. It had a well-known temple-comlex, called Mäîikyatïrtha basadi. It was apparently a sacred place of the Jainas. There were several Jaina temples, at this place, and an epigraph of the eleventh century, refers to the monks of the Yäpanïya Saãgha and Punnägavôikshamüla gaîa.3
RÄYABÄG : Räyabäg, in Belgaum District, was once a flourishing Jaina Centre under the Raûûa kings. A few inscriptions have been discovered from the local Ädinätha temple of this place. The earliest epigraph is dated 1041 A.D.4
ÁRÏRAÕGAPAÛÛAÎA : Árïraõgapaûûaîa near Mysore town had temples of Ôishabha, Päráva and Mahävïra during Áilavijaya’s time.
TAVANIDHI : Tavanidhi, sacred to Áäntinätha in Shimoga District, has yielded a few Jaina epigraphs of the Thirteenth century. It was also known as Tavanandi. It was a surely Jaina sacred place where Jaina monks embraced voluntary death.1
TENAGALI : Tenagali, a place in the Gulbarga District, had a Jina temple of the twelfth century.2
UCHCHHAÕGI : Uchchhaõgi is situated in Dharwar District. This was a holy place, sacred to the Jainas from quite early times. There was a shrine at this place, under the supervision of the Yäpanïyas.3
UDRI : Udri in Shimoga District has yielded a very good number of Jaina epigraphs of the medieval period. At this place, there was a Áäntinätha temple which was built at the close of the twelfth century by a Jaina General called Mahädeva Daîâanätha in Áaka Saãvat. 1119 during the rule of the Hoysala Balläla II.4
UPPINA-BETGIRI : Uppina-Betgiri in Raichur District came into prominence in the tenth century A.D. It had a Jina temple called Jayadhïra Jinälaya, which was built by a Räshtraküûa Governor called Áankaragaîâa, in the tenth century.5
VAÂAVÄLA : Vaâaväla is situated in South Kanära District. According to Viávabhüshaîa, there was Áantinätha temple here, during the seventeenth century.6
VÄRAÕGA : The ancient name of Väraõga situated in South Kanara District was Varäõganä. It had several temples in the late medieval period. A fifteenth century epigraph found at this place, discloses the existence of the Neminätha temple. Áïlavijaya, a monk of the seventeenth century, has mentioned this temple.1
VÏRAPURA : Vïrapura is mentioned as a Tïrtha in an epigraph of the twelfth century, found from Seâam, in Gulbarga District. Its exact identification is still unknown.2
YÄLBARGI : Yälbargi, in Raichur District, has yielded a number of Jaina antiquities of the early medieval period. It was surely a Jaina Tïrtha and its earlier name was Eraãbarageya. There existed here a temple of Päráva, which was under the supervision of the monks of the Deáï gaîa, and Mülasaãgha.3
BODHAN : Bodhan is situated in Nizamabad District. The original Jina temple of this place was afterwards destroyed by the Muslims, and converted into a mosque. A teacher called Munichandra Siddhäntadeva, has been mentioned in a damaged Jaina epigraph of the time of the Western Chälukya Emperor Vikramäditya VI. This epigraph also mentions a Jina temple of this place. Its ancient name was Podanapura.4
GUÂIVÄÂÄ : Guâivädä is situated in Krishna District. It has a medieval temple of Paarávanätha.1
HEMÄVATÏ : Hemävatï is situated in Anantapur District. It was once the capital of the Nolamba pallavas and a damaged epigraph from this place of the ninth century mentions a local Jaina temple. Its ancient name was Henjeru.2
PENUGOÎÂA : Penugoîâa situated in Anantpur District, is known for its Pärávanätha temple. It has yielded a few Jaina antiquities. In the sixteenth century, it was considered an important Digambara Jaina centre.3
JINAGIRI : The ancient Jaina Tïrtha of Jinagiri is situated in South Arcot District. It was known by several names such as Uchchandvälamalai, Vaâapäli, Varatirumalai, Tirumetrisai, Närapattiraîâu and Perumapalli. Several Tamil epigraphs from this place are known. It was the home of Vïranandi of Nandi Saãgha. The monks of this place, afterwards popularised Jainism in other places of Tamil Nadu. The main icon of the present temple is that of Pärávanätha.4
JINA-KÄÑCHÏ : Jina Käñchï is another celebrated Jaina Tïrtha, near Käñchï in the District of the same name. Its history goes back to the days of the Pallavas. The presiding deity of the Tïrtha is Vardhamäna, and some seventeen epigraphs, ranging from the twelfth century to the sixteenth, have been found from this temple-complex. Several inscriptions belong to the reign of Chola kings like Kulottuõga I, and Vikrama Chola. Four epigraphs, of the time of the Vijayanagara, kings like Bukka II and Krishnadeva are also known. There is little doubt that it was the greatest Jaina centre of Tamil Nadu from early times to modern period. It was also known as Trailokyavallabha temple. There is also a temple of Chandraprabha near the main temple of Vardhmäna.1
KALUGUMALAI : The ancient place Kalugumalai situated in Tirunelveli District was once a flourishing centre of Jainism. Inscriptions from the third century B.C. to the eleventh century A.D. have been found from this site.2
KÄÑCHÏ : Känchï was a stronghold of Jainism during the post-Christian period. The great Samantabhadra was a resident of this city. An eighth century epigraph form this city of the time of Nandivarman II refers ot an Arhat temple of this city.3
ODALAVÄÂI : Odalaväâi situated in the Polür Täluk had a Jaina temple of the thirteenth century. It was dedicated to Gommaûanätha.4
TIRUMALAI : Tirumalai, a well known Tïrtha, is situated in the North Arcot District. It is famous for the magnificent standing image of Neminätha. A few Jaina inscriptions of this place prove that it was a Jain sacred palce even before 1000 A.D.5
VIJAYAMAGALAM : Vijayamagalam, sacred to Chandraprabha, was a well-known Jaina centre in the present Erode District (Periyar). It was known as Kurumbunadu. Its antiquity goes back to the sixth century A.D.1
- This work is a later work, and its author is different from the real Kundakuna.
- Jinabhareti Samgndha PP 454-456.
- BBDJT, III, pp. 148-152.
- JGPS, I, P. 112, No. 171.
- BBDJT, III, p. 112.
- CHJ, II, No. 41, p. 293.
- Ibid, II, No. 275, p. 353
- JLAIDJC, p. 272.
- K.D. Bajpai Feliciation Volume.
- CHJ, II, p. 323.
- CHJ, II, p. 313.
- JDAIDJC, p. 291.
- CHJ, No. 73, p. 302.
- BBDJT, III, Appendix I, pp. 23-27.
- CHJ, No. 140, p. 318.
- CHJ, II, No. 204, pp. 335-336.
- Ibid, II, No. 250, p. 348.
- Ibid, II, No. 135, p. 317.
- CHJ, II, No. 22 p. 287.
- Ibid, II, No. 280, p. 354.
- CHJ, II, No. 8, p. 284.
- Ibid, II, No. 238, pp. 45-46.
- Ibid, II, No. 89, pp. 305
- CHJ, II, No. 124, pp. 314.
- Ibid, No. 159, p. 322.
- CHJ, II, Nos. 234 and 235, pp. 343-344.
- Ibid, II No. 132, p. 316.
- Ibid, II, No. 187, p. 330.
- CHJ, II, No. 42, pp. 293-294.
- Ibid, II, No. 216, p. 238.
- Ibid, II, No. 54, p. 297, JUPJ, pp. 56-60, BBDJI, pp. 179-194.
- CHJ, No. 43, JUPH, p. 64.
- JUPJ, pp. 44-46, BBDJI, pp. 66-72.
- CHJ, No. 262, p. 350.
- CHJ, No. 290, pp. 356-357.
- Ibid, No. 220, p. 339.
- Ibid, No. 21, p. 287.
- Ibid, No. 127, p. 314.
- CHJ, No. 219, p. 339.
- Ibid, No. 174, pp. 326-327.
- CHJ, No. 253, p. 349.
- CHJ, No. 154, p. 321.
- BBDJI, III, pp. 287-297.
- BBDJI, III, pp. 302-316.
- BBDJI, III, pp. 316-326.
- BBDJI, III, pp. 150-160.
- Ibid, III, p. 59.
- JSLS, IV No. 5
- BBDJI, III, pp. 160-168.
- BBDJI, III, pp. 116-127.
- KMTA, I, P. 289.
- Ibid, II, p. 364.
- MTA, pp. 400-405.
- KMTA, p. 453.
- CHJ, II, No. 176, p. 327.
- Ibid, II, No. 261, p. 350
- KMTA, p. 410.
- KMTA, pp. 371-372, p. 378.
- CHJ, II, No. 144, p. 318.
- Ibid, II, No. 12, p. 285.
- CHJ, II, No. 153, pp. 320-321.
- Ibid, No. 248, p. 347; BBDJT, pp. 298-300.
- BBDJT, pp. 179-202.
- Ibid, pp. 84-86.
- BBDJT, pp. 78-84.
- Ibid, pp. 102-103.
- Ibid, pp. 29-33.
- ACTR, p. 99.
- Ibid, p. 136.
- ACTR, pp. 153-154.
- Ibid, pp. 161-163.
- ACTR, p. 166.
- ACTR, pp. 173-175
- Ibid., p. 176.
- ACTR, pp. 178-179.
- Ibid., pp. 182-184.
- ACTR, p. 187-191.
- Ibid, p. 194.
- ACTR, pp. 197-198.
- ACTR, pp. 201-203.
- Ibid, pp. 207-208.
- ACTR, p. 217.
- ACTR, pp. 223-224.
- ACTR, pp. 231-233.
- Ibid, p. 240.
- ACTR, pp. 247-249.
- ACTR, pp. 262-263.
- Ibid, p. 269.
- ACTR, pp. 271-273.
- Ibid, pp. 274-275.
- ACTR, p. 284.
- Ibid, pp. 285-285.
- ACTR, pp. 287-288.
- Ibid, pp. 290-292.
- ACTR, pp. 294-296.
- ACTR, pp. 299-300.
- Ibid, pp. 305-307.
- ACTR, pp. 317-318.
- Ibid, p. 324.
- ACTR, pp. 326-327.
- Ibid, p. 328.
- ACTR, p. 340.
- ACTR, pp. 344-345.
- Ibid, pp. 352-353.
- Ibid, pp. 356-357.
- ACTR, pp. 359-360.
- ACTR, pp. 361-362.
- Ibid, pp. 371-78.
- ACTR, p. 384.
- Ibid, p. 391.
- ACTR, pp. 403-404.
- Ibid, p. 415.
- ACTR, P. 416.
- Ibid, pp. 418-419.
- ACTR, pp. 420-21.
- Ibid, pp. 422-23.
- ACTR, pp. 425-27.
- Ibid, pp. 427-431.
- ACTR, pp. 432-433.
- ACTR, pp. 449-455.
- Ibid, pp. 455-457.
- BBDJI, pp. 106-127.
- ACTR, p. 413.
- Jaina Community – A Social Survey, p. 256.
- CHJ, No. 227, p. 341.
- CHJ No. 9, BBDJI, IV, pp. 200-201.
- Ibid, No. 13, pp. 285-286; BBDJI, IV, pp. 195-198.
- Ibid, No. 16, p. 286.
- CHJ, No. 20, p. 287.
- Ibid, No. 32, p. 290.
- Ibid, No. 36, p. 291.
- CHJ, No. 38, p. 292.
- Ibid, no. 46, pp. 394-395.
- Ibid, no. 51, p. 296.
- CHJ, No. 57, p. 298.
- Ibid, No. 60, p. 299.
- Ibid, No. 73, p. 302.
- CHJ, No. 75, p. 303.
- Ibid, No. 99, p-307.
- Ibid, No, 107, p. 309.
- Ibid, No. 150, p. 320.
- BBDJI, pp. 185-188.
- CHJ, No. 164, pp. 323-24.
- CHJ, No. 192, p. 332.
- BBDJI, IV, pp. 178-185.
- CHJ, No. 200, pp. 334-335.
- Ibid, No. 226, pp. 340-41.
- CHJ, No. 241, pp. 345-346.
- BBDJI, Iv, pp. 189-195.
- Ibid, Iv, pp. 137-138.
- CHJ, No. 251 p. 348.
- Ibid, No. 256, p. 349.
- Ibid, No. 269, p. 352.
- Ibid, No. 270, p. 352.
- CHJ, No. 276, pp. 353-354.
- Ibid, No. 273, p. 353.
- BBDJI, pp. 198-199.
- CHJ, No. 59, p. 299; BBDJI, p. 248.
- Ibid, No. 71, p. 301; Ibid, pp. 203-207.
- Ibid, No. 130, BBDJI, p. 303.
- CHJ, No. 138; BBDJI, p. 233-237.
- BBDJI, pp. 208-217; CHJ No. 155.
- Ibid, pp. 319-330.
- CHJ, No. 181, pp. 328-229.
- Ibid, No. 201, p. 235; BBDJI, p. 274.
- Ibid, No. 212, pp. 336-337, BBDJI, pp. 311-316.
- BBDJI, pp. 288-303; CHJ, no. 239.
- CHJ, No. 266, p. 351.
- Ibid, II, No. 55, p. 297.
- CHJ, II, No. 245, No. 347.
- Jaina Community – A Social Survey, p. 257.
- CHJ, No. 2, p. 283.
- Ibid, No. 5, p. 283-284.
- Ibid, No. 18, p. 287.
- Ibid, No. 19, p. 287.
- Ibid, No. 19, p. 287.
- CHJ, No. 24, p. 288.
- Ibid, No. 27, p. 288.
- Ibid, No. 28, p. 289.
- Ibid, No. 29, p. 289.
- CHJ, No. 31, p. 290.
- Ibid, No. 33, p. 290.
- Ibid, No. 35, p. 291.
- Ibid, No. 39, p. 292.
- CHJ, No. 45, p. 294.
- Ibid, No. 66, pp. 300-301.
- Ibid, No. 68, p. 301.
- Ibid, No. 70, p. 301.
- CHJ, No. 74, pp. 302-303.
- Ibid, No. 82, p. 304.
- Ibid, No. 83, p. 304.
- CHJ, No. 84, p. 304.
- Ibid, No. 85, p. 304.
- Ibid, No. 86, p. 304.
- Ibid, No. 90, p. 305.
- Ibid, No. 91, p. 305.
- Ibid, No. 93, pp. 305-306.
- Ibid, No. 94, p. 306.
- Ibid, II, 95, . 306.
- CHJ, No. 96, p. 306.
- Ibid, No. 97, p. 307.
- Ibid, No. 98, pp. 306-307.
- CHJ, II, No. 100, p. 307.
- Ibid, No. 101, pp. 307-308.
- Ibid, No. 119, p. 313.
- Ibid, No. 121, p. 313.
- Ibid, No. 122, p. 313.
- CHJ, II No. 129, p. 315.
- Ibid, No. 139, p. 318.
- Ibid, No. 142, p. 318.
- CHJ, II, No. 145, pp. 318-319.
- Ibid, No. 148, pp. 319-320.
- CHJ, II, No. 151, p. 320.
- Ibid, No. 152, p. 320.
- Ibid, No. 158, p. 322.
- Ibid, No. 160, pp. 322-323.
- CHJ, II, No. 165, p. 324.
- Ibid, No. 184, 329.
- CHJ, II, No. 189, p. 331.
- Ibid, No. 199, p. 334.
- Ibid, II, No. 203, p. 375.
- Ibid, II No. 217, p. 338.
- CHJ, II, No. 252, p. 348.
- Ibid, II, No. 254, p. 349.
- Ibid, II, No. 263, pp. 350-351.
- Ibid, II, No. 264, pp. 351.
- Ibid, II, No. 271, p. 352.
- Ibid, II, No. 274, p. 353.
- CII, II, No. 281, pp. 354-355.
- Ibid, No. 288, p. 356.
- Ibid, No. 289, p. 356.
- CHJ, II, No. 40, pp. 292-293.
- CHJ, II, No. 81, p. 304.
- Ibid, II, No. 92, p. 305.
- Ibid, II, No. 195, p. 333.
- Ibid, II, No. 110, p. 310.
- CHJ, II, No. 111, pp. 310-311.
- Ibid, II, No. 123, p. 313.
- Ibid, II, No. 125, p. 314.
- Ibid, II, No. 185, p. 329.
- Ibid, II, No. 259, pp. 349-350.
- CHJ, II, No. 286, p. 355.
- Ibid, No. 288, p. 355.