CONTRIBUTIONS OF JAINISM TO INDIAN CULTURE
CONTRIBUTIONS OF JAINISM TO INDIAN CULTURE
A brief historical survey of Jainism attempted here gives an idea of the gradual spread of Jainism in different parts of India. The period between the ninth and the twelfth century A.D. is regarded as the golden period in the history of Jainism because Jainism made the striking progress. At this time, it enriched the Indian culture in many spheres. The life of the Jaina monks with lofty ideals was inspiring, and the JainaSrï¿½vakas were highly devoted to their religion. Jainism flourished along with other religions such as Buddhism, Vaishanavism and ï¿½aivism. Jainism has certain distinguishing features, and its distinct contributions to the Indian culture are as follows.
(1) ETHICAL SPHERE
Jainism made contributions to Indian culture in different spheres, but they are very significant in ethical sphere. This religion seems to have remained a moral code for the uplift of the masses, because Jaina teachers preached ethics but not the religious dogmas. Mahavira preached the five vows, non-violence Ahimsï¿½, truthfulness satya, avoidance of theft asteya and non-possession (Aparigraha) and celibacy (Brahamacarya). After Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, the subsequent Jaina teachers Kundakunda, Samantabhadra, Haribhadra, Akalanka, Jineï¿½varasï¿½ri, Hemachandra and Hï¿½ravijayasï¿½ri propagated ethical principles among the people irrespective of caste and creed. Their objective was not to convert these people to Jainism, but to bring about moral uplift in the society.
(A) AHIÏ¿½SÏ¿½ : The substantial contribution of Jainism to Indian culture is the doctrine of Ahiï¿½sï¿½ or non-violence. Thought this doctrine has been accepted in most of the Indian religions from time to time in different degrees, it was preached by Jainism in minute form. From the edicts of Aï¿½oka, it is known that he prohibited the slaughter of animals. In Jainism, this doctrine was understood in the sense of thought, word and action. Live and let live others. All the creatures want to live but not to die. Kindness to creatures is Kindness to oneself. Before Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, there was too much slaughter of animals and injury to creatures. This practice of violence polluted the whole atmosphere of the society. This principle of non-violence was responsible for reducing the element of violence in Vedic sacrifices and rituals. It is due to the influence of Ahimsï¿½ that large number of people in India gradually became vegetarian. Some ruling chiefs of India ordered strict observance of non-violence on certain days in their kingdoms. Mahï¿½rï¿½ja ï¿½lhaï¿½adeva Chauhï¿½na, ruler of Nï¿½ï¿½ol, issued injunctions to his subjects in 1152 A.D. forbidding the slaughter of animals on certain days in his kingdom1. Encouraged by Devendra Sï¿½ri, Samarasiï¿½ha, the Guhila ruler of Mewar, issued an ordinance prohibiting the slaughter of animals in his kingdom2. Impressed by the preaching of Devasï¿½ri, Mahï¿½rï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Jagatsiï¿½ha issued an ordinance for the stoppage of catching of fish or other living creatures from certain lakes and destruction of animals on certain days.3 Even the great Mughal emperor Akbar forbade the slaughter of animals at the persuasion of the Jaina saints Hï¿½ravï¿½jayasï¿½ri and Jinachandra Sï¿½ri.4 The practice of feeding and sustaining the insects, birds and animals followed in ancient times was the result of the doctrine of Ahiï¿½sï¿½. An inscription of 1715 A.D. engraved in the Jaina temple at Deoli5 in the former Pratapgarh State in Rajasthan records that the oilmen of the town agreed to stop working their mills for 44 days in a year at the request of Sï¿½raiyï¿½ and Jï¿½varï¿½ja of the Mahï¿½jana community in the reign of Mahï¿½rï¿½vala Pï¿½ithvï¿½siï¿½ha.
Ahiï¿½sï¿½ does not mean that Jainism does not sanction fighting on the battle-field for the right cause. In the history of India, there are instances where numerous Jaina warriors such as Chï¿½muï¿½ï¿½arï¿½i, ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha, Gaï¿½ga, Bappa Vastupd Tezpale Kalkacarya did not lag behind the followers of other faiths in battle-fields for the cause of mother-land, self-respect and family honour.
(B) APARIGRAHA : Another great ethical contribution of Jainism to Indian culture is the doctrine of Aparigraha or non-possession. Jaina teachers owned nothing and wanted nothing. They were free from fear and want. It was natural that those who came into contact with them were influenced by their example of renunciation. As a result, several kings, ministers and wealthy merchants led simple lives thinking wealth and power to be used for the welfare of all living beings. Their personal needs became highly limited. They spent for themselves only to the extent of their minimum needs, and the surplus was spent on the welfare activities like learning, food, medicine and shelter. These are the most practical needs which the Jainas adopted to win for themselves allegiance and devotion of masses. As a result, Jainism made a striking progress specially from the ninth to the twelfth century A.D.
(C) BRAHMACHARYA : Jainism considers the vow of celibacy (Brahmacharya) to be the highest austerity, and Jaina teachers in all ages propagated it among the masses.
As a result, Jainas, in spite of being rich merchants and occupying high official posts, did not indulge generally in polygamy. Not only Jainas, but others also like kings, Ministers and ordinary men observed the vow of celibacy in one form or other because of the influence of Jainism. The observance of this doctrine by the people in some form protected them from committing many crimes and evils. It created healthy atmosphere in society, and made the people virtuous.
(D) THEORY OF KARMA : The theory of Karma is also a notable contribution of Jainism. According to it, pleasure and pain, happiness and misery of the individual depend upon karmas. Karmas are produced by mind body and speech. Eternal peace and infinite bliss are to be attained through annihilating the old karmas by the practice of austerities, and by stopping the influx of new karmas by the practice of self-restraint. Right faith, Right knowledge and Right conduct are the three essential points which lead to perfection by the destruction of karma. This theory does not believe in God or Creator, but emphasizes that man is the architect of his own destiny. By propagating such ideas of the theory of Karma, Jaina, monks made the people responsible for their actions.
(E) DOCTRINE OF NAYA : The doctrine of Naya, as propounded by Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, in opposition to the agnosticism of Saï¿½jaya is an out-standing and important contribution to Indian culture. Nayas were actually the ways of expressing the nature of things from different points of view. It also began to be called Anekï¿½ntavï¿½da, which is true from last scepticism saï¿½sayavï¿½da and dognatism. It does not mean compromise or doubt or uncertainty, but it means that truth is many-sided and it can also be realized piecemeal, and one must be tolerant enough to understand the viewpoints of others.
There were many religious sects and philosophical views prevalent in ancient India. Mahï¿½vï¿½ra and the subsequent teachers of Jainism were tolerant in religious matters and this doctrine laid stress on the fact that there should be room for the consideration of teachings and views of all religious sects which avoided sqnabbles and quarrels among religious exponents. This attitude in religious matters produced an atmosphere of mutual harmony among the followers of different sects who began to appreciate the views of their opponents as well. This doctrine produced an atmosphere of mutual harmony and made the Jainas broad-minded. Throughout the history whenever the Jaina rulers were in power, there is not a single instance of tyranny on the followers of other religions. Because of the broad-mindedness of the Jainas, there are several instances when rulers became patrons of Jainism by giving liberal grants to them though they did not adopt it
(2) JAINA SAMGHA : Another contribution of the Jainas is that they possessed a unique power of organization. Strict discipline was established in the Jaina Saï¿½gha (church) by laying certain rules of conduct both for ascetics and ï¿½rï¿½vakas (laymen). There are four orders of the Jaina Saï¿½gha – monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen. The noble conduct of the monk is regarded as an ideal example to be followed by the people. He is actually the guide, the guardian and the leader of the society.
Jainism made laity as also monks participants in the Jaina Saï¿½gha by imposing certain rules of conduct. The laymen were householders and as such they could not actually renounce the world but they could, at least, observe the five samall vows called Aï¿½uvrata. The similarity of their religious duties differing not in kind but in degree, brought about the close union of laymen and monks. Most of these regulations meant to govern the conduct of laymen were apparently intended to make them participate in a measure and for sometime, in merits and benefits of monastic life, without obliging them to renounce the world altogether. As a consequence, laymen became greatly conscious, disciplined and enlightened. This type of organization gave the Jaina a deep roof in India, and that roof firmly planted among the laity enabled Jainism to withstand the storm that drove Buddhism out of India. Besides, by occupying the influential posts of administration and by becoming leaders of society, these laymen gave proper guidance to the society, from time to time.
- POLITICAL SPHERE :The contribution of the Jainas in the political sphere is noteworthy. By playing the part of king-makers, Jaina sages had secured for generations royal patronage. They also acted as political instructors of the kings. The first historical emperor Chandragupta Maurya, who was the disciple of Jaina teacher Bhadrabï¿½hu, established an efficient administration. During the reign of Khï¿½ravela, Jaina missionaries used to preach the gospels of Jainism in his kingdom. The Ganga kingdom was the creation of Jaina sage Siï¿½hanandi. The Gaï¿½ga ruler Kongunivarma secured his kingdom from the Jaina preceptor Siï¿½hanandi. The great Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ta ruler Amoghavarsha, who became the follower of Jainism under Chief preceptor Jinasena, governed his subjects well. Kumï¿½rapala, who adopted Jainism by the influence of the powerful Saint Hemachandra, made his State a model Jaina State.
Winning over the feudal lords and great commanders, the Jaina teachers assured them of success in various provincial seats over which these officials were placed. The Jaina sages produced not merely devout followers who could perform orthodox duties, but mighty leaders of armies who liberated their country from the enemies. Jaina ministers administered the kingdoms efficiently. The Jainas gave practical expression to the ideal of human brotherhood in the shape of four well known gifts of food, shelter, medicines and learning.
Jainism contributed to the material welfare of the country. In addition to the kingdom, it had founded or helped to stabilize, it had substantially added to the commercial development of the land. As a result of the influence of Jainism, people abstained from taking wine and meat along with other abition (Vyasanes) and followed rules of justice and religion in their respective Kingdoms.
(3) SOCIAL SPHERES
(A) CASTE SYSTEM : The great contribution of Jainism in social sphere is that it observed no distinction of caste and creed. According to it, religious salvation is birthright of every one, and it is assured if one follows the prescribed rules of conduct. According to it, birth is nothing, caste is nothing but action is everything. The doctrine of Karma made the individual conscious of his responsibility for all actions. One becomes a Brï¿½hmaï¿½a or a Kshatriya or a Vaiï¿½ya or a ï¿½ï¿½dra by one’s actions. Though Mahï¿½vï¿½ra was a Kshatriya, he himself was styled ‘Mahaï¿½a‘ or Mahï¿½mahana (Great Brï¿½hmaï¿½a). His religion was accepted by a large number of men and women belonging to different castes and classes. The contemporary kings, queens, princes and ministers became his followers. Among the kings, ï¿½renika, Kunika and Ceï¿½aka are prominent. His chief eleven disciples known as Gaï¿½adharas were Brï¿½hmanas who helped the Master to spread his faith. Besides, he attracted a large number of rich bankers and merchants. He also tried his best for improving the lot of the oppressed of Vajrabhï¿½mi and ï¿½vabhrabhï¿½mi by his teaching Harikeshi, born in the family of Chaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½las, became a monk possessing some of the highest virtues. Several contemporary clans such as the Lichchhavï¿½s, the Vajjis, the Jï¿½ï¿½trikas, the Mallas, the Ugras and the Bhogas came under the influence of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra.
Even after Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, Jainism observed no distinction of caste and creed based on birth. The Nanda ruler and Chandragupta Maurya, who are said to be the Jainas, were of humble caste. According to traditions, the ï¿½aka ruler Nahapï¿½na, after his defeat at the hands of Gautamï¿½putra Sï¿½takarï¿½i, abdicated the throne and became a Jaina monks, called Bhï¿½tabali. From the Kushï¿½ï¿½a inscriptions of Mathura, it is known that Jainism was followed by the people irrespective of castes and creeds. Rï¿½magupta is known to have installed Jaina images at Vidisha. Harigupta was the spiritual preceptor of the Hï¿½na ruler Toramï¿½ï¿½a. The early medieval period was the most flourishing time for Jainism in India. Most of the ruling dynasties in one way or other came under the influence of Jainism. A.S. ALTEKAR6 holds the view that probably one-third of the Deccan was the follower of Jainism. The Vï¿½ra Banajigas of the south practised Jainism. Even in Northern India, a large number of people accepted Jainism and formed the castes of Osavï¿½las, Khaï¿½ï¿½elavï¿½las, Agravï¿½las, Poravï¿½las, etc. Some agricultural sections of the south were also devoted to Jainism.
(B) POSITION OF WOMAN : Another notable contribution of Jainism in social sphere is that it made no distinction of sex by admitting women into the Jaina Saï¿½gha. They used to lead a life of celibacy with the aim of understanding and following the eternal truths of religion and philosophy. Ajita, Chandanï¿½, Jayantï¿½ etc. were the famous nun-disciples of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra. These nuns were permitted to study Jaina scriptures. Some of them were learned scholars. Haribhadrasï¿½ri, a notable scholar of Jainism of the eighth century A.D., was deeply inspired by a Jaina nun called Yï¿½kinï¿½.7
From the inscriptions of South India, it is known that Jainism was liberal towards women. A large number of lay-women and nuns have been mentioned as devotees of Jainism. They were drawn from all sections – royalty, nobility, Ministers and generals.8 Jakkiyabbe appointed in husband’s place after his death was skilled in ability for good government. She was faithful to Jinendra ï¿½ï¿½sana. The ladies of the Kadamba, Gaï¿½ga and Hoysala families and wives of feudatories, commanders and other officials played the distinguished role in the propagation of Jainism. Kanti, orator and poet, along with Abhinava Pampa, was one of the gems that adorned the court of the Hoysala King Ballï¿½la I. There were not only lay women disciples but also preceptors. There were two different categories of women in Jaina monastic organization in the South – Ordinary women who renounced the world, and took the life of asceticism. The ?? were higher in status.9
(4) ECONOMIC SPHERE
The Jainas made remarkable contributions in the economic sphere from time to time, and it led to the prosperity of the country. The followers of Jainism were mostly bankers and merchants. Even in the time of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra, the rich householders such as ï¿½nanda, Kï¿½madeva, Sardalaputra and Upï¿½li became prosperous by trade and industries. Pottery was the favourable profession. The ï¿½ramaï¿½a Sï¿½dalaputta of Potï¿½sapura had five hundred shops outside the city. The Nï¿½yï¿½dhammakahï¿½ describes how people became rich by inland and foreign trade. It gives realistic description of sea trade. Merchants used to travel in a caravan. Trade and industries were organized into guilds. There were merchant guilds under the chiefs called Seï¿½hï¿½s. Because of their wealth, they got special status in society. They visited the royal courts as representatives of business community. These merchants contributed to the origin of the coined money which facilitated trade and commerce. The urban centres such as Caï¿½pï¿½, Rï¿½jagï¿½iha, Vï¿½rï¿½ï¿½asï¿½, ï¿½rï¿½vastï¿½, Mathura, Vaiï¿½ï¿½lï¿½ and Ujjayinï¿½, where merchants settled, became prosperous.
Several Jaina Inscriptions of the Kushï¿½ï¿½a period found at Mathura point out how people engaged in different industries contributed to the progress of Jainism. The Aï¿½gavijï¿½, a Jaina text of the Kushï¿½ï¿½a period, informs about the development of trade, and mentions different varieties of coins. There was sound money economy. The trade and commerce led to the growth of cities and towns.
The Kuvalayamï¿½lï¿½ and the Upamitibhavaprapancakahï¿½ give an interesting account of ancient cities and towns. The Sï¿½rthavï¿½ha (caravan) took with him a large number of soldiers and weapons in order to ensure safety. From the Tilakamaï¿½zjarï¿½, it is known that some of the rich merchants might have gone by ships to the neighbouring countries of Siï¿½haladvï¿½pa and Suvarï¿½abhï¿½mi. The commence of Rajasthan – Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh was controlled by the Jaina traders. They became prosperous by this trade and commerce. People formed several merchant Jaina castes such as the Osavï¿½las, Khaï¿½ï¿½elavï¿½las, Sagheravï¿½las, Poravï¿½las and Agravalas. In the south, the followers of Jainism were Baï¿½ajiga merchants. They became prosperous and contributed to the growth of cities. There was a phenomenal increase in inland and overseas trade in Vijayanagara empire during the middle of the 14th century A.D. It led to the consequential increase in the number, importance and affluence of trade guilds.
The Jaina merchants Pethaï¿½a ï¿½ï¿½ha and Lï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ha became prosperous because of trade and commerce. These Jaina traders like Bhï¿½mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha were great financiers to their monarchs in the time of difficulties. They gained great favours from their masters for Jainism. These Jaina merchants were highly devoted to Jainism, and made the best use of thier wealth. They used to give four gifts learning, food, medicine and shelter. They constructed temples and installed images in them. They got the copies of the manuscripts written and founded Granthabhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ras. They led Saï¿½ghas to the holy places for pilgrimage.
(5) SPHERES OF ART AND ARCHITECTURE : Though most of the objects of Jaina art and architecture have been destroyed by the levelling hand of time and iconoclastic seal of the foreigners, those surviving ones give an idea of contribution that Jainism made to Indian Culture, Jaina objects of art and architecture of very early period have been found. Further, significant Jaina art objects of different periods, and also of separate regions of India are available. From this, it is evident that Jainism made valuable contribution at every stage in the evolution and growth of Indian culture in the sphere of art and architecture. The period between the ninth and the twelfth century A.D. is considered to be the golden age in the history of Jaina art and architecture because its contributions to Indian culture during this period are remarkable.
(i) STÏ¿½PAS AND MONASTERIES : Jaina architecture is concerned with Stï¿½pas, monasteries, caves, temples and Mï¿½nastambhas. The ï¿½vaï¿½yaka Chï¿½rï¿½i of Jinadï¿½sa (C. 676 A.D.) mentons the Stï¿½pa dedcated to the 20th Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara Munisuvrata at Vaiï¿½ï¿½lï¿½, but its remains have not yet been discovered. The Stï¿½pa of Mathura dedicated to the seventh Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara, Supï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha is known to have been built by the gods Devanirmita10. This shows that it was very old, and its origin was forgotten. Some ascribed it to the third century B.D. while others to the sixth century B.C. In two votive tablets, the figure of this Stï¿½pa is found engraved. Another Jaina Stï¿½pa of Mathura is of Kushï¿½ï¿½a period. From Jaina traditions, the Mauryan ruler Samprati is known to have constructed several Jaina temples and monasteries. ‘Nigaï¿½asa Vihï¿½ra Dï¿½pe11 inscribed on one of the pot sherds at Kasrawad in Madhya Pradesh proves the existence of Jaina monastery in the third century B.C. The excavations12 conducted at a site called Vaï¿½ï¿½amanu, named after Vardhamï¿½na in the Krishna Valley, yielded the Jaina remains of the Stï¿½pas, ellipsoidal structures and monasteries of the period between the second century B.C. to the second century A.D. The names of Jinonavihï¿½ra and Samprativihï¿½ra are found engraved on the pottery pieces. The name Samprati-Vihï¿½ra proves tha Samprati was a historical figure. At Paharpur in Bengal was found a copper plate inscription of the fifth century A.D. which mentions the name of the ï¿½cï¿½rya Guhanandi of Paï¿½chastï¿½pï¿½nvaya and Jaina Vihï¿½ra(monastery) of Vaï¿½a Gohï¿½li. In excavation also, the remains of the monastery were discovered.
(ii) CAVES : There are caves and caverns associated with Jainism in the southern Districts of Madurai and Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu. The inscriptions of the third or second century B.C. engraved on them record mostly the dedication of abodes for Jaina monks. The caves on the Udaigiri and the Khandagiri hills near Bhuvaneshwar in Orissa belong to the second or the first century B.C. as known from the inscription of Khï¿½ravela. The Jaina caves of the second century B.C. have been discovered at Ghuntupalli in the East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. The Son-Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ra cave at Rï¿½jgï¿½ha in Bihar is assigned to the first century B.C. At Pale in Poona District of Maharashtra, there is a cave with an inscription of the first century B.C. At Pabhosa, near Allahabad, there are two caves with an inscription of the second century B.C. which records their dedication by Ashï¿½dhasena from Ahichchhatra for the use of Kaï¿½yapï¿½ya Arhats. At Junagarh, (Saurashtra) near Bava Phyï¿½ra Maï¿½ha are a group of Jaina caves of the second century A.D. The Udayagiri cave No. 25 in Madhya Pradesh belongs to the fifth century A.D. The Bhadrabï¿½hu cave on Chandragiri hill at ï¿½ravaï¿½a Belagolï¿½ is noteworthy in the south. The Sittanavï¿½sala cave in Tamilnadu belongs to the third century A.D. The Badami cave of the seventh century A.D. is also worth mentioning. There are the Jaina caves at Ahihole also. The Jaina caves namely Chotï¿½ Kailï¿½sa Indra Sï¿½bhï¿½ and Jagannï¿½tha Sabhï¿½ are the finest from the artistic point of view. The pillars and walls are exquisitely carved. The Jaina caves at Gwalior or the 15th century belong to the Tomara period.
(iii) TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE : The remains of the foundation of the oldest Jaina temple have been discovered at Lohanipura, near Patna. It was a square temple (8′ 10″ C 8′ 10″) of the Mauryan period i.e. third century B.C. The excavations at Kankali Tila Mathura disclosed remains of two Jaina temples of the Kushï¿½ï¿½a period, i.e. the second century A.D.
From the sixth century A.D. onwards, three main styles of temples known as the Nï¿½gara, the Drï¿½vida, and the Vï¿½sara are recognized. The fundamental characteristics of Nï¿½gara style are cruciform plan and curvilinear ï¿½ikhara and it was prevalent in the region between the Himalayas and the Vindhyas. The outstanding and common characteristic of the temples of Drï¿½viï¿½a style is the pyramidal elevation of the tower, and this tyle was confined to the part of the country lying between the river Krishna and Kanyakumari. The Vesara style is the mixed one of the above style, and it was found between the Vindhyas and the river Krishna. The Jaina temples of the above the three styles are noticed.
Jainism prospered greatly in medieval period under the patronage of the ruling dynasties, Jaina temples were built during the reign of the Gaï¿½gas, the Chï¿½lukyas, the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½tas, the Pallavas, the Cholas and the ï¿½antaras in the South. “The Meghuti Jaina temple built in 634 A.D. during the reign of Pulakeï¿½in II by Ravikï¿½rti is said to be the oldest temple of Drï¿½viï¿½a style in the south. The important temple of this style is in Paï¿½ï¿½akï¿½la. The Jaina temples at Huvancha and Gudau near Tirthahalli, Lakundi in Dharwad District, Jinanathapura, Halebid, Ganigitti, Tirumalalai, Tiruparuli, Kundarama, Tiruppanayura, “Mudabidri, etc. are noteworthy. Jaina temples built in Kerala region13 between ninth and eleventh centuries were of two main types – rock-cut and structural temples. Temples were also built in the Vijayanagara empire. These temples give an idea of the Drï¿½viï¿½a style of Jaina architecture of the south.
The Jaina temples of the Nï¿½gara style were built in large number in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat. The Jaina temples of Devagarh, Gyaraspur, Badoh and Bï¿½ï¿½hï¿½ Chanderi in Madhya Pradesh belong to the Pratï¿½hï¿½ra period. The pillars, gateways and the walls of the temples are finely carved.The Mï¿½lï¿½devï¿½ temple of Gyï¿½raspur, which is partly rock-cut and partly structural, consists of a porch, hall, vestibule and sanctum with an ambulatory. The Jaina temple of Badoh with twenty-five cells was built between the ninth and twelfth century A.D. The Jaina temples of Khajuraho belong to the Chandella period. These are lofty edifices without any enclosure and erected on a high platform terrace. Like the exterior, the interior of these temples specially doorways, pillar architraves and ceilings are richly carved with figures and intricate geometrical and floral designs. During the Paramï¿½ra period, Bhï¿½mija style became popular. The two Jaina temples of 11-12th century A.D. at Un are of this style. The carvings of these temples are of high order. At Bhojapur, near Bhopal, there are remains of the Jaina temple. The Jaina temples of Sonagiri, Muktagiri, Kundalpur and Mandu were built during the Muslim period.
In Rajasthan, the Jaina temple built in the eighth century A.D. at Osia during the reign of Vatsarï¿½ja is the oldest, and it consists of a sanctum, a closed hall and an open porch. it is famous for its carvings. The Jaina shrines at Kumbharia are noteworthy as some of them contain beautiful ceiling slabs. The two celebrated Jaina temples of Abu are the best examples not only of Jaina but Indian architecture. One dedicated to ï¿½dinï¿½tha was built by a minister named Vimala in 1031 A.D. while the other was constructed by Tejapï¿½la in 1230 A.D. These temples are famous for the minutely carved decoration of the ceilings, pillars, doorways and niches. The Dhai din kï¿½ Jhoï¿½pra seems to be originally a Jaina temple constructed by the Chauhï¿½na ruler. Vigraharï¿½ja. The Singhï¿½jï¿½ Kï¿½ Mandira at Sanganer belongs to the tenth century A.D. because there is an inscription of 954 A.D. on the bandaravï¿½la of the main shrine in the second hall of the temple. The Jaina temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha at Jhalarapatan was built in 1046 A.D. by Sï¿½ha Pï¿½pï¿½. The shrine and ï¿½ikhara of this temple are old. The Jaina temple of Lodorva near Jaisalmer is of the eleventh century A.D., and it’s toraï¿½advï¿½ra is elaborately carved and richly decorated. The Jaina temple of Rï¿½ï¿½akapur built in 1440 A.D. is the most complicated and extensive temple. There are twenty domes supported by about 1420 pillars and no two pillars are alike. Besides twelve in the central ï¿½ikhara, there are eighty-six cells of very varied form and size surrounding the interior, and all their facades more or less adorned with sculptures. The great Jaina temples of Chintamani Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha, ï¿½ishabha, ï¿½antinï¿½tha, Sambhavanï¿½tha and Mahï¿½vï¿½ra in Jaisalmer constructed one after another in a period between the twelfth and the fifteenth centuries are excellent. Profuse ornamentations in the shape of foliage, flowers birds and human figures were used in decorating every part of the pillar, arch, lintel or bracket of these temples. There are several old temples at ï¿½atrunjaya and Girnar which throw significant light on the gradual development of art.
(iv) MÏ¿½NASTHAMBHAS : The exquisite Jaina Mï¿½nastambhas are found at ï¿½ravaï¿½a Belagolï¿½ Muï¿½ubidre and Kï¿½rkala. The Mï¿½nastambha of Devagadh is artistic. The Jaina tower known as Kï¿½rtistambha of the 15th century ar Chitor is 80 feet in height, and is composed of eight storeys. It is full of decorations.
(B) JAINA SCULPTURES
The earliest evidence for the worship of image is found among the Jainas. The Hï¿½thigumphï¿½ inscription of the second or first century B.C. mentions that king Khï¿½ravela brought back the image of Kalinga Jina which was taken away by Nandarï¿½ja. This proves that Jaina image was worshipped in the fourth century B.C. The earliest known Jaina image is from the Jaina temple of Lohanipura, near Patna, from which two torsos of Jina image were found. These belong to Mauryan period as they are of highly polished stone. A very old bronze of Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha standing in Kï¿½yotsarga in Prince of Wale’s Museum, Bombay, seems to be of the first century B.C. However the spot of discovery is not known. A unique bronze image of standing Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha in the Paddhottai Museum, Tamil Nadu, appears to be of the first century A.D. and it was carried from the North to the South.14 A bronze image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha and a few other Jaina bronze images from Chausa, near Buxar now in Patna Museum, are ascribed to the second or first century B.C.
A large nmber of Jaina images of the Kushï¿½ï¿½a period have been discovered at Mathura. The images of the Jaina Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas are in Kï¿½yotsarga (standing) and Padmï¿½sana (cross-legged) postures. They are made without distinctive symbols except in case of ï¿½dinï¿½tha who has a couple of loose locks falling on shoulder and Supï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha marked by a canopy of a serpent hoods. The Tï¿½rthaï¿½kara images are distinguished by the ï¿½rï¿½vatsa symbol on the centre of the chest and haloes round their head. There is an image of Mahï¿½vï¿½ra seated in Padmï¿½sana, and one of Sarvatobhadrikï¿½ (four-fold images). The images of Sarasvatï¿½ is the earliest. There was prevalent the worship of the auspicious symbols such a Stï¿½pa dharmachakra, ratnatriya, Nandipada, ï¿½rï¿½vatsa, Kevalavrï¿½ksha, Svastika and double fish as engraved on pillars, sï¿½chis (cross slabs), Ushniï¿½as (coping slabs and the toraï¿½a (Gate-way) as found in the excavations conducted at Mathura and Vaï¿½ï¿½amanu. These auspicious symbols are without any reference to the Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas in the human form.
Some Jaina images of the Gupta period are also known. There is a seated figure of Neminï¿½tha of the reign of Candragupta II at Rajagï¿½ha. This is the earliest specimen showing the introduction of recognizing symbols of Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas. Two images of Pushpadanta and one of Candragupta found at Vidiï¿½ï¿½ were installed by Mahï¿½rï¿½jï¿½dhirï¿½ja Rï¿½magupta. A beautiful standing bronze figure of ï¿½ishabha of the Gupta period, and the inscribed bronze image of Jï¿½vantasvï¿½mï¿½ (550-600 A.D.) were found at Akota. The Vasantagarh hoard contains two joint standing bronze images of Jinas of the seventh century A.D.
In the period between the eighth and the twelfth century A.D., numerous images of Jaina Tï¿½rthankaras and deities were made. “Their design and execution is perfect. Numerous exquisite Jaina images of this period were unearthed at Devagadha. Such beautiful Jaina images were aso discovered at Badanawar, Ujjain, Un. Gandharwal, Vidisha etc. in Madhya Pradesh. As Jaina ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha, Arahanï¿½tha and Kunthanï¿½tha were the Chakravarti kings among the Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas, their images are sometimes found in combination. The image ofBï¿½van-gazï¿½ (Adinatha) at Badwani appears to be or the 13th century A.D, and it is the tallest in India. In Rajasthan, the Jaina images of this period at Abu, Sanganor, Naraina, Paranagar, Maroth, Baghera etc. are also fine. The Sarasvatï¿½ of Pallu is an excellent specimen of Indian sculpture. The colossal Jaina sculpture of Gomateï¿½vara carved under the orders of Chï¿½muï¿½darï¿½ya in about 983 A.D. is one of the largest free standing images in the world. A large number of Jaina Yakshï¿½ and Gomaï¿½eï¿½vara images of the medieval period are found in the south. There are large variety in style and composition of Jaina bronzes of medieval period from Rajasthan, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. The Jaian images installed by Jï¿½varï¿½ja Pï¿½paï¿½ivï¿½la in V.S. 1548 are found throughout India. The rock-cut sculptures of the medieval period found at Gwalior are unique in Northern India a well for their number as for their giagantic size. Their number is 1500. The standing image of ï¿½dinï¿½tha is 17.84 mts. in height and a huge seated image of Sapï¿½rsvanï¿½ma 10.67 mts. in height and 9.27 mt. broad found here is not noticed any where.
(C) JAINA PAINTING : The traces of Jaina paintings have been marked in the caves of Udaigiri and Khandagiri belonging to the first century B.C. The wall and roof paintings of Sï¿½ttanavï¿½sala in Tamil Nadu are assigned to the reign of Pallava ruler Mahendravarman I (600-625 A.D). In the Jaina temple of Tirumalai and the Jaina monastery of ï¿½ravaï¿½a Belagola, Jaina paintings of the eleventh century are found.
The oldest illustrated Jaina palm manuscripts are found in the Jaina Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ras of Mudabidri and Patan. At Mudabidri, five illustrated pages of a copy of the Shatkhanï¿½ï¿½gama were written in 1113 A.D. The illustrated copy of the palm manuscript ofNiï¿½ï¿½thachï¿½rï¿½i was written during the reign of the Solankï¿½ ruler Jayasiï¿½ha (1094-1143 A.D.) The illustrated copy of Jï¿½ï¿½tï¿½dharmasï¿½tra in the Jaina temple of ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½tha is noteworthy. In the Jaina Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ras of Jaisalmer, palm leaf illustrated Paï¿½ï¿½ikas illustrating the previous lives of Neminï¿½tha, Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha and Mahï¿½vï¿½ra have been found. The ï¿½rï¿½vaka Bratikramaï¿½achï¿½rï¿½i now in the museum of the Fine Arts, Boston, containing six pictures is dated 1260 A.D.
The use of the paper as painting material started on a considerable scale from about the 14th century A.D. The earliest illustrated Jaina paper manuscript is a copy of the Kalpasï¿½tra written in 1427 A.D. preserved in the India Office Library, London. The illustrated copies of the Kalpasï¿½tra, Kï¿½lakï¿½chï¿½rya Kathï¿½. Yaï¿½odharacharita, Mahï¿½purï¿½ï¿½a, ï¿½dipurï¿½ï¿½a, Bhaktï¿½mara etc. have been discovered in the Jaina Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ras of Patan, Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Jaipur and Nagaur. Paintings on cloth have been found. The Chintamaniyantra dated V.S. 1411 (1354 A.D.) in the Nahata Kala Bhawan, Bikaner is important. Among the wooden painted covers of thebhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ras of Jaisalmer, two belonging to the 12th century are important. While the one illustrated the mutual discussion between Jinadatta Suri and his ï¿½rï¿½vakas while the other illustrated the defeat of Kumudachandra by Devasï¿½ri in the religious discussion in the royal court of Siddharï¿½ja Jayasiï¿½ha in 1124 A.D. The Vijï¿½aptipatras sent from Sirohi, Udaipur, Jodhpur and Mandu in medieval period to the Jaina monks as letters of invitations usually give us a pictoial form the description of the concerned localities. These Vijï¿½aptipatras are important from the artistic point of view.
The contribution of Jainism to the cause of education is also noteworthy. The Jaina religious preachers, who wandered from place to place propagating their doctrines, proved to be potential media of mass education. The permission granted by Jainism for the admission of women into the order provided an impetus to the spread of education and philosophy among the ladies. The salutation to the different classes of sadhus in Namokï¿½ramantra in Jainism indicates that the teacher was held in high reverence.
In ancient times, the Jaina monasteries and temples became the seats of learning. Teachers used to impart education in these institutions to the people irrespective of caste and creed. The Pahï¿½rapur copper plates of 478 A.D. record that there was a Jaina Vihï¿½ra at Vaï¿½a Gohï¿½lï¿½, which was presided over by the pupils of the Nirgrantha teacher Guhanandin of the Paï¿½chastï¿½panikï¿½ya of Banaras. It is worth noting that the founder of the Vihï¿½ra was a monk who migrated from Banaras to the east. The Jaina temple built by the great poet Ravikï¿½rti at Meghuti15 (Ahihole) in 637 A.D. seems to have been a great centre of learning.
From the Dubkund stone inscription16 dated 1188 A.D., it is known that there was Jaina monastery at Dubkunda, 114 km south-west of Gwalior at this time. The Jaina teachers used to reside here. The teachers belonging to the Lï¿½ï¿½avï¿½gaï¿½a Gaï¿½a were known such as Devasana, his disciple was Kulabhï¿½shaï¿½a and his disciple again was Durlabhasenasï¿½ri. From him sprang the Guru ï¿½ï¿½ntisheï¿½a who defeated the disputants in discussion. His disciple was Vijayakï¿½rti. The Jaina temple of Un, Chabutarï¿½ Deorï¿½, was used as a school for children.17 This is clear from the inscriptions found on the walls of the temple. One inscription consists of certain rules of sanskrit grammar, while another is inscribed on the folds of the body of a snake and consists of various letters, both vowels and consonants of the Indian alphabet, as well as the affixes used in the conjuction of Sanskrit verbs.
The Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha-Jina-Vihï¿½ra at Dhï¿½ra and the Nemichaityï¿½laya of Nalachhï¿½ also served as seats of learning. The Chauhï¿½na ruler Vigraharï¿½ja built the Sarasvatï¿½mandira which is famous by the name of Adhai-din-kï¿½-Jhoï¿½prï¿½ at Ajmer. It was probably a Jaina college building meant for higher education and students from the neighbouring places flocked to it for learning.18 In the thirteenth century A.D., there was a Jaina monastery at Ujjain.19 Devadhara, Vidyï¿½nandasï¿½ri and Dharmakï¿½rti Upï¿½dhyï¿½ya (Dharnaghosha) became head of it one after another.
During the medieval period, Jaina Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas and ï¿½rï¿½pï¿½jyas rendered great service to the cause of education. The seats of the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas became the centres of learning. The seats of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha were respectively Bhaddalpura, Ujjain, Baran, Gwalior, Chitor, Baghera, Delhi, Ajmer, Nagaur and Amber. The monasteries and temples were constructed at these places, and these developed gradually into educational institutions. There were libraries attached to the educational institutions. A large number of people were employed for copying the manuscripts which were required for study and learning. ï¿½chï¿½ryas and paï¿½ï¿½its were appointed by the Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rï¿½kas for imparting education to the people irrespective of castes and creeds. The ï¿½rï¿½pï¿½jyas established institutions known as Upï¿½sarï¿½s for the cultivation and propagation of religious and secular learning.
The Jaina holy places such as Abu, Ujjain, Un (Pï¿½vï¿½giri), Sonagiri and ï¿½ravaï¿½abelagolï¿½ became the seats of learning, because of the frequent visit of the Jaina saints and the ï¿½rï¿½vakas. Temples and monasteries were built at these places. These gradually developed into great educational institutions. Manuscripts were presented to these institutions for study.
Jaina literature occupies a prominent place in Indian literature, and considerable contributions have been made by the Jaina scholars to the different branches. Jaina teachers have written literature marked by moral and religious sentiments. because they wanted to bring about the moral uplift of the people. Jaina saints generally wrote their works in simple and popular languages such as Prakrit, Apabhraï¿½ï¿½a and theDeï¿½abhï¿½shï¿½s for the masses. Their works in Sanskrit are available. They enriched the Kannaï¿½a literature with classics. The Jaina literature is valuable from the point of view of philology and history as the Jaina scholars have made their contributions at every stage in the growth of Indian literature.
(A) CANONICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL LITERATURE : Originally, there were two kinds of Jaina sacred books – the fourteen Pï¿½rvas and the eleven Aï¿½gas. The fourteen Pï¿½rvas are said to be coming down from the time of Pï¿½rï¿½va. The fourteen Pï¿½rvaswere reckoned to make up a twelfth Aï¿½ga called the Dï¿½isï¿½ivï¿½da. The language of the available canon, however, shows a great influence of Mahï¿½rï¿½shï¿½rï¿½ Prakrit. The ï¿½gama or canonical literature, according to the ï¿½vetï¿½mbara Jainas consists of eleven Aï¿½gas, twelve Upï¿½ï¿½gas, ten Paiï¿½ï¿½as (Prakï¿½rï¿½as) six, Chhedasï¿½tras, Nï¿½ndï¿½ and Anuyogadvï¿½ra and four mï¿½lasï¿½tras. Among these different Aï¿½gas, only the ï¿½chï¿½raï¿½ga, the Sï¿½trakï¿½itï¿½ï¿½ga and the Uttarï¿½dhyayana contain the old part of the canon from linguistic and literary point of view.
On the other hand, according to the Digambara tradition, some portion of Dï¿½ishï¿½ivï¿½da is saved. But all the eleven Aï¿½gas were lost by degrees in course of time. With the loss of their canonical books, the Digambaras keenly felt the need of some authoritive works taking the place of the canon, and this was not by the composition of independent treatises on Jaina religion and philosophy. Kundakunda (??) the most celebrated of the Digambara author, who lived in the early centuries of the Christian era, has several books to his credit, among which Paï¿½chï¿½stikï¿½ya, Pravacanasï¿½ra, Samayasï¿½ra and ï¿½aï¿½prabhï¿½tas may be mentioned. Other early Digambara Jaina writers, who wrote in Prakrit, are Vaï¿½ï¿½akara ( 2v ?), the author of Mï¿½lï¿½chï¿½ra dealing with the rules of conduct of Jaina monks andSvï¿½mkï¿½rtikeyï¿½nuprekshï¿½, (2v A.D.) which treats of the twelve reflections on the glaring shortcomings of the worldly life. Bhï¿½tabali, disciple of Dharasena, completed the Shatakhandï¿½gama in C. 75 A.D. Yati Vï¿½ishabha is known to have been the author of important works – the Chï¿½rï¿½i-sï¿½tras on the Kashï¿½yapï¿½huï¿½a of Guï¿½adhara and the Karmasï¿½tras.
There are also early Digambara Jaina scholars who wrote in Sanskrit. Samantabhadra (2.A.D) is one of the greatest masters of Jaina literature. His known and available works, all in chaste Sanskrit are ï¿½ptamï¿½ï¿½ï¿½sï¿½ or Devï¿½gama Stotra, Yuktyï¿½nuï¿½ï¿½sana, Svayambhustotra, Jinastutiï¿½ataka or Stuti-Vidyï¿½ and Ratnakaraï¿½ï¿½a ï¿½rï¿½vakachï¿½ra. Umï¿½svï¿½min’s or Umï¿½savati’s 2 A.D.) Tattavarthï¿½ sï¿½tra (also called the Mokshaï¿½ï¿½stra) occupies an honourable place in Jainism. The earliest available Digamabara commentary on the Mokshaï¿½ï¿½stra is the Sï¿½rvï¿½rthasiddhi of Pï¿½jyapï¿½da (C. 450 A.D.). Akalaï¿½ka was a great logician, whose famous works are Rï¿½javï¿½rttika and Ashï¿½asati. Mï¿½natuï¿½ga is the author of the celebrated Bhaktï¿½mara or ï¿½dinï¿½tha stotra. A tradition associates him with king ï¿½rï¿½ Harsha (606-647 A.D.) Vidyï¿½nandi was a great logician, commentator and exponent of Akalaï¿½ka school. He is the author of a number of important philosophicological works.
‘Siddhasena Divï¿½kara is the author of the famous philosophical treatise called Sanmati-sï¿½tra. Mallavï¿½di, author of Dvï¿½da-ï¿½ï¿½ranaya chakra, a work on Logic and perhaps of a Tï¿½kï¿½ on Siddhasena’s Sanmati, also belongs to C. 600 A.D. Haribhadrasï¿½ri (700-770 A.D.) is the outstanding writer and wrote a large number of books both in Sanskrit and Prakrit. He is the earliest Sanskrit commentator of the canon, and his contributions to Jaina logic area a outstanding. He inaugurated a new era in Yoga literature by writing the Yogabindu andYogadrishï¿½isamuchchaya. In his Shad-darï¿½ana samuchchaya, he gives a brilliant exposition of the different systems of philosophy-Jinabhadra Kshamï¿½ï¿½ramaï¿½a is, one of the earliest commentators of the ï¿½vetï¿½mbara ï¿½gamasï¿½tras and is generally known as the Bhï¿½shyakï¿½ra Vï¿½rasena learnt the Shaï¿½akhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½gama and the Kashï¿½yaprï¿½bhï¿½ita from Elï¿½chï¿½rya at Chitor, and after that, he wrote the Dhavalï¿½ and portion of the Jayadhavalï¿½ in the south, in the ninth century. Vidyï¿½nanda, Mï¿½ï¿½ikyanandi and Prabhï¿½chandra were famous logicians. They were probably all contemporaries, and lived in about 800 A.D. Amritachandra was a brilliant commentator who expounded Kundakunda’s works and also wrote the Tattvï¿½rthasï¿½ra, Purushï¿½rthasiddhupï¿½ya, etc. Towards the close of the tenth century A.D., Nemichanda produced a number of philosophic compendiums of considerable importance.
The study of the Jaina Ardha Mï¿½gadhï¿½ canon was carried a step further by Abhayadeva (1064 A.D.), who wrote commentaries on the nine Aï¿½gas, and by ï¿½ï¿½ntisï¿½ri and Devendragaï¿½i (eleventh century), both of whom wrote exhaustive commentaries on the important and popular canonical work, the Uttarï¿½dhyana. Amitagati of Malwa composed a compendium of Jaina philosophy called Paï¿½chasaï¿½graha. Vï¿½dirï¿½ja, who lived at the court of the Western Chï¿½lukya king Jayasiï¿½ha, wrote two works on logic Pramï¿½ï¿½a-Nirï¿½aya and Nyï¿½yaviniï¿½chaya vivaraï¿½a. Jinadatta Sï¿½ri is known to be the author of several books. Hemachandrasï¿½ri, Guru of Kumï¿½rapï¿½la, was the celebrated writer who wrote on different branches of learning. He became famous as Kalikï¿½lasarvajï¿½a. He wrote the Pramanamï¿½mï¿½ï¿½sï¿½ with a commentary of his own. His other philosophical works known to us are Anyayogavyavachchhedikï¿½ and Yogaï¿½ï¿½straï¿½aï¿½ï¿½ka. Jinapatisuri composed the Prabodhyavï¿½dasthala and Jineï¿½varasï¿½ri wrote the Dharmavidhi-prakaraï¿½a. ï¿½ï¿½adhara is the author of more than twenty works, the Sï¿½gara-Dharmï¿½mï¿½ita and Anï¿½gï¿½ra-Dharmamï¿½ita being the most famous and popular.
Even after the thirteenth century A.D., literary activities continued among the Jainas. Numerous works were written but most of them were stereotyped, imitative and artificial. They were not spontaneous and natural as they were in early times. Padmanandi, Sakalakï¿½rti and ï¿½ubhachandra, Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of the Mï¿½lasaï¿½ghas, are known to have written several works, Samayasundra was the profound scholar of Jainism in medieval times and has written several works in Sanskrit. In the 17th century, the poet Rï¿½jamalla composed the Lï¿½ï¿½isaï¿½hitï¿½, Adhyï¿½tmakamalamï¿½rtaï¿½ï¿½a and Paï¿½chï¿½dhyï¿½yï¿½. Meghavijaya is the author of Mï¿½trikï¿½prasï¿½da, Brahmï¿½bodha, Yuktiprabodhasaï¿½ï¿½ka and Dharmamaï¿½jusha.
From the sixteenth century A.D., Philosophical and canonical works began to be written in Hindi20 when it became the language of the masses. Paï¿½ï¿½ita ï¿½odarmala was the reputed author of Hindi prose in the eighteenth century. He prepared commentaries on the hard and obstruse works such as the Gommaï¿½asï¿½ra, Jï¿½vakarmakï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a, Labdhisï¿½ra, Khapanasï¿½ra and Trilokasï¿½ra. His Mokshamï¿½rga prakï¿½sa is an original and independent work which shines like a jewel in Indian literature. Paï¿½ï¿½ita ï¿½ivajï¿½ Lï¿½lï¿½ and Paï¿½ï¿½ita Dï¿½pachanda ï¿½ï¿½ha are known to have written several works in Hindi, Khusï¿½la Chanda Kï¿½la, Paï¿½ï¿½ita Daulatarï¿½ma and Pï¿½rasadesa Nigotyï¿½ wrote Vachanikï¿½s in Hidni. Jayachandra Chhï¿½barï¿½, author of the nineteenth century, had good command over both Sanskrit and Prakrit. He made translations of several Sanskrit and Prakrit works in Hindi between 1804 and 1813 A.D.
Canonical and philosophical works were written in Rajasthani language.21 Samayasï¿½ndara, Jinaharsha, Jinasamudrasï¿½ri and Jitamala of Terï¿½panthï¿½ sect were well-known authors who wrote several works. The most important is the Bhagavatï¿½sï¿½tra of Jitamala written in sixty thousand ï¿½lokas.
(B) RICH NARRATIVE LITERATURE : Jina literature is full of popular stories, tales and narrative. Jaina scholars were good story-tellers themselves, and therefore, they have left for us numerous Indian tales which otherwise, would have been lost, These tales are found in kathï¿½s kathï¿½koï¿½a, epics, charitra and the Purï¿½nas. These are found written in Prakrit, Sanskrit, Apabhraï¿½ï¿½a, Gujarï¿½tï¿½, Rï¿½jasthï¿½nï¿½ and Hindi. These include parables and fables, folk tales and moral anecdotes, tales of romance and adventure and of animal life and supernatural beings, satires and allegories, novels and dramas, even political and historical tales.
(i) KATHÏ¿½S, KATHÏ¿½NAKAS AND KATHÏ¿½KOÏ¿½AS : The Jainas began writing story books from about the beginning of the Christian era. The Paiï¿½ï¿½as (miscellanea part of the canon) and the Bhagavatï¿½-ï¿½rï¿½dhanï¿½ of ï¿½ivï¿½rya (1st century A.D.) are the Bhagavatï¿½-arï¿½dhanï¿½ of ï¿½ivï¿½rya (1st century A.D.) are believed to have been the ultimate sources for the bulk of independent stories. Svï¿½mï¿½ Kumï¿½ra is the author of the Kï¿½rttikeyï¿½nuprekshï¿½, a fine and popular didactic work in Prakrit. There is a large number of independent works of fiction as well, more important are the Dhï¿½rtï¿½khyï¿½na, Samaraichchakathï¿½ and Kathï¿½koï¿½a of Haribhadra (eigth century A.D.) written in Prakrit the Kuvalayamï¿½lï¿½ of Uddyotanasï¿½ri (778 A.D.) written in Prakrit. The Upamitibhavaprapaï¿½chakathï¿½ of Siddharshi (905 A.D.) Tilakamaï¿½jarï¿½ of Dhanapï¿½la (970 A.D.), Kathï¿½koï¿½a of Jineï¿½vara,Dharmaparï¿½kshï¿½s of Harisheï¿½a (998 A.D.) Amitagati (993 A.D.) and Nayasena (1125 A.D.) respectively.
Sakalakirti, ï¿½ubhachandra, Surendrakï¿½rti and Devendrakï¿½rti, Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of the Mï¿½lasï¿½ï¿½gha and Somakï¿½rti of Kï¿½shaï¿½ï¿½saï¿½gha wrote the Kathï¿½s. Meghavijaya also wrote the Kathï¿½s.
There is quite a large story literature in Hindi created by Jaina authors. Brahma Rï¿½yamala, Jinadï¿½sa, Khuï¿½ï¿½la Chanda Kï¿½lï¿½, Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Devendrakï¿½rti, Paï¿½ï¿½ita Bakhatarï¿½ma and Paï¿½ï¿½ita Daulatarï¿½ma wrote the kathï¿½s.
(ii) EPICS, CHARITRAS, PURAÏ¿½AS AND DRAMAS : The earliest is the Prakrit epic Paumchariya by the poet Vimalasï¿½ri. It seems to have been written in the first century A.D. The Vï¿½sudevahiï¿½ï¿½i written in the fourth century A.D. by Sanghadï¿½sagaï¿½i is the first available Jaina version of the Mahï¿½bhï¿½rata. King Parameï¿½vara seems to be the most important of early Mahï¿½purï¿½ï¿½awriters.22 His Vï¿½gï¿½rtha-Saï¿½graha, probably in Sanskrit prose and poetry mixed, appears to have formed the basis for almost all the later writers of Jaina Purï¿½ï¿½as. Jinasena’s Harivaï¿½ï¿½apurï¿½ï¿½a is one of the earliest Jaina version of the Pï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ava tale. Another Jinasena wrote the ï¿½dipurï¿½ï¿½a which was completed by his disciple Guï¿½abhadra. Ravisheï¿½a is the author of the Padmacharita, the earliest available Jaina Purï¿½ï¿½a in the Sanskrit giving the story of Rï¿½mï¿½yaï¿½a. Pushpadanta is the author of the Mahï¿½purï¿½nawritten in Apabhraï¿½ï¿½a. Svayambhu, the greatest poet of Apabhraï¿½ï¿½a, is known to have written the Rï¿½mï¿½yaï¿½a.
Narrative literature also consists of charitras and Purï¿½ï¿½as, which are the lengthy biographies of the Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas, Chakravartï¿½s, and ï¿½ishis of the past. The Munipaticharitra, Yaï¿½odhara charitra and Neminï¿½thachariu are the works written in the eighth century by Haribhadrasï¿½ri. Other such works are the Mahï¿½vï¿½racharitra of Asaga (853 A.D.), the Jï¿½vandhara-champï¿½ of Vï¿½disiï¿½ha (C. 1050 A.D.), the Karakaï¿½ï¿½u-chariu of Kanakï¿½mara (10th century), the Sudarï¿½ana-charita of Nayanandi (1042 A.D.), the Jambucharita of Vï¿½ra (1019 A.D.) and of Sï¿½garadatta (1020 A.D.) and ï¿½reï¿½ikacharita of Jinadeva and the Bhadrabï¿½hu-charita of Ratnanandi.
ï¿½antinï¿½tha charita was written both by Devasï¿½ri and Mï¿½ï¿½ikya Chandra, Neminï¿½thacharita by Surï¿½chï¿½rya as well as Malï¿½dhï¿½rï¿½ Hemachandra, and Pï¿½rï¿½vanï¿½tha charita by Vï¿½dirï¿½ja, Bhavadeva and Mï¿½ï¿½ikyachandra. Mahï¿½sena wrote the Pradyumana-charita under Sindhurï¿½ja who died in about 1000 A.D. The Mï¿½igï¿½vatï¿½-charitra of Maladhï¿½rï¿½ Devaprabha (thirteenth century) contains interesting legends about Udayana, Vï¿½savadattï¿½ and Padmï¿½vatï¿½, reminiscent of Bhï¿½sa’s dramas. Devendrasï¿½ri wrote the ï¿½ï¿½ntinï¿½thacharita in 1103 A.D. in Prakrit. His disciple the great Hemachandra is the author of theTrishashï¿½hiï¿½alï¿½kï¿½purushacharita which describes the lives of sixty three persons. Rï¿½machandra (1110-1173 A.D.), a pupil of Hemachandra in Gujrat, has written no less than eleven dramas, and Hastimalla is the author of four plays of considerable value. Padmanandi, Sakalakï¿½rti and his disciple Brahma Jinadï¿½sa, ï¿½ubhachandra, Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha and Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Somakï¿½rti of Kï¿½shtï¿½saï¿½gha wrote the charitra works.23
In medieval times, Purï¿½nas and Charitras of the Prakrit and Sanskrit languages were translated into Hindi language and even some fresh were also written. Brahma Jinadï¿½sa composed the ï¿½dipurï¿½ï¿½a, Jambï¿½svï¿½mï¿½charitra and Yaï¿½odharacharitra in mixed Gujarati and Rajasthani. Khuï¿½ï¿½lachanda Kï¿½lï¿½, Nathamala Bilï¿½lï¿½, Paï¿½ï¿½ita Daulatarï¿½ma and others translated several Purï¿½ï¿½as and Charitras into Hindi.24
(C) KÏ¿½VYAS, MAHÏ¿½KÏ¿½VYAS AND OTHER SMALL POEMST: Jaina teachers cultivated the art of poetry not so much for its own sake as to carry the message of the Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas to the people in a form they liked the best. They composed a number of stotras in praise of the Tï¿½rthaï¿½karas and ï¿½chï¿½ryas.
Ravikï¿½rti, the celebrated composer and donee of the famous Ahihole inscription dated 634 A.D. of pulakeï¿½in II, was a great Jaina poet. Joindu (Yogindu), who wrote in Apabhraï¿½ï¿½a, was a great mystic poet. His well known works are Parmappapaysa (Paramï¿½tma Prakï¿½ï¿½a) and Jayasï¿½ra. Svayambhï¿½ is regarded as the greatest poet of Apabhraï¿½ï¿½a, language. He is known to have written the Rï¿½mï¿½yaï¿½a, Harivaï¿½ï¿½a, Nï¿½gakumï¿½ra charita and Svayambhï¿½-Chhanda (prosody). Pushpadanta is also another great Apabhraï¿½ï¿½a poet. Mallinï¿½tha Sï¿½ri Kolï¿½chala is known to be the celebrated commentator of Kï¿½lidï¿½sa’s works. He was one of the Judicial officers of Emperor Vï¿½ra Pratï¿½pa Prauï¿½ha Deva Rï¿½ya of Vijayanagara (1419-1446 A.D.)25
Dhanapala is the poet of tenth century A.D. and he has written the ï¿½ishabhapï¿½ï¿½chï¿½ï¿½ikï¿½ and Mahï¿½vï¿½rastava. Dhaneï¿½varasï¿½ri, pupil of Jineï¿½vara Shrï¿½, composed the ï¿½atruï¿½jayamï¿½hï¿½tmya. Another disciple of Jineï¿½varasï¿½ri named Jinachandrasï¿½ri is the author of Saï¿½vegaraï¿½gaï¿½ï¿½lï¿½. Jinavallabhasï¿½ri is the author of the Sï¿½ingï¿½raï¿½ataka, Svapnï¿½shï¿½akavichï¿½ra, Chitrakï¿½vya and several stotras. His Srï¿½vaka padmananda was also a poet who wrote the Vairï¿½jï¿½aï¿½ataka in Sanskrit. To Vï¿½gbhaï¿½a is assigned Neminirvï¿½lna dealing with the life of Neminï¿½tha. The Praï¿½asti of Bijaulia (Rajasthan) inscription dated 1170 A.D. has been written in the refined Sanskrit language by Guï¿½abhadra. TheChaityavandanakulaka and Avasthï¿½kulaka are the poetical works of Jinadattasï¿½ri. Hemachandrasï¿½ri was also a notable poet who wrote the Dvayï¿½ï¿½raya in Sanskrit and Kumï¿½rapï¿½lacharita in Prakrit. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dhara is also the well known poet who wrote the Bharateï¿½varabhyudaya Mahï¿½kï¿½vya and Rï¿½jï¿½mativipralambha and some other works. Hammï¿½ramahï¿½kï¿½vya written in the fourteenth century A.D. by Nayachandra describes the heroic deeds of Hammï¿½ra who bravely fought with the Muslims at Ranthambhor.
Padmanandi, ï¿½ubhachandra, Jinachandra, Sakalakï¿½rti and Jï¿½ï¿½nabhï¿½shaï¿½a, Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas of Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha, are known to have composed their respective poetical works.26 The name of Samayasundara ranks high among the Jaina poets of the sixteenth century. He utilised his poetic power composing the Rï¿½sa, Chaupï¿½ï¿½ Gï¿½ta etc. He has has written the Bhï¿½vaï¿½ataka in 1584 A.D. He also wrote the Ashï¿½alakshï¿½ in which he gave eight lakhs of interpretations of the sentence containing eight letters ‘Rï¿½jï¿½o Dadate Sankhya‘. It was presented in the royal court of the emperor Akbar who was surprised to hear. He was also writer of Jinasiï¿½hapadotsava Kï¿½vya and Raghuvaï¿½ï¿½avï¿½itti. Though Sahajakï¿½rti wrote in the language of the masses, his poetical works are also available. Meghavijaya of Tapï¿½gachchha is also the notable poet who wrote the Devï¿½nandï¿½bhyudaya Mahï¿½kavya in 1670 A.D. His other poetical works are also known. Numerous pï¿½jï¿½s are attributed to Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Devendrakï¿½rti, Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Surendrakï¿½rti and Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka Vijayakï¿½rti.
In medieval times, Jaina literature to be created in Hindi, Rajasthani and Gujarati languages. In the fifteenth century, Sakalakï¿½rti composed the ï¿½rï¿½dhanï¿½pratibodhasï¿½ra, Nemiï¿½varagï¿½ta and Muktï¿½valï¿½gï¿½ta, and his younger brother Brahma Jinadï¿½sa wrote several pï¿½jas and gï¿½tas. Banï¿½rsï¿½dasa, who lived during the 17th century in Agra, was the great scholar and reformer. He has written the Samayasï¿½ra drama, Banï¿½rsï¿½-vilï¿½sa and Ardhakathï¿½naka Khuï¿½ï¿½lachanda Kï¿½lï¿½, Pandita Daulatarï¿½ma Kï¿½ï¿½alivï¿½la, Paï¿½ï¿½ita Jayachanda Chhï¿½barï¿½ and Pandita Sadï¿½sukha Kï¿½ï¿½alivï¿½la are known to be the authors of several poetical works. The poet Budhajana is known to have written four poetical works such as Budhajanasatasai, Tattvï¿½rthabodha Budhajanavilï¿½sa and Paï¿½chï¿½stikï¿½ya.
Samayasundra is the distinguished poet of Rajasthani language. Sï¿½tï¿½rï¿½na Chaupï¿½ï¿½ is the Jaina Rï¿½mï¿½yaï¿½a written by him in Rajasthani language. His other poetical works are also available. Jinaharsha composed several stavanas and rï¿½sas. Nandabattï¿½sï¿½Chaupï¿½ï¿½ was also written by him. Jinasamudra composed various rï¿½sas and stavanas containing about fifty or sixty thousand stanzas. Jitamala was a great poet of the Rajasthani language and composed about one lakh ï¿½lokas. Dalapatavijaya is the author of Kumï¿½narï¿½so, Gorï¿½bï¿½dala and Padmï¿½vatï¿½ ï¿½khyï¿½na were written respectively by Hemaratna and Labdhodaya. Other poetical works written in Rajasthani language are also found.27
(D) GAMMAR, POETICS AND LEXICOGRAPHY : Knowledge of grammar, poetics and Lexicograohy is necessary to have mastery over literature. With this object in view, works on grammar were written by Jaina scholars from time to time. Pï¿½jyapï¿½da is said to have written the ï¿½abdï¿½vatï¿½ranyï¿½sa on Pï¿½ï¿½ini. Saktayana Palyakï¿½rti wrote the ï¿½abdï¿½nuï¿½ï¿½sana in 870 A.D. along with its commentary known as Amoghavï¿½iï¿½ï¿½i named as such in honour of his patron Amoghavarshat Budhisagarasï¿½ri wrote a comprehensive Sanskrit and Prakrit grammar, the Paï¿½chagranthï¿½ in 1023 A.D. Hemachandra Sï¿½ri was the great grammarian. His grammarSiddhahemavyï¿½karaï¿½a is a well known work on the subject. Paï¿½ï¿½ita ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dhara is the author of Kriyï¿½kalpa. In the sixteenth century, a Prakrit grammar known as Chintï¿½maï¿½i was written by Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½raka ï¿½ubhachandra. ï¿½rï¿½vï¿½llabha wrote commentaries on old grammars and his independent works are also available. Sahajakï¿½rti was also a great grammarian who wrote the Sï¿½rasvatavï¿½itti in 1624 A.D. and ï¿½abdï¿½rï¿½avavyï¿½karaï¿½a and Nï¿½makoï¿½a. The poet Rï¿½yamalla wrote the Chhandaï¿½ï¿½stra and Piï¿½gala in Hindi. The works on grammar such as Chhandraprabhï¿½, Hemaï¿½abdachandrikï¿½ andHemaï¿½abdaprakriyï¿½ were composed by Meghavijaya. Chandrakï¿½rti and his disciple also wrote works on grammar. Kuï¿½alalï¿½bha and Rï¿½jasoma wrote the Piï¿½galaï¿½iromaï¿½i and Dohï¿½chandrikï¿½ respectively in Rajasthani language. Other works written in this language are also available.28
Closely connected with Grammar is lexicography. Hemachandra is also the author of the lexicographical works which he compiled as supplements to his grammar. Jinabhadrasï¿½ri, pupil of Jinavallabhasï¿½ri, composed the Apavarganï¿½mamï¿½lï¿½koï¿½a. Amarakoï¿½aï¿½ï¿½ka was written by Paï¿½ï¿½ita ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dhara, but it is not available. In 1597 A.D., Jï¿½aï¿½atilaka made a commentary on the Sabdaprabhakoï¿½a and his disciple named ï¿½rï¿½vallabha also wrote works on lexcography.
As the Jaina poets wrote numerous works on poetry in high flown Kï¿½vya style, it was natural for them to write theAlaï¿½kï¿½raï¿½ï¿½stras. Hemachandra wrote the Kï¿½vyanuï¿½ï¿½sana with his own commentary called the Alaï¿½kï¿½ra-Chï¿½ï¿½ï¿½maï¿½i. Paï¿½ï¿½ita ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dhara wrote a treatise on the Kï¿½vyalaï¿½kï¿½ra of the famous ï¿½chï¿½rya Rudrata but it is not available. Vï¿½gbhaï¿½a wrote the Kï¿½vyï¿½nuï¿½asanasï¿½tra with a commentary of his own called Kï¿½vyamï¿½lï¿½. Vï¿½dirï¿½ja composed the Kavichandrikï¿½ a treatise on the Vï¿½gbhaï¿½ï¿½laï¿½kï¿½ra works. On poetics were written also in Rajasthani language.29
(E) JAINA LITERATURE IN TAMIL, TELAGU AND KANNAÏ¿½A LANGUAGES : The Jaina writers also contributed to the Tamil Literature. The history of Tamil literature commences with the Saï¿½gham Age (500 B.C. – 500 A.D.) of Madura. The influence of Jaina thought and philosophy is traced in Tolkï¿½ppiyam, the earliest work on Tamil grammar. The authors of the earlier compositions such as Kural,ï¿½ilppadikï¿½ram, Nï¿½ladiyar etc. were Jaina by persuasion. Of the five major epic poems in Tamil literature, ï¿½ilappadikï¿½ram, Valaiyï¿½pati and Chintamani are attributed to the authorship of Jaina writers. Some minor Kï¿½vyas like Nï¿½lakeï¿½ï¿½, Perukathai (or Brihadkathï¿½), Nagakumara Kï¿½vya, Chï¿½lï¿½maï¿½i were composed by Jaina poets. The credit of enriching Tamil literature by composing various works on didactics, grammar, prosody and lexicography and commentaries goes to the Jaina authors.30
The Jainas gave the Champu Kï¿½vyas (poems) to ï¿½ndhradesa and Karï¿½ï¿½taka, Nannaya is the author of the famous Telugu Mahï¿½bhï¿½rata. Pampa is the author of the ï¿½dipurï¿½ï¿½a, and Bharata (941 A.D.) As the author of these two Kannaï¿½a master pieces in the Champu style, Panpa’s services for the cause of Indian culture are noteworthy. Pampa was primarily responsible for Nannaya Bhaï¿½ï¿½a’s great work Bhï¿½rata (1053 A.D.) Nannaya Bhaï¿½ï¿½a, the Telugu scholar, was Brï¿½hmana but expoused the cause of Jainism. Kanti, the Jaina woman, completed the unfinished poems of Abhinava Pampa.31
The Jainas added quite a good to the wealth of the Kannada literature and they also enriched it with classics.32 Bï¿½hubali Paï¿½ï¿½ita wrote the Dharmanï¿½thapurï¿½ï¿½a in 1352 A.D. Keï¿½avarï¿½i wrote a Kannaï¿½a vï¿½itti to the Gommatasï¿½ra in 1359 A.D. He likewise wrote a Vritti in Kannaï¿½a to Amitavatiï¿½rï¿½vakï¿½chï¿½ra and a commentary in the same language to Sï¿½ratreya. Abhinava ï¿½ruta Muni is credited with writing a Kannaï¿½a commentary on Mallisen’s Sajjanachitta vallabha. Madhura (1365 A.D.) was the author of Dharmanï¿½thapurï¿½n and a ashï¿½aka praising Gommaï¿½a.
Bhï¿½shkara wrote the Jï¿½vandharacharita in 1424 A.D. Kalyï¿½ï¿½akï¿½rti is the author of same works. Jinadevaï¿½ï¿½a wrote the ï¿½reï¿½ikacharite in 1444 A.D. and Vijayaï¿½ï¿½a wrote Dvï¿½daï¿½ï¿½nuprekshe. Their contemporary was Vidyï¿½nanda who was the author of a Kannaï¿½a commentary on his own Sanskrit work called Prï¿½yaï¿½chitta. Terakaï¿½ï¿½mbi Bommarasa is the author of the Sanatakumï¿½racharita and Jï¿½vandhara charita (1485 A.D.) Kotiï¿½vara composed the Jï¿½vandharaï¿½atpadi. Yaï¿½ahkï¿½rti wrote a commentary of Dharmï¿½ï¿½armï¿½ bhyudaya and ï¿½ubhachandra wrote Narapiï¿½gali. Devappa himself was credited with proficiency in the exposition of the Jaina-Purï¿½ï¿½a. Panditamuni’s work was Chandraprabhacharita.
Ratnakaraï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ is known by his great work Trilokaï¿½ataka comprising 10,000 verses which he finished in 1557 A.D. His other works were – Bharateï¿½vara charite and analogy of poems known as Padajï¿½ti. Another prominent writer connected with Muï¿½u bidre was Nemaï¿½ï¿½a who wrote the Jï¿½ï¿½nabhï¿½skaracharite. Bï¿½hubali wrote the Nï¿½gakumï¿½racharite in 1560 A.D. Doï¿½ï¿½anï¿½tha wrote the Chandraprabha – ï¿½aï¿½padi in 1576 A.D. Padmarasa wrote the ï¿½riï¿½gï¿½rakathe in 1599 A.D. Brahmakavi is remembered only because of his Vajrakumï¿½ra charita. Pï¿½ya Muni wrote the Sanatakumï¿½ra charite in about 1606 A.D. The most famous among the writers of the 17th century was Paï¿½chabï¿½ï¿½a. In the Bhujabalacharita (1614 A.D.), he tells that the famous head anointing ceremony of Gomaï¿½anï¿½tha was performed in 1612 A.D. Devarasa (1650 A.D.) was the author of the Gurudattacharita.
Kannada Jainas have written not only on purely literary works but also on grammar. Towards the middle of the twelfth century A.D. lived Nï¿½gavarmï¿½ II who wrote the three well-known works on Kannaï¿½a grammar – Kï¿½vyavalokanaKarnaï¿½akabhï¿½shï¿½bhï¿½shaï¿½a and Vatukoï¿½a. In about 1260 A.D., appeared Keï¿½rï¿½ja with his ï¿½abdamaï¿½idarpaï¿½a in Kannaï¿½a. A Grammarian and a lexicographer Devottama wrote the Nï¿½nï¿½rtharatnï¿½kara assigned to 1600 A.D. Another lexicographer was his contemporary ï¿½riï¿½gï¿½rakavi, the author of the Karï¿½ï¿½ï¿½aka Saï¿½jï¿½vana. Pï¿½rï¿½vavarni’s work is styledSamyaktvakaumudï¿½.
(F) HISTORICAL, POLITICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL WORKS : There are some ancient historical writings from which we may draw certain conclusions after their critical examination. The Dvyï¿½ï¿½raya and the Trishashï¿½iï¿½alï¿½kï¿½purusha-charita of Hemachandra are useful for the history of Jainism under the Chï¿½ulukyas. The Prabhï¿½vakacharita of Prabhï¿½chandra Sï¿½ri written in V.S. 1361 and the Purï¿½tanaprabandhasaï¿½graha of Rï¿½jaï¿½ekhara written in V.S. 1405 contain numerous interesting anecdotes about several Jaina monarchs and saints. The Tï¿½rthamï¿½lï¿½s such as Vividhatï¿½rthakalpa of Jinaprabhasï¿½ri give a brief history of the holy places. The Paï¿½ï¿½ï¿½valï¿½s of Kharataragachchha, Tapï¿½gachchha and Mï¿½lasaï¿½gha are useful for political and religious history. The Vaï¿½ï¿½avï¿½lï¿½s give information about particular persons born in the communities. The Praï¿½astis are as important as the inscriptions. The Nï¿½tivï¿½kyï¿½mï¿½ita of Somadeva (959 A.D.) is an excellent regular treatise on the science and art of Politics. Several geographical works like Tiloyapaï¿½ï¿½ati of Yati Vï¿½ishabha, Lokavibhï¿½ga, Jambudvï¿½pa-Prajï¿½apti and Trilokasï¿½ra deal with cosmology from the Jaina point of view.
(G) SCIENTIFIC WORKS : Jaina authors have written not only on literary works but also works on medicines, Mathematics and Astrology.
(i) MEDIECINES : Pï¿½jyapï¿½da was well-versed in the Science of Medicines. King ï¿½ivamï¿½ra I was the author of the science of elephants. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½dhara wrote a commentary named Ashï¿½ï¿½ï¿½gahï¿½idayadyotinï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½kï¿½ on the famous work of Vï¿½gbhaï¿½a. but it is not available. The great work of Maï¿½garï¿½ja I (C. 1360 A.D.) was called Khajendramaï¿½idarpaï¿½a which deals with poisons. The Vaidyï¿½mï¿½ita (C. 1500 A.D.) was written by ï¿½rï¿½dharadeva. Bï¿½charasa was the author of Aï¿½vavaidya which deals with all details concerning horses and their ailments. Sï¿½lva is noted for his work called Vaidyasï¿½ngatya. Padmarasa wrote hayasï¿½rasamuchchaya dealing minutely with the forms, kinds, ailments etc. of horses. Ugrï¿½ditya is the author of Kayï¿½ï¿½akï¿½raka, a complete and original a treatise on the science of medicine (770-840 A.D.)33. Dï¿½pachanda wrote a work on medicine named Langhanapathyanirï¿½aya in 1735 A.D., and it deals with treatment by fasting. Some works on medicines were written in Rajasthani language.34
(ii) MATHEMATICS : Jainas have written some works on Mathematics also. Mahï¿½vï¿½rï¿½chï¿½rya is the author of the Gaï¿½itasï¿½rasaï¿½graha, a valuable and complete treatise on Mathematics. He belonged to a later part of the Rï¿½shï¿½rakï¿½ï¿½aAmoghavarsha’s reign. On Mathematics we have Rï¿½jï¿½ditya’s Kshetragaï¿½ita Lï¿½lavati Vyavahï¿½raratn Vyavaharaganita ChitrahasugeJainagaï¿½ita Sï¿½tra ï¿½ikodarana and other works.35 The Uttarachhatï¿½sï¿½ was written in Sanskrit by Sumatikï¿½rti, pupil of Jï¿½ï¿½nabhï¿½shana. The Arthasandï¿½ishï¿½adhikï¿½ra or Pandita Todarmala is a work of high merit in Mathematics.36 PanditaMannlï¿½la Sï¿½ngï¿½kï¿½ was well versed in this science. The Lï¿½lï¿½vatï¿½khï¿½sï¿½ chaupï¿½ï¿½ and Ganitachaupï¿½ï¿½ written in Rajasthani language are credited to him.37
(iii) ASTRONOMY : Astronomical works were written by Jaina authors from time to time. Haribhadra wrote the Lagnaï¿½uddhi.38Durgadeva, who flourished in the eleventh century, was an astronomer of note. He wrote the Ardhakï¿½ï¿½ï¿½a in Prakrit.39 Hï¿½rakalaï¿½a composed an important work named Jyotishasï¿½ra in Prakrit. Dikshï¿½pratishï¿½hï¿½di ï¿½uddhi was written in in 1628 A.D. by Samayasï¿½ra. Harshakï¿½rti wrote the Jyotishasï¿½ rodhï¿½ra. Meghavijaya was well versed in the science of astronomy and wrote several works. ï¿½rï¿½dharï¿½chï¿½rya of Naigunda composed the first Kannaï¿½a work on astrology called Jï¿½takatilaka.40 Several astronomical works were written in Rajasthani.
(8) JAINA Ï¿½Ï¿½STRA BHAÏ¿½Ï¿½Ï¿½RAS : The Jainas made valuable contribution to Indian culture by founding ï¿½ï¿½strabhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ras during the medieval period for preservation of manuscripts. The Jaina monks, who were great scholars, founded them, realizing their great educational value. It is said that Jinabhadrasï¿½ri spent the best of his life in establishing the store-houses of knowledge for the posterity at the places such as Jaisalmer, Nagaur and Jalor during the fifteenth century A.D. The great Jaina kings and their ministers encouraged writing of the manuscripts for their spiritual welfare. Kumï¿½rapï¿½la established twentyone ï¿½ï¿½strabhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ras, in every one of which he placed the copy of the Kalpasï¿½tra in golden ink. Among the great ministers of the States, who founded ï¿½ï¿½strabhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ras may be maintained the names of Vastupï¿½la, Pethaï¿½aï¿½ï¿½ha, Maï¿½ï¿½ana and others. Actuated by the desire of service to their religion, merchants and bankers got prepared numerous copies of important manuscripts. In 1394 A.D., Sangrï¿½ma Sonï¿½, a Jaina house-holder, spent lacs of gold moharas in preparation of Kalpasï¿½tra and Kï¿½lakï¿½chï¿½rya Kathï¿½. Dharaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ha got many copies of palm-leaf manuscripts written for presentation to the ï¿½ï¿½strabhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ras.
In medieval times. Jaina temples were the centres of learning and were also used for imparting education to the students. It was therefore necessary to collect books. The important Jaina ï¿½astrabhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ras are found at Patan, Jaisalmer, Idar, Nagaur, Bikaner, Jaipur, Agra, Delhi, Karanja, Poona, Moodabidri, Hunch Vï¿½rangal and Kï¿½rkala. In these ï¿½ï¿½strabhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ras, not only Jaina books relating to various faiths but also those of secular subjects such as astronomy, medicine, Mathematics, Grammar and Kï¿½vya were kept for study and reference. This indiacates that the Jainas in the middle ages were not narrow minded but understood the important of an all-comprehensive library.
Important works of non-Jaina authors such as Kï¿½lidï¿½sa, Bhï¿½ravï¿½, Mï¿½gha, Tulï¿½sï¿½dï¿½sa, Bihï¿½rï¿½ and Keï¿½ava are available in these collections. The illustrated manuscripts. Vijï¿½aptipatras and old pictures found in these granthabhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ras are important from the artistic point of view. There collections are also of literary importance. Works of different periods written in various languages such as Sanskrit, Prakrit, Apabhraï¿½ï¿½a, Rajasthani and Hindi are preserved in them. Works written in Apabhraï¿½ï¿½a language are especially found in abundance in these Bhandï¿½ras. Sometimes more than one copies of the manuscripts written at different times are noticed in some other Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ra. These are useful for the purpose of editing them. Most of these libraties have not been classified and catalogued. It this work is done, it will illumine the dark and unexplored corners of ancient and modern Indian languages and literature.
(9) TANTRA VIDYÏ¿½ AND MANTRA VIDYÏ¿½ : The Jainas also contributed to the Tantravidyï¿½ and Mantravidyï¿½. A beginning in this direction was made in the form of Yakshï¿½ cult which developed into ceremonial worship of the deities like Jvï¿½lï¿½mï¿½linï¿½ and Padmï¿½vatï¿½ beyond their natural set-up and culminated in their ritualistic invocation under mystical formularies. Besides Padmï¿½vatï¿½ and Jvï¿½lï¿½mï¿½linï¿½, a few more Yakshiï¿½ï¿½s also seem to have been involved occasionally by Jaina followers of Tantric traditions though such instances are rare. One notable instance is that of Akalaï¿½ka who is alleged to have vanquished the Buddhist opponents with the aid of Kushmï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ini. Kï¿½shmï¿½ï¿½ï¿½i or Kï¿½shmï¿½ï¿½ï¿½inï¿½ is the alternative name of Ambikï¿½, the Yakshï¿½ï¿½ of Neminï¿½tha.
Tantravidyï¿½ and Mantravidyï¿½ became very popular during the Medieval period in Jainism thought it is against principles. Some of the Jaina preceptors, even of higher status took to the study and practice of occult lores connected with Mantravidyï¿½ and Tantravidyï¿½. Mastery of occult powers and control over the evil spirits appear to have been considered as important attributes that distinguished the Jaina monks from others and went to establish their supremacy. The preceptors of the Yï¿½panï¿½ya sect seems to have played a substantial role in the spread of Jvï¿½linï¿½ cult.
The Jaina preceptors and monks appear to have indulged in claiming proficiency in this craft from the times of Elï¿½charya or Helï¿½chï¿½rya onwards. This cult seems to have been stabilised by the influential teachers like Indranandi, Yogindra and Mallisenas Mallisnenasï¿½ri, who lived in the 11th century, was the outstanding Jaina saint. He belonged to the spiritual lineage of the eminent teacher Ajitasena, the guru of the great Chï¿½muï¿½ï¿½a Rï¿½ya. He was also a renowned scholars and author, and the head of a monastery at Malgund in Dharwar District, of the three works in Sanskrit composed by him, relating to the occult lore, one named Bhairava – Padmï¿½vatï¿½ Kalpa deals with the spells and mystical formularies calculated to bestow superhuman powers with the aid of the goddess Padmï¿½vatï¿½. His other work Jvï¿½linï¿½-kalpa is on similar lines centring round the deity Jvï¿½lï¿½nï¿½.
There are inscriptions1 which refer to Jaina Acaryas who took pride in styling themselves Mantravï¿½dins. No. 66 inscription of ï¿½ravaï¿½aï¿½ Belagolï¿½ contains a description of the Acaryas ï¿½rï¿½dharadeva who was well-versed in the Mantric lore. The same epigraph speaks of another Acaryas named Padmanandi who was expert in the sceince of spells (Mantravï¿½diï¿½vara) No. 67 refers to the Acarya Kalyï¿½ï¿½akï¿½rti who was unrivalled in the art of exercising the evil spirits like ï¿½ï¿½kinï¿½. The Jaina Bhaï¿½ï¿½ï¿½rakas, ï¿½rï¿½pï¿½jyas and Yatis of Northern India were also well-versed in Mantravidyï¿½ and Tantravidyï¿½. As a result, they exercised great influence on the masses by their miracles. They were given great honour and respect.
REASONS FOR THE PROGRESS
- EFFICIENT ORGANIZATION OF SAÏ¿½GHA :Perhaps, the most important reason which contributed to the progress of Jainism was that Mahï¿½vï¿½ra possessed the great ability of efficiently organising of theSaï¿½gha. The Saï¿½gha was divided into four groups, namely Sï¿½dhus (Male ascetics), Sï¿½dhvï¿½s (Female ascetics) ï¿½rï¿½vakas (Male laity) and ï¿½rï¿½vikï¿½s (Female laity), and these groups have been bound together by very close relations. The same vratas or religions vows are prescribed for ascetics and laity with only difference that the ascetics have to observe them more scrupulously while the laity are allowed to follow them in a less severe manner. The ascetics controlled the religious life of the lay disciples and the lay disciples used to keep a strict watch control over the character of the ascetics. The ascetics were required to keep themselves entirely aloof from worldly matters, and vigorously maintained their high standard of aseetic life. If they fell short of their required standards, they were likely to be removed from their positions. The close union between laymen and monks brought about by the similarity of their religious duties, differing not in kind, but in degreee, had enabled Jainism to avoid fundamental changes within, and to reject dangers from without for more than two thousand years.
- CONSERVATISM :Another important reason for the progress of Jainism is its inflexible conservatism in holding fast to its original institutions and doctrines for the last so many centuries. The most important doctrines of the Jaina religions have remained practically unaltered and although a number of the less vital rules concerning the life and practices of monks and laymen may have fallen into disuse or oblivion, there is no reason to doubt that the religious life of the Jaina community is now substantially the same as it was two thousand years ago. This strict adherence to religious prescription is also eivdent from Jaina architecture and especially from Jaina sculpture, for the style of Jaina images has remained the same to such an extent that the Jaina images differing in age by a thousand years are almost indistinguishable in style.
- ROYAL PATRONAGE TO JAINISM :The royal patronage which Jainism had received during the ancient and medieval periods in different parts of the country has undoubtedly helped its progress Karï¿½ï¿½tak, Gujarat and Rajasthan continued to remain as strongholds of Jainism from ancient times because many rulers, Ministers and Generals of renouned merit were Jainas. Apart from Jaina rulers, many non-Jaina rulers also showed sympathetic attitude towards Jaina religion. From some inscriptions of Rajasthan, it is known that in compliance with the doctrines of Jainism, orders were issued in some towns to stop the slaying of animals throughout the year and to suspend the revolutions of oil-mill and potter’s wheel during the four months of the rainy season every year. Several inscriptions from the South reveal the keen interest taken by non-Jaina rulers in facilitating the Jainas to observe their religion. Among these, the most outstanding is the stone inscription dated 1368 A.D. of the Vijayanagara monarch Bukka Rï¿½ya-I When the Jainas of all Districts appealed in a body for protection against their persecution by the Vaishï¿½avas, the king after, summoning the leaders of both sects before him declared that no difference could be made between them and ordained that they should each pursue their own religious practices with equal freedom.
- HIGH IDEALS OF JAINA SAINTS :A large number of eminent Jaina saints contributed to the progress of Jainism by their varied activities. They were responsible for the spread of Jainism all over India. The learned Jaina ascetics preached the ethics through the medium of their sacred literature composed in the various vernaculars of the country. The literary and missionary activities of the Jaina saints ultimately helped the Jainas in South India to strengthen their position for a long time. The important Jaina saints and writers from the South were Kundakunda, Umï¿½svatï¿½, Samantabhadra, Pï¿½jyapï¿½da, Akalaï¿½ka, Vidyï¿½nandin, Mï¿½ï¿½ikyanandin, Prabhï¿½chandra, Jinasena-I, Guï¿½abhadra, Somadeva, Pampa and Ranna. Of these illustrious persons, ï¿½chï¿½rya Samantabhadra, and ï¿½chï¿½rya Akalaï¿½ka were the foremost in their zeal of spreading Jainism. Samantabhadra in the second century A.D. toured all over India and defeated his opponents in the public discussion at Kï¿½nchï¿½ in the seventh or eighth century A.D. Even in political matters, the Jaina saints were taking keen interest and guiding the people whenever required. The Gaï¿½gas and the Hoysalas were inspired to establish new kingdoms by the Jaina ï¿½chï¿½ryas. The Jaina ï¿½chï¿½ryas tried to excel in their personal accomplishments also. In a work called Pï¿½jyapï¿½dacharita, the names of 37 arts and sciences mastered by ï¿½cï¿½rya Pï¿½jyapï¿½da are given. In the seventh century A.D., the famous pilgrim Yuanchwang had heard that the Nirgranthas (the Jaina ascetics) of old times were skilled in divination. Naturally, kings and people had a great regard for the Jaina saints in different parts of the country. Even the Muslim emperors of Delhi honoured and showed reverence to the learned Jaina saints of North and South India. In Rajasthan, the kings used to invite the Jaina ï¿½cï¿½ryas and offered them royal reception in their capitals. It is no wonder that the character and activities of such influential Jaina saints created an atmosphere for the progress of Jainism.
GOODWILL OF MASSES : Jainism for its progress always depended on the goodwill of the followers of other religions. The Jainas followed the path of attaining the goodwill of all people by various means like educating the masses and alleviating the pain and misery of people by conducting several types of charitable institutions. From the beginning, the Jainas made it one of their cardinal principles to give the four gifts of food, protection, medicine and learning to the needy irrespective of caste and creed. According to some, this was by for the most potent factor in the propagation of the Jaina religion. For this, they established alm-houses, rest-houses, dispensaries and schools wherever they were concentrated in good numbers. The credit goes to the Jainas that they took a leading part in the education of the masses. Various relics show that formerly Jaina ascetics took a great share in teaching children in the Southern countries, viz. Andhra, Tamil, Karï¿½aï¿½aka and Maharashtra, Before the beginning of the alphabet proper to the children in Deccan, it should be followed by the Jaina formula “On Namah Siddham” shows that the Jaina Acaryas of medieval age had so completely controlled the mass education that the Hindus continued to teach their children this Jaina formula for many years is come.
INTIMATE RELATIONS WITH THE FOLLOWERS OF THE BRÏ¿½HMANICAL-RELIGION : Another important factor which led to the progress of Jainism is the cordial and intimate relations maintained by the Jainas with the followers of the Brï¿½hmanical religion. Jainism, Brahmanical religion and Buddhism, the three important ancient religions of India flourished side by side for the last so many centuries, it is natural that they have influenced one another in many respects. In matters like theories of rebirth and salvation, descriptions of heaven, earth and hell, and belief in the fact that the prophets of religion take birth according to prescribed rule, we find similarities in the three religions. Since the disappearance of Buddhism from India, the Jainas and the followers of Brahmanical religion came more close to each other and that is why in social and religious life, the Jainas on the whole did not appear to be much different from the followers of Brahmanical religion. In matters like religious festivals and fasts, occupations and professions, dress and ornaments, Sansï¿½karï¿½s or sacraments and language and general outlook on life, there are various common things between the Jainas and vegetarian followers of Brahmanical religion. There are certain castes whose members were found as followers in both the religions and to some extent marital relations were maintained between the followers of Jainism and Brahmanical religion.
It was impossible for Jainism to remain unaffected by influences of local customs, beliefs and cults. As a small number of Jainas had to live amidst the non-Jainas, it was but natural for them to adopt Brahmanical practices.
Somadeva in his Yaï¿½astilaka-champï¿½ observes that the religion of Jaina householders is of two varieties, Laukika i.e. this worldly, and Paralaukika namely the other world; the former is based upon popular usage, and the later on the scriptures. The Jainas followed any custom or practice sanctioned by popular usage so long as it does not come into conflict with the fundamental priciples of Jainism. Thus, by following the local customs, the Jainas made wise adjustment which ultimately created cordial and ultimate relations with the followers of Brahmanism. By this adjustment the Jainas could make progress for the last so many centuries. The Jainas maintained good realtions not only with the members of Brahmanical religion but with others also. When the Jainas were in power for a long time, they hardly indulged in mistreating the non-Jainas. Thus, the Jainas made progress in spite of many difficultes exists for time to time.
- EI., XI, pp. 43-46.
- ARRMA, Yr. 1922-23, Nos. 8 and 9.
- Digvijaya Mahï¿½kavya (Singhi Jaina Series, Vol. XIV (Introduction).
- JAIN, K.C. : Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 210.
- ARRMA, 1934-35, No. 17.
- ALTEKAR, A.S.; Rï¿½shtrakï¿½tas and their times, p. 313.
- DESAI, P.B.; Jainism in South India and Some Jaina Epigraphs, p. 76
- SALETORE, B.A.; Medieval Jainism with Special reference to Vijayanagara Kingdom, pp. 154-171.
- DESAI, P.B., ; Jainism in South India and Some Jaina epigraphs. p. 168.
- VINCENT A. SMITH, : The Jaina Stï¿½pa and other antiquities of Mathura, p. 22.
- JHQ, XXV, pp.1 ff.
- Arhat Vaichana, Vol. 5, II, pp. 49-59.
- SHAH, U.P. AND DHAKY, M.A.; Aspects of Jaina art and architecture, pp. 215-221.
- SHAH, U.P. and DHAKY, M.A. ed. Aspects of Jaina Art and Architecture, p. 274.
- EI, XX, p. 61.
- Ibid, II, pp. 232-240.
- ASI, 1918-19, p. 17.
- JAIN, K.C.; Ancient Cities and Towns of Rajasthan, pp. 306-307.
- IA, XI, p. 255.
- JAIN, K.C.; Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 158.
- JAIN, K.C.; Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 160.
- JAIN, J.P.; The Jaina Sources of the History of Ancient India, p. 150.
- JAIN, K.C.; Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 164.
- Ibid, pp. 165-166.
- SALETORE, B.A. ; Medieval Jainism with special reference to the Vijayanagara Empire, p. 377.
- JAIN, K.C.; Jainism in Rajasthan, pp. 167-168.
- JAIN, K.C.; Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 172.
- Ibid, pp. 173-174.
- JAIN, K.C.; Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 172.
- DESAI, P.B.; Jainism in South India and Some Jaina Epigraphs, p. 84.
SALETORE, B.E.; Medieval Jainism with special reference to the Vijayanagara Empire, p. 263.
- SALETORE, B.A.; Medieval Jainism with special reference to the Vijayanagara Empire, p. 263.
- Ibid, pp. 265-267; pp. 375-387.
- SALETORE, B.A.; Medieval Jainism, p. 267.
- JAIN, K.C.; Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 175.
- SALETORE, B.A.; Medieval Jainism, p. 266.
- JAIN, K.C.; Jainism in Rajasthan, p. 175.
- Ibid, p. 175.
- Jaina Sï¿½hityano Saï¿½kshipta Itihï¿½sa, p. 172.
- Singi Jaina Series, XXI (Int.)
- SALETORE, B.A.; Medieval Jainism with special reference to the Vijayanagara Empire, p. 267.