Ajiva Tattva

96. Ajiva Tattva is of five types, viz. Pudgala, Dharma, Adharma, Akasa and Kala. Pudgala has form and the qualities, Rupa etc. while the rest are without form. Except Kala Dravya, all the Dravyas are called Pancastikayas. Functions of the media of motion and rest or steadiness are to assist motion and rest respectively, just as water facilitates the movement of fish and the earth gives support to object like the horse, are called Dharam and Adharma. Akasa (space) accommodates completely all Jivas and Pudgalas. Kala (time) denotes and existential fact.

97. Pudgala (Matter) connotes that which has accretion and depletion, addition and bifurcation, conjunction and reparation. It is characterized by touch, taste, smell and colour. Sound, union, fineness, grossness, shape, division, darkness, image, warmth, light, are also forms of matter. The divisions of matter are two, atoms and molecules. The atom is itself the beginning, the middle and the end. It cannot be perceived by the senses. Molecules are collections of atoms, which are characterized by sound, union etc. Some of them are visible and some are invisible. Combination of atoms takes place by virtue of greasy (Snigdha), and dry (rough) properties associated with them in six ways-I) Very Gross-land, mountain etc. 2) Gross � water, oil, ghee etc., 3) Fine gross � air and other gases, 4) Gross fine- light, shadows etc. 5) Fine- matter of thought and speech etc. and 6) Very fine � Skandhas composed of two, three etc. Paramanus. Science gives three physical states of matter, viz. solid, liquid and gaseous, and these correspond with the first three divisions given above. Philosophers knew the existence of three more divisions, which can be compared with X-rays and Gamma rays. Jainism has also of the view that sound can reach the other end of the universe, if strongly produced. Radio etc. have corroborated the statement.

98. The nature of universe is based on the nature of reality, which possesses triple characteristics, origin, destruction and permanence. The things that exist cannot be originated from the realistic standpoint, but they get transformed into their own attributes and modes from the practical point of view. This system of realities results in the universe being infinite as well as eternal in character. The entire universe, according to Jainism, is the compendium of the six Dravyas, which are the permutation and combination of atoms. God does not create it.