Glossary of Jaina terms

Glossary of Jaina terms

Abhyantara tapa: internal austerity

Abrahama: unchasity

Acharaya: the head of a group of sadhus

Adana-niksepa samiti: regulation of actions of taking or placing

Adharma: medium of rest

Agama: sacred precepts

Aghatiya karma: the non-destructive karma

Ahimsa: abstention from injury to living beings

Ailaka: the grade of ascetics of Digambara sect below that of Nirgrantha grade

Ajiva: non-soul, non-living substance

Akasa: space

Aksata: sacred rice

Amanaska Jivas: souls having no mind

Anagara-dharma: ethical code for non-householders, i.e. ascetics.

Ananta-chatustaya: infinite quaternary

Ananta-darsana: infinite perception

Ananta-jnana: infinite knowledge

Ananta-sukha: infinite bliss

Ananta-virya: infinite power

anarthadanda-vrata: a vow to abstain form wanton unnecessary activities

Anasana: fasting

Anatmavada: belief in the non-existence of soul

Anekanta: manifoldness

Anekantavada: many-sided view-point, doctrine of manifold aspects

Anga: essential requisite, component, limb

Anihnava: Without concealment of knowledge

Antaraya karma: the obstructive-karma

Anumana: inference

Anupreksa: reflection

Anu-vrataa small vow

Anu-vrata Andolanathe small vow movement

Aparigraha: abstention from greed for worldly possessions

Apauraseya: of non-human origin

Apavadiki nivrttipartial renunciation

Ap-kaya jivas: water-bodied souls

Apta: Tirthankara

Arati: waving of lights in front of an idol

Arjika: a female ascetic

Artha: wealth, worldly prosperity

Asatya: falsehood

Asrama: a stage in life

Asrava: the attraction of karmic matter towards the soul

Asubha-asrava: influx of vice or demeritorious karmas into the soul

Asteya: abstention from theft

Aticharatransgression, short coming

Atithi-samvibhaga-vara: a vow to feed ascetics and/ or pious householders

Atman: soul, spirit

Atmavada: belief in existence of soul

Autsargiki nivrtti: complete renunciation

Avadhi-jnanaclairvoyant knowledge of matter

Avamodarya: eating less


Avasyakas: necessary daily duties



Avirati: vowlessness, non-renunciation

Aviveka: want of discrimination

Ayu-karma: the age-determining karma

Baddha jivas: souls in bondage

Bahumana: great honor or zeal

Bahya-parigraha: actual possession of worldly objects

Bahya-tapa: external austerities

Bla-mada: pride of power, pride of one’s own strength

Bandha: bondage of soul by karmic matter

Bhakti: faith, devotion

Bharata-varsa: India, i.e., the country named after Bharata, the eldest son of the first Jaina Tirthankara Adinatha

Bhasa-samiti: regulation of mode of speech

Bhattaraka: a Dharma-guru of Digambara Jainas

Bhavana: contemplation


Bispantha: name of sub-sect of Digambara Jainas

Brahmacharya: abstention form unchasity or sexuality

Brahmacharayasrama : the first stage in life of study and preparation

Chiatya: idol or statue

Chaityalaya: a temple

Chaityavasi: temple residents, another name of Murtipujaka sub-sect of Svetambara sect

Chakravarti: Emperor, a paramount sovereign

Charitrabiographies of great teachers and personages

Chatur-indriya-Jivas: souls having first four senses of touch, taste, smell and sight

Chaturyama Dharma: fourfold religion

Chaurya: theft

Chhedopasthapanarecovery of lost equanimity

Dana: charity

Darsanavaraniya karma: the conation-obscuring karma

Dasalaksana dharma: observance of ten virtues

Deravasi: temple resident, another name of Murtipujaka sub-sect of Svetambara sect

Desa-vrata: a vow to limit worldly activity to a particular area.

Deva-gati: celestial condition of existence

Deva-mudhatabelief in false gods

Deva-puja: worship of God

Dharmareligion, religious merit, virtue, medium of motion

Dharma-guru: a religious authority

Dhrauvya: permanence

Dhundhia: searchers, another name of Sthanakvasi sub-sect of Svetambara sect

Dhyana: mediation, concentration of mind

Digambara: sky-clad, naked, name of a major sect of Jainas

Digvrata: avow to limit worldly activity to fixed points in all directions

Diksa: initiation

Diksa-vidhi: initiation rite

Dravya: substance

Dravya-naya: the substantial point of view

Dvi-indriya jivas: Souls having first two senses of touch and taste

Esana samiti: regulation of seeking or eating food

Evambhuta Naya: the ‘such-like’ standpoint

Ganadhara: spokesman of Tirthankara

Gati: form of existence

Ghatiya karma: the destructive karma

Gotra karma: the family-determining karma

Grantha: book, correct use of the words

Grharambhi himsa: accidental injury, injury due to household activities

Grahasthasrama: the second stage in life of a house holder

Guan: quality

Guna-vrata: a multiplicative vow

Gupti: regulation, control

Guru: teacher, preceptor, guide

Gurupasti: worship of the preceptor

Himsa: injury

Iray-samiti: regulation of walking

Jaina: a follower of Jaina religion

Jaina-dharma: Jaina religion

Jati-mada: pride of cast

Jinaspiritual victor

Jina-dharma: Jain religion

Jinakalpi Sadhu: an ascetic who observes prescribed rules of conduct in the strictest form

Jiva: soul, spirit, living substance

Jnana: knowledge

Jana-mada: pride in learning

Jnanavaraniya karma: the knowledge-obscuring karma