Glossary of Jaina terms

Abhyantara tapa : internal austerity

Abrahma : unchastity

Acharya : the head of a group of sadhus

Adana-niksepa : regulation of actions of taking or placing samiti .

Adharma : medium of rest

Agama : sacred precepts

Aghatiya karma : the non-destructive karma

Ahimsa : abstention from injury to living beings

Ailaka : the grade of ascetics of Digambara sect below that of Nirgrantha grade

Ajiva : non-soul, non-living substance

Akasa : space

Aksata : sacred rice

Amanaska jivas : souls having no mind

Anagara-dharma : ethical code for non-householders, i.e. ascetics

Ananta-chatustaya : infinite quaternary

Ananta-darsana : infinite perception

Ananta jnana : infinite knowledge

Ananta-sukh�a : infinite bliss

Ananta-virya : infinite power

Anarthadanda-vrata : a vow to abstain from wanton unnecessary activities

Anasana : fasting

Anatmavada : belief in the non-existence of soul

Anekanta : manifoldness

Anekuntavada : many-sided view-point, doctrine of manifold aspects

Anga : essential requisite, component, limb

Anihnava : without concealment of knowledge

Antaraya karma : the obstructive-karma

Anumana : inference

Anupreksa : reflection

Anu-vrata : a small vow

Anu-vrata : the small vow movement Andolana

Aparigraha : abstention from greed for worldly posse�ssions

Apauraseya : of non-human origin

Apavadiki nivrtii : partial renunciation

Ap-kaya. jivas : water-bodied souls

Apta : Tirthaakara

Arati : waving of lights in front of an idol

Arjika : a female ascetic

Artha : wealth, worldly prosperity, meaning

Asatya : falsehood

Asrama : a stage in life

Asrava : the attraction of karmic matter towards the soul

Asubha-asrava : influx of vice or demeritorious karmas into the soul

Asteya : abstention from theft

Atichara : transgression, short-coming Atithi-saritvibhaga- : a vow to feed ascetics and/or pious house�vrata holders

Atman : soul, spirit

Atmavada : belief in existence of soul

Autsargiki nivrtii : complete renunciation

Avadht jnana : clairvoyant knowledge of matter

Avamodarya : eating less

Avasarpini : descending

Avasyakas : necessary daily duties

Avatara : incarnation

Avidyu : ignorance

Avirati : vowlessness, non-renunciation

Aviveka : want of discrimination

Ayu-karma : the age-determining karma

Baddha jivas : souls in bondage

Bahumana : great honour or zeal

Bahya parigraha : actual possession of worldly objects

Bahya-tapa : external austerities

Bala-mada : pride of power, pride of one’s own strength

Bandha : bondage of soul by karmic matter

Bhakti : faith, devotion

Bharata-varsa : India, i.e., the country named after Bharata, the eldest son of the first Jaina Tiratharikara Adinatha

Bhasa-samiti : regulation of mode of speech

Bhattaraka : a Dharma-guru of Digambara Jainas

Bhavana : contemplation

Bhogabhumi : enjoyment-region

Bisapantha : ‘ name of a sub-sect of Digambara Jainas Brahmacharya : abstention from unchastity or sexuality

Brahmacharya�asrama : the first stage in life of study and preparation

Chaitya : idol or statue

Chaityalaya : a temple

Chaityavirsi : temple residents, another name of Murtipujaka sub-sect of Swetambara sect

Chakravarti : Emperor, a paramount sovereign

Charitra : biographies of great teachers and personages Chatur-indriya Jivas : souls having first four senses of touch, taste, smell and sight

Chaturyama Dharma : fourfold religion

Chaurya : theft

Chhedopasthapana : recovery of lost equanimity

Dana : charity

Darsanavaraniya karma : the conation-obscuring karma

Dasalaksana dharma : observance of ten virtues

Deravasi : temple residents, another name of Murtipnjaka sub-sect of Swetambara sect

Desa-vrata : a vow to limit worldly activity to a particular area

Deva-gati : clestial condition of existence

Deva-mudhata : belief in false gods

Deva puja : worship of God

Dharma : religion, religious merit, virtue, medium of motion

Dharma-guru : a religious authority

Dhrauvya : permanence

Dhundhia : searchers, another name of Sthanakavast sub- sect of Svetambara sect

Dhyana : meditation, concentration of mind

Digambara : sky-clad, naked, name of a major sect of Jainas

Digvrata : a vow to limit worldly activity to fixed points in all directions

Diksa : initiation

Diksa-vidhi : initiation rite

Dravya : substance

Dravya-naya : the substantial point of view

Dvi-indriya ji vas : Souls having first two senses of touch and taste

Esana samiti : regulation of seeking or eating food

Evambhuta Naya : the ‘such-like’ standpoint

Ganadhara : spokesman of Tirtharikara

Gati : form of existence

Ghatiya karma : the destructive karma

Gotra karma : the family-determining karma

Grantha : book, correct use of the words

Grharambhi himsa : accidental injury, injury due to household activities

Grhastha-asrama : the second stage in life of a householder

Guna : quality

Guna-vrata : a multiplicative vow

Gupti : regulation, control

Guru : teacher, preceptor, guide

Gurupasti : worship of the preceptor

Himsa : injury

Irya-samiti : regulation of walking

Jaina : a follower of Jaina religion

Jaina-dharma : Jaina religion

Jati-mada : pride of caste

Jina : spiritual victor

Jina-dharma : Jaina religion

Jinakalpi Sadhu : an ascetic who observes prescribed rules of conduct in the strictest form

Jiva : soul, spirit, living substance

Jnana : knowledge

Jnana-mada : pride in learning

Janavaraniya karma : the knowledge-obscuring karma

Kala : time, period, age

Kama : pleasure, want

Kalpa : a unit of the cosmic time

Kamandalu : a wooden water pot

Kanksa : desire for sense pleasures

Karma : subtle particles of matter

Karmabhumi : life based on efforts

Karunya : compassion for the afflicted beings

Kasaya : passion

Kaya-gupti : regulation of bodily activity

Kayaklesa : mortification of the body

Kaya yoga : activity of body

Kayotsarga : the way of practising penance in a standing posture

Kevalajirana : pure infinite knowledge

Kevala-Jnani : the omniscient

Kevali : the omniscient

Kevala Jina : the Jina who has attained Kevala jnana

Krodha : anger

Ksullaka : the lowest grade of ascetics of Digambara sect

Kulakara : law giver,

Kula-mada : pride of family

Lanchhana : emblem

Loka : universe

Lobha : greed

Laka-mudhata : belief in superstitions

Mada : pride, arrogance

Madhya-marga : middle path

Madhyastha : indifferent to ill-behaved persons

Maha-vrata : a great vow

Maitri : friendship

Mana : pride

Manahparyaya�jnana : capacity to know other’s mind

Mandira-margi : temple goers, another name of Murtipujaka sub-sect of Svetambara sect

Mano-gupti : control of mind

Mano yoga : activity of mind

Manu : law giver

Manusya-gati : human form

Matha : monastery

Mati jnana : sense-knowledge

Maya : deception, illusion

Mithyadarsana : wrong belief

Mtihyatva : wrong belief

Mohaniya karma : the deluding-karma

Moksa : attainment of complete freedom of the soul from karmic matter, salvation

Moksa-marga : way to salvation

Mudhata : superstitious belief

Mukta ji va : a liberated soul

Mukti : complete liberation or emancipation

Mula-gunas : basic attributes, root-virtues

Mumhapatti : a piece of white cloth kept always on the mouth by Svetambara sadhus

Muni : an ascetic

Muni-dharma : ethical code for ascetics

Murtipujaka : idol-worshipper, a major sub-sect of  Svetambara sect