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Theory of Seven Tattvas
Mukti or Moksha is the aim of man. He must have an intelligent and profound faith in seven tattvas or essentials is the first condition for launching upon the path of liberation, These seven tattavas are :-
1. Jiva ( soul or living substance )
2. Ajiva ( matter or Non-living substance )
3. Asrava ( influx of karmic matter into the soul )
4. Bandha ( karmic bondage )
5. Samvara ( stoppage of the influx )
6. Nirjara (partial dissociation of karmic matter from the soul )
7. Moksha ( Complete liberation of soul from karmic bondage )
It is the soul that needs and seeks salvation. Matter is the basis of all worldly existence, keeps the soul in bondage and prevents it from obtaining salvation. When owing to the impact of matter the mental, vocal and bodily activities of the embodied soul cause vibrations which attract karmic matter, influx of karma takes place. Since these vibrations are usually tinged with emotions, passions etc. the inflowing karmic matter becomes bound with the soul, its intensity and duration depending upon the nature of the passional state of the soul at the time. The karmic bondage is in the forms of either merit ( punya ) or demerit ( papa ) accordingly as the passional states causing it are mild or strong, good or evil, auspicious or inauspicious. the fruit of the former is worldly happiness while the fruit of demerit is the reverse. Influx and bondage, whether good or bad, constitute the source of embodied existence of me soul and of its worldly happiness or misery. When the Individual soul realises the truth and determines 4o end this condition and liberate itself, he first tries to curb and trop the influx of karma by disciplining and controlling its mental, vocal and bodily activities and the spiritual vibrations caused by them. This is Samvara. After knowing the fundamental theory he selects the pure object ( Eternal pure happiness ) plus meditation ( correct knowledge pure instrument ) so he gets the effect of Inner peaceful joy, bliss without worries and without stress, satisfaction calmness and equality means affection’s ( correct faith and without hate and without love ). By strong will and conscious efforts in the form of penance and austerities, he gradually dissociates himself from Karma. This partial dissociation and annihilation of liberation, the ultimate or complete liberation from Karma is Moksha, the supreme goal. Thus living and non living by coming into contact with each other forge certain energies which bring about birth, death and various experiences of life. This process could be stopped and the energies already forged destroyed by a course of discipline leading to salvation. Jain philosophy has explained the fourteen stages of spiritual development. Soul will not have rebirth. He will not require any food, water, etc., so this stage of the soul directly helps the world peace, as he is not disturbing the others. Those who do not obtain the equality and inner peaceful joy will have a rebirth, so they demand the food, ï¿½ water etc. which leads towards the disturbance of world peace.
Jain Concept of Liberation:
Jain concept of liberation is different from Brahmanism. Nirvana, Moksha, liberation or emancipation thus consists in the absolute freedom from Karmas, when the inherent powers of the spirit are fully blossomed. It is the end of the world process. When the process has come to an end so far as a particular soul is concerned, in that state, soul is at its best. This state is on the one hand isolated, exclusive, alone and on the other whole, entire, absolute both being ideas pertaining to the sphere of beatitude in perfection. The Jain Nirvana is not the obliteration of the individual nor of the inherent individual traits nor is the sub-emergence of the individuality into some Universality. There is no state of Jiva beyond that of the liberated one and no form of its existence higher and nobler than this one. As a religious goal and driving force of morality, Nirvana is a positive achievement of the soul which freeing itself from Karma, acquires the state of perfection and everlasting beatitude. The concept of liberation has metaphysical and ethical importance.
Divinity in Jainism :
Jainism does believe in God and Godhood but not in a God as the first cause. It also possesses a large pantheon of godlings and angels who are super human but not superman, are divine beings but not divinities or deities. Jain concept of divinity is unique and an illustration of realistic pluralism. Each soul, when completely immune from Karmic influence becomes itself Svayambhu and is transformed into divinity. Each liberated soul has a full and perfect divinity in itself and by itself, it does retain its individuality even in liberation. This is the conception of God in Jainism. The Siddhas and the Arhantas represent the two types of divinity, the former being absolutely liberated, bodiless, pure soul and the latter also known as Kevalins or Jinas, including the Tirthankaras, those who attained emancipation in life, the state of Jivan-Mukta. The Siddhas are also designated the nikafa-paramatmas or divinities absolutely free from Karma and the Arhantas, the sakafauarmatmas or divinities still embodied and bound by the Aghati karmas. Arhant’s afterwards become Siddhas. They are both however alike in so far as both are spiritually perfect, omniscient and absolutely devoid of feelings of attachment and aversion. This conception of divinity is the realisation of the potentially divine in man.
Jainism has looked upon samsara as “vale of tears and consequently vale of soul-making “. It involves sufferings, struggle and final achievement or emancipation. The Journey’s end is reached when the human soul wrenches itself away from all the shackles of Karma and is able to soar up on its upward flight to the abode of the Siddhas in sublime solitariness, the Kevali or total isolated and exclusive state. The chastening of man, his journey through the world of becoming and his final liberation constitute the theme of Jaina philosophical and religious thought. A man has only to turn inwards to discover that he himself is the deity in the making and perfection lies inherent in him to be made manifest. Evil exists but it can be overcome by one’s own soul-force. The greatness of man lies in his capacity to overcome the limitations of bodily nature, by the aspirations of his spiritual nature. His body belongs to the realm of matter and his soul belongs to the realm of the spirit. When the Karmic body is shuffled off, he reaches the home of his spirit. Thus the message of Jainism to man is ” Be a man first and last ” and ” kingdom of God belongs to every soul “. Thus Jain metaphysics, ontology, cosmology, cosmography, classification of Jiva, concept of samsara and transmigration, doctrine of Karma, theory of seven Tattvas, stages of spiritual development, concept of liberation and divinity, all these provide the philosophical and ethical theories and ways for man to be spiritual superhuman. The individual attempts for achievement of emancipation and acquiring this spiritual position will definitely provide a proper way or path towards world peace.
Theory of Knowledge:
Jain thinkers have speculated boldly on human nature, particularly on the problems concerning the process of experience, the nature of emotions and methods of their control. To the Jaina school of thought the philosophical attitude and motive behind one’s action have been of almost important in an approach for a correct determination of the relation between man and man and between man and the animal kingdom. Jain epistemology is closely related to the Jain doctrine of Karma which farms the basis of Jain ethics and practical religion. It rests on the simple threefold conception of the knowledge, ï¿½the knower and the known.ï¿½ All six categories of the reals which constitute the cosmos, the soul and soul alone can be the knower, no other substance possesses the faculty of knowing. Knowledge is the soul’s intrinsic, inherent, inseparable and inalienable attitude without which no soul can exist. Every soul possesses an infinite capacity for knowledge: It can acquire infinite knowledge-nay it can ever become omniscient, all-knowing and all perceiving. Knowledge does not come from outside. It is all the time in the soul itself. It is very being, waiting to be realised revealed or manifested itself through the annihilation and removal of the Karmic bondage. Knowledge and knower are one and the same thing, they are identical. The known or the objects of knowledge are all the reals, the substances and their modifications including the knowing soul itself. Thus everything which has existence, knowledge is a positive state of the living being and is the essence of the soul.
The object of knowledge is both Universal ( Samanya ) and particular ( Vishesa ). Jnana takes cognisance of these aspects and is Universal cum-particular that is general or common as well as detailed. Jnana is of five kinds.
1. Mati-Jnana ( Perceptual cognition )
2. Shruta-Jnana ( Verbal or scriptural knowledge )
3. Avadhi-Jnana ( Extra-sensory perception or clairvoyance )
4. Manah-paryaya Jnana ( Thought-reading or telepathy )
5. Kevala-Jnana ( Absolute or perfect knowledge )
Of these five kinds of knowledge the first two, Mati and Shruta are indirect and mediate as they are acquired through the sense organs and mind. The other three Avadhi, Manahparyaya and Kevala are direct and immediate since for them the soul requires no media such as the senses and the mind. The first three kinds of knowledge may be right or they may be wrong, false or perverted. It depends upon the attitude of the knower. If his attitude or outlook is perverted, the knowledge obtained by him will be perverted, it cannot be right. As a matter of fact human constitution is such that as soon as a person frees himself from moral vices and succeeds in correcting his attitude and outlook, his intellective process begins to flow into a pure channel.
Darshana is the other form of the manifestation of consciousness. It is a primary apprehension or intuition of the existence of the object of knowledge. Thus if Jnana is detailed and determinate ( sakara ) Knowledge, Darshana is a general, interment ( anakara ) perception or cognition. Before we know a thing in a detailed way there is the stage when we simply perceive or become conscious of its existence in a general way. This detailï¿½s, indefinite or indeterminate intuition that is darshana invariably proceeds Jnana. If this stage is not experienced, there can be no knowledge of the object. Darshana is of four kinds : Chakshu-darshana. 1 ) Achakshu-darshana 2 ) Avadhidarshana 3 ) Kevala – darshana.
Concepts of Feelings, Emotions and Passions:
Every living being in its worldly and bodily existence is also instinctively urged by certain basic or primary appetites such as hunger, fear, sex and acquisitiveness. The feelings corresponding to these instincts colour the consciousness accordingly. Of the eight categories of the Karma, the Vedaniya is supposed to be responsible for causing the feeling of pleasure and pain. The feeling may be described as the sense-feeling as it is directly based on sense-perception of sensuous cognition. The feeling is in the subject itself and not in the external object which seems to be instrumental in arousing it. There is nothing good or bad, it is the feeling that makes it so. Karma is , an external factor and is alien to the true nature of the soul which is simply the knower and perceiver, but under the influence of that Karma feels pleasure and pain in a particular situation or experience. The Jaina view holds that , both the feelings i. e. pleasure and pain are real and positive as also that the two can co-exist and a state of mixed feeling is possible.
There are emotions, which are not so simple by nature ! as the feeling of pleasure and pain. They are much more complex in character and are an outcome of excitement ï¿½ and cognition of the mental process. Emotion does not come from outside. Its roots lie in the mind of the imperfect and impure soul which is under the impact of the Karma called Mohaniya. Sensuous cognition produces the feeling of pleasure and pain which leads to the formation of emotions in the mind. The mohaniya Karma is the root cause of delusion ( Moha ) or perverted attitude (Mithyatva ). All the emotions are summed up in attachment ( raga ) and aversion ( Dvesha ). The two modes of moha and their total absence means vitaragata, an essential attribute of the pure end perfect soul. Mohaniya-Karma is divided into darshanamohaniya and charitra mohaniya. The first is cognitive, deludes the understanding and is responsible for the wrong assessment of the ultimate values. Under its impact the individual views and interprets things with a marked slant or bias. So long as this condition abides, the right and correct attitude, the right faith based on the realisation of the truth does not emerge. The charitra-mohaniya form of the Karma is cognitive, corrupts the will, obstructs and manifests itself through various emotions. These emotions fall into two broad categories, strong emotions or passions ( Kashayas ) and mild emotions or quasi-passions
( nokashayas ). Thus the twenty five types of emotions or passions ( kashaya ), four classes each of anger, pride, deceit and greed and nine quasi-passions among them cover all the emotions and passions and shades thereof which can be conceived. They constitute moral and spiritual uncleanliness and it is only after they are removed that the purity of the soul is realised.
Closely related to the kashayas is the unique Jaina conception of Leshya, which is the activity of thought, word and body as tinged by the Kashaya and is black, blue, greenish, pale, pink and white, depending upon the degree of intensity. The first is obviously the morally worst and the last the best. The first three being designated inauspicious and the last-three the auspicious ones. The first set signifies wanton, cruelty, gross negligence, rashness, lack of self-control, wickedness and violence and the second set the gentlemanly qualities humane behaviour, abstinence from sins and evil deeds, self-control etc. Then there is avirati or strong attachment to the world and worldly things and there is pramada which connotes negligence, carelessness etc. Mithyatva, avirati, pramada, kashaya and lesya are five types of spiritual aberrations, principally taking their rise in oneï¿½s mental processes. They act as formidable obstacles in the path of spiritual evolution. On these five are based the fourteen gunasthanas or stages of spiritual progress. When the soul is freed from their influence, it forms right belief, corrects its attitude and outlook and acts rightly.