Practical Right Contuct



Practical Right Contuct (Vyavahara Charitra)

56. Thought-activity free from (all) undertakings (injurious to any of) the mundane souls (which are) known as existing in (any of the various) physiques, nuclei, soul-classes, soul-quests, etc., is the first vow (non-injury) Ahimsa.

57. A saint, who renounces thought-activity leading to telling falsehood, on account of delusion, attachment and aversion is (said) to observe always the second vow, (truth), Satya.

He, who renounces the thought-activity of picking up articles belonging to another, lying in a village, a town or a forest, (is said) to observe the third vow (non-stealing), Achaurya.

59. He, who having seen the beaury of a woman, is not moved by a desire for her; or whose tuought-activiy is free from sex-animate feeling (Maithuna Sanjna), (is said o observe) the fourth vow (chastity), Brahmacharya.

60. The carrier of the load of (right) conduct, i.e., a saint, who having first formed the idea of being uunconcerned with all worldly attachments, renounces them is said to observe the fifth vow of possessionlessness, (Parigraha Tyaga).

61. A saint who walks upon a trodden path, free from living beings, in day time, after seeing (carefully) a distance of our arms length (two yards) ahead, (is said) to observe carefulness in walking (Irya Samiti).

62. He, who having renounced backbiting, ridiculing, talking ill of others, self-praising and harsh words, speaks what is good for himself as well as for others (is said) to have carefulness in speech (Bhasha Samiti).

63. He, who calmly takes food, which is prepared not by himself, nor that which he made others prepare for himself, nor that prepared by others with his approval, and which is wholesome, free from living-beings, and given by another (with devotion), is said to have carefulness in eating (Eshana Samiti).

64. (A saint who has) acted with care in picking up, and putting down books, and jug (Kamandala), etc. is said to have carefulness in lifting and laying down, (Adana-nikshepana Samiti).

65. (A saint, who) discharges his excrement, etc., in a place which is secret, free from all living beings, and where there is no obstruction on behalf of anybody, (is said) to have carefulness in excreting (Pratishthapana Samiti).

66. Renunciation of passionateness, delusion, animate-feeling, attachment and aversion, and other impure thought-activities, is from the practical point of view, called control of mind (Mano-gupti).

67. Renunciation of censurable gossip relating to women, state, theft, food, etc., which cause the bondage of evil Karmas, or refraining from telling falsehoods, etc., (is called) control of speech, (Vachana-gupti).

68. Renunciation of bodily movements, such as binding, piercing, beating, conteracting, expanding, etc., is called control of body. (Kaya-gupti)

69. (From the real point of view) know, that abstaining from attachment, etc. is control of mind, and freedom from falsehood, etc., or silence is control of speech.

70. (From the real point of view) refraining from bodily movements, non-attachment to the body, restraint of body or renunciation of causing injury, etc., is called control of body.

71. Worshipful Lords (Arhats) are those who are entirely free from all the (four) destructive Karmas, and are possessed of the highest attributes, omniscience, etc., and crowned with the thirty-four extraordinary glories, (Atishaya).

72. Those (souls), who have destroyed the bondage of the eight Karmas, are possessed of the eight great attributes, abide at the topmost of the universe and are the most exalted and indestructible, are Perfect Souls (Siddhas).

73. Those (saints), who are possessed to five kinds of conduct, who have trampled down the fury of the elephant of five senses, who are firm in their determination, and who are profound in virtue are (called) Heads of the order of Saints, (Acharya).

74. Those (saints), who are brave, possessed of the three jewels, are preachers of the categories enunciated by the Conqueror (Jina), and are endowed with the thought-activity of desirelessness, are (known) as the Preceptors (Upadhyaya).

75. Those who are free from all (worldly) occupations, are always deeply absorbed in four kinds of contemplation (Aradhana) and are possessionless and delusionless, are (said) to be the Saints (Sadhus).

76. From the practical point of view,(all the previously mentioned) meditations constitute Right Conduct; that (which is known) as Right conduct from the point of view will be described further on.