Acharya Kundkund. Translation and commentary by Uggar Sain Jain. 1931.



  1. Bowing to Vira Jina, who, by nature is the possessor of infinite and supreme knowledge and conation; I shall compose Niyama-Sara,preached by Kevalis and the Shruta Kevalis.2. In the Jaina Scriptures, the Path and the Fruit of the Path are described as the two parts. The means of liberation constitute the Path, and liberation is the Fruit.3. What is in reality worth doing (is) Niyama, and that is bellief, knowledge, conduct. In order to avoid deflection, the word Sara has been particularly affixed to it.4. Niyama (is) the way to liberation; its fruit is supreme Nirvana. Each of these three, is again described.5. Belief in the Perfect Souls, the Scriptures and the Principles is Right Belief.

    He who is free from all defects and is possessed of all (pure) attributes is the supreme soul.

    6. (The defects are) hunger, thirst, fear, anger attachment, delusion, anxiety, old age, disease, death, perspiration, fatigue, pride, indulgence, surprise, sleep birth, and restlessness.

    7. One free from all defects and possessed of sublime grandeur such as Omniscience is called Paramatma (the Highest Soul) or the Perfect One One who is not such, (is) not Paramatma.

    8. Words proceeding from his mouth, pure and free from the flaw of inconsistency are called Agama (scripture.) In that Agama the Principles (Tattvartha) are enunciated.

    9. Soul, Matter, medium of motion, medium of rest, space,(substances) having dimension, and Time, together with their various attributes and modifications are said to be the principles (Tattvartha.)

    10. Soul is characterised by Upayoga. Upayoga is towards Darshana or Jnana. Jnana Upayog is of two kinds, Swabhava Jnana or Vibhava Jnana.

    11-12. Natural knowledge (is) perfect, unassisted by sense and independent. Non-natural knowledge is of two kinds.

    Right knowledge of four kinds:-

    Sensitive knowledge (Mati Jnana)

    Scripture knowledge (Shruta Jnana)

    Visual knowledge (Avadhi Jnana) and

    Mental knowledge (Mana-paryaya Jnana), and

    Wrong knowledge of three kinds, beginning with sensitive knowledge.

    13. And conation attentiveness (is) of two kinds (i.e.,) natural (Swabhava Darshana), and the opposite of its kind, non-natural (Vibhava Darshana). That, which is perfect, unassisted by senses and independent, is called Natural.

    14. Non-natural conation is said to be of three kinds: Ocular (Chakshu Darshana).

    Non ocular (Achakshu Darshana) and visual (Avadhi Darshana).

    Modification (is) of two kinds, irrelative (natural, Swabhava Paryaya).

    15. Human, Hellish, Sub-human and Celestial conditions are said to be non-natural conditions. Conditions free from miseries arising from the effect of Karmas are termed Natural.

    16-17. Human souls are of two kinds; born in work-region or in Enjoyment-region. Hellish souls should be known to be of seven kinds, because of the regions.

    Sub-human souls are said to be of fourteen, kinds. Celestial souls (are) of four kinds. Their detailed account should be known from (the scripture) Loka-Vibhaga.

    18. From the practical point of view, a mundane soul causes (the bondage of) material Karmas and experiences (their results); but from the (impure) real point of view the soul creates (and) experiences thought-activities arising through the effect of Karmas.

    19. From the substance point of view (all) souls are free from the modifications mentioned before; but from the modification-point-of view souls are possessed of both (the Natural and Non-natural modifications).