Chapter 5

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Chapter 5


vthodk;k /kekZ/kekZdk’k&iqn~xyk%AA 1AA

                 Ajivakaya dharmadharmakasha-pudgalah

_The non-living substances (bodies) are the medium

 of motion, the medium of rest, space and matter.


nzO;kf.kAA 2AA


_These (four) are substan-ces (drayas).


thok’pAA 3AA


_The souls are the living things and are also substances. Thus there are six sustances the living things (souls), the matter, the medium of motion, the medium of rest, the space and the time.


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_These six substances are eternal, non-destructible, fixed in number (i.e. six) and, except for matter, are formless.


:fi.k% iqn~xyk%AA 5AA

Rupinah pudgalah

_The matter has taste, smell, colour and

touch and, therefore, have form.


vk vkdk’kknsdnzO;kf.kAA 6AA

A akashadekadravyani

_The medium of motion, the medium of rest and space each is a single continuous extention with regard to substances, but with regard to place, time and thought, each substance is innumberable and infinite.


fuf”�;kf.k pAA 7AA

Nishkriyani cha

_These three (the medium of motion, the medium of rest and space) are also without activity (movement), since these are spread in the whole universe.


vla[;s;k% izns’kk /kekZ/keSZdthokuke~AA 8AA

Ashamkhyeyah pradeshah dharmadharmaikajivanam

_There are innumberable space points in the medium of motion, the medium of rest and in each individual soul. One space point is the space occupied by one elementary particle of matter.


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_The space points in the space are infinite, 

but are innumerable in the universe.


la[;s;k�la[;s;k’p iqn~xykuke~AA 10AA

Sankhyeyasankhyeyashcha pudgalanam

_The matter has numberable, innumberable

and infinite space points.


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_The elementary unit of matter is extremely small compared to atom (in today’s science) and is indivisible and occupies one space point.


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_These substances_the media of motion and rest, the time, the souls and the matter are located in the space of the universe. The splace outside the universe has no substance other than space.


/kekZ/keZ;ks% d‘RLusAA 13AA

Dharmadharmayoh kratsne

_The media of motion and rest pervade the entire universe-space and both coexist without interference.


,dizns’kkfn”kq HkkT;% iqn~xykuke~AA 14AA

Ekapradesadishu bhajyah pudgalanam

_The matter occupy (inhabit) space from one to innumerable space points.


vla[;s;Hkkxkfn”kq thokuke~AA 15AA

Asankhyeyabhagadishu jivanam

_The Soul inhabits from one to innumberable space points in the universe-space.


izns’k&lagkj&folikZH;ka iznhior~AA 16AA

Pradesha-sanhara-visarpabhyam pradipavat

_The space points of a soul can change by contraction and expansion as in the case of a lamp, light expands and fill the space available around it – a small pot or a huge room.


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Gatisthityupagrahau dharma-dharmayorupakarah

_The functions of the media of motion and rest are to assist motion and rest respectively of the soul and the matter.

   vkdk’kL;koxkg%AA 18AA


_The function of space is to provide

 accommodation to all substances.


‘kjhjok�~eu%izk.kkikuk% iqn~xykuke~AA 19AA

Shariravanmanahpranapanah pudgalanam

_The function of matter is to form the basis

 of the body and the organs of speech

and mind and respiration.


  lq[knq%[kthforej.kks&ixzgk’pAA 20AA


_The function of matter is also to contribute

 to sensuous pleasure, suffering, life

 and death of living beings.


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Parasparopagraho jivanam

_The function of souls is to help one another.


orZuk&ifj.kke&f�;k&ijRokijRos p dkyL;AA 22AA

Vartana-parinama-kriyah- paratvaparatve ca kalasya

_The function of time is to assist substances in their continuity of being (through gradual changes), in their modifi-cations, in their actions and in their proximity and non-proximity in time.


Li’kZ&jl&xU/k&o.kZoUr% iqn~xyk%AA 23AA

Sparsha-rasa-gandha-varnavantah pudgalah

_The forms of matter are characterized by touch, taste, smell and colour.


Hksn&re’Nk;kriks|ksroUr’pAA 24AA


bheda-tamashchhaya tapodyotavantashcha

_Sound, union, fineness, grossness, shape,

 divison, darkness, image, warm light

(sunshine) and cool light (moon-light) also characterize the forms of matter.


v.ko% LdU/kk’pAA 25AA

Anavah skandhasca

_The elementary particle and the stock (a number of elementary particles under one unified identity) are the two main divisons of matter.


Hksnla?kkrsH; mRi|UrsAA 26AA

Bhedasanghatebhya utpadyante

_The stocks are formed by division (fission),

 union (fusion) and division-cum-union.


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_The elementary particle is produced only

by divison (fission)of stock.


Hksn&la?kkrkH;ka pk{kq”k%AA 28AA

Bhedasanghatabhyam chakshushah

_The stock produced by the combined action

 of division (fission) and union (fusion)

 can be perceived by the eyes.


ln~ nzO;y{ 29AA

Sat dravyalakshanam

_To exist and to remain in existence is the characteristic of the substance.


mRikn&O;;&/kzkSO;&;qDra lr~AA 30AA

Utpada-vyaya-dhrauvya-yuktam sat

_Existence of a substance is characterized by origination (production), disappearance (destruction) and permanence.


rn~HkkokO;;a fuR;e~AA 31AA

Tadbhavavyayam nityam

_Permanence is indestructi-bility of the essential nature (quality) of the substance.


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_The contradictory characteristics of a substance are established from different points of view.


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Snigdha-rukshatvad bandhah

_Combination of elementary particles of matter takes place by virtue of greasy (sticky) and dry (roughy) properties associated with them.


u t?kU;xq.kkuke~AA 34AA

Na jaghanyagunanam

_There is no combination between the elementary particles hving only the lowest degree of these two properties with the other elementary particles.


xq.klkE;s ln‘’kkuke~AA 35AA

Gunasamye sadrsanam

_There is no combination between equal

 degrees of the same property  

  }�f/kdkfnxq.kkuka rqAA 36AA

Dvyadhikadigunanam tu

_But there is combination between the elementary particles having different degrees of properties.


cU/ks�f/kdkS ikfj.kkfedkS pAA 37AA

Bandhe(a)dhikau parinamikau cha

_In the process of combination the higher

degrees transform the lower ones.


xq.k&i;Z;on~ nzO;e~AA 38AA

Gunaparyayavad dravyam

_That which has qualities and modes is a substance.


dky’pAA 39AA


_Time also is a substance.


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_It (conventional time) consists of infinite instants. One instant is the time taken by a slow moving elementary particle of matter to move from one space point to the adjacent space point.


nzO;kJ;k fuxqZ.kk% xq.kk%AA 41AA

Dravyashraya nirguna gunah

_Those, which have substnace as their substratum and which are not themselves the substratum of other attributes, are qualities.


rn~Hkko% ifj.kke%AA 42AA

Tadbhavah parinamah

_The condition of a substance is a mode.


It explains the following:

Definition Of Entity.

Existence is the characteristic of an entity.

Existence entails.

origination of new forms.

destruction of old forms.


Permanence implies indestructibility of intrinsic attributes.

An entity possesses attributes as well as modifications.

Entities Of The Universe.

Inanimate entities include.

Medium of motion.

Medium of rest.



Soul is also entity.

The entities are eternal (indestructible), and they cannot be transformed into one another, they cannot be detected through the senses, except matter.

Matter can be detected through the senses because it has touch, taste, smell and color.

Medium of motion, medium of rest and space, each is one single continuum and are motionless.

Medium of motion, medium of rest, and each soul have innumerable space-points.

Space has infinite points.

Pieces of matter have numerable or innumerable elementary particles.

An elementary particle of matter occupies one space-point.

All the entities inhabit the physical space.

A soul can occupy one or more space-points.

Depending upon the available volume (of the body), a soul expands or contracts and fills the whole body as does the light from a lamp.

Description Of Matter.

Matter possesses touch, taste, smell and color.

Matter includes sound, heat, light, darkness and images.

Pieces of matter undergo binding and disintegration.

They are subtle or gross.

Matter consists of elementary indivisible particles and their aggregates.

Functions Of The Entities.

The medium of motion and medium of rest, respectively, support the motion and the rest of inanimate objects.

The function of space is to accommodate all the entities of the universe.

Various types of material substances form the basis of bodies, speech, mind and respiration of living beings.

They are also responsible for sensual pleasure and pain, life and death.

The function of worldly souls is to help each other.

The function of the sixth entity, time, is to support the existence, modifications and activity of other entities, and high and low priority.