Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Jain Rhymes and Songs in English
The substance, the modes and the attributes - substance
The substance, the modes and the attributes - Modes 
The substance, the modes and the attributes - attributes
  Concept of Karma - Types of karma bondage
  Concept of Karma - Inflow of karma and its relationship with bondage
  Concept of Karma - Causes of inflow of karma
  Concept of karma - Process of relinquishment of karma
  concept of the karma - Various Definitions to the state of karmas 
  Soul’s condition due to the association with karma
  Spiritual development stages
  How to know a substance
  Preface 

Jain Siddhant Praveshika (Q and A)
Courtesy of Dr. Kirit Gosalia
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Spiritual development stages 

Nature of the real happiness. 

 

469.   Every mundane soul wishes for happiness and tries to obtain happiness, but cannot achieve it. Why is this so?  

Since the mundane soul has not known the real nature of happiness, it has no way of knowing how to obtain true happiness. 

470.      What is the real nature of true happiness?  

The soul has an affirmative attribute (Anujivi guna) called happiness. The pure state of this attribute is called real happiness. This is the true nature of the soul. The mundane soul, transiently and briefly perceives happiness, as a result of the fruition with the pleasure producing karma.  As a result, he wrongly believes that to be the state of real happiness.

 

471.     Why does the mundane soul not achieve real happiness?  

 Since the mundane soul has the wrong belief, the wrong knowledge, and, the wrong conduct, it cannot achieve real happiness.

 

472.     Does the mundane soul ever achieve real everlasting happiness?  

Yes, the mundane soul obtains nirvana (Moksha), and then he also attains the real everlasting happiness.

 

473.    What is the true nature of the moksha?  

When the soul is free from all the material karma (Dravya karma) as well as all internal thought process (Bhav karma), then this state is called moksha.

 

474.     What is the process of obtaining moksha?  

Stopping and shedding (Samvar and nirjara) of all the material karma and internal thought process (Dravya and bhav karma) is called the moksha.

 

475.     How is the stoppage of karma (Samvar) explained? 

The stoppage of the inflow of the karma is called samvar. The soul here stops making any emotions (Vikar) and as a result, the attractions to the soul for new karma cease. This is called samvar.

 

476.     How is the shedding of karma (Nirjara) explained? 

When the soul decreases the intensity of his emotions and, at the same time, there occurs a detachment of the previously bonded karma from the soul, then it is called the shedding (Nirjara).

 

477.     What is the process of stoppage and shedding of karma?  

Through the oneness of true faith, true knowledge and true conduct, the process of obtaining stoppage and shedding (Samvar and nirjara) of karma is achieved.

 

478.     The oneness of the above process, does it occur at one time or in succession?  

            It occurs in succession (Anukram).

 

479.      What is the process of acquiring oneness of the above three jewels?  

As the spiritual development stage (Guna sthanak) increases, so does the increase in the purity of the soul. Ultimately, the three jewels turn into oneness at the height of the purity.

 

General nature of the spiritual development stages.

 

480.     How are the spiritual development stages (Guna sthanak) distingueshed? 

Depending on the intensity of the delusion (Moha) and activity (Yog), the soul’s attributes of true faith, true knowledge and true conduct are in different forms. These represent the spiritual development stages of the soul.

 

481.      How many types of spiritual development stages are there?  

            There are fourteen stages as follow:

1.      Wrong belief – Mithyatva.

2.      Downfall stage – Sasadan.

3.      Right/wrong belief – Mishra.

4.      Right belief with vow-less conduct – Avirat samyag drasti.

5.      Right belief with partial vow-less conduct – Desh virat.

6.      Right belief with complete vow conduct and with minimal carelessness – Pramat virat.

7.      Right belief with complete vow conduct and complete carefulness – Apramat virat.

8.      Stage of new thought activity – Apurva karan.

9.      Stage of advanced thought activity – Anivruti karan.

10.  Stage of subtle greed – Sukshma samparay.

11.  Suppressed delusion state – Upsant moha.

12.  Delusion-less state – Kshin moha.

13.  Active omniscient -- Sayogi kevali.

14.  Inactive omniscient – Ayogi kevali.

 

 

482.      What is the logic in giving names to the spiritual development stages?  

The delusion and the vibratory activity (Moha and Yog) of the soul are the logic for giving names to these spiritual development stages. As the delusion and the vibratory activity of the soul decreases, the purity of the soul increases.

 

483.     What are the instrumental causes in each of the fourteen spiritual developmental stages? 

Right belief deluding karma are the instrumental cause for the first four spiritual development stages. From the fifth to the twelfth spiritual development stages, the instrumental cause are the right conduct deluding karma and the instrumental cause for the thirteenth and fourteenth stages are the vibratory activity of the soul - psychophysical activity (Yog). These are visualized in the following tables.

 

SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT STAGE

INSTRUMENTAL CAUSE

 

 

1st through 4th stage

The right faith deluding karma (Darashan mohniya karma).

5th through 12th stage

The right conducts deluding karma (Charitra mohinya karma).

13th through 14th stage

The vibratory activity of the soul--psychophysical activity (Yog).

 

 

 

SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT STAGE

CONDITION OF THE SOUL

 

 

1st

Wrong belief.

2nd

Right belief is not present. The wrong belief is also not appearing.

3rd

The right /wrong belief.

4th

The right belief is born.

5th through 10th

The right conduct is progressively becoming purer.

11th

The wrong conduct is totally suppressed, but because of the presence of activity (yog), there is no perfect conduct yet at this stage.

12th

The soul’s pure attitude with annihilation of the karma (Kshayik bhav). Just like the 11th stage, there is no perfect conduct because of the presence of activity (yog).

13th

The soul has omniscience. Because of the presence of yog, there is no perfect conduct.

14th

The true knowledge, the true faith and the true conduct are complete here.

  

Different attitudes (Bhav) of the soul in relationship to spiritual development stage:

 

SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT STAGE

ATTITUDES OF THE SOUL--AOS (Bhav)

 

 

1st

AOS due to the rise of right belief deluding karma (Audayik bhav).

2nd

AOS due to the rise of infinitely bonded right conduct deluding karma (Anantanu bandhi karma). Here there is no rise, suppression, annihilation or partial suppression/annihilation of right conduct deluding karma (Audayik bhav).

3rd

AOS due to rise of right/wrong belief karma (Audayik bhav).

4th

AOS due to suppression, annihilation or partial suppression/partial annihilation of right belief deluding karma (Aupkshamik, kshayik and kshayopsamik bhav).

5th to 10th

AOS due to the partial suppression/partial annihilation of the right conduct deluding karma (Kshayopkshamic bhav).

11th

AOS due to the total suppression of the right conduct deluding karma (Aupkshamic bhav).

12th

AOS due to the total annihilation of the right conduct deluding karma (Kshayik bhav).

13th and 14th

AOS due to the total annihilation of the right conduct deluding karma (Kshayik bhav).

 

The knowledge attributes of the soul continue producing the modes of knowledge from time infinite; but these modes receive different names due to their association with the deluding karma.

  

SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT STAGE

KNOWLEDGE MODE

DELUDING KARMA

 

 

 

1st – 3rd

Wrong knowledge.

Rise of the wrong belief deluding karma.

4th

True knowledge.

Absence of the effect of the wrong belief deluding karma

5th to 12th

True knowledge

The gradual reduction in the effect of the true conduct deluding karma.

13th

Omniscient knowledge.

Total annihilation of all the deluding karma.

 

             First spiritual development stage. 

484.    What is the nature of the first spiritual development stage – the stage of wrong belief?  (Mithyatva)  

In the first spiritual development stage, the fruition of the wrong belief karma is the   instrumental cause. As a result, the soul has the wrong belief in reality (Atatvarth shradhdhan). 

In this stage, the soul always has a wrong belief. He does not have a liking for the true nature of the reality. As the person with a stomach ailment does not like the taste of rich food, so is the condition of the soul similar in this stage for reality.

 

485.    In the first spiritual development stage, how many types of karma bondageoccur?  

Out of 148 types of karma there is bondage of 117 types in this first spiritual development stage, as follow:

As explained in part two of question #330, instead of twenty subtypes of touch, taste, smell and color, we take only four. Five bodies (Sharir) also include five types of bondages of the parts of the body (Bandahana karma) and five types of integration of the body (Sanghat karma). Thus 148 – 16 (20-4)-10 equal 122 types. The clouded right faith and the right / wrong faith are not in bondage form but are produced due to the rise of the right faith. Here at this time, the wrong faith is divided into three parts such as wrong faith, right-wrong faith and clouded right faith.

The bonded wrong faith karma have some pure and some impure molecules. When the wrong faith karma is divided into three forms (the wrong, right / wrong and the clouded right faith) by the soul, at the time of the rise of the right faith, then these three forms occur. Therefore in bondage, one has only wrong faith karma. There is no bondage of right / wrong and clouded right faith karma.

Thus we have to delete two numbers out of 122, to reach 120.

Out of these 120 types, in the first spiritual development stage, the tirthankar karma, the assimilated body (Aharak sharir) and assimilating limbs and their related parts (Aharak angopanga) are not bonded. Therefore 120 – 3 equal 117 types of bonded karma seen in the first spiritual development stage.

 

486.   How many types of karma come in to fruition in the first spiritual development stage?  

Out of the 122 types as mentioned above, the clouded right faith, the right / wrong faith, the assimilated body, the assimilated limbs and their related parts and the tirthankar karma, do not have fruition in the first spiritual development stage. Thus 122 – 5 equals 117 types of karma, which may get fruition in the first spiritual development stage.

 

487.     How many types of karma remain in a dormancy stage of existence (Satta), with the soul in the first spiritual developmental stage?  

During the first spiritual development stage, there are 148 types of karma, which remain in the dormancy state to the soul.

 

Second spiritual development stage. 

488.   How is the second spiritual developmental stage – the downfall stage   (Sasadan guna sthanak) explained? 

The first type of right faith due to the suppression of karma (Prathamopsham samyaktva) lasts for an intra-indian hour (a period up to or within 48 minutes). When a time between one and six avali (very small unit of time) remains, then there is a rise of infinitely bonded passions (Anantanubandhi kashay). Here the right faith disappears and the soul’s downfall towards ithe first spiritual development stage continues. This is called the second spiritual development stage.  

489.     How is the first type of right faith due to the suppression of karma  (Prathamopsham samyaktva) explained?  

There are seven types of karma related to the right faith. Three are the right faith deluding karma and four are the infinite bonded passions karma.

The right faith occurs due to the supression (Upsham), partial suppression / partial annihilation (Kshayopsham) or annihilation (Kshay) of these seven karma. The right faith due to the suppression of these seven types of karma is of two types.

The first type of right faith with the suppression of karma (Prathamopsham samyaktva).

The second type of right faith with the suppression of karma (Dwitiyopshasm samyaktva.)

The suppression of the seven types of karma of the eternal misbeliever (Anadi mithyatvi) and five types of karma suppression of the non-eternal misbeliever (Sadi mithyatvi) are called the first type of right faith due to their suppression of the karma (Prathamopsham samyaktva).

 

490.   What is identified as the second type of right faith with suppression of karma (Dwitiyopsham samyaktva).  

During the seventh spiritual developmental stage, the soul can have right faith due to partial suppression /annihilation of karma. (Kshayopshamic samyagdristi) This soul is now faces the climb through suppression ladder of further spiritual growth (Upsham shreni). The right faith of suppression type (Upsham samyaktva) evolves from partial suppression / annihilation type of right faith. (Kshayopsham samyaktva) This is identified as the second type of right faith, due to suppression of karma (Dwitiyopsham samyaktva). Here the suppression of only three types of right faith deluding karma occurs. The infinitely bonded karma continue being transformed into partial vows preventing passions karma. 

 

491.     What is called an avli?

 Innumerable samayas make one avli.

 

492.     In the second spiritual development stage, how many types of karma bondage occur? 

In the first spiritual developmental stage, bondage of 117 types of karma occured. In the second spiritual developmental stage, there are sixteen lessTherefore there is bondage of 101 types of karma occuring in the second spiritual developmental stage.

At the end of 1st first spiritual developmental stage, sixteen types of karma are completely destroyed, so that they are not present in the second spiritual developmental stage. They are as follow:

1.                  The wrong belief karma – Mitayatva.

2.                  Deformed body – Hundak sansthan.

3.                  Hermaphroditic inclination – Napushak ved.

4.                  Infernal realm of existence – Narak gati.

5.                  Infernal realm migratory form – Narak anupurvi.

6.                  Infernal life determining karma – Narak ayu.

7.                  Loosely jointed body karma – Asampraptyrasupatika sanhanan.

8.                  Once sensed lives – Ekendriya gati.

9, 10 & 11. Three mobile lives from 2nd, 3rd and fourth sensed living beings - Vikaltraya. 

                        12.         Immobile lives – Sthavar.

                        13.         Hot body karma – Atap.

                        14.         Subtle body – Sukshma.

                        15          Undevelopable body – Aparyapta.

                        16          Common bodies – Sadharan sharir.

 

 

493.      What is meant by karma being completely destroyed (Vyuchchhatti)?

The bondage, fruition and dormancy of the karma are described in each spiritual developmental stage. Prior to the next spiritual developmental stage, those types, which were completely destroyed, are called vyuchchatti.

 

494.   In the second spiritual developmental stage, how many types of karma come into fruition?  

In the first spiritual development stage, 117 types of karma came into fruition. In the second spiritual development stage, the wrong belief, hot body, subtle body, undevelopable body and common bodies, these five types of karma do not come into fruition. So, 117-5 equals 112. One more type identified as the infernal realm migratory form is also not there. Thus, 112-1 equals 111 types of karma fruition that can be there.

495.   Within the second spiritual developmental stage, how many karma are in a dormancy stage (Satta)?

There are 145 types in the dormancy stage excluding the tirthankar, assimilative body and assimilative limbs and their related parts. Thus, 148 – 3 equals 145 types are present in dormancy.  

Third spiritual development stage.

 

496.     What is called the third spiritual developmental stage (Mishra guna sthanak)?

In this stage, there is the rise of right / wrong belief karma. Here the soul has neither only right faith nor wrong faith. There is a mixture of both faiths present.

 

497.    How many types of karma bondage are there in the third spiritual developmental stage?  

There is total 74 types being bondaded in this stage.

Recalling that the second spiritual developmental stage, there were 101 types of bondage and that in the second spiritual developmental stage, 25 were destroyed, which left 101 – 25 or 76 types. The twenty-five types which were destroyed are as follow:

1 -– 4.    Four types of intense passions like anger, ego, deceit and greed.

5.         Somnabulistic sleep (Styangrudhdhi).

6.         Deep sleep producing karma (Nindra nindra).

7.         Exceedingly intense sleep producing karma (Prachala prachala).

8.         Displeasing personality (Durbhag).

9.         Harsh voice (Duswar).

10.       Non-impressive (Anadeya).

11.       Awkward movement (Aprasastha vihayogati).

12.       Female disposition (Stri ved).

13.       Lower status (Nich gotra).

14.       Subhuman realm (Tiryanch gati).

15.       Migratory form subhuman realm (Tiryanch anupurvi).

16.       Subhuman life determining karma (Tiryanch ayu).

17.       Cold body (Udyot).

            18 – 21.  Four types of figure of body (Sansthan).

Symmetrical upper and asymmetrical lower body. (Nyagrodh sansthan)

      Symmetrical lower and asymmetrical upper body. (Svati sansthan)

     Hunchback body. (Kubbaj sansthan)

     Dwarft body. (Vaman sansthan)

            22 – 25.  Four types of bones, and joints formation (Sanhanan).

                      Adementine bones and joints. (Vraja narach sanhanan)

    Unbreakable bones and joints. (Narach sanhanan)

    Semi-unbreakable bones and joints. (Ardha narach sanhanan)

    Rivetted bones and joints. (Kilika sanhanan)  

In the third spiritual developmental stage, there is no bondage of any life determining karma, so substracting human life determining karma and celestial life determining karma, from 76, leaves 74 types of bondage present. Infernal life is gone in the first and the subhuman life karma is gone in the second spiritual developmental stage. 

 

498.     In the third spiritual developmental stage, how many types of karma come in to fruition? 

In the second spiritual developmental stage, 111 types enter in fruition. From these 111, take 9  of these out as follow: four infinitely bonded,to include anger, ego, deceit and greed; one to four sensed lives (total of four), and the immobile body (l), thus 111 – 9 equals 102.

Also take away migratory forms. There are four types, out of these, the infernal realm migratory form, which was already out in the second spiritual development stage. Therefor three of these types of migratory forms need to be subtracted, 102-3 equals 99.

There is one more type of karma in fruition. That is the right / wrong belief karma. Thus 99 + 1 equals 100 types are in fruition in this stage.  

499.   How many types of karma are in dormancy in the third spiritual developmental stage?  

Except for tirthankar body karma, all the karma are in dormancy (148-1 equals 147) in this stage.  

Forth spiritual development stage. 

500.     What is meant by right belief with vow-less conduct (Avirat samyag drasti), which occurs in the fourth spiritual developmental stage?  

The suppression, partial suppression / partial annihilation or annihilation of three types of right faith deluding karma and four types of infinitely bonded passions, give the soul the right faith. In this fourth stage, there is the presence of partial vow conduct passions, which prevent the soul’s being not able to accept the vows.

501.     How many types of karma bondage occur within this fourth spiritual developmental stage?  

In the third spiritual developmental stage, 74 types of karma occurred in bondage. Here one has to add three more types, so that 77 types of bondage are present in fourth spiritual developmental stages.

These three are as follow:

1.      The human life determining karma.

2.      The celestial life determining karma.

3.      The tirthankar body making karma.

 

502.    How many types of karma come into fruition in this fourth spiritual developmental stage?  

In the third stage 100 types of karma reached fruition. In the fourth stage since there is no right/wrong belief karma, 99 achieve fruition.

To these 99, one now has to include five more for a total of 104.

These additional five include:

·         Four transmigratory forms, and

·         One clouded right belief (Samyaktva Mohaniya) form. 

 

503.   How many types of karma remain in a dormancy state in this fourth spiritual      developmental stage?  

All 148 types remain in dormancy in the fourth spiritual developmental stage. However the soul with the right belief, due to the annihilation of karma has only 141 types. The seven excluded types are:

·         Three of right belief deluding karma, and

·         Four of infinitely bonded passions.  

            Fifth spiritual developmental stage. 

504.   What is the nature of the fifth spiritual developmental stage? This stage is identified as the right belief with the partial vow conduct (Desh virat).  

With the inoperation of partial vow preventing passions, the soul is given the opportunity to observe partial vows of the householder. This is called the partial vow conduct (Desh charitra). The right belief and the right knowledge merge within this stage.

 

505.     How many types of karma bondage are there in the fifth spiritual developmental stage?  

Recall that in the fourth spiritual developmental stage 77 types of bondage existed. In the fifth stage, ten less are bonded so that total of sixty-seven are bonded in this stage.

The ten less bonded are as follow:

·         Four partial vow preventing passion of anger, deceit, ego and pride, and, one each of:

·         Human realm of existence. (Manusya gati)

·         Human realm of transmigratory form. (Manusya anupurvi)

·         Human life-determining karma. (Manusya ayu)

·         Gross body. (Audarik sharir)

·         Gross body limbs and their related parts. (Audarik sharir angopang)

·         Adementine nerves, bones and joints. (Vraj rushabha narach sanhanan)

 

 

506.     How many types of karma give fruition in the fifth spiritual developmental stage?

 

In the fourth spiritual developmental stage, there were 104 types of karma in fruition.  Here in the fifth stage there are seventeen less for total of 87 types to yield fruition in the fifth stage.

Seventeen excluded are as follow:

·         Four partial vow preventing passions of anger, ego, deceit and pride. (Apratyakhyanavarniya kashay)

·         Celestial realm of existence. (Dev gati)

·         Celestial realm transmigratory form. (Dev anupurvi)

·         Celestial life-determining karma. (Dev ayu)

·         Infernal realm of existence. (Narak gati)

·         Infernal realm transmigratory form. (Narak anupurvi)

·         Infernal life determining karma. (Narak ayu)

·         Fluid body. (Vaikriya sharir)

·         Fluid body limb and minor limbs. (Vaikriya angopang)

·         Human realm transmigratory form. (Manusya anupurvi)

·         Subhuman realm transmigratory form. (Tiryanch anupurvi)

·         Displeasing personality. (Durbhag)

·         Non-impressive. (Anadeya)

·         Notoriety body making karma. (Apyash kirti)

 

 

507.    How many types of karma are in dormancy in the fifth spiritual developmental stage?

 

In the fourth spiritual developmental stage, there were 148 types in dormancy. Within the   fifth stage, 147 are present in dormancy, with the exeption of infernal life determining karma, which is not present. In the fifth spiritual developmental stage, due to annihilation of the karma, there is dormancy of only 140 types of karma. The seven excluded are as follow:

Four infinite bonded karma and three of the right faith deluding karmas.

 

Sixth spiritual development stage.

 

 

508.   What is the nature of the sixth spiritual developmental stage, which encompasses the right belief with complete vow conduct as well as minimal carelessness (Pramat virat)?

 

In this spiritual developmental stage, there is the intense operation of perfect right conduct preventing passion and the quassi-passions (Sanjvalan kashay and nokashay). Here there is manifestation of restraint (Sanyam), as well as some carelessness due to the operation of the above-mentioned karma. This is the spiritual developmental stage of a monk.

 

509      How many types of karma become bonded in this sixth spiritual developmental stage?

 

In the fifth spiritual developmental stage, the bondage of 67 types of karma occured. There are four less, which mean 63 types of bondage occur.

 

The four in the sixth stage missing include:

Complete vow-preventing passions of anger, ego, deceit and greed.

 

510.     How many types of karma acquire into fruition in the sixth spiritual developmental stage?

 

In the fifth spiritual developmental stage, 87 types came into fruition. Here there are eight less acquired. Therefore 79 acquire fruition; plus two additional types for a total of 81 as follow:

 

·         Four complete vow-preventing passions of anger, ego, deceit and greed. (Pratyakhyanavaran kashay)

·         Subhuman realm of existence. (Tiryanch gati)

·         Subhuman life determining karma. (Tiryanch ayu)

·         Cold body. (Udyot)

·         Lower status determining karma. (Nich gotra)

 

The two types of fruition added are:

 

·         Assimilative body. (Aharak sharir)

·         Assimilative limbs and their related parts. (Aharak angopang)

 

 

511      How many types of karma are in dormancy during the sixth spiritual developmental stage?

 

In the fifth spiritual development stage, there are 147 types in dormancy present. During the sixth stage there is one less. It is the subhuman age determining karma.Therefore there are 146 in dormancy.

In the right faith, due to annihilation of the karma, (kshayic samyag drasti) there are only 139 types in dormancy, (146-7 equals 139).

These seven excluded are:

Four infinite bonded karma and three of the right faith deluding karma.

 

Seventh spiritual developmental stage.

 

512.  What is the nature of the seventh spiritual developmental stage, which endows the right belief with complete vow conduct as well as complete carefulness (Apramat virat)?

 

In the seventh spiritual developmental stage, there is a very mild operation of perfect right conduct preventing passions and quassi-passions. Here there is also manifestation of restraint (Sanyam) with carefulness.

This is the spiritual development stage of a monk.

 

513.     How many subtypes of this seventh developmental stage are there?

 

                  There are two types:

·         To achieve one’s own place at the seventh spiritual developmental stage (Swasthan apramat virat), and

·         To achieve the eminent form of seventh spiritual developmental stage (Satisay apramat virat).

 

514.     How is the seventh spiritual developmental stage with one’s own place   (Swasthan apramat virat) identified?

 

The soul who travels between the sixth and the seventh spiritual developmental stage thousands of times is called the seventh spiritual developmental stage, with one’s own place.

 

515.     What is called the eminent seventh spiritual developmental stage (Satisay apramat   virat)?

 

The soul who is now ready to climb the ladder of further spiritual progress (Shreni) is identified as the eminent seventh spiritual developmental stage.

 

516.    Who is eligible for climbing the ladder of further spiritual growth?

 

The soul with the right faith with annihilation of the karma (Kshayic samyag drasti) and the soul with the second type of right faith with suppression of the karma (Dwitiyopsham samyag drasti) are eligible to climb this ladder.

However the soul with the first type of right faith with suppression of the karma (Prathamopsham samyag drasti) and the soul with the right faith with partial suppression and partial annihilation of karma (Kshayopsamic samyag drasti) are not eligible to climb this ladder of further spiritual growth.

The soul with the first type of right faith suppression of karma passes up that stage and obtains the right faith with partial suppression / annihilation of the karma stage. Here the soul eliminates the infinitely bonded anger, ego, deceit and greed and then suppresses the three types of right faith deluding karma while obtaining a second type of right faith with suppression of karma; or it can destroy all the remaining types of right faith deluding karma and obtain the right faith through the annihilation of the karma status. At this state, the soul qualifies for climbing the ladder of further spiritual growth.

 

517.     What is called the ladder of further spiritual growth (Shreni)?

 

The state where the soul can either annihilate or suppress the remaining twenty-one types of deluding karma is called the ladder of spiritual growth.

 

518.     How many types of ladders are there (Shreni)?

 

            There are two types:

1.      Suppression of karma ladder (Upsham shreni).

2.      Annihilation of karma ladder (Kshapak shreni).

 

 

519.     What is called the suppression of karma ladder (Upsham shreni)?

 

            In this ladder, the twenty-one types of deluding karma are suppressed.

 

520.     What is called annihilation of the karma ladder (Kshapak shreni)?

 

In this ladder, the twenty-one types of deluding karma are completely annihilated.

 

521.    What kind of souls climb these ladders?

 

The soul with the right faith due to annihilation of the karma can climb either of these ladders (shrenis).

The soul with the right faith due to the suppression of the karma climbs only the suppression of the karma ladder.

 

522.   Which spiritual developmental stages achieve the suppression of the karma level?

 

            The 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th spiritual developmental stages achieve this ladder.

 

523.     Which spiritual developmental stages achieve the annihilatiokarmaladder?

 

            The 8th, 9th, 10th and 12th spiritual developmental stages achieve this ladder.

 

524.     What are the instrumental causes for annihilation or suppression of the twenty-one types of deluding karma?

 

The new thought activity (Adhah karan); the advanced thought activity (Apurva karan) and uniform purity (Anivrutti karan) are the three instrumental causes for the annihilation or suppression of these deluding karma.

 

525.     What is identified as the stage for the new thought activity (Adhah karan)?  

In this situation the dispositions (Parinam) of the previous and the next moment are either same or different. This is called adhah karan. For example, the dispositions of some particular living beings in the first moment possess less purity. Moment after moment, progressively, the purity keeps on increasing through infinite times. Whatever type of dispositions the soul may have in the second or third moment, can be the same type as in the first moment of the other living beings. Karan is defined as a living being’s thoughts and dispositions.

This karan occurs in the 7th spiritual stage of development.  

526.      What is identified as the advanced thought activity (Apurva karan)?  

Here the thoughts and dispositions of the prior and the next moments are not uniform but are necessarily unique (Apurva). For example, the disposition found occurring in this first moment is not found to be of the same purity as that in any other living being, which occurs in the second dispositions.

The purity of dispositions of different living beings in the first moment can be the similar or different. However from the second moment onwards, the purity will increase progressively by the amount of infinite time within each living being. It will also be unique by itself within any given individual living being.

This karan occurs in the 8th spiritual stage of development.

 

527.      What is called the uniform purity of dispositions (Anivrutti Karan)?  

The state, in which all living beings have uniform purity at a given moment, is called the uniform purity of dispositions. With increasing moments, they will all have infinitely more purity, which will be the same in all-living beings.

This karan occurs in the 9th spiritual stage of development.

All of these 3 karans have increasing purity with each increasing moment.

 

528.     Can you explain the new thought activity (Adhah Karan) by example?  

For example, King Devdatta has 3072 people working for him in sixteen different departments as depicted below.

 

DEPARTMENT

PEOPLE WORKING IN DEPARTMENT

 

 

1ST

162

2ND

166

3RD

170

4TH

174

5TH

178

6TH

182

7TH

186

8TH

190

9TH

194

10TH

198

11TH

202

12TH

206

13TH

210

14TH

214

15TH

218

16TH

222

 In the first department, the first person’s salary is 1 rupee. The second one has 2 rupees, etc. Thus, the 162nd man’s salary will be 162 rupees in the first department.

In the second department, the first person’s salary is 40 rupees, the second person’s 41 and the third person’s 42, etc.; Thus 166th man has a salary of 205 rupees.

In the third department, the first person’s salary is 80 rupees, the second 81, etc., so the last person’s salary is 249 rupees.

In the fourth department, there are 174 people working. The first person’s salary is 121 and the second person’s salary is 122, etc., thus the last person’s salary is 294 rupees.

Thus, in increasing order, the sixteenth department has 222 people working.

The first person in the 16th department receives a salary of 691 rupees and the 222nd a salary of 912 rupees salary.

In this example, the first 39 people’s salary does not match anybody elses and the last 67 people’s salary, also does not match anybody else. The rest of the people may have similar salaries as a person in another department. This is the way the similarity and dissimilarity of the different diespositions is found in the new thought activity stage (Adhah karan).

For further explanation, please refer to the chapter of Guna sthanak in Gommatsar’s book. 

529.     How many types of karma become bondaded in the seventh spiritual developmental stage?

In the sixth spiritual developmental stage, there were 63 types of karma bonded.

            In this stage, remove six and add two more, and a total of 59 types of karma bondage occur. Six removed are as follow:

1.      Unsteady body (Asthir)

2.      Inauspicious body making karma (Ashubh)

3.      Pain producing feeling karma (Ashata vedniya)

4.      Notoriety body making karma (Ayash kirti)

5.      Displeasure quassi-passions (Arati nokarma)

6.      Sorrow quassi-passions. (Shok nokarma) 

            Two to be added are as follow:

1.      Assimilative body (Aharak sharir)

2.      Assimilative limbs and their related parts (Aharak angopang)

 

530.      How many types of karma come into fruition in the seventh spiritual developmental   stage?

In the sixth spiritual developmental stage, 81 types of karma were in fruition.  Remove five and a total of 76 come in fruition in the seventh spiritual developmental stage.

                                    The five types to be removed are as follow

:

1.      Assimilative body (Aharak sharir)

2.      Assimilative limbs and their related parts (Aharak angopang)

3.      Deep sleep (Nindra nindra)

4.      Exceedingly intense sleep (Prachala prachala)

5.      Somnambulistic sleep (Styangrudhdhi) 

531.   How many karma remain in dormancy in the seventh spiritual developmental stage?

Just as in the sixth spiritual developmental stage, there are 146 types in dormancy. In the right faith, due to the annihilation of the karma, there are 139 types in dormancy.  

Eighth spiritual developmental stage. 

532.   In the eighth spiritual developmental stage, the stage of new thought activity, (Apurva   karan) how many types of karma become bonded?

 

In the seventh spiritual developmental stage, 59 types were bonded. Take one away, the celestial life determining karma (Dev ayu), and 58 types of bondage remain in this eighth spiritual developmental stage.

 

533.     How many types of karma come in fruition in this eighth spiritual developmental    stage?

 

In the seventh spiritual developmental stage there was fruition of 76 types of karma. By removing four, 72 types of karma remain to come into fruition in this eighth spiritual developmental stage.

                  Four to be taken away are as follows:

1.      Clouded right belief (Samyaktva mohniya)

2.      Semi-unbreakable bones and joints (Ardh narach)

3.      Riveted bones (Killika)

4.      Loosely jointed bones (Asampraptarsupatika sanhanan)

 

 

534.     How many types of karma are in dormancy in the eighth spiritual developmental stage?

 

In the seventh spiritual developmental stage, there were 146 types of karma in     dormancy.

Four types are removed to include the soul, who is in the ladder of suppression (Upsham shareni), and a second type of right faith due to suppression of the karma (Dwitiyopsham samyag drasti) leaving 142 types in dormancy. Four types to be removed are also four types of infinitely bonded passions. Thus 146 with four removed equals 142 types within dormancy in these types of souls in the eighth spiritual developmental stage.

One who is in the suppression ladder and the one, who has right faith with annihilation of the karma, have 139 types in dormancy. This soul has removed additionally three more types of the right faith deluding karma. Therefore giving him 139 types of karma in dormancy.

The soul, who is in the annihilation ladder, has removed an additional eight types from the seventh spiritual developmental stage; i.e., 146 take away 8 equals 138 types of dormancy in these types of soul in the eighth spiritual developmental stage.

The eight types of karma removed include:

Four infinitely bonded passions, three right belief deluding karma, and one celestial life determining karma.

 

Ninth spiritual development stage.

 

 

535.   How many types of karma bondage occur in the ninth spiritual developmental stage known as   the stage of advanced thought activity (Anivrutti karan)?

 

In the eighth spiritual developmental stage, there was bondage of 58 types. Remove 36 here in the 9th spiritual developmental stage and bondage for 22 types of karma remain.

The 36 to be ommited are as follow:

1.      Bellicosity (Paraghat)

2.      Light sleep (Nindra)

3.      Sound sleep (Prachala)

4.      Tirthankar

5.      Formation of the organs (Nirman)

6.      Graceful movement (Prasastha vihayo gati)

7.      Five sensed species (Panchendriya jati)

8.      Fiery body (Tejash sharir)

9.      Karmic body (Karman sharir)

10.  Assimilative body (Aharak sharir)

11.  Assimilated limbs and their related parts (Aharak angopang)

12.  Perfect symmetry of body (Samchaturastha sansthan)

13.  Fluid body (Vaikriya sharir)

14.  Fluid body limbs and their related parts (Vaikriya sharir angopang)

15.  Celestial realm of existence (Dev gati)

16.  Celestial realm migratory form (Dev gati anupurvi)

17.  Skin color (Roop)

18.  Taste (Ras)

19.  Smell (Gandh)

20.  Touch (Sparsh)

21.  Not too heavy, not too light (Agurulaghu)

22.  Destructive (Upghat)

23.  Respiration (Uchchhavas)

24.  Mobile (Tras)

25.  Gross body (Badar sharir)

26.  Developable body (Paryapta)

27.  Individual body (Pratyek)

28.  Stable body (Sthir)

29.  Auspicious body (Shubh)

30.  Amiable personality (Shubhag)

31.  Sweet voice (Susvar)

32.  Beautiful body (Adey)

33.  Laughter (Hasya)

34.  Pleasure quassi-passions (Rati)

35.  Disgust quassi-passions (Jugupsa)

36.  Fear quassi-passions (Bhay)

 

 

536.   How many different types of karma come into fruition in the ninth spiritual    developmental stage?

 

In the 8th spiritual developmental stage there were 72 types of karma in fruition. In this 9th stage, remove 6 out and it is 66 types remain in fruition in the ninth spiritual developmental stage.

                  The six to be removed are as follow:

1.      Laughter quassi-passions (Hasya)

2.      Pleasure quassi-passions (Rati)

3.      Displeasure quassi-passions (Arati)

4.      Sorrow quassi-passions (Shok)

5.      Fear quassi-passions (Bhay)

6.      Disgust quassi-passions (Jugupsa)

 

 

537.     How many types of karma at this stage are in dormancy in the ninth spiritual developmental stage?

 

The dormancy of the karma are the same as in the eighth spiritual developmental stage. (The same as in #534.)

 

 

 

 

 

                  Tenth spiritual development stage.

 

                   

538.     How can the tenth spiritual developmental stage,the stage of subtle greed (Sukshma samparay) be described?

 

The soul is almost pure and possesses only one impurity, the experience of the soul with subtle greed.

 

539.     How many types of karma become bonded in this tenth spiritual developmental stage?

 

In the ninth spiritual developmental stage, there was bondage including twenty-two types of karma. Five are now removed leaving total of 17 types of karma bondage to occur in this stage.

The five removed are: male dispositions (Purush ved) and four types of subtle passions: anger, ego, deceit and greed (Sanjavalan kashay).

 

540.     How many different types of karma reach fruition in the tenth spiritual developmental stage?

 

In the ninth spiritual developmental stage, 66 type of karma reached fruition. In the tenth spiritual developmental stage, six are removed leaving sixty types of karma to come in to fruition.

The six to be removed are:

·         Female disposition (Stri ved)

·         Male disposition (Purush ved)

·         Hermaphroditic disposition (Napunshak ved)

·        Three types of subtle passions karma of anger, ego and deceit.

 

541.      In the tenth spiritual developmental stage, how many types of karma remain in dormancy?

 

In the tenth spiritual developmental stage, karma remaining in dormancy are as follow:

Within the suppression ladder:

 

-There exists the second type of right belief with the suppression of karma. (Dwitiyopsham samyagdrasti) which possesses 142 types of dormancy, similar to the 9th spiritual developmental stage; and

 

-The right belief with annihilation of karma (Kshayik samyag drasti) with its 139 types in dormancy as in the ninth spiritual developmental stage.

                        In the annihilation ladder:

In the ninth spiritual developmental stage above, there were 138 types in dormancy. Here, in the 10th stage, 36 are removed having 102 types in dormancy in this stage.

The thirty-six to be omitted are as follow:

 

·         Subhuman realm of existence (Tiryanch gati)

·         Subhuman realm transmigratory form (Tiryanch anupurvi)

·         Three of two, three and four sensed living beings (Vikal tray)

·         Deep sleep (Nindra nindra)

·         Exceedingly intense sleep (Prachala prachala)

·         Somnambulistic sleep (Styangrudhdhi)

·         Cold body (Udyot)

·         Hot body (Atap)

·         One sensed living being (Ekendriya jiva)

·         Common body (Sadharan sharir)

·         Fine body (Sukshma sharir)

·         Stationary body (Sthavar)

·         Four partial vow-preventing passions of anger, ego, deceit and greed  (Apratyakhyanavarniy Kashay)

·         Four complete vow-preventing passions of anger, ego, deceit and greed (pratyakhyanavarniy kashay)

·         Nine quassi-passions (Nav nokashay)

·         Three subtle passions of anger, ego and deceit (Sanjavalan krodh, man, and maya)

·         Infernal realm of existence (Narak gati)

·         Infernal realm transmigratory form. (Narak anupurvi)

 

Eleventh spiritual development stage. 

 

542.  What is the nature of the eleventh spiritual developmental stage; i.e., the suppressed delusion state (Upsham moha)?  

A monk who has suppressed all the twenty-one types of deluding karma may now obtain the perfect conduct (Yathakhayat charitra). This is called the eleventh spiritual developmental stage or the stage of suppressed delusion (Upsham moha).

This spiritual developmental stage lasts for an intra-Indian hour after which the deluding karma return in fruition and the soul reverts to the lower spiritual developmental stage.

 

543.     How many types of karma become bonded in this eleventh spiritual developmental stage?  

In the tenth spiritual developmental stage, there was bondage for seventeen types. Here, there is bondage of only one type and that is the pleasure producing feeling karma. (Shata vedniya karma)

The sixteen types not present nor bonded include:

·         Five knowledge obscuring karma (5 Gnanavarniya karma)

·         Four perception obscuring karma (4 Darshanavarniya karma)

·         Five types of obstructive karma (5 Antaray karma)

·         One high status determining karma. (Uchcha gotra)

·         One fame body karma (Yash kirti)

 

 

544.     How many types of karma come in to fruition in the eleventh spiritual developmental stage?

 

In the tenth spiritual developmental stage, there was fruition of sixty types. The eleventh spiritual developmental stage achieves fruition of 59 types of karma—one less than the tenth type.

The one not included is subtle greed (Sanjavalan lobh).

 

545.     How many types of karma are in dormancy in this eleventh spiritual developmental stage?  

The dormancy of karma in this stage is identical to that in the ninth and tenth spiritual developmental stages. In that:

·         The second type of right belief with suppression of karma has 142 types of dormancy.

·         The right belief with annihilation of karma has 139 types of dormancy.

 

 

 

 

Twelfth spiritual development stage.

 

546.      Describe the nature of the twelfth spiritual developmental stage, which is called the delusion-less state (Kshin moha). 

In this stage the deluding karma are totally annihilated. The monk in this stage has now obtained perfect conduct, which will stay with the soul forever.

 

547.       How many karma become bonded in this twelfth spiritual developmental stage?  

Only one type and that is the pleasure producing feeling karma which become bonded in this stage.

 

548.       How many types of karma come into fruition in this stage?  

In the eleventh spiritual developmental stage, 69 types of fruition of karma occured. Since two are deleted, there are 67 types of fruition within this twelth spiritual developmental stage.

The two deleted are as follow:

1.      Adementine joints and bones (Vraj narach)

2.      Unbreakable bones and joints (Narach).

 

 

549.      How many types of karma remain in dormancy in this twelfh spiritual developmental stage?  

In the tenth spiritual developmental stage, the soul in the annihilation ladder had a total of 102 types in the dormancy. In the twelth stage we take one away, which has a total of 101 types of karma in dormancy. The one to be taken away is subtle greed (Sanjavalan lobh).

 

Thirteenth spiritual development stage.

 

550.    What is the nature of the thirteenth spiritual development stage i.e., the active omniscience (Sayogi kevali) stage? 

The soul in this stage is called the omniscient lord. He now has power to preach worthy soul with the divine sound (Divya dhvani). He shows the pathway to the liberation.

He has annihilated 47 types of destructive karma as follow:

·         Five knowledge obscuring karma (5 Gnanavarniya Karma)

·         Nine perceptional obscuring karma (9 Darshanavarniya Karma)

·         Twenty-eight deluding karma (28 Mohniya Karma)

·         Five obstructing karma (5 Antaray Karma).  

There is also annihilation of sixteen types of nondestructive karma. They are as follow 

·         Two infernal realm and its transmigratory form (Narak gati and anupurvi)

·         Two subhuman realms and its migratory form (Tiryanch gati and anupurvi)

·         Three of two, three and four sensed lives (Vikal tray)

·         Three life determining karma: celestial, infernal and subhuman (Ayu karma of dev, narak and tiryanch)

·         Two cold and hot bodies (Atap and udyot)

·         One sensed lives (Ekendriya Jjva)

·         Common body (Sadharan sharir)

·         Fine body (Sukshma sharir)

·         Stationary life (Sthavar jiva).

 

 

551.  How many types of karma become bonded in this thirteenth spiritual developmental stage?  

Only one type becomes bonded and that is pleasure producing feeling karma (Shata vedniya karma).

 

552.     How many types of karma come into fruition in this thirteenth spiritual developmental stage?  

In the twelfth spiritual developmental stage 57 types of karma came in fruition.

In this thirteenth stage sixteen are removed, having 41 types to which is added one more making a total of 42 types in fruition in this stage.

The sixteen to be removed are as follow:

·         Five knowledge obscuring karma (5 Gnanavarniya karma)

·         Five obstructing karma (5 Antray karma)

·         Four perception obscuring karmas (4 Darshanavarniya karma)

·         Light sleep (Nindra)

·         Sound sleep (Prachala).  

The one to be added is the tirthankar body making karma.

 

 

553.     How many types of karma remain in dormancy at this thirteenth spiritual developmental stage?  

In the twelfth spiritual developmental stage, 101 types remained in dormancy.

Delete sixteen of these and eighty-five remain in dormancy in the   thirteenth stage.

Sixteen to be omitted are as follow: :

·         Five knowledge obscuring karma (5 Gnanavarniya karma)

·         Five obstructing karma (5 Antray karma)

·         Four perception obscuring karmas (4 Darshanavarniya karma)

·         Light sleep (Nindra)

·         Sound sleep (Prachala).  

 

Fourteenth spiritual development stage.

 

 

554.   What is the nature of the fourteenth spiritual developmental stage, the inactive omniscient  (Ayogi kevali) and who is eligible to receive it?  

The omniscient lord in this stage becomes devoid of mind, speech and bodily actions and enters a stage of inactive omniscient.

This fourteenth spiritual developmental stage lasts for a very short time. During this spiritual developmental stage, when there are two samays remaining, the soul annihilates 72 types of karma; and, in the last samay, thirteen types of karma are annihilated. The soul is now absolutely pure and devoid of all karma, and travels in one samay to the adobe of Sidhdha. There, this Sidhdha soul remains forever in a state of permanent everlasting happiness.

 

555.     How many types of karma bondage occur in this fourteenth spiritual developmental stage?  

In the fourteenth spiritual developmental stage, there are absolutely no bondage of any karma at all.

 

 

 

 

556.     How many types of karma come into fruition in this fourteenth spiritual developmental stage?  

In the thirteenth spiritual developmental stage, there were 42 types of karma in the fruition.

Thirty are deleted leaving twelve types remaining to achieve fruition in the fourteenth spiritual developmental stage.  

The thirty to be deleted are as follow:

1.      Feeling karma (Vedniya karma)

2.      Adamantine nerves bones and joints (Vraj rushabh narach)

3.      Formation of organs (Nirman)

4.      Steady body (Sthir sharir)

5.      Unsteady body (Asthir sharir)

6.      Auspicious body making karma (Shubh)

7.      Inauspicious body making karma (Ashubh)

8.      Sweet voice (Sushvar)

9.      Harsh voice (Dushvar)

10.  Gross body (Audarik sharir)

11.  Gross body limbs and their related parts (Audarik sharir angopang)

12.  Fiery body (Tejash sharir)

13.  Karmic body (Karman sharir)

14.  Symmetrical body (Samchaturastra sansthan)

15.  Symmetrical upper and asymmetrical lower body (Nyagrodh)

16.  Symmetrical lower and asymmetrical upper body (Svati)

17.  Hunchback body (Kubjak)

18.  Dwarf body (Vaman)

19.  Deformed body (Hundak)

20.  Touch (Sparsh)

21.  Taste (Ras)

22.  Smell (Gandh)

23.  Color (Varna)

24.  Not too heavy and not too light (Agurulaghu)

25.  Destructive (Upghat)

26.  Bellicosity (Paraghat)

27.  Respiration (Uchchhavas)

28.  Individual body (Pratyek sharir)

29.  Graceful movement (Prasastha vihayo gati)

30.  Awkward movement. (Aprasastha vihayo gati) 

 

The twelve types, remaining in the fruition of this fourteenth spiritual development stage, are as follow: 

1.      Feeling karma (Vedniya karma)

2.      Human realm of existence (Manushya gati)

3.      Human life-determining karma (Manushya ayu)

4.      Five sensed genus of being (Panchendriya jati)

5.      Amiable personality (Subhag)

6.      Mobile body (Tras sharir)

7.      Gross body (Badar sharir)

8.      Developed body (Paryapta)

9.      Impressive body (Adeya)

10.  Fame (Yash kirti)

11.  Tirthankar making karma

12.  High status determining karma (Uchcha gotra).  

557.     How many karma remain in a dormancy state within this fourteenth spiritual developmental stage? 

Just as in the 13th spiritual developmental stage, here there are 85 types of karma in dormancy, but in the last two samays, the soul destroys 72 and in the last samay it destroys the remaining 13 karma types.The soul is now free of karma and this pure soul enters the adobe of Sidhdha.