Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Jain Rhymes and Songs in English
The substance, the modes and the attributes - substance
The substance, the modes and the attributes - Modes 
The substance, the modes and the attributes - attributes
  Concept of Karma - Types of karma bondage
  Concept of Karma - Inflow of karma and its relationship with bondage
  Concept of Karma - Causes of inflow of karma
  Concept of karma - Process of relinquishment of karma
  concept of the karma - Various Definitions to the state of karmas 
  Soul’s condition due to the association with karma
  Spiritual development stages
  How to know a substance
  Preface 

Jain Siddhant Praveshika (Q and A)
Courtesy of Dr. Kirit Gosalia
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Soul’s condition due to the association with karma 

Attitudes of the soul. 

 

339.     How many unique attitudes of the soul are there? (Ashadharan bhav)

                There are five types:

1.      The attitude of the soul resulting from cessation of the effect of the karma (Aupashamic bhav).

2.      The attitude of the soul resulting from annihilation of the effect of the karma (Kshayik bhav).

3.      The attitude of the soul resulting from partial cessation and partial annihilation of the effect of the karma  (Kshayopshamic bhav)

4.      The attitude of the soul resulting from the fruition of the karma (Audayik bhav)

5.      The attitude of the soul due to his own natural disposition (Parinamic bhav)  

 

340.    What is the attitude of the soul resulting from cessation of effects of the karma (Aupshamik bhav)?  

It is self-explanatory. The attitude of the soul occurs when there is cessation of the effect of karma transiently. Here the soul by his own efforts, suppresses the effect of the karma transiently.  

341.    What is called the attitude of the soul with annihilation of the effects of karma (Kshayik bhav)?            

When the karma have been destroyed completely, then the soul has very pure attitudes.  This is called the attitude of the soul with annihilation of the karma (Kshayik bhav).  

342.   What is the attitude of the soul resulting from partial cessation and partial annihilation   of the effect of karma (Kshayopshamik bhav)?  

When the effect of Karma becomes partially ceased and partially annihilated, then this attitude of the soul occurs.  

343     How can the attitude of the soul resulting from the fruition of the karma (Audayik bhav) be explained?  

The bonded karma come in the fruition at some time in the future. If the substance   (Dravya), area (Kshetra), time (Kal) and attitude of the karma (Bhav) are appropriate, then the fruition occurs in the karma. At the time of this fruition of the karma, the attitude of the soul is called audayika bhav.  

344.    What is called the attitude of the soul as his own natural disposition (Parinamik bhav)?  

In this situation, the soul has an attitude (Bhav), which does not depend on cessation, annihilation, partial cessation, and partial annihilation of the karma nor the fruition of the karma. This is the natural attitude of the soul by himself.  

345.    How many types of attitude of the soul by cessation of the fruition of the karma are there (Aupshamik bhav)?             

There are two types:

1.      Attitude due to the true faith (Samyaktva).

2.      Attitude due to the true conduct (Charitra).  

346     How many types of attitude of the soul are there due to annihilation of the karma?  (Kshayik bhav)?  

There are nine types, as follow:

1.      Annihilated true faith (Kshayik samyaktva).

2.      Annihilated true conduct (Kshayik charitra).

3.      Annihilated perception (Kshayik darshan).

4.      Annihilated knowledge (Kshayik gnan).

5.      Annihilated charity (Kshayik dan).

6.      Annihilated gain (Kshayik labh).

7.      Annihilated enjoyment (Kshayik bhog).

8.      Annihilated re-enjoyment (Kshayik upbhog).

9.      Annihilated vitality (Kshayik virya).

347.     How many types of attitude of the soul due to partial cessation/partial annihilation of the karma are there (Kshayopshamik bhav)?  

             There are eighteen types, as follow:

1.   True faith (Samykatva).

2.   True conduct (Charitra).

3.   Vision perception (Chakshu darshan).

4.   Nonvision perception (Achakshu darshan).

5.   Clairvoyance perception (Avadhi darshan).

6.   Partial restraint (Desh sanyam).

7.   Empirical knowledge (Mati gnan).

8.   Scriptural knowledge (Shrut gnan).

9.   Clairvoyance knowledge (Avadhi gnan).

10. Telepathy knowledge (Manah paryah gnan).

11.  Wrong empirical knowledge (Kumati gnan).

 12.  Wrong scriptural knowledge (Kushrut gnan).

13.   Wrong clairvoyance knowledge (Kuavadhi gnan).

14.   Charity (Dan).

15.   Gain (Labh).

16.   Enjoyment (Bhog).

17.   Re-enjoyment (Upbhog).

18.   Vitality (Virya).  

348.    How many types of attitude of the soul due to fruition of the karma are there (Audayik bhav)?

              There are twenty-one types, as follow:

           4.     Four realms of existence (Gati), (human, subhuman, infernal and celestial.)

8.     Four passions (Kashay), (anger, ego, deceit and greed.)

11.   Three genders (Ling), (male, female and hermaphroditic.)

12.   Wrong belief (Mithya darshan).

13.   Wrong knowledge (Agnan).

14.   Nonrestraint (Asanyam).

15.   Non-liberated state (Asidhdhatva).

21. Six Colorations of the soul (Leshaya), (yellow, red, white, black, blue and gray.)  

349     How many types of attitude of the soul, as his own natural disposition, are there    (Param parinanik bhav)?  

There are three types, as follow:

1.                 State of the individual soul (Jivatva).

2.                 Suitability for obtaining nirvana (Bhavyatva).

3.                 Non-suitability for obtaining nirvana (Abhavyatva).

 

Coloration of the soul. 

350.     What is called the coloration of the soul (Leshya)?  

            The vibratory activity of the space units of the soul occurring as a result of the fruition of the passions karma is called coloration of the soul (Leshya). This is the coloration attitude (Bhav leshya) seen in the soul.

            The color of the body like yellow, red, etc., is called the material colorations (Dravya leshya).

 

Attentive consciousness of the soul.  

351.     What is the meaning of the attentive consciousness (Upyog)?  

This soul’s characteristic is the consciousness (Chetna). The mode of this consciousness is called the attentive consciousness (Upyog).

 

352.     How many types of attentive consciousness (Upyog) are there?  

             There are two types:

1.      Perception attentive consciousness (Darshan upyog).

2.      Knowledge attentive consciousness (Gnan upyog).               

353.   Perception attentive consciousness (Darshan upyog) – how many types are there?

  There are four types, as follow:

1.      The vision perception attentive consciousness (Chakshu darshan).

2.      The non-vision perception attentive consciousness (Achakshu darshan).

3.      The clairvoyance perception attentive consciousness (Avadhi darshan).

4.      Omniscience perception attentive consciousness (Keval darshan).

 

354.   The knowledge attentive consciousness (Gnan upyog) – how many types are there?  

There are eight types, as follow:

1.      Empirical knowledge (Mati gnan).

2.      Scripture knowledge (Shrut gnan).

3.      Clairvoyance knowlege (Avadhi gnan).

4.      Telepathy knowledge (Manah paryaha gnan).

5.      Omniscience knowledge (Keval gnan).

6.      Wrong empirical knowledge (Kumati gnan).

7.      Wrong scriptural knowledge (Kushrut gnan).

8.      Wrong clairvoyance knowledge (Kuavadhi gnan).  

 

Instinct of the soul.    

355.      What is the definition of the instinct (Sangna)?  

             The desire of the living being is called the instinct (Sangna).

 

356.       How many types of instincts (Sangna) are there?  

             There are four types, as follow:

1.      Appetite instinct. (Ahar sangna)

2.      Fear instinct (Bhay sangna).

3.      Sex instinct. (Maithun sangna)

4.      Possession instinct. (Parigrah sangna)  

 

Soul's quest and its different types.  

357.      What is called the Soul's que (Margana)?  

The way, in which the living being is looked upon from different perspectives, is called the Soul's quest (Margana).  

358.      How many different types of soul quests are there? 

             There are fourteen types, as follow:

1.      Realms of existence (Gati).

2.      Senses (Indriya).

3.      Body (Kaya).

4.      Psychophysical activity (Yoga).

5.      Gender (Ved).

6.      Passions (Kashaya).

7.      Knowledge (Gnan).

8.      Restraint (Sanyan).

9.      Perception (Darshan).

10.  Coloration (Leshya).

11.  Suitability of the soul (Bhavyatva).

12.  True faith (Samyaktva).

13.  Sentience (Sangnitva).

14.  Accepting the matter (Ahar).  

Soul's quest of the realm of existence.  

359.      What is called the realm of existence (Gati)?  

At the time of the realm of existence of karma fruition, the soul has a mode. This is called the realm of existence (Gati).  

360.     How many types of realms of existence are there?  

                        Four types:

1.      Infernal.

2.      Subhuman.

3.      Human.

4.      Celestial.

 

Soul's quest of the senses. 

 

361.      What is called the senses (Indriya)?  

            The sign (ling) of the soul is called the sense.

 

362.      How many different types of senses are there?  

             There are Two types:

1.      Senses as clusters of matter (Dravya indriya).

2.      Senses as modes of the soul (Bhav indriya).

 

 

363.       What are the senses as clusters of matter (Dravya indriya)?  

             The senses as clusters of matter have a dual nature:

1.      As physical organs themselves (Nirvrutti).

2.      As the one which protects physical organs (Upkaran).  

364.      What is called the physical organ themselves (Nirvrutti)? 

The clusters of matter converted as an organ of the sense are called the physical organs themselves (Nirvrutti).

 

365.      How many types of physical organs themselves (Nirvrutti) are there?

            

             There are two types:

1.      External clusters of matter (Bahya nirvrutti).

2.      Internal soul space units (Abhyantar nirvutti).

 

 

366.       What is called the external clusters of matter (Bahya nirvrutti)?

 

The clusters of matter that have the shape of a sense organ are called external clusters of matter (Bahya Nirvrutti) such as the shape of an external ear.

 

367.       What is called the ‘internal soul space units’ (Abhyantar nirvrutti)?

 

The space units of the soul’s (Atma na pradesh) transformation of a given sense such as eyes or ears, etc., are called the internal soul space unit (Abhyantar nirvutti).

 

368.      What is called ‘assisting to the physical organs’ (upkaran)?

 

             The material particles, which protect the nirvrutti, are called upkaran.

 

369.      How many types of upkaran are there?

 

             There are two types:

1.      Internal.

2.      External.

 

370.      What is called the ‘internal devise assisting the physical organs’ (Abhyantar upkaran?

 

             For example, in the eye, the sclerae and cornea exist and they are called the internal upkaran (Abhyantar upkaran).

 

371.   What is called ‘the external devise assisting the physical organs’ (Bahya upkaran)?

 

For example, in the eyes, the eyelashes and the eyeball are called external      upkaran. They protect the nirvrutti.

 

372.      What is called senses as modes of the soul (Bhav indrya)?

 

             The senses as modes of the soul (Bhav indrya) are dual in nature.

1.      Sential potential (Labdhi).

2.      Sential application (Upyog).

 

373.     What is called the sentinel potential (Labdhi)?

 

The knowledge attribute in the soul and the material particles of the knowledge obscuring karma behave according to their own independent way. But they both have principle cause-auxiliary cause relationship. As a result of this, when there is the partial suppression and partial annihilation of the knowledge obscuring karma, the knowledge is also shinning accordingly in the soul. This type of shinning of the knowledge attribute in the soul is called the sentinel potential of the soul (Labdhi)

 

 

374.     What is called the sentinel application (Upyog)?

 

Out of the total sentinal potential in a mundane soul, only part of it is used in the   application process at a given time. This is part is called the sentinel application (Upyog).

 

375.      How many types of senses as clusters of matter are there (Dravya Indriya)?

           

            There are five types, as follow:

1.      Touch (Sparsan).

2.      Taste (Rasna).

3.      Smell (Ghran).

4.      Seeing (Chakshu).

5.      Hearing (Shrot).

 

 

376.     What is called the touch sense (Sparsan indriya)?

 

With the touch sense, one can feel eight types of sensations. They are as    follow:

1.      Cold (Sitt).

2.      Hot (Ushna).

3.      Dry (Ruksha).

4.      Oily (Chikkan).

5.      Hard (Kathor).

6.      Soft (Komal).

7.      Light (Halka)

8.      Heavy (Bhare).

 

 

377.      What is called the taste sense (Rasna indriya)?

 

With the help of the taste sense, one can identify five different taste sensations. They are as follow:

1.      Pungent (Tikkho).

2.      Bitter (Kadvo).

3.      Astringent (Kashaelo).

4.      Acid (Khato).

5.      Sweet (Mitho).

 

 

378.     What is called the smell sense (Ghran indriya)?

 

Through of this sense, one can possesses the knowledge of the smell. There are two types:

1.      Sweet smell (Sugandha).

2.      Foul smell (Durgandha).

 

 

379.      What is called the sight sense (Chakshu indriya)?

 

            With the help of this sense, one can see different colors like:

1.      White (Dholo).

2.      Yellow (Pilo).

3.      Green (Lilo).

4.      Red (Lal).

5.      Black (Kalo).

 

 

380.      What is called the hearing sense (Shrot indriya)?

 

With the help of this sense, one can hear seven types of sounds. This is called the hearing sense.

 

381.    How many senses are there in different living beings?

 

            The touch sense is seen in five types of living beings

These five are as follow:

 

1.      Earth body souls (Pruthvikaya).

2.      Water body souls (Apkaya).

3.      Fire body souls (Teukaya).

4.      Air body souls (Vaukaya).

5.      Plant body souls (Vanaspapikaya).

 

All of the above mentioned five living beings have one sense and that is the touch sensation.

Worms, shells, termites, and similar living beings have two senses- touch and       taste.

Lice, mothes and similar living beings have three senses- touch, taste and smell.

Flies, beetles, scorpions, crickets, and similar living beings have four senses- touch, taste smell and seeing.

Lions and other four-legged animals, human beings, infernal and celestial living beings have five senses- touch, taste, smell, seeing and hearing.

 

 

Soul's quest of the body.

 

382.     What is called kay?

           

The condition of the soul’s space units occurring as a result of the fruition of the mobile and immobile body making karma is called kay.

 

383.    What is called the mobile being (Trush kay)?

 

The soul’s taking birth as two, three, four and five senses living beings due to the fruition of the mobile body making karma is called mobile being. Here these living beings are able to move through their own volition.

 

384.   What is called the immobile being (Sthavar kay)?

 

An immobile being is a one-sense living being which has the fruition of the immobile body karma. Such immobilelliving biings are not able to move through their own volition.

 

385.    What is called gross body (Badar kay)?

 

The living being which can be stopped by earth; and, it can stop other substances is called gross body (Badar kay).

 

386.     What is called the fine body (Sukshma kay)?

 

The living being which cannot be stopped by earth; and, it cannot stop other substances is called fine body (Sukshma kay).

 

387.     How many types of plant body souls are there?

 

            There are two types:

1.      Solitary plant souls (Pratyek vanaspati kay).

2.      Common body plant souls (Sadharan vanaspati kay)

 

 

 

388.     What is called a solitary plant soul (Pratyek vanaspati kay)?

 

When the soul is the owner of one body, it is called a solitary plant soul (Pratyek vanaspati kay).

 

389.     What constitutes common body plant souls (Sadharan Vanaspati Kay)?

 

Plant living beings, which have a common body, are called common body plant souls.   Here, in one body, many souls reside. The breathing, accepting material for survival (ahar), age (ayu) and body (sharir) become common for many souls. These are called the common body plant souls (sadharan vanaspati kaya). For example – potato and onion are underground growing plants.

 

390.      How many different types of solitary plant souls are there?

           

            Two types:

1.      Dependent solitary plant souls (Sapratisthit pratyek).

2.      Nondependent solitary plant souls (Apratisthit pratkyek). 

 

 

391.      What is known as dependent solitary plant soul (Sapratisthit pratyek)?

 

The solitary plant souls, which depend on the common body plant souls, are called   dependent solitary plant souls (Sapratisthit pratyek).

 

392.     What are called nondependent solitary plant souls (Apratisthit pratyek)?

 

The solitary plant souls, which do not depend on any common body plant souls, are called nondependent solitary plant souls (Apratisthit pratyek).

 

393.   Are common body plant souls present only in the dependent solitary plant                     souls or are they also present somewhere else?

 

All mundane souls like worms, bugs, animals, and humans, depend on common body plant souls – the lowest   form of life (Nigodh), except for earth body souls, water body souls, air body souls, fire body souls, the omniscient lord (Jin Bhagwan), assimilative body soul (Aharak sharir), the celestial soul (Dev), and the infernal souls (Narak).

 

394.  The lowest form of life is the common body plant soul (Nigodh). How many different types of common body plant souls are there?

 

            There are two types:

1.      Eternal lowest form of life (Nitya nigodh), and

2.      Noneternal lowest form of life (Itara nigodh).

 

395.     What are eternal lowest forms of life (Nitya nigodh)?

 

Living beings, which have never entered any other modes, other than the lowest   form of life and which will never enter any other modes other than the lowest form of life, is called the eternal lowest form of life (Nitya nigodh).

 

396.    What is called the noneternal lowest form of life (Itara nigodh)?

 

The lowest form of life that can come out of nigodh and then enter another form of life and once again be born in the lowest form of life, is called the itara nigodh.

 

397.   How are souls classified as gross bodied and fine bodies souls (Badar and sukshma jiva)?

 

The earth body, the water body, the air body, the fire body, the eternal lowest form of life and the non eternal lowest form of life are souls which can be either gross bodied or fine bodied souls bodied souls. The remainders of living beings are all classified as gross bodied souls.

 

 

Soul's quest of the psychophysical activity.

 

398.    How are the two forms of internal attitudes of action of the soul are explained (Yog)?

 

With the fruition of the body making karma and with the support of the mind, speech and body, the soul has the capacity to accept karma and quassi-karma. This capacity of the soul clarifies its internal attitude of the action (Bhav yog).

With the bhav yog as an instrumental cause, the vibratory activity of the soul’s space units occurs. This is called material yog (Dravya yog.)

 

399.     How many types of yog are there?

 

            There are three primary kinds with fifteen subtypes as follow:

1.      Four mind yog.

2.      Four speech yog.

3.      Seven body activity yog.

 

Soul's quest of the gender.

 

 

400.     What is known as the gender (Ved)?

 

Gender is determined by the fruition of the quassi –passions through which the living being acquires a desire for copulation, which is the basis for the internal attitude of gender (Bhav ved).

The living being gains a sexual organ as a result of fruition of the body making karma, called the material gender (Dravya ved).

 

401.     How many types of gender are there?

 

            There are three types:

1.      Male gender.

2.      Female gender.

3.      Hermaphrodite gender.

 

 

Soul's quest of the passions.

 

 

402.      What is called the passions? (Kashay)

 

The passions are that which obstructs the true faith (Samyaktva), the partial true conduct (Desh charitra) or complete true conduct (Sakal charitra) of the soul.

 

403.     How many types of passions are there?

           

            There are sixteen types as follow:

1.      Four infinite bondage-causing passions (Anantanubandhi kashay) of anger, pride, deceit and greed.

2.      Four partial vows preventing passions (Apratyakhyanavaraniya kashay) of anger, pride, deceit and greed.

3.      Four total vows preventing passions (Pratyakhyanavaraniya kashay) of anger, pride, deceit and greed.

4.      Four perfect conduct preventing passions (Sanjvalan kashay) of anger, pride, deceit and greed.

 

 

          Soul's quest of the knowledge.

 

 

404.    How many different types of knowledge are there?

 

            There are eight types:

Empirical, scriptural, clairvoyance, telepathy, omniscience, wrong empirical, wrong scriptural and wrong clairvoyance.

 

Soul's quest of the restraint.

 

 

405.      What is meant by restraint?  (Sanyam)

 

When one accepts five vows (vrat), observs five carefulnesses (samiti), discards ones passions  (kashay), controlls ones mind, speech and action and  conquers the five senses, restrain (Sanyam) is demonstrated.

 

406.     How many types of different restraint are there?

           

            There are seven as follow:

1.      Initiation (Samayik).

2.      Ordination (Chedopasthapan).

3.      Purification through service (Parihar vishudhdhi).

4.      Self-restraint with subtle flickering greed (Sukshma sampraya).

5.      Perfect conduct (Yathakhyat charitra).

6.      Partial restraint/partial nonrestraint (Sanyamasanyam).

7.      Nonrestraint (Asanyam).

 

 

Soul's quest of the perception.

 

 

 

407.     How many types of different perceptions are there?

           

            There are four:

1.     Vision perception (Chakashu darshan).

2.     Nonvision perception (Achakshu darshan).

3.     Clairvoyance perception (Avadhi darshan).

4.     Omniscience perception (Keval darshan)

 

 

Soul's quest of the coloration.

 

 

 

408.     How many types of different colorations of the soul are there (Leshya Margana)?

           

            There are six, to include:  black, blue, gray, yellow, red and  white.

 

 

Soul's quest of the suitability.

 

 

409.     How many different types of suitability are there (Bhavya margana)?

           

            There are two: the suitable soul (Bhavya jiva) and the nonsuitable soul (Abhavya jiva).

 

 

Soul's quest of the true faith.

 

 

410.      What is meant by the true faith (Samyaktva)?

 

The true belief in the category of the truth (Tatvarth shradhdha) is called the true faith    (Samyaktva).

 

 

411.      How many types of different true faith (Samyaktva) are there?

           

There are six types:

1.      The true faith due to cessation of the effect of karma (Upsham samyaktva).

2.      The true faith due to partial cessation and partial annihilation of karma (Kshayopshamic samyaktva).

3.      The true faith due to complete annihilation of the karma (Kshayik samyaktva).

4.      The faith gain through partial right/wrong belief (Mishra mithyatva).

5.      The faith gained through clouded right belief (Sasadan).

6.      The faith gained through wrong belief (Mithyatva).

 

 

Soul's quest of the sentience.

 

 

412.     What is called the sentient being (Sangni)?

           

            The living being possesing the instinct is called the sentient being.

 

413.     What is the instinct (Sangna)?

 

The soul’s acceptance of information through the mind in clusters of matters (Dravya man) is called the instinct (Sangna).

 

414.    How many types of different sentient beings are there (Sangni margana)?

 

            There are two types:

1.      The sentient being (Sangni) 

2.      The non-sentient being (Asangni).

 

 

Soul's quest of  accepting  matter.

 

 

 

415.     What is called the nourishment (Ahar)?

 

The acceptance of the material particles comprising the body and its appropriate development is called the nourishment (Ahar).

 

416.     How many types of nourishment are there?

           

            There are two types:

1.      Taking nourishment (Aharak).

2.      The state of not taking nourishment (Anaharak).

 

 

417.      What are the different stages in which a soul lives without nourishment (Anaharak  jiva)?

 

            The soul stays without nourishment during the following three conditions:

1.      The soul’s transit to a new destiny (Vigrah gati).

2.      The expansion of the soul’s space unit to the limit of the cosmic space (Samudghat).

3.      The inactive omniscient (Ayogi kevali).

 

 

418.      What is called the transit time (Vigrah gati)?

 

The transit of the transmigratory soul, which has left the previous body and now transits towards the new body, is called the transit time (Vigrah gati).

 

419.      During vigrah gati, what kind of the matter is associated with the soul?

           

During vigrah gati, the only matter associated with the soul is that of the karmic body.

 

420.     How many different types of vigrah gati are there?

 

            There are four types:

1.      Movement of the soul without any turns (Ruju gati).

2.      With one turn (Panimukta gati).

3.      With two turns (Langlika gati).

4.      With three turns (Gomutrika gati).

 

 

421.     How much time does the soul spend in each of the above-mentioned vigrah gati?

           

1.      For ruju gati – one time unit (One samay).

2.      For panimukta gati – two time units (Two samays).

3.      For langlika gati – three time units (Three samays).

4.      For gomutrik gati – four time units (Four samays).

 

422.   How long does the soul remain without nourishment (Anaharak state) in the above-mentioned vigrah gatis?

           

1.      The soul in ruju gati has never been without nourishment.

2.      The soul in panimukta gati is without nourishment for one time unit. (One samay)

3.      The soul in langlika gati is without nourishment for two time units.

4.      The soul in gomutrika gati is without nourishment for three time units.

 

 

423.     The soul going to the liberation place (moksha), is in which type of transit?

 

The soul is in the ruju gati while going to moksha and the soul remains there without nourishment.

 

Soul and the different types of the births.

 

 

424.    How many different types of births are there?

           

            There are three types, as follow:

1.      By descent (Upapad).

2.      By womb (Garbha).

3.      By agglutination (Sammurchchhin).

 

 

425.    What is called the birth by descent (Upapad janma)?

 

Here the birth occurs without parents. The soul achieves adulthood right away. The births in the celestial and in infernal realms occur this way. The soul in the celestial life is born from the celestial flowerbed and accepts the protein materials present there. The soul in the infernal birth is born in a pot like place with a narrow opening. He then accepts the protein material particles available there.

 

426.      What is called the birth by the womb (Garbha janma)?

           

The soul is born after an ovum becomesfetilized with the sperm upon sexual relations.

 

427.     What is called the birth by agglutination (Sammurchchhin janma)?

           

The soul gets birth without any expectation of mother or father. The soul uses   agglutination of the material particles from the surroundings.

 

428.    What kind of living being has these different forms of above-mentioned births?

           

The celestial and the infernal birth have birth by descent. Viviparous (Jarayuj), Oviparous (Andaj) and Vertebrates without placenta (Potaj) are the birth with the womb and the rest of the living beings are born by agglutination of material particles.

 

429.    How are the different living beings of different genders (Ling) described?

           

The infernal and the agglutinating living beings are hermaphrodites. The celestial beings could be male or female genders. The rest of the living beings have all three genders.

 

The soul classes according to the births.

 

 

430.     What is called the soul class (Jiv samas)?

           

                        The place where a living being is born, determines its jiv samas.

 

 

431.     How many different types of soul classes are there?

           

            There are 98 (including subtypes) as follow:

1.      For subhumans (Tiryanch) - 85,

2.      For humans (Manushya) – 9,

3.      For infernal (Narak)– 2 

4.      For celestial (Dev) – 2.

 

 

432.      Where do the 85 different types of soul classes of subhumans occur?

           

1.      Agglutinating birth – 69 

2.      Womb birth – 16.

 

 

433.    How are are the 69 types of agglutinating births distributed?

           

1.      One sensed  - 42,

2.      Two to four senses  - 9

3.      Five senses –18.

 

 

434.    Where are the 42 types of one sensed agglutinating births distributed?

 

1.      Earth.

2.      Air.

3.      Fire.

4.      Water.

5.      Eternal lowest form of life.

6.      Non-eternal lowest forms of life.

 

(Each of the above six have fine bodies, as well as gross bodies)

(6 x 2 = 12).

 

13. Dependent solitary plant souls.

14. Nondependent solitary plant souls. 

 

 

Each of these fourteen types and subtypes listed above are to be multiplied by three additional types and that will make forty-two. The three types are as follow:          

1.      The fully matured (Paryaptak).

2.      Partially matured (Nirvrutya Paryaptak).                          

3.      Non-matured (Labdh Paryaptak).

 

When the soul matures to all of his potential mature forms, then it is called fully matured (Paryaptak).

 

When soul is in the process of acquiring all of its maturities, then it is called partially matured (Nirvrutya Paryaptak).

 

When the living being dies prior to acquiring to any maturity at all, then it is called non-matured (Labdh Payraptak).

 

 

435.                 What are the nine types of births in two to four sensed living beings?

           

Two, three and four sensed living beings have nine different types of births, as follows. Two sensed, three sensed and four sensed times three of each of the maturities (fully matured, partially matured, and non-matured). Thus there are total of nine types.

 

 

 

436.     What are the eighteen types of birthplaces for agglutinating five sensed living beings?

 

1.      Living in the water.

2.      Living on land.

3.      Living in the air.

 

These three of two types each, sential and non-sential makes six. These six types are then to be multiplied by three types of maturities to make a total of 18 types.

 

 

437.     What are the sixteen different types of birthplaces of five-sensed living beings born in the womb?

There are twelve in the land of action (Karma bhumi) and four in the land of enjoyment (Bhog bhumi).

 

438.    What are the twelve types of birthplaces of five-sensed living beings born in the womb from the land of action?

1    Living in the water.

2.     Living in the land.

3.     Living in the air.

 

These each times two of sential and non-sential each, makes a total of six and times two of maturation, fully matured and partially matured. These make a total of twelve.

 

 

439.   What are the four types of living places of five-sensed living beings born in the womb in the land of enjoyment?

 

1.      Living the land.

2.      Living in the air.

 

Multiply each of these two times the two types of maturations; that is fully matured and partially matured equals four total.

In the land of enjoyment (Bhog bhumi) there are no non-sential subhuman living beings (Asangni tiryanch).

 

 

 

 440.    What are the nine birthplaces of the humans?

           

1.      Arya land (Arya khand).

2.      Mlechchha land (Mlechcha khand).

3.      Land of enjoyment (Bhog bhumi).

4.      Land of bad enjoyment (Kubhog bhumi).

 

                  Now multiply each of four places above x’s two of maturity, to include that which is fully matured and partially matured, equals a total of eight. Plus one must add the type agglutinating human having nonmaturity, which  constitutes a total of nine types.

 

 

441.      There are two infernal birthplaces:

           

            They are the fully matured and partially matured.

 

442.     There are two types of birthplaces for celestial living beings:

           

            Fully matured and partially matured.

 

443.     How many different types of celestial beings are there?

           

            There are four types:

1.      Mansion dwelling celestial beings (Bhavanpati dev).

2.      Wandering celestial beings (Vyantar dev).

3.      Stellar celestial beings (Jyotistha dev).

4.      Empyrean celestial beings (Vaimanic dev). 

 

 

444.      How many of the mansion celestial beings are there (Bhavanpati dev)?

           

            There are ten as follow:

1.      Fiendish youths – Asur kumar.

2.      Serpentine youths – Nag kumar.

3.      Lightening youths – Vidyut kumar.

4.      Vulturing youths – Suparna kumar.

5.      Fiery youths – Agni kumar.

6.      Stormy youths – Vat kumar.

7.      Thundering youths – Stanit kumar.

8.      Oceanic youths – Udadhi kumar.

9.      Island youths – Dwip kumar.

10.  Guardians of the cardinal points youths – Dik kumar.

 

 

 

445.     How many types of wandering celestial beings are there (Vyantar dev)?

           

            There are eight types:

1.      Deformed humans – Kinnara.

2.      Deformed persons – Kinpuruss.

3.      Great serpent – Mahorag.

4.      Musician –Gandharva.

5.      Treasure keeper – Yaksha.

6.      Demon – Rakshasa.

7.      Devil – Bhut.

8.      Goblin – Pisacha.

 

 

446.     How many types of stellar celestial beings are there (Jyotistha Dev)?

           

            There are five as follow:

1.      Suns – Surya.

2.      Moons – Chandra.

3.      Planets – Graha.

4.      Constellations – Nakshatra.

5.      Scattered stars – Tara.

 

 

447.     How many types of empyrean celestial beings are there (Vaimanik Dev)?

           

    There are two types – graded ones (Kalpopanna dev) and non-graded ones  (Kalpatit dev).

 

448.      What are the graded celestial beings (Kalpopanna dev)?

           

Here the celestial beings have various ranks such as chiefs or assistant chiefs.

 

449.      What are the non-graded celestial beings (Kalpatit dev)?

           

            Here the celestial beings have no ranks.

 

 

 

450.      How many types of graded celestial beings are there (Kalpopanna Dev)?

           

            There are sixteen as follow:

1.      Righteous – Saudharma.

2.      Great lord – Isana.

3.      Perpetual youth – Sanatkumar.

4.      Supreme lord – Mahendra.

5.      Big lord – Brahma.

6.      Super lord – Brahmottar.

7.      Mysterious – Lantav.

8.      Banyan – Kanistha.

9.      Radiant – Sukra.

10.  Supremely radiant – Mahasukra.

11.  Hundred faceted – Satar.

12.  Thousand faceted – Sahasratar.

13.  Bent – Anata.

14.  Prostrated – Pranat.

15.  Beat – Arana.

16.  Unswearning – Achyuta.

 

 

451.          How many types of nongraded celestial beings are there (Kalpatit dev)?

           

            There are twenty-three, as follow:

 

·         Nine are neck dwellings (Nav Graiveyak).

-Three.  Lower neck dwellings (Adho Graivayak)

§         -Sudarshan

§         -Amogh

§         -Suprabudhdha

-Three.  Middle neck dwellings (Madhya Graivayak)

§          Yasodhar

§         Subhadra

§         Suvishal

-Three.  Upper neck dwellings (Urdhva Graiviyak)

§          Suman

§       Saumanashya

§                    Pritinkar

·         Nine subdirectional heavens (Anudis).

1.   Aditya

2.   Archi

3.   Archimalini

4.   Vajra

5.   Vairochan

6.   Soumya

7.   Saumyarupak

8.   Ank

9.   Sphutik

·         Five excellents (Anuttar) and those five are as follows:  

1.      Victory-Vijay.

2.      Victorious – Vaijayant.

3.      Conquering – Jayant.

4.      Unvanquished – Aparajit.

5.      Fully accomplished – Sarvarthsidhdhi.

 

 

452.    How many types of infernal places are there?

           

            Seven different infernal places exist.

 

453.     What are the names of the seven infernal places?

           

            They are as follow:

1.      Gem hued – Ratna prabha-dharma.

2.      Pebble hued – Sharkara prabha-vansha.

3.      Sand hued – Valuka prabha-megha.

4.      Mud hued – Pank prabha-anjana.

5.      Smoke hued – Dhum prabha-arista.

6.      Dark – Tamah prabha-maghavi.

7.      Pitch dark – Mahatamah prabha-maadhavi.

 

 

 

 

454      Where is the living place for fine one-sensed lives (Sukshma ekendriya)?

                                   

            These exist all over the cosmic space.

 

455.     What is the living place for gross one-sensed lives (Badar ekendriya)?

           

            Gross one sensed living beings live anywhere with support from  any body.

 

456.      Where do the mobile lives live?

           

            The mobile living beings live in the mobile area of the cosmic space.

 

457.      Where do two, three and four sensed living beings live?

           

Two, three and four-sensed living beings live in the land of action (Karma bhumi). They are also present in the half island at the end and also live in the the last ocean in the cosmos known as Swayambhuraman Ocean.

 

458.      Where do the five-sensed subhumans live (Panchendriya tiryanch)?

           

They live in middle world. The water living subhumans are found only in the Lavan, Kalodadhi and Swayambhuraman oceans.

 

459.     Where do the infernal living beings live?

           

            They live in the lower seven lands of the universe.

 

460.      Where do the mansion dwelling and wandering celestial beings live?

           

They live in the upper and middle part of the first hell and also in the middle world (Tiryank lok).

 

461      Where do the stellar celestial beings live?

 

The stellar celestial beings live in the area of the middle world, which begins at the height of 790 yojans, above the plateau of Mount Meru and extends up to another 110 yojans, which spread across innumerable islands and oceans.

 

462.     Where do the empyrean celestial beings live?

           

            They live in the upper world of the universe (Urdhva lok).

 

463.     Where do humans live?

           

            Human live in the human region of the middle world (Nar lok).

 

Universe according to the Jain philosophy.

 

464.     How many parts of the universe are there?

           

            There are three parts of the universe:

1.      The upper world – Urdhva lok.

2.      The middle world – Madhya lok.

3.      The lower world – Adho lok.

 

465.     What is called the lower world?

           

            A seven-rajju distance down Mount Meru is called the lower world.

       Raju is defined as follows – the distance flown by the celestial being in six months at a rate of 2, 057,152 yojans in one kshan (instant of time). One yojan is equal to 455,545 miles. Thus one raju equals 145 x 1021 miles (according to Jain sidhdhant kosh by Jinendra Varniji, part 3, page 401).

 

466.     What is called the upper world?

           

From Mount Meru to the end of the top of the universe is called the upper         world.

 

467.     What is called the middle world (Madhya Lok)?

           

            From Mount Meru up to a height of 100,040 yojans is the middle world.

 

468.      Can the middle world be described in more detail?

 

In the center of the middle world there is Jambu Island which is 100,000 yojans diameter at present. In the center of the Jambu Island, there is Mount Meru which is 100,000 yojans in height. The Mount Meru base is about 10,000 yojans deep into the ground. Ninety nine thousand yojans height is above ground level. The top of Mount Meru is at forty yojans in height. In the middle of the Jambu Island, east to west side, there are six long mountain ranges present. These divide Jambu Island into seven continents, which are named as follows:

1.      Bharat.

2.      Haimvat.

3.      Harivarsh.

4.      Videh.

5.      Ramyak.

6.      Hairanyavat.

7.      Airavat.

            On the north of Mount Meru is Uttarkuru and to the south is Devkuru.

            The Lavan Ocean circles the Jambu Island. It has a width of 200,000 yojans.

            Circling the Lavan Ocean is Dhataki Island, which is 400,000 yojans in width.

      In this part of Dhataki island, there are two Mount Merus. The mountains here are double in numbers to those in Jambu Iisland.

Kalodadhi Ocean circles Dhataki Island. It is 800,000 yojans in width.

Pushkar Island is 1,600,000 yojans in width and is surrounded by Kalodadhi Ocean.

In the middle of the Pushkar Island is a mountain chain called Manusottar Mountain. This mountain divides Pushkar Island into two parts, one outer side and one inner side. The area covered by the Manusottar Mountain is an area of 1,022 yojans at the base, 723 yojans in the middle and 424 yojans at the top. The height is 1,721 yojans and it is 430 yojans deep into the land.

In the inner part of the Pushkar Island, the geography is similar to Dhataki Island. The land outlay of Pushkar and Dhatki Islands is double the amount of Jambu Island, i.e., the mountains and continents are double in numbers.

Jambu Island, Dhatki Island, inner half of the Pushkar Island, Lavan Ocean and Kalodadhi Ocean areas denotes the human world.

Beyond Pushkar Island, there are innumerable oceans and islands present, until the end of the middle world.

There are fifteen action lands in this human world present in these 2.5 islands of human land, that is, Jambu, Dhataki and the inner half of Pushkar Island. These areas include five Mount Merus-one for Jambu and two each in Dhataki and Pushkar Island. Keep in mind that Mount Meru is in the center of Bharat, Videh and Airavat lands. Therefore, there are five Bharats, five Videhs and five Airvavat areas, which are present in the action lands. In the Videh land area, the areas of the Devkuru and Uttarkuru are to be excluded.

Five Hemvat and five Hairanyavat have the lower level of enjoyment lands. (Jaghanya bhog bhumi)

Five Hari and five Ramyak have the mid level lands of enjoyment (Madhya bhog bhumi).

Five Devkuru and five Uttarkuru have the highest form of enjoyment lands (Uttam bhog bhumi).

The lands where humans have knowledge of the followings six things are called the land of action. (Karma bhumi):

 

1.      Use of arms and ammunition (Asi).

2.      Writing (Masi).

3.      Farming (Krusi).

4.      Serving the society (Seva).

5.      Handcrafting (Silp).

6.      Business (Vanijya).

The land where the above-mentioned six things are not present is called the land of enjoyment (Bhog bhumi).

Outside the human world, in all islands, there is the lower level of enjoyment, but in the Swayambhuraman Ocean and its islands, there are the arrangements similar to action lands.

In the Lavan and Kalodadhi oceans, there are ninety-six islands. There is also the existance of bad enjoyment land (Kubhog bhumi). Here the humans are called non-aryan (mlechchha). These are humans, but live their lives as animals.