Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Jain Rhymes and Songs in English
The substance, the modes and the attributes - substance
The substance, the modes and the attributes - Modes 
The substance, the modes and the attributes - attributes
  Concept of Karma - Types of karma bondage
  Concept of Karma - Inflow of karma and its relationship with bondage
  Concept of Karma - Causes of inflow of karma
  Concept of karma - Process of relinquishment of karma
  concept of the karma - Various Definitions to the state of karmas 
  Soul’s condition due to the association with karma
  Spiritual development stages
  How to know a substance
  Preface 

Jain Siddhant Praveshika (Q and A)
Courtesy of Dr. Kirit Gosalia
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The substance, the modes and the attributes

 

The modes

 

37.     Explain the ‘mode’ (Paryaya). 

Each attribute keeps on changing constantly.  The change occurring in an attribute is called the mode.  The   constant ongoing modification of a substance is called a mode. 

The following figure delineats this process-Modes

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

38.     How many different types of modes are there? 

          There are two types:

1.      Shape (Spatial) modification (Vyanjan paryay)

2.      Substantive (Attributive) modification (Arth paryay) 

39.      What is shape (Spatial) modification (Vyanjan paryay)? 

One of the qualities of a substance is called ‘extension into the space’ (Pradeshatva). The modification of this quality is called shape (Spatial) modification (Vyanjan paryay). 

 

40.       How many types of shape (Spatial) modification are there? 

          There are two types:

1.      Natural shape modification (Swabhav vyanjan paryay)

2.      Alienated shape modification (Vibhav vyanjan paryay)

 

41.      What is the natural shape modification (Swabhav vyanjan paryay)? 

The shape attained by a substance without relationship with any instrumental causes is called the natural shape modification, e.g., soul’s sidhdha modes.  These modes are independent of themselves in the soul, when the soul obtains nirvana.  In this mode, sidhdha extends into the space without the help of any other substances.

     

42.       Explain alienated shape modification (Vibhav vyanjan paryay). 

The shape assumed by a substance in relationship with any instrumental causes is called the alienated shape modification, e.g., any living being having modes of human, sub-human, or of an infernal being.

 

43.       What is substantive (Attributive) modification (Arth paryay)? 

A substance has many attributes including ‘extension into the space’ (Pradeshatva) attribute.  A substance has modes which occur continuously from all its attributes.  The modes occurring from all the attributes of a substance except from ‘extension into the space’ attribute is called substantive (Attributive) modification (Arth paryay).

 

44.       How many types of substantive modifications are there? 

     There are two types:

1.      Natural substantive modification (Swabhav arth paryay)

2.      Alienated substantive modification (Vibhav arth paryay)

 

 

45.       What is the natural substantive modification (Swabhav arth paryay)? 

The natural substantive modification occurs independently and does not have any relationship with any outside substances. Here, there is the absence of any instrumental cause, e.g., state of omniscience of a living being.

 

46.      What is the alienated substantive modification (Vibhav arth paryay)? 

The substantive modification, which occurs in relationship with any instrumental cause, is called the alienated substantive modification, e.g., the modes of attachment and aversion of a living being.

 

47.      What is meant by ‘origination of mode’ (Utpata)? 

    Occurrence of the new mode of a substance is called ‘origination of the mode’.

 

48.     What is meant by ‘cessation of mode’ (Vyaya)? 

The disappearance of a previous mode in a substance is called the ‘cessation of mode’.

 

49.     What is meant by ‘permanence’ (Dhrauvya) in a reality? 

   Any condition of a substance recognized as permanent is called ‘permanence’ in reality.