Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Jain Rhymes and Songs in English
The substance, the modes and the attributes - substance
The substance, the modes and the attributes - Modes 
The substance, the modes and the attributes - attributes
  Concept of Karma - Types of karma bondage
  Concept of Karma - Inflow of karma and its relationship with bondage
  Concept of Karma - Causes of inflow of karma
  Concept of karma - Process of relinquishment of karma
  concept of the karma - Various Definitions to the state of karmas 
  Soul’s condition due to the association with karma
  Spiritual development stages
  How to know a substance
  Preface 

Jain Siddhant Praveshika (Q and A)
Courtesy of Dr. Kirit Gosalia
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Concept of karma

 

 

133.         How many different types of living beings are there? 

There are 2 types:

1.      Transmigratory

2.      Liberated. 

134.         What constitutes transmigratory living beings (Sansary jiva)? 

The souls’ existence along with association of karma constitutes transmigratory living beings.

 

135.         What constitutes the liberated living beings (Mukta jiva)? 

The souls’ existence without any associative relationship with any karma comprises liberated living beings.

 

136.         How may karma be defined? 

Should the soul be in the impure state due to attachment (Rag) and aversion (Dwesh), it becomes an instrumental condition for the karman particles get bonded with the soul.  These particles are called karma.

 

137.         How many different factor are involved in bondage (bandh)? 

            There are 4 factors: 

1.      Types of particles involved in bondage (Prakruti bandh)

2.      Quantities of particles bonded (Pradesh bandh)

3.      Duration of bondage (Sthiti bandh)

4.      Intensity of bondage (Anubhag bandh)

 

138.          What are the causes for the above-mentioned bondages? 

The actions of mind, speech and body are the instrumental causes in the vibratory activity of the soul’s space units.  This action is called yog. This yog is the basis for the types and quantities of karma bondage. (Prakruti and Pradesh bandh.)  The passions (wrong belief, anger, ego, deceit and greed) are the cause for the duration and intensity of karma bondage. (Sthiti and Anubhag bandth.) 

Types of Karma Bondage  

139.         What are the types of bondage (Prakruti bandh) 

The eight types of karma (the deluding karma, the knowledge obscuring karma, etc.)  which bond to the soul are called types of bondage (Prakruti bandh). 

140.         How many subdivisions of types of bondage are there? 

             There are 8 types: 

1.      Knowledge obscuring karma (Gnanavarniya karma)

2.      Perception obscuring karma (Darshanavarniya karma)

3.      Feeling producing karma (Vedniya karma)

4.      Deluding karma (Mohaniya karma)

5.      Life span determining karma (Ayu karma)

6.      Body determining karma (Nam karma)

7.      Status determining karma (Gotra karma)

8.      Obstructing karma (Antaray karma) 

141.         What is knowledge obscuring karma (Gnanavarniya karma)? 

The soul has knowledge (Gnan) as an important attribute.  This attribute, just as any other attribute of a substance, will have modes/changes occuring continuosly.  The karma, which become an instrumental cause in destroying these modes, is called knowledge obscuring karma. 

142.         How many subtypes of knowledge obscuring karma are there? 

There are five types, as follow:

1.      Empirical or cognitive knowledge obscuring karma (Mati gnanavarniya karma)

2.      Scripture or articulate knowledge obscuring karma (Shrut gnanavarniya karma)

3.      Clairvoyance knowledge obscuring karma (Avadhi gnanavarniya karma)

4.      Telepathy knowledge obscuring karma (Manahparyah gnanavarniya karma)

5.      Omniscience knowledge obscuring karma (Keval gnanavarniya karma)

 

143.         What is the definition of perception obscuring karma (Darshanavarniya karma)? 

The karma, which become an instrumental cause for the destruction of the soul’s perception attribute’s mode, is called perception-obscuring karma.

 

144.         How many subtypes of perception obscuring karma are there? 

There are nine types.

·         Four are related to the perception

·         Five are related to sleep. 

1.      Perception related:

·         Vision perception obscuring karma (Chakshu darshanavarniya karma)

·         Non-vision perception obscuring karma (Achakshu darshanavarniya karma)

·         Clairvoyance perception obscuring karma (Avadhi darshanavarniya karma)

·         Omniscience perception obscuring karma (Keval darshanavarniya karma) 

2.      Sleep related:

·         Light sleep producing karma (Nindra)

·         Deep sleep producing karma (Nindra nindra)

·         Sound sleep producing karma (Prachala)

·         Exceeding intense sleep producing karma (Prachala prachala)

·         Somnambulistic sleep producing karma (Styangrudhdhi nindra)

 

145.         What is the definition of feeling karma (Vedniya karma)? 

The karma which become an instrumental cause in the interruption of soul’s uninterrupted happiness (Avyabadh sukh) attribute’s modes is called feeling karma.  As a result of this, the soul remains agitated (Akulta). 

 

146.         How many different types of feeling karma are there? 

There are two types.

1.      Pleasure producing karma (Sata vedniya karma)

2.      Pain producing karma (Asata vedniya karma) 

 

147.         What is the definition of deluding karma (Mohaniya karma) 

The karma which become the instrumental cause in destroying the soul’s right belief and right conduct attributes’ modes is called deluding karma.

 

148.         How many types of deluding karma are there? 

There are two types:

1.      Right belief deluding karma (Darshan mohaniya karma)

2.      Right conduct deluding karma (Charitra mohaniya karma)

 

149.          What is the definition of right belief deluding karma (Darshan mohaniya karma)? 

The karma, which becomes an instrumental cause in destroying the soul’s right belief attribute’s modes, is called right belief deluding karma.

 

150.         How many different types of right belief deluding karma are there? 

There are three types as follow:

1.      Wrong belief deluding karma (Mithyatva mohaniya karma)

2.      Right/wrong belief deluding karma (Mishra monaniya karma)

3.      Clouded right belief deluding karma (Samyaktva mohaniya karma) 

151.         What is called wrong belief deluding karma? 

This is a type of deluding karma.  When the fruition of these karma occur, then the soul has faith in non-reality (Atatva shradhdhan).

 

152.         What is called right/wrong belief deluding karma? 

This is also a type of deluding karma.  When the fruition of these karma occurs, then the soul has mixed modifications (Parinama), which cannot be called either right faith or wrong faith. 

153.         What is called ‘clouded right faith’ deluding karma? 

This is a type of deluding karma.  Here, when these karma give fruition, then the mode of the right belief quality is not destroyed. Instead, it is associated with certain foulness, like unsteadiness of ideas (Chal), impurities of the ideas (Mal) and lack of firmness of ideas (Agadh).  Omniscient Jina knows the nature of such minute state of foulness, as described here.  All three of the above foulnesses can be explained as follow:  Remember that the soul has conventional (Vyavhar) ascertainment (Pratiti) of the true omniscient.   

·         Unsteadiness of ideas (Chal) – there is unsteadiness within the thought process that this Omniscient is ”mine” and that Omniscient belongs to “others”. 

·         Impurities of ideas – rise of doubt, etc. (Mal), are called impurities of ideas.

·         Lack of firmness (Agadh) – When this Lord Shantinath bestows peace, etc., this feeling is called lack of firmness.

The above-mentioned examples are given conventionally (Vyavahar), but there is no set rule.   Only Omniscient Lord knows these kinds of foulnesses. One should realize that some sort of foulness is found in the belief of reality (Tatvarth).

 

154.         What is known as “right conduct” deluding karma (Charitra mohniya karma)?  

The karma, which destroy the right conduct attribute’s mode, are called right conduct deluding karma.

 

155.         How many different types of right conduct deluding karma are there? 

There are two types:  

1.      Passions karma (kashay)

2.      Quasi-passions karma (nokashay)

 

156.         How many different types of passions karma are there? 

There are four types each with four sub types:

 

·         Passions karma for infinite bondage of the soul (Anantanubandhi kashay karma), whicht has four subtypes:

-Anger (Krodh), ego (Man), deceit (Maya), and greed (Lobh). 

·         Passion karma for the partial vows prevention of the soul (Apratyakhyanavaran kashay karma), which has four subtypes:

-Anger, ego, deceit and greed.

·         Passion karma for the complete vows prevention of the soul (Pratyakhyanavaran kashaya), which has four subtypes:

-Anger, ego, deceit and greed.

·         Passion karma for the perfect conduct prevention of the soul (Sanjavalan kashaya), which has four subtypes:

-Anger, ego, deceit and greed.

 

157.         How many subtypes of quasi-passions karma are there? 

There are nine subtypes:

1.      Laughter (Hashya)

2.      Indulgence (Rati)

3.      Dissatisfaction (Arati)

4.      Sorrow (Shok)

5.      Fear (Bhay)

6.      Disgust (Jugupsa)

7.      Male disposition (Purush ved)

8.      Female disposition (Stri ved)

9.      Hermaphroditic disposition (Napunshak ved)

 

158.         Define passions karma for infinite bondage of the soul (Anantanubandhi kashaya karma).  

The passion karma that destroy the soul’s ‘self-absorption conduct’ (Swarupacharan charitra) is called the passions karma for infinite bondage of the soul.

 

159.         What is the definition of partial vows preventing passions karma (Apratyakhyanavarniya kashay)? 

The passion karma that destroy the soul’s ‘the partial pure conduct with self-restraint’ (Desh charitra), is called the partial vow preventing passions karma.

 

160.         What is the definition of complete vow preventing passions karma (Pratyakhyanavarniya kashay)? 

The passion karma that destroys the soul’s ‘the complete pure conduct with self restraint’ (Sakal charitra) is called the complete vow preventing passions karma.

 

161.         What is the definition of the perfect conduct preventing passions karma (Sanjvalan kashaya) and quassi passions karma? 

The passion karma and quassi passions karma that destroy the soul’s ‘passionless perfect conduct’ (Yathakhyat charitra) are called the perfect conduct preventing passions and quassi passions karma.

 

162.         What is the life span determining karma (Ayu karma)? 

The karma that destroy the accommodative attributes of the soul (Avagahan guna) are called the life span determining karma.  Here the soul gets locked into subhuman (Tiryanch), infernal (Narki), human (Manushya), or celestial (Dev) bodies

 

163.        How many different types of life span determining karma are there?

There are four types:

1.      Subhuman

2.      Infernal

3.      Human

4.      Celestial

 

164.         What is the definition of body determining karma (Nam karma)? 

The karma which destroy the subtleness attributes (Sukshmatva guna) of the soul is called the body determining karma.  Here the soul gets involed in different forms, like realms of existence (Gati), body etc.

 

165.         How many different types of body determining karma are there? 

There are 93 subtypes:

1.      Four realms of existence (Gati)

a.      Infernal (Narki)

b.      Subhuman (Tiryanch)

c.      Human (Manushya)

d.      Celestial (Dev)

2.      Five genus of being (Jati)

a.      One-sensed (Ekendriya)

b.      Two-sensed (Dvi indriya)

c.      Three-sensed (Tri indriya)

d.      Four-sensed (Chaurendiya)

e.      Five-sensed (Panchendriya)

3.      Five bodies (Sharir)

a.      Physical bodies (Audarik sharir)

b.      Fluid bodies (Vaikriya sharir)

c.      Assimilative bodies (Aharak sharir)

d.      Fiery bodies (Tejash sharir)

e.      Karmic bodies (Karmic sharir)

4.      Five bondages (Bandhan)

a.      Physical body bondage (Audarik sharir bandhan)

b.      Fluid body bondage (Vaikriya sharir bandhan)

c.      Assimilative body bondage (Aharak sharir bandhan)

d.      Fiery body bondage (Tejash sharir bandhan)

e.      Karmic body bondage (Karmic sharir bandhan)

5.      Five integrations of body (Sanghat)

a.      Integrations of the physical body (Audarik sharir sanghat)

b.      Integrations of the fluid bodies (Vaikriya sharir sanghat)

c.       Integrations of the assimilative body (Aharak sharir sanghat)

d.      Integrations of the fiery body (Tejesh sharar sanghat)

e.      Integrations of the karmic body (Karmic sharir sanghat)

6.      Six figures of bodies (Sansthan)

a.      Perfect symmetry of the total body (Samchaturashra sansthan)

b.      Symmetrical upper and asymmetrical lower body (Nyagrodh parimandal sansthan)

c.      Symmetrical lower and asymmetrical upper body (Svati sansthan)

d.      Hunchback (Kubjaka sansthan)

e.      Dwarf (Vaman sansthan)

f.        Deformed (Hundak sansthan)

7.      Three limbs and their related parts (Angopang)

a.      Physical body limbs and their related parts (Audarik sharir angopang)

b.      Fluid body limbs and their related parts (Vaikriya sharir angopang)

c.      Assimilative body limbs and their related parts (Aharak sharir angopang) 

8.      Six types of formations e.g. bone, muscle, etc. (Sanhanana)

a.      Adamantine nerves, joints and bones formations (Vraja rushabha naracha sanhanana)

b.      Adamantine joints and bones formations (Vraja naracha sanhanana)

c.      Unbreakable joints and bones formations (Naracha sanhanana)

d.      Semi-unbreakable joints and bones formations (Ardha narach sanhanana)

e.      Riveted bones formations (Kilika sanhanana)

f.         Loosely jointed bones formations (Asamprapta strupatica sanhanana)

9.      Five colors (Varna)

a.      Black (Krishna)

b.      Blue (Nila)

c.      Red (Rakta)

d.      Yellow (Pitta)

e.      White (Shukla)

10.  Two smells (Gandh)

a.      Sweet smelling fragrance (Sugandh)

b.      Foul smell (Durgandh)

11.  Five tastes (Ras)

a.      Pungent (Tikta)

b.      Bitter (Katuka)

c.      Salty/astringent (Kashaya)

d.      Acid (Amla)

e.      Sweet (Madhura)

12.  Eight touches (Sparsha)

a.      Hard (Kathora)

b.      Soft (Komala)

c.      Heavy (Guru)

d.      Light (Laghu)

e.      Cold (Shita)

f.        Hot (Ushna)

g.      Smooth (snigdha)

h.      Rough (Ruksha) 

13.  Four migratory forms (Anupurvi)

a.      Infernal migratory form (Narak anupurvi)

b.      Subhuman migratory form (Tiryanch anupurvi)

c.      Human migratory form (Manushya anupurvi)

d.      Celestial migratory form (Deva anupurvi)

14.   Balace body weight - not too heavy, not too light body (Agurulaghu)

15.   Destructive (Upaghat)

16.   Bellicosity (Paraghat)

17.   Respiration (Uchchhavasa)

18.  Hot light (Atap)

19.  Cold light (Udyot)

20.  Two movements (Vihayogati)

a.      Graceful (Shubha)

b.      Awkward (Ashubha)

21.  Mobile (Trasha)

22.  Gross body (Badar)

23.  Capable of developing the body fully (Paryapta)

24.  Individual body (Pratyek sharir)

25.  Steady (Sthir)

26.  Beautiful body (Shubh sharir)

27.  Amiable personality (Subhaga)

28.  Sweet voice (Sushvar)

29.  Impressive (Adeya)

30.  Fame (Yashkirti)

31.  Formation (Nirman)

32.  Tirthankar

33.  Immobile (Sthavar)

34.  Fine body (Sukshma)

35.  Not capable of developing a full body (Aparyapta)

36.  Common body (Sadharan sharir)

37.  Unsteady (Asthir)

38.  Unpleasant body (Ashubh sharir)

39.  Displeasing personality (Durbhag)

40.  Harsh voice (Dushwar)

41.  Non-impressive (Anadeya)

42.  Notoriety (Ayash karti) 

           Additions of all of the above including their sub types totals 93.

 

166.         What are the karma related to realms of existence (Gati karma)?   

The karma, which give the soul the shape of an infernal being, subhuman being, human being, or celestial being, are called realms of existence karma.   

167.         What is called genus of being (Jati)?  

The soul’s understandig of the similar attributes of other substances within the group is called genus of being. 

 

168.         Define the karma for genus of being (Jati karma).   

The fruition of genus of being karma is the reason that the soul becomes the one sensed, two sensed, three sensed, four sensed, or five-sensed living beings.

 

169.         What is the meaning of body karma (sharir nam karma)?  

The soul’s body karma are inherent in acquiring physical, fluid, etc, bodies.  The fruition of body karma is the basis for this event. 

 

170.         (a).  What is the meaning of formation karma (Nirman nam karma)?  

When the soul acquires body, then the limbs and their related parts are acquired at the proper place in the body.  This is occurring due to the fruition of formation karma. 

(b).  What is called limbs and their related parts body karma (Angopanga nam karma)? 

The limbs and their related parts of physical, fluid, and assimilated body are obtained as a result of fruition of these karma. The head, back, heart, limbs, abdomen, and knees are called limbs, and forehead, nose, and lips are called their related parts.   

171.         What is the definition of bondage body karma (Bandhan nam karma)?  

The fruition of these karma is the basis for the atoms of physical, etc, bodies to form a relationship with each other. 

 

172.         What is the integration of the body karma (Sanghat nam karma)?  

The fruition of these karma is fundamental for physical etc bodies to enable the atoms within them to fuse with each other properly.

 

173.         What is the figure of body karma (Sansthan nam karma)? 

The fruition of these karma give the shape to the body.

 

174.         What is the ‘perfect symmetry all over’ figure of body karma (Samchaturastra sansthan karma)?  

Fruition of these karma is the cause for body shape to be perfect at the top, middle, and bottom parts.

 

175.         What is called ‘symmetrical upper and asymmetrical lower’ figure of body karma (Nyagrodh parimandal sansthan karma)? 

Nyagrodh means fig tree, and parimandal means circumference.  The fruition of these karma is the cause for the body to be like a fig tree.  The body is short and asymmetrical below the navel, and large and symmetrical above it.

 

176.         What is the definition of ‘asymmetrical upper and symmetrical lower’figure of body karma (Svati sansthan karma)?   

Fruition of these karma gives the body as tapering, like a snake hole or an inverted funnel, broad and symmetrical in the lower, but short and asymmetrical in the upper extremities.

 

177.         What is called ‘hunchback’ figure of body karma (Kubjak sansthan karma)?  

The fruition of these karmas give rise to a hump on the back of the body.

 

178.         What is called ‘dwarf’ figure of body karma (Vaman sansthan karma)?  

The fruition of these karma results in one having a dwarf body. 

179.         What is called the deform body karma (Hundak sansthan karma)?   

The fruition of these karma gives no proper shape to any one or more limbs and their related parts.

 

180.         What is known as karma related to bones and joints, etc (Sanhanan nam karma)?  

Fruition of these karma is necessary for the different types of bondage including bones and joints.

 

181.         What is called the adamantine bones, joints, and nerves karma (Vraj rushabh narach sanhanan karma)? 

The fruition of these karma give the body the adamantine bones, joints, and nerves. For example, the omniscient lord, when takes the last birth, as human being, he has this kind of body. It is a very strong body.

 

182.         What is called the adamantine bones and joints formation karma (Vraj narach sanhanan karma)? 

The fruition of these karma give the body adamantine bones and joints but exclude the nerves, which are not adamantine.

 

183.         What is called the unbreakable bones and joints formation karma (Narach sanhanan karma)?  

With the fruition of these karma the bones and joints of the body are unbreakable.

 

184.         What is called the semi-unbreakable bones and joints formation karma (Ardha narach sanhanan karma)?  

The fruition of these karma give body semi-unbreakable bones and joints.

 

185.         What is called riveted bones formation karma (Kilika sanhanan karma)? 

The fruition of these karma give body riveted bone structures. 

186.         What is called loosely jointed bones formation karma (Asamprata srupatika sanhanan body karma)?  

The fruition of these karma give body the bones, which are loosely bonded.  There is no riveted strengthening. This is a very weak body. At present us, the mundane souls, have this kind of weak body.

 

187.         What is called color body karma (Varna nam karma)?  

The fruition of these karma give color to the body.

 

188.         What is known as smell body karma (Gandha nam karma)?  

The fruition of these karma give the sense of smell to the body.

 

189.         What are taste body karma (Ras nam karma)?  

The fruition of these karma give the sense of taste to the body.

 

190.         What are touch body karma (Sparsh nam karma)?  

The fruition of these karma give the sense of  touch  to the body.

 

191.         What is called the migratory form of body karma (Anupurvi nam karma)?  

When the mundane soul leaves the present body and then travels to the destination of another realm of existence (gati); then during the travel, the soul maintains the shape of its present body.  This happens due to the fruition of the migratory form of body karma.

 

192.         What is the balanced body weight; i.e. neither too heavy nor too light body karma  (Agurulaghu nam karma)? 

The fruition of these karma give the body its balance weight.  As a result, the body is neither too heavy, like an iron ball, to move, nor too light like a cotton ball to wander away.

 

193.         What is called the self-destructive body karma (Upaghat nam karma)? 

The fruition of these karma give the body such an organ that it can destroy the self.  For example, a stag’s horn.

 

194.         What is called the bellicosity body karma  (Paraghat nam karma)? 

The fruition of these karma is the reason that the body has an organ, which can be responsible for destroying someone else.  For example, the paws of the lion.

 

195.         What is called the hot light body karma (Atap nam karma)?  

The fruition of these karma give hot light to the body, this appears hot to others, but not to the self.  For example, earth bodied living beings in the radiant sun would absorb the hot light.

 

196.         What is called the cold light body karma (Udyot nam karma)? 

The fruition of these karma give body cold light, like shining moon.

 

197.         What are ‘the movement in the space body’ karma (Vihayogati nam karma)?   

The fruition of these karma give the body the capacity to move in the cosmic space.  They are of two types:  graceful movements, and awkward movements.

 

198.         What are the respiratory body karma (Uchchhavas nam karma)?   

The fruition of these karma is the reason the body can take respiration.

 

199.         What are the mobile body karma (Tras nam karma)?   

Fruition of these karma is the reason that the body has two or more senses. These living beings can move themselves through their own volition.

 

200.         What are the stationary body karma (Sthavar nam karma)?   

The fruition of these karma is the reason that the soul is born in a one sensed life, like the earth bodies, water bodies, air bodies, fire bodies, or plant bodies.  Here, these living beings cannot move independently through their own volition.

 

201.         What are ‘the power to develop body’ karma (Paryapti nam karma)?  

The fruition of these karma give the soul the capacity to fully develop the body.  

 

202.         What is called the power to develop (Paryapti)? 

Here the food particles (ahar vargana), speech particles (bhasha vargana), mind particles (mano vargana), senses particles (indriya vargana), body particles (sharir vargana), and respiratory particles (swashochchhwas vargana) are able to give the soul the power to make a proper body and senses in their fullest form of development.

 

203.         How many different types of powers are there (Paryapti)? 

There are six types: 

1.      Food power (Ahar paryapti) - the soul has the capacity to act as an instrumental cause in collecting food particles in the form of large quantities around the soul and also to liquefy them.

2.      Body power (Sharir paryapti) - The food particles, which were collected in quantities, are now transformed into bones, etc, body parts.  The liquefied portion is converted as blood and fluid parts of the body. 

3.      Senses power (Indrya paryapti) - the food particles collected are now transformed into specific senses.

4.      Respiratory power (Swashochchhwas paryapti) - The soul becomes an instrumental cause in converting food particles into the respiratory organs and functions. 

5.      Speech power (Bhasha paryapti) - The soul becomes an instrumental cause in the food particles becoming converted to speech particles. 

6.      Mind power (Manah paryapti) - the soul becomes an instrumental cause in the transformation of material particles into specific mind particles.  These particles sit as eight petals at the heart.  One now has a mind as well as the capacity to think.   

As mentioned above, in all these powers the soul acts as an instrumental cause only.  The material particles themselves are converted into food, body, sense, speech, respiratory, and mind particles. 

One sensed livings have four powers: 

1.      Food

2.      Body

3.      Senses

4.      Respiratory 

Two sensed, three sensed, four sensed, and non-sentient five sensed living beings have all the powers except for the mind. 

Five sensed sentient living beings have all six powers.

All these powers last for intra-indian hour (Antar muhurt) and each power also lasts an intra-indian hour.  First to second to third, etc, powers last for an increasing time of an intra-indian hour.  For example, the first has a smaller time than the second, etc. 

All the powers start exactly at the same time; however, the completion of each occurs consecutively.  

The soul, who initiated the powers to develop, but has not yet completed the development is called the possessor of the power to accomplish complete development (Nirvutya paryaptak).  

One who has been completed through all the resultant powers is called fully developed (Paryaptak).   

One who has not completed even one power and who will be dead in 1/18 part of the respiration is determined incapable of development (Labdhya paryaptak) 

 

204.         What is called the undeveloped power (Aparyapti)? 

One who cannot accomplish any of the powers and who dies before any development is called undeveloped power.

 

205.         What are individual body karma (Pratyek nam karma)? 

The fruition of these karma give an individual body to the soul.

 

206.         What are common body karma (Sadharan nam karma)? 

The fruition of these karma give one body for too many souls to live together.  They are born together, and die together, for example, potato and other root vegetables.

 

207.         What is called the steady body karma (Sthir nam karma)?  What is called the unsteady body karma (Asthir nam karma)? 

The fruition of the steady body karma give the organs in the body, the steadiness. 

The fruition of the unsteady nam karma makes the organs in the body unsteady. 

 

208.         What are the beautiful body karma (Shubha nam karma)? 

The fruition of these karma give the charming body which draws the attention of other people.

 

209.         What are the ugly body karma (Ashubh nam karma)? 

The fruition of these karma results in the upper part of the body being neither well built nor pleasing to others’ eyes.

 

210.         What are the amiable body karma (Subhag nam karma)?   

The fruition of these karma give one an amiable personality even though the body may not be beautiful.

 

211.         What are the unpleasant body karma (Durbhag nam karma)? 

The fruition of these karma give one a non-amiable personality, even though the body may be beautiful.

 

212.         What are the sweet voice body karma (Sushvar nam karma)? 

The fruition of these karma give one a sweet musical voice.

 

213.         What are the harsh voice body karma (Dushvar nam karma)?   

The fruition of these karma gives one a harsh voice

214.         What are the impressive body karma (Adey nam karma)? 

The fruition of these karma adds importance, wisdom, and weight to the words spoken by a person.

 

215.         What are the non-impressive body karma (Anadey nam karma)? 

The fruition of these karma is the reason that a person may speak truth or words of wisdom, but whose words carries no weight, nor convince, anyone of the truth he speaks.

 

216.         What are the fame body karma (Yash kirti nam karma)? 

The fruition of these karma bring the fame to the person even though he may not do good work.

 217.         What are the notoriety karma (Ayash kirti nam karma)? 

The fruition of these karma give the notoriety to the person i.e., bring a bad name to him even though he does good work.

 

218.         What are the tirthankar body karma (Tirthankar nam karma)? 

The fruition of these karma give the person the position of omniscient lord-arihanta. Tirthankar has destroyed the destructive karma of four types and now he has achieved omniscient knowledge and perception and passononless state and is known as arihant.

 

219.         What are the status determining karma (Gotra karma)? 

The fruition of these karma give one the high status or low status in society.

 

220.         How many types of status determining karma are there? 

There are 2 types:

·         High status determining karma (Uchcha gotra karma)

·         Low status determining karma (Nicha gotra karma)

 

221.         What are the high status determining karma? 

The fruition of these karma is the reason that one is born in to a high status family.

 

222.         What are the low status determining karma? 

The fruition of these karma is the reason that one is born in to a low status family.

 

223.         What is called the obstructive karma (Antaraya karma)? 

The fruition of these karma creates the obstruction to give donations, to obtain gains, to enjoy, and to reenjoy.

 

224.         How many subtypes of obstructive karma are there? 

There are 5 types:

1.      Donation obstructive karma (Dan antarya)

2.      Gain obstructive karma (Labh antaraya)

3.      Enjoyment obstructive karma (Bhog antaraya)

4.      Re-enjoyment obstructive karma (Upbhog antaraya)

5.      Power obstructive karma (Virya antaraya)

 

225.         What are the good deed karma (Punya karma)? 

The fruition of these karma is the reason for the living beings obtaining the things they desire.

 

226.         What are the bad deed karma (Pap karma)? 

The fruition of these karma is the reason for the living beings obtaining the undesired things.

 

227.         What are the destructive karma (Ghatiya karma)? 

The fruition of these karma results in the living being’s knowledge, perception, and passion types of affirmative attributes (anujiva guna) to be destroyed.

 

228.         What are the non-destructive karma (Aghatiya karma)? 

The fruition of these karma do not destroy either the living being’s knowledge or his other affirmative attributes.

 

229.         What are the complete destructive karma (Sarva ghati karma)? 

The fruition of these complete destructive karma are the cause of the living being’s affirmative attributes being completely destroyed.

 

230.         What are the partial destructive karma (Desh ghati karma)? 

The fruition of these karma are the basis to the living being’s partial destruction of the affirmative attributes. 

 

231.         What is meant by fruition of karma in the soul (Jiva vipaki karma)? 

Here the karmas’ fruition occurs in the soul.

 

232.         What describes the fruition of karma in material substance (Pudgal vipaki karma)? 

Here the fruition of karma occurs in matter, i.e. the body.

 

233.         What describes the fruition of karma in the worldly existence (Bhav vipaki karma)? 

Here fruition of the karma keeps the living being in the transmigratory cycle.

 

234.         What is meant by the fruition of karma for area/region (Kshetra vipaki karma)? 

The fruition of these karma is the reason why the soul retains the shape of the previous body while traveling to another body.

 

235.         What describes the transit of the soul in the cosmic space from one body to another body (Vigrah gati)? 

Upon the death, the soul leaves one body, and travels to the origin of another body to take new birth.  This is the transit time of the soul in the cosmic space.

 

236.         How many different types of destructive karma are there? 

There are forty seven types and subtypes:

1.      Knowledge obscuring karma (5)

2.      Perception obscuring karma (9)

3.      Deluding karma (28)

4.      Obstructive karma (5)

 

237.         How many different types of non-destructive karma are there? 

There are 101 types and subtypes:

1.      Feeling karma (2)

2.      Life-span determining karma (4)

3.      Body karma (93)

4.      Status determining karma (2)

 

238.         How many different types of complete destructive karma are there (Sarva ghati karma)? 

     There are twenty one types and subtypes:

1.      Omniscience knowledge obstructive karma (1)

2.      Perception obscuring karma (6)

a.      Omniscience perception obscuring karma

b.       Five kinds of sleeps producing karma:

                                                                                                   i.            Light sleep

                                                                                                 ii.            Deep sleep

                                                                                                iii.            Sound sleep

                                                                                               iv.            Exceedingly intense sleep

                                                                                                 v.            Somnambulistic sleep

3.      Forteen types of deluding karma

a.      Passions causing infinite bondage (4)

                                                                                                   i.            Anger

                                                                                                 ii.            Ego

                                                                                                iii.            Deceit

                                                                                               iv.            Greed

b.      Partial vow preventing passions (4)

                                                                                                 v.            Anger

                                                                                               vi.            Ego

                                                                                              vii.            Deceit

                                                                                            viii.            Greed

c.      Complete vow preventing passions (4)

                                                                                               ix.            Anger

                                                                                                 x.            Ego

                                                                                               xi.            Deceit

                                                                                              xii.            Greed

d.      Wrong belief (1)

e.      Right/wrong belief (1)

 

239.         How many different types of partial destructive karma are there? 

         There are Twenty six:

1.      Knowledge obscuring karma (4)

a.      Empirical knowledge obscuring karma

b.      Scripture knowledge obscuring karma

c.      Clairvoyance knowledge obscuring karma

d.      Telepathy knowledge obscuring karma

2.      Perception obscuring karma (3)

a.      Vision perception obscuring karma

b.      Non-vision perception obscuring karma

c.      Clairvoyance perception obscuring karma

3.      Deluding karma (14)

a.      Perfect conduct preventing passions (4)

                                                                                                   i.            Anger

                                                                                                 ii.            Ego

                                                                                                iii.            Deceit

                                                                                               iv.            Greed

b.      Quasi passions (9)

c.      Clouded right belief (1)

4.      Obstructive karma (5) 

 

240.         How many subtypes of fruition of karma for area/region are identidied (Kshetra vipaki karma)? 

             There are four types: 

1.      Infernal migratory form

2.      Subhuman migratory form

3.      Human migratory form

4.      Celestial migratory form 

 

241.          How many subtypes of fruition of karma in the worldly existence can be determined (Bhav vipaki karma)? 

              There are four types: 

1.      Worldly existence of infernal beings

2.      Worldly existence of subhuman beings

3.      Worldly existence of human beings

4.      Worldly existence of celestial beings 

242.         How many types of fruition of karma within the soul exist (Jiva vipaki karma)? 

             There are seventy eight types: 

1.      Destructive karma (47)

2.      Status determining karma (2)

3.      Feeling karma (2)

4.      Body determining karma (27)

a.      Tirthankar

b.      Respiratory

c.      Gross body

d.      Fine body

e.      Developable power

f.        Non-developable power

g.      Sweet voice

h.      Harsh voice

i.         Impressive

j.         Non-impressive

k.       Fame

l.         Notoriety

m.    Mobile

n.      Immobile

o.      Graceful movement

p.      Awkward movements

q.      Beautiful body

r.        Unpleasant body

s.      Realms of existence (4)

t.        Genus of being (5) 

243.         How many types of fruition of karma in material substance are there (Pudgal vipaki)? 

             There are sixty two types: 

1.      Out of the total of 148 sub-types of karma, exclude the :

a.      Four of fruition of karma in the area/region

b.      Four of fruition of karma in the worldly existence

c.      Seventy-eight of fruition of karma in the soul 

2.      The remaining sixty-two constitute the fruition of karma in the material substance.

 

244.         How many subtypes of bad deed karmas are there (Pap prakruti)? 

             There are one hundred: 

1.      Destructive karma (47)

2.      Pain producing feeling karma (1)

3.      Lower status determining karma (1)

4.      Life as infernal being (1)

5.      Body determining karma (50)

a.      Realm of existence in infernal life

b.      Migratory form towards infernal life

c.      Realm of existence in the subhuman life

d.      Migratory for towards subhuman life

e.      Genus of being (4)

·         One-sensed

·         Two-sensed

·         Three-sensed

·         Four-sensed

f.        Figure of body (5)

·         Symmetrical upper and asymmetrical lower body

·         Symmetrical lower and asymmetrical upper body

·         Hunchback

·         Dwarf

·         Deformed

g.      Bones, muscles, etc, formation (5)

·         Adamantine joints and bones

·         Unbreakable joints and bones

·         Semi-unbreakable joints and bones

·         Riveted bones

·         Loosely jointed bones

h.      Color (5)

i.         Smell (2)

j.         Taste (5)

k.       Touch (8)

l.         Self-destructive

m.    Awkward movement

n.      Immobile

o.      Fine-body

p.      Non-developable power

q.      Non-impressive

r.        Notoriety

s.      Unpleasant body

t.        Displeasing personality

u.      Harsh voice

v.       Unsteady body

w.     Common body 

 

245.         How many good deed karma are there? 

             There are sixty eight: 

From previous 148 total subtypes of karma cited, 100 bad deed karma are excluded, leaving 48 good deed karma to which are added 20 more types and subtypes of touch, taste, color and smell. 

These 20 types are common within both bad deeds and good deed karma.

 

Duration of karma bondage 

 

246.         What is called the duration of karma bondage (Sthiti bandh)? 

The time that karma remain bonded to the soul is called duration of karma bondage. 

247.         What is the longest duration of time that all eight karma remain in the soul (Utkrust sthiti)? 

1.      30 x 1014 sagar years – knowledge obscuring, perception obscuring, feeling and obstructive karma (30 Krodakrodi sagaropam)

2.      70 x 10 14 sagar years - deluding karma (70 Krodakrodi sagaropam)

3.      20 x 1014 sagar years - body and status determining karma (20 Krodakrodi sagaropam)

4.      33 sagar years (Life span determining karma)

For definition of sagar see questions 250, 251, which follow.

 

248.         What is the shortest duration of time that the karma can remain in the soul (Jaghanya sthiti)? 

1.      Twelve muhurt – for feeling karma

2.      Eight muhurt – for body and status determining karma

3.      An intra-indian hour – for knowledge obscuring, perception obscuring, deluding, obstructive, and life span determining karma. 

            Muhurt = 48 minutes

Samay is a single unit of time in Jain philosophy.  In a blink of an eye, there are countless samays. 

 

249.         What is krodakrodi? 

10 million times 10 million = one krodakrodi = 1014

 

250.         What is a sagar? 

1014 addhyapalya = one sagar.

 

251.         What is addhya palya? 

Take 2000 kosh (kosh is the measure of unit approximately one mile) deep and 2000 kosh diameter ditch, and put the finest and smallest pieces of sheep hairs into the ditch.  Once the ditch is filled, every one hundred years, take one hair out.  The amount of time it takes to take out all the hairs is called a conventional palya (vyavahar palya).  Innumerable conventionable palya is called uddhar palya.  Innumerable of this uddhar palya is called addhya palya.

 

252.         What is an Indian hour (Muhurt)? 

48 minutes of time is called an Indian hour or one muhurt.

 

253.         What is an intra-indian hour (Antar muhurt)? 

The time period from one avli to less than 48 minutes is called an intra-indian hour.

 

254.         What is an Avli?  

In one breath, there are numerous avli.

 

255.         What is the time for one respiration (Swashoswas kal)? 

The time it takes for a healthy person to complete his blood circulation once in the body is called one respiration time.

 

256.         How many respiration times are there in one Indian hour? 

There are 3773 respiration times in one Indian hour. 

Intensity of karma bondage. 

257.         What is an intensity of bondage (Anubhag bandh)? 

The karma when bonded with the soul has the capacity of giving fruits.  The potential intensity of the fruition is called the intensity of bondage. 

Quantity of the particles of the bondage. 

258.         What is the quantity of karma bondage (Pradesh bandh)? 

The amount of karma particles bonding with the soul determines the quantity of karma bondage.