Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Jain Rhymes and Songs in English
The substance, the modes and the attributes - substance
The substance, the modes and the attributes - Modes 
The substance, the modes and the attributes - attributes
  Concept of Karma - Types of karma bondage
  Concept of Karma - Inflow of karma and its relationship with bondage
  Concept of Karma - Causes of inflow of karma
  Concept of karma - Process of relinquishment of karma
  concept of the karma - Various Definitions to the state of karmas 
  Soul’s condition due to the association with karma
  Spiritual development stages
  How to know a substance
  Preface 

Jain Siddhant Praveshika (Q and A)
Courtesy of Dr. Kirit Gosalia
Call or send him if you need further information
1-602-863-1073
digjain@aol.com
14853 N 12nd Street
Phoenix, AZ 85022

How to know a substance 

To identify a substance. 

 

558.     How many different ways can a substance be identified?  

            There are four different ways to identify a given substance:

1.      Through it’s Characteristics (Lakshan).

2.      Through its organ of knowledge (Praman).

3.      Through a Partial point of view (Naya) of the substance.

4.       and by an analysis of truth (Nikshepa).

 

Characteristic of a substance.

 

559.     What is meant by the characteristics (Lakshan)?  

The one specific thing, which will identify a given substance out of many substances, is called a characteristic of that substance. For example, the consciousness is the characteristic of the living being.

 

560.     How many types of characteristics are there?  

            There are two types, as follow:

1.      Those related to the substance (Atmabhut)

2.      Those nonrelated to the substance (Anatmabhut).

 

561.                What is called the characteristic related to the substance (Atmabhut lakshan)? 

The characteristics, which are the integral part of the substance, are called the related   characteristics of the substance, i.e. fire’s characteristic is heat.

 

562.      What is a nonrelated characteristic of a substance (Anatmabhut lakshan)?  

A characteristic that is not an integral part of the substance is called a nonrelated characteristic of the substance. For example, a staff is a staff bearer’s characteristic but it is not an integral, related characteristic of the bearer per se.

 

 

563.    What is a perceived characteristic (Lakshanabhas)?  

A characteristic that has some fault with it, is called a perceived characteristic.

 

564.    How many faults can be associated with the characteristic?  

There can be three types:

1.      Noncomprehensive fault– Avyapti.

2.      The fault of including what is not intended to be included within a proposition – Ativyapti, and.

3.      An improbable fault– Ashambhav.

 

 

565.    How are the things to be characterized recognized (Lakshya)? 

They are recognized within a substance whose characteristics have been observed and are called lakshya.

 

566.    What is called a noncomprehensive fault? (Avyapti dosh)  

When a characteristic resides in only some area of a substance, it is called a noncomprehensive fault. For example while a horn is a characteristic of some animals, it is not a characteristic of all animals.

 

567.    What is called an ativyapti fault? 

The fact that a characteristic is found in a given substance, and can also be found in other substances is called an ativyapti fault. For example a characteristic of the cow is its horns. In this example, besides the cow, the horn is a characteristic in other animals too.

 

568.    What is called alakshaya?  

A substance with a specific characteristic is called lakshya. The other substances without that specific characteristic are called alakshya.

 

569.    What is called improbable (Ashambhav) fault?  

The absence of certain characteristics within a given substance is called an improbable fault.  

 

Organ of knowledge.

 

570.    What is the organ of knowledge (Praman)?  

The true knowledge is called the organ of knowledge.

 

571.    How many types of praman are there?  

There are two types:

1.      Direct knowledge – Pratyaksha.

2.      Indirect knowledge – Paroksha.

 

 

572.    What is called the direct knowledge (Pratyaksha)?  

When one knows the substance clearly, is called pratyaksha.

 

573.    How many types of direct knowledge (Pratyaksha) are there?  

There are two types:

1.      Direct knowledge in the conventional sense – (Samvyavaharik pratyaksha).

2.      Transcendental knowledge – (Parmarthik pratyaksha).

 

574.    What constitutes direct knowledge in the conventional sense (Samvyavaharik pratyaksha)?

Partial proper knowledge of a given substance acquired with the help of senses and mind is called direct knowledge in the conventional sense (Samvyavaharik pratyaksha).

 

575.    What constitutes the transcendental knowledge (Parmarthik pratyaksha)?  

The complete proper knowledge obtained without any help of the senses or the mind constitutes transcendental knowledge (Parmarthik pratyaksha).

 

576.    How many types of transcendental knowledge are there?  

There are two types:

1.      Partial perception – Vikal parmarthik.

2.      Perfect perception – Sakal parmarthik.

 

 

577.    What is meant by partial perception knowledge (Vikal parmarthik)?  

The knowledge of the material substance which occurs without the help of the senses and mind is called partial perception knowledge (Vikal parnthik).

 

578.    How many types of partial perception are there?  

            There are two types:

1.      Clairvoyance knowledge (Avadhi gnan)

2.      Telepathy (Manah paryah gnan).

 

 

579.    What is meant by clairvoyance knowledge (Avadhi gnan)?  

The direct knowledge of the material thing with the limitations of the substance, area, time and state of being (Dravya, kshetra, kal, bhav) is called clairvoyance knowledge.

 

580.    What is telepathy knowledge (Manah paryah gnan)?  

The direct knowledge of the material thoughts of someone else with the limitation of substance, area, time and state of being, is called telepathy knowledge.

 

581.    What is called perfect perception knowledge (Sakal parmarthik)?  

The omniscient knowledge is called perfect perception knowledge.

 

582.    What is called omniscient knowledge (Keval gnan)?  

The knowledge that knows the past, present and future of all the universal substances at a given time is called omniscient knowledge (Keval gnan).

583.    What is called indirect knowledge (Paroksha Praman)?   

The partial knowledge obtained with someone else’s help is called the indirect knowledge (Paroksha praman)?

 

584.    How many types of indirect knowledge are there (Paroksha praman)?  

There are five types as follow:

1.      Memory (Smruti)

2.      Recognition (Pratyabhi gnan)

3.      Logic (Tark)

4.      Inference (Anuman)

5.      Scripture (Agam).

 

 

585.    What is memory (Smruti)?  

To recall substance experienced in the past is called memory (Smruti).

 

586.    What is recognition (Pratyabhi gnan)? 

The knowledge that links the memory to things in the present is called recognition (Pratyabhi gnan). For example, this is the same man that I saw yesterday.

 

587.    How many types of recognition are there?  

There are many kinds of recognition. Two are as follow:

1.      Recognition of a unique type – Ekatva pratyabhi gnan.

2.      Recognition of an equality type – Sadasya pratyabhi gnan. 

 

588.    What is the recognition of the unique type (Ekatva pratyabhi gnan)?  

The knowledge that shows oneness of the subject of the memory and of the recognition is called the recognition of the unique type. For example, this is the same man that I saw yesterday.

 

589.    What is the recognition of the equality type (Sadasya pratyabhi gnan)?  

Knowledge that distinguishes similarity of different subjects of the memory and the their recognition is called the recognition of the equality type (Sadsya Pratyabhi Gnan). For example, the cow is similar to a horse.

 

590.    What is logic (Tark)?  

The knowledge of universal concomitance (Vyapti) is called the logic.

 

591.    What is the universal concomitance (Vyapti)?  

The inherent relationship (Avinabhav sambandh) among subjects is called universal concomitance.

 

592.    What is the inherent relationship (Avinabhav sambandh)?

Wherever there is the presence of a thing that proves (Sadhan), then there is always the presence of things to be proven (Sadhya). Whenever there is an absence of things to be proven, then there is also an absence of things that prove. This is called the inherent relatonship (Avinabhav sambandh). For example, wherever there is smoke, there is a fire. Whenever fire is absent, then the smoke is also not present.

 

593.    What is the thing that proves (Sadhan)?  

One that is always accompanied by the things to be proven (Sadhya) is called the thing that proves (Sadhan). For example, for fire, the thing that proves (Sadhan) is the smoke.

 

594.    What is the thing to be proven (Sadhya)?  

The thing which is desirable (Ista), unobstructed (Abadhit), and not arrivable at by inference (Asidhdha) is called the thing to be proven (Sadhya).

 

595.    What is called “desirable” (Ista)?  

Desirable (Ista) is a thing that the plaintiff (Vadi) and the defendant (Prativadi) both try to obtain.

 

596.    What is unobstructed (Abadhit)?  

When a thing cannot be obstructed by any other standard, it is called unobstructed (Abadhit). For example, in the fire, coldness is absolutely obstructed. Thus, the fire cannot be the thing that proves (Sadhya) for cold.

 

597.    What is the meaning of “not arrivable at by inference” (Asidhdha)?  

The thing, which has not been proven by any other standard, is called “not arrivable at by inference” (Asidhdha)?

 

598.    What is called an inference (Anuman)?  

With the knowledge of the thing that proves (Sadhan) and when one then predicts the things to be proven (Sadhya), it is called inference (Anuman).

 

599.    What is meant by the “apparent thing that proves” fallacy (Sadhanabhas-hetvabhas)?            

When logical reasoning (Hetu) is associated with a fault to achieve a proof it is called “the apparent thing that proves” fallacy of logical reason (Sadhanabhas-hetvabhas).

 

600.    How many types of logical reasoning fallacies (Hetvabhas) are there?

There are four types:

1.      Not arrivable by inference (Asidhdha).

2.      Opposite (Virudhdha).

3.      Not to the point- uncertain (Anaikantik).

4.      Immaterial- powerless (Akinchitkar). 

601.    What is meant by “not arrivable by inference” logical reason fallacy (Asidhdha Hetvabhas)?  

When a factor is certainly absent in the logical reasoning, or its presence is doubtful, it is called “not arrivable at by any inference” logical reason fallacy (Asidhdha Hetvabhas). For example, spoken words are perceived as factual because they are the objects of the eyes. Actually, words are the object of the ears. They cannot be the objects of the eyes. Thus, such an  object of the eyes is called asidhdha hetvabhas.  

602.    What is “opposite” logical reason fallacy (Virudhdha Hetvabhas)?

A factor which supports the opposite intended of the things to be proven (Sadhya) is called an “opposite” logical reason fallacy (Virudhdha Hetvabhas). For example, words are permanent because they keep on modifying.

Here the modification is spread transiently and not through permanency. Thus the modification is an “opposite” logical reason fallacy of permanency.

 

603.    What is an “uncertain” logical reason fallacy (Anaikantik Hetvabhas)?

A logical reason (Hetu) which can support the side of anything (Paksha), and which can possibly be in either one side (Sapaksha) or on an opposite side (Vipaksha) is called an “uncertain” logical reason fallacy (Anaikantik Hetvabhas).

For example, in this room there is smoke because it contains fire.

Here the fire is the logical reason and it is paksha, sapaksha and vipaksha. That is why it is called an “uncertain” logical reason fallacy.

 

604.    What is meant by “to take sides of anything” (Paksha)?  

Wherever there is a possibility of sadhya, to remain in the same place, it is called paksha. For example, the room in question number 603, is the paksha.

 

605.    What is called “the possibility of one side” (Sapaksha)?  

Certainly when logical reasoning is present, it is called sapaksha.

For example, the smoke is possibly present in the room where there is a wet log  placed on the fire.

 

606.    What is called “the possibility of the opposite side” (Vipakasha)?

Where there is the absence of logical reasoning, then it is called vipakasha.

For example, the absence of smoke from a red-hot iron.

 

607.     What are “immaterial” logical reason fallacies (Akitchitkar Hetvabhas)?  

Logical reasoning through which it is impossible to attain any conclusion is called an “immaterial” logical reason fallacy (Akitchitkar Hetvabhas).

608.    How many types of “immaterial” logical reasoning fallacies (Akinchitkar Hetvabhas) are there? 

There are two types:

1.      Accomplishable logical reasoning (Sidhdha sadhan)

2.      Obstructing object (Badhit vishaya).  

 

609.    What is  “accomplishable logical reason” (Sidhdha Sadhan)?

The logical reason that can be accomplished is called sidhdha sadhan. For example, the fire is hot because the touch sense establishes it that way.

 

610.    What is an “obstructing object” logical reason of fallacy (Badhit Vishaya Hetvabhas)? 

It is the one that acts as a hindrance in the accomplishment of the logical reason.

 

611.    How many types of “obstructing object” logical reasons of fallacy are there? (Badhit Vishaya Hetvabhas) 

There are many types to include:

·         Direct obstruction (Pratyaksha badhit).

·         Inference obstruction (Anuman badhit).

·         Scripture obstruction (Agam badhit).

·         One’s own spoken word obstruction (Swavachan badhit).

 

 

612.    What is  “direct obstruction” (Pratyaksha badhit)?

“Direct obstruction” occurs when there is a direct obstruction in achieving the goal. For example, to reason that fire is cold because it is a substance, is a direct obstruction of fallacy since “cold” is not a factor in fire.

 

613.    What is an “inference obstruction” (Amuman Badhit)?

   

When there is an inferential obstruction in achieving the goal, then it is called inferential obstruction fallacy (anuman badhit hetvabhas). Someone claims to make grass, because it is an act. Here this inference is obstructive because someone cannot make grass. Therefore it is not due to someone’s act.

 

 

614.    What is  “scripture obstruction” (Agam Badhit)?

When there is scriptural obstruction in achieving the goal, then it is called scripture obstruction. For example, an inauspicious activity gives happiness, because whatever activities are there, can produce happiness. For example auspicious act also produced happiness.

Here the scripture obstruction exists because in the scripture it says that the inauspicious activities are what produces unhappiness.

 

615.    What is  “one’s own spoken words” obstruction (Swavachan Badhit)? 

When there is obstruction due to one’s own spoken words, then it is called one’s own spoken words obstruction. For example, my mother claims to be childless however she does enter a relationship with a man and becomes pregnant. However later fetus is aborted.

 

616.    How many types of inference are there (Anuman)?

There are five types:

1.      Proposition (Pratigna)

2.      Reason (Hetu)

3.      Example (Drastant)

4.      Application (Upnaya)

5.      Conclusion (Nigamana).

 

 

617.    What is meant by inference by proposition (Pratigna)?  

To structure a reference about a place for things to be proven (Sadhya) is called a proposition. For example, the fire is in this mountain.

 

618.    What is  reasoning (Hetu)?  

To make explainations about things that prove (Sadhya) is called reasoning. For example, because there is smoke there is fire.  

619.    What is called udaharan?

Udaharan means to talk about the example, which has invariable concomitance (Vyapti). For example, whenever there is smoke, there is fire. For example in a kitchen, whenever there is no fire, there is no visible smoke, no visible smoke is  also  true in an example of a pond.

 

620.    What is an example (Drastant)?  

The example is a statement in which there is the presence of things to be proven and things that prove (Sadhya and Sadan); or, the absence of both (i.e., kitchen and pond example in #619).

 

621.    How many types of examples (Drastant) are there?

Two types:

1.      Example of logical connection of cause and effect (Anvay drastant).

2.      Example of logical connection and disconnection (Vyatirek drastant).

 

622.     What is called the example of logical connection of cause and effect (Anvay drastant)?  

It is the one in which the presence of sadhya is shown with the presence of sadhan. For example, smoke is present and also fire is present in the kitchen.

 

623.    What is called the example of logical connection and disconnection (Vyatirek drastant)?  

It is the one in which there is an absence of sadhya, as well as an absence of sadhan. For example there is an absence of smoke because there is an absence of fire in the pond.

 

624.    What is “application” (Upnaya)?

Through application, there is a similarity present (Paksha) for the things that proves (Sadhan). For example, the mountain has the same kind of smoke as seen in the kitchen.

 

625.    What is called the conclusion (Nigamana)?

To state a proposition is proven after showing its end result is called the conclusion. For example, for these reasons that is why this mountain also contains the fire.

626.    How many types of logical reason (Hetu) are there?

There are three, as follows:

1.      Only the logical connection of cause and effect (Keval anvayi hetu).

2.      Only the logical connection and disconnection (Keval vyatirek).

3.      Logical connection of cause and effect and connection and disconnection (Anvayi vyatireki). 

 

627.    What is called the logical reason of cause and effect  (Keval anvayi hetu)?

Logical reasoning in which both the cause and effect are shown is called keval anvayi hetu.

The soul maintains his own existence because of his own self. That is why the soul has many foldednesses (Anekant). Therefore, any substance that maintains its existence by itself has such foldedness. Therefore matter has many foldednesses.  

628.    What is meant by the logical reason of connection and disconnection (Keval vyatirek)?

Here there exists an example of connection and disconnection. For example, the living body can breathe, because it has presence of the soul. Whenever there is no soul, no respiration can be seen. A table therefore cannot breathe.  

629.    What is logical reasoning with cause and effect, as well as connection and disconnection (Anvayi vyatireki hetu)? 

This can be explain through examples of both types: cause and effect (Anvayi) and connection and disconnection (Vyatireki). For example, there is fire because there is smoke in the mountain. Thus, wherever there is smoke, there is fire; e.g. as in the kitchen. Whenever there is no fire, there is no smoke, e.g. as in the pond.

 

630.    What is called scriptural organ of knowledge (Agam praman)?

     

The knowledge obtained from the direction given by the trustworthy soul (Apta) is called a scriptural organ of knowledge (Agam praman).

 

631.    What is called the trustworthy soul (Apta)?

The all knowing omniscient lord delivers the best beneficial spiritual instruction. He is called the trustworthiest soul.

 

632.    What is the subject of organ of knowledge?

The organ of knowledge includes the knowledges of both the common and specific natures of a substance (Samanya and vishesh).

 

633.    What is called the specific knowledge(Vishesh)?

The knowledge of a substance from a specific point of view is called the specific knowledge (Vishesh Gnan).

 

634.    How many types of specific knowledges are there?

There are two types:

1.      Coextensive specific knowledge (Sahabhavi vishesha)

2.      Specific knowledge occurring in succession (Krambhavi vishesha).

 

 

635.    What is coextensive specific knowledge (Sahabhavi vishesha)?

It is specific knowledge of the things that are present in each and every part of a substance and also present in any condition of that substance. This is also called the attributes (Guna) of a substance.

 

636.    What is the specific knowledge occurring in succession (Krambhavi vishesha)? 

It is specific knowledge of things, which occurs in succession in a substance. This is also known as modes (Paryay) of a substance.

 

637.    What is a pseudo-organ of knowledge (Pramanabhas)?

The wrong knowledge (Mithya gnan) is called the apparent organ of knowledge or pseudo-organ of knowledge.

 

638.    How many types of pramanabhas are there?

There are three types, as follow:

1.      Indecision (Sanshaya).

2.      Erroneous cognition (Viparaya).

3.      Inconclusiveness (Anadhyavasaya).

 

 

639.    What is indecision (Sanshaya)?

Is it this or is it that? Some sort of mutual contradictory dual form of knowledge is called indecision. For example, is this shell or silver?

 

640.    What is called erroneous cognition (Viparayaya)?

The form of knowledge which is contradictory to the intrinsic nature of the substance is termed erroneous cognition (Viparayaya), e.g. to even consider shell as silver.

 

641.    What is inconclusiveness (Anadhyavasaya)?

“Something” is there. This type of indeterminative form of thought is called inconclusiveness (Anadhyavasaya). For example, one is not able to perceive precisely the dry grass coming under ones feet while walking.

 

Partial point of view.

 

642.    What is meant by a partial point of view (Naya)?

The knowledge of only a part of a substance is called a partial point of view (Naya).

 

643.    How many types of partial points of view (Naya) are there?

There are two types:

1.      Absolute point of view (Nischaya naya)

2.      Practical point of view (Vyavahar naya).

 

 

644.    What is known as the absolute point of view (Nischaya naya)?  

The true knowledge of a part of a substance is called the absolute point of view. For example, the pot made of clay is to be understood as a clay pot.

 

645.    What is called the practical point of view (Vyavahar naya)?

·         Considering one substance from another from the perspective of an instrumental cause.e.g. The clay pot could be known as butter pot. Here the butter stays in the clay pot, so now it is known as a butter pot.

·         To consider one complete substance as comprised of divided form of knowledge.

·         The practical point of view is dependent on other substances.

 

 

646.    How many types of absolute points of view (Nischaya Naya) are there?

There are two types:

1.      Substantial point of view (Dravyarthik naya).

2.      Modification point of view (Paryayarthik naya).

 

 

647.    What is the substantial point of view (Dravyarthik naya)?

A point of view that considers the substance as a whole and gives each attribute and the modes, their subsidiary status, is called the substantial point of view.

 

648.    What is the modification point of view (Paryayarthik naya)?

The point of view that considers the attributes and modes of a substance as a principle subject, and also consider its substantial consideration as subsidiary status, is known as modification point of view.

 

649.    How many types of substantial points of view are there?

There are three types:

1.      Figurative point of view (Naigam naya).

2.      Collective point of view (Sangraha naya).

3.      Distributive point of view (Vyavahar naya).

 

 

650.    What is meant by the figurative point of view (Naigam naya)?

In the figurative point of view, one substance is made primary and the other substances become secondary. After that, it distinguishes between both of them as different or as unique.

It deals with the intention of the subject.

One person is cleaning the rice grains. Someone asks what he is doing. He says he is cooking rice.

Here although there is no difference shown between uncleaned rice grains and cooked rice; his intention of cooking the rice is shown.

 

651.    What is the collective point of view (Sangraha naya)?

In this point of view, one is given a subsidiary status and considers different subjects as unique.

For example when one says “living being” he means he is talking about all the living beings to include one to five sensed living beings.

 

652.    What is the distributive point of view (Vyavahar naya)?

In this point of view, one draws distinctions among substances, which are accepted as unique in the collective point of view.

For example, living beings can be divided into liberated souls and transmigratory souls, etc.

 

653.         How many types of modification points of view are there (Paryayarthik Naya)?

There are four as follow:

1.      Linear point of view (Rujusutra naya).

2.      Literal point of view (Sabda naya).

3.      Etymological point of view (Sambhirudhdha naya).

4.      Determinant point of view (Evambhu naya).

 

 

654.    What is a linear point of view (Rujusutra naya)?

In this point of view, one accepts only the present mode of a substance. The past and the future modes are not taken into consideration.

 

655.    What is meant by a literal point of view (Sabda naya)? 

In the literal point of view, one uses words at their exact face value to signify the real nature of things. Each word has a particular meaning. In the literal point of view, changing the gender, number, word ending or tense of a word, is thought to change its meaning and therefore change the object to which it refers.

For example, Dara is a masculine gender in Gujarati. Bharya is a feminized gender in Gujarati. Kalatra is a neutral gender in Gujarati.

They all related to woman, but the literal point of view will see those three words as separately and distinct.  

 

656.    What is an etymological point of view (Sambhirudhdha naya)?

According to the etymological point of view, each word has its own meaning. There is only one word for one meaning. No two words mean the same thing. In the literal point of view, the differences in the meaning of synonymous words are accepted, when they have different tense, different gender, etc., but the differences in their meaning are not accepted when they have the same tense, same gender, etc. For example, Raja, Nrup and Dhrupah ( Indian words) all of these words mean king. They express the same thing and meaning in the literal point of view. All three words are of the same masculine gender. In the etymological point of view, all three words have subtle differences in meaning. Therefore, even though they are synonymous words having the same tense, gender, etc., they do not mean the same thing.

 

657.    What is the determinant point of view (Evambhu naya)? 

The determinant point of view recognizes only the action implied by the root meaning of the word. To be real, the object must satisfy the activity meant by the work.

For example, from the etymological point of view, the different words in the same gender, tense, etc., will be accepted with their different meanings, but in the determinant point of view, each word is only accepted when the object is performing that particular act denoted by the name. For example, Raja will be called raja only when royal insignia decorate him. He will be called Nrup only when he is fighting in a war to protect his people. He will be called Dhrupah only when he is maintaining the kingdom and making it prosperous.

 

658.    How many types of practical point of view (Vyavahar Naya- Upnaya) are there?  

There are three types, as follow:

1.      Pure synthetic practical point of view (Sadbhut vyavarhar naya).

2.      Impure synthetic practical point of view (Asadbhut vyavahar naya).

3.      Metaphorical impure synthetic practice point of view (Upcharit asadbhut vyavahar naya)?

 

 

659.    What is meant by the pure synthetic practical point of view (Sadbhut vyavahar naya)? 

The pure synthetic practical point of view deals with the whole unbroken substance. Here the knowledge of the whole unbroken substance is achieved by dividing its content. For example, the soul has empirical knowledge and omniscient knowledge, etc. In this example, one tries to understand the whole unique nature of the soul by artificially deviding its various attributes.

 

660.    What is an impure synthetic practical point of view (Asadbhut vyavahar naya)? 

Here the knowledge of two attached substances is considered as belonging to one. For example, this body is mine, or to call the clay pot as a butter pot.

 

661.    (A).      What is meant by a metaphorical impure synthetic practical point of view      (Upcharit asadbhut vyavahar naya)? 

This is explained when knowledge of two entirely different substances is considered as identical to one only. For example, horse, elephant and , house belong to me.

 

661.   (B).    What is called the theory of multiplicity point of view?

In a substance when there is the presence of modes of two opposite attributes occurring at the same times it is called a multiplicity point of view.

For example, the soul exists because of self and not because of some other outside entity. Both are modes of opposite attributes, residing together in a given substance, which illustrates the theory of multifoldedness.

 

Analysis of the truth.

 

662.    What is called analysis of the truth (Nikshepa)?

By proper reasoning, one obtains the right knowledge. The truth is then known in precision and with clarity.

 

663.     How many different way can the truth  be analysed?
The truth now is known by four different ways:

1.      Name (Nam).

2.      Symbol (Sthapana).

3.      Potentiality (Dravaya).

4.      Actuality (Bhav).