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Jain Food

Binit Nalinkumar Shah

Glossary

Animal Ingredients and Their Alternatives

Adrenaline: From adrenal glands of hogs, cattle, and sheep. In medicine.
Alternative: synthetics.

Alanine: (See Amino Acids.)

Albumen: In eggs, milk, muscles, blood, and many vegetable tissues and fluids. In cosmetics, albumen is usually derived from egg whites. May cause allergic reaction. In cakes, cookies, candies, etc. Egg whites sometimes used in "clearing" wines. Derivative: Albumin.

Albumin: (See Albumen.)

Alcloxa: (See Allantoin.)

Aldioxa: (See Allantoin.)

Aliphatic Alcohol: (See Lanolin and Vitamin A.)

Allantoin: From cows, most mammals. Also in many plants (especially comfrey). In cosmetics (especially creams and lotions) and used in treatment of wounds and ulcers. Derivatives: Alcloxa, Aldioxa.
Alternative: extract of comfrey root.

Albumen: from blood or generally eggs.

Alligator Skin: (See Leather.)

Ambergris: From whale intestines. Used as a fixative in making perfumes and as a flavouring in foods and beverages. Alternatives synthetic or vegetable fixatives.

Amino Acids: Animal or plant sources. In cosmetics, vitamins, supplements, shampoos, etc.

Aminosuccinate Acid: (See Aspartic Acid.)

Anchovy:a small fish.

Animal Fats and Oils: In foods, cosmetics, etc. Highly allergenic. Plant derivatives are superior. Alternatives: olive oil, wheat germ oil, coconut oil, almond oil, safflower oil, etc.

Animal Hair: In some blankets, mattresses, brushes, furniture, etc.
Alternatives: vegetable and synthetic fibers.

Apple Juice--"...the clarification of apple juice using Haram [forbidden] gelatine. Since this is called a processing aid in the food industry, it is not required by law to mention it."

Arachidonic Acid: A liquid unsaturated fatty acid that occurs in liver, brain, glands, and fat of animals and humans. Generally isolated from animal liver. Used for nutrition and to soothe eczema and rashes in skin creams and lotions.

Arachidyl Proprionate: Can be from animal fat.
Alternative: vegetable oil.

Artificial Colour may be animal derived

Aspartic Acid: Aminosuccinate Acid. Can be animal or plant source (e.g., molasses). Sometimes synthesised for commercial purposes.

Bee Pollen: Collected from the legs of bees. Causes allergic reactions in some people. In nutritional supplements, shampoos, toothpastes, deodorants.

Bee Products: Produced by bees for their own use. Bees are selectively bred. Culled bees are killed. A cheap sugar is substituted for their stolen honey. Millions die as a result. Their legs are often torn off by pollen-collection trapdoors.

Beeswax Honeycomb: From virgin bees. Very cheap and widely used but harmful to the skin. Some companies won't use beeswax as it doesn't permit the skin to breathe. In lipsticks and many other cosmetics (especially face creams, lotions, mascara, eye creams and shadows, face make-ups, nail whiteners, lip balms, etc.). Derivatives: Cera Na. Alternatives: Paraffin, vegetable oils and fats. Ceresin, Ceresine, Earth Wax. (Made from the mineral ozokerite. Replaces beeswax in cosmetics. Also used to wax paper, to make polishing cloths, in dentistry for taking wax impressions, in candle-making.) Also, Carnauba wax (from the Brazilian palm tree; used in many cosmetics, including lipstick; rarely causes allergic reactions).

Biotin: Sometimes from animals.

Candelilla wax (from Candelilla plants; used in many cosmetics, including lipstick; also in the manufacture of rubber, phonograph records, in waterproofing and writing inks; no known toxicity). Japan wax (Vegetable wax. Japan tallow. Fat from the fruit of a tree grown in Japan and China.).

Benzoic Acid: In almost all vertebrates and in berries. In mouthwashes, deodorants, creams, aftershave lotions, etc. Alternative: gum benzoin (tincture) from the aromatic balsamic resin from trees grown in China, Sumatra, Thailand, and Cambodia.

Beta Carotene: (See Carotene as well.) this can be dissolved in lard or mixed with gelatine to dissolve in water. Since this is considered a processing aid the manufacturers are not required to list the lard or the gelatine as an ingredient.

Biotin Vitamin H. Vitamin B Factor: In every living cell and in larger amounts in milk and yeast. Used in cosmetics, shampoos, and creams.
Alternatives: plant sources.

Blood: From any slaughtered animal. Used as adhesive in plywood, also found in cheese-making, foam rubber, intravenous feedings, and medicines. Possibly in foods such as lecithin. Alternatives: synthetics, plant sources.

Boar Bristles: Hair from wild or captive hogs. In "natural" toothbrushes and bath and shaving brushes. Often come loose in mouth, creating dental problems.
Alternatives: vegetable fibers, nylon, the peelu branch or peelu gum (Asian; available in U.S.; its juice replaces toothpaste).

Bone Char: Animal bone ash. Used to make sugar white and is the charcoal used in aquarium filters.
Alternatives: other processes.

Bone Meal: Animal bones. In some fertilisers. In some vitamins and supplements as a source of calcium. In toothpastes.
Alternatives: plant mulch, vegetable compost, dolomite, clay, vegetarian vitamins.

Calciferol: (See Vitamin D.)

Calfskin: (See Leather.)

Capryl Betaine: (See Caprylic Acid.)

Caprylamine Oxide: (See Caprylic Acid.)

Caprylic Acid: Can come from cow's or goat's milk. Also from palm and coconut oil, other plant oils. In perfumes, soaps. Derivatives: Caprylic Triglyceride, Caprylamine Oxide, Capryl Betaine.

Caprylic Triglyceride: (See Caprylic Acid.)

Carbamide: (See Urea.)

Carmine, Cochineal, Carminic Acid: Red pigment from the crushed female cochineal insect. Reportedly 70,000 beetles must be killed to produce one pound of this red dye. Used in cosmetics, shampoos, red apple sauce, and other foods (including "natural" red lollipops and food colouring). May cause allergic reaction.
Alternatives: beet juice (used in powders, rouges, shampoos; no known toxicity). Alkanet root (from the root of this herblike tree; used as a red dye for inks, wines, lip balms, etc.; no known toxicity. Can also be combined to make a copper or blue colouring).

Carminic Acid: (See Carmine.)

Carotene, Provitamin A, Beta Carotene: Found in many animal tissues and in all plants. Used as a colouring in cosmetics and in the manufacture of vitamin A.

Casein, Milk protein: In "non-dairy" creamers, many cosmetics, hair preparations, beauty masks.
Alternatives: soy protein, soy milk, and other vegetable milks.

Castor, Castoreum: From muskrat and beaver genitals. Used in perfume and incense. Alternatives: synthetics, plant sources.

Castoreum: (See Castor.)

Catgut: Tough string from the intestines of sheep, horses, etc. Used for surgical sutures. Also for stringing tennis rackets and musical instruments, etc. Alternatives: nylon and other synthetic fibers.

Cera Na: (See Beeswax.)

Cetyl Alcohol: Wax found in spermaceti from sperm whales or dolphins.
Alternatives: vegetable cetyl alcohol (e.g., coconut), synthetic spermaceti.

Cetyl Palmitate: (See Spermaceti.)

Chocolate: please check Vegetarian Society Web page for a list of Vegetarian Chocolates:

Cholesterin: (See Lanolin.)

Cholesterol: A steroid alcohol in all animal fats and oils, nervous tissue, egg yolk, and blood. Can be derived from lanolin. In cosmetics, eye creams, shampoos, etc.
Alternative: plant source.

Choline Bitartrate: (See Lecithin.)

Civet: Painfully scraped from a gland very near the genital organs of civet cats. (See Musk.)

Cochineal: (See Carmine)

Cod Liver Oil: (See Marine Oil.)

Collagen A: Fibrous protein in vertebrates. Usually derived from animal tissue. In cosmetics. Can't affect the skin's own collagen.
Alternatives: soy protein, almond oil, amla oil (see alternative for Keratin), etc.

Corticosteroid: (See Cortisone.)

Cortisone, Corticosteroid: Hormone from cattle liver. Widely used in medicine.
Alternatives: synthetics.

Cysteine, L-Form: An amino acid which can come from animals. Used in hair care products and creams, in some bakery products, and in wound-healing formulations.
Alternatives: plant sources.

Cystine: An amino acid found in urine and horsehair. Used as a nutritional supplement. Dexpanthenol. (See Panthenol.)

Dimethyl Stearamine: (See Stearic Acid.)

Down: Goose or duck insulating feathers. Often from slaughtered or cruelly exploited geese. Used as an insulator in quilts, parkas, sleeping bags, pillows, etc.
Alternatives: polyester and synthetic substitutes, kapok (silky fibers from the seeds of some tropical trees) and milkweed seed pod fibers.

Duodenum Substances: From the digestive tracts of cows and pigs. Added to some vitamin tablets. In some medicines.
Alternatives: vegetarian vitamins, synthetics.

Egg Protein: In shampoos, skin preparations, etc.
Alternatives: plant proteins.

Elastin: Found in the neck ligaments and aorta of cows. Similar to collagen. Can't affect the skin's own elasticity.
Alternatives: synthetics, proteins from plant tissues.

Enriched Products: e.g. flour, beans...etc. that have added vitamins and minerals may contain animal derived ingredients and/or substrate (substrate is generally chemicals that are used in a reaction to lead to other final products).

Ergocalciferol: (See Vitamin D.)

Ergosterol: (See Vitamin D.)

Estradiol: (See Estrogen.)

Estrogen, Estrone, Estradiol: Hormones from cow ovaries and pregnant mares' urine. Considered a drug. Can have harmful systemic effects if used by children. Used for reproductive problems and in birth control pills. In creams and lotions. Has a negligible effect in the creams as a skin restorative; simple vegetable source emollients are considered better.
Alternatives: oral contraceptives based on synthetic steroids or phytoestrogens (from plants; currently being researched).

Estrone: (See Estrogen.)

Fatty Acids: Can be one or any mixture of liquid and solid acids, caprylic, lauric, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Used in bubble baths, lipsticks, soap, detergents, cosmetics, food. Alternatives: vegetable-derived acids, soy lecithin, safflower oil, bitter almond oil, sunflower oil, etc.

Feathers: Generally from exploited and slaughtered birds. Used whole as ornaments or ground up in shampoos. (See Down and Keratin.)

Fish Liver Oil: Used in vitamins and supplements. In milk fortified with vitamin D.
Alternatives: yeast extract ergosterol and sunshine.

Fish Oil: (See Marine Oil.) Fish oil can also be from marine mammals. Used in soap-making.

Fish Scales: Used in shimmery make-ups. Garbage cans full of scales are sold to manufacturers.
Alternatives: mica, rayon, synthetic pearl.

Fletan Oil: Rare ingredient derived from fish liver that includes lecithin and vitamins A and D.

Flour: may have been processed with a pig enzyme; verify with producer.

Fortified Products: (see Enriched products).

Fur: Obtained from animals (usually mink, foxes, or rabbits) cruelly trapped in steel-jaw leg-hold traps or raised in intensive confinement on fur "farms."

Gel: (See Gelatin.)

Gelatin, Gel: Protein obtained by boiling skin, tendons, ligaments, or bones with water. From cows and pigs. Used in shampoos, face masks, and other cosmetics. Used as a thickener for fruit gelatins and puddings ("Jello"). In candies, marshmallows, cakes, ice cream, yoghurts. On photographic film and in vitamins as a coating and as capsules. Sometimes used to assist in "clearing" wines. Alternatives: carrageen (carrageenan, Irish moss), seaweeds (algin, agar-agar, kelp--used in jellies, plastics, medicine), pectin from fruits, dextrins, locust bean gum, cotton gum, silica gel. Marshmallows were originally made from the root of the marsh mallow plant. Watch out for Kosher Gelatine as this usually is made boiled bones, distinction being that they are from cow bones and not pig bones. However it might be made from non-animal products.
Alternatives: Vegetarian capsules are now available from several companies.

Glycerides: (See Glycerine.)

Glycerine, Glycerin, Glycerol: A by-product of soap manufacture (normally uses animal fat). In cosmetics, foods, mouthwashes, toothpastes, soaps, ointments, medicines, lubricants, transmission and brake fluid, and plastics. May be animal/lard derived unless stated. Derivatives: Polyglycerol, Glycerides, Glyceryls, Glycreth-26.
Alternatives: vegetable glycerine--a by-product of vegetable oil soap. Derivatives of seaweed, petroleum.

Glycerol: (See Glycerine.)

Glyceryls: (See Glycerine.)

Glycreth-26: (See Glycerine.)

Guanine: Obtained from scales of fish. Constituent of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid and is found in all animal and plant tissues. In shampoo, nail polish, other cosmetics. Alternatives: leguminous plants, synthetic pearl, or aluminium and bronze particles.

Hide Glue: Same as gelatine but of a cruder impure form.
Alternatives: dextrins and synthetic petrochemical-based adhesives.

Honey: Food for bees, made by bees. Can cause allergic reactions. In cosmetics and foods. Should never be fed to infants.
Alternatives: maple syrup, date sugar, syrups made from grains such as barley malt, turbinado sugar, molasses.

Honeycomb: (See Beeswax.)

Horsehair: (See Animal Hair.)

Hydrolyzed Animal Protein: In cosmetics, especially shampoo and hair treatments.
Alternatives: soy protein, other vegetable proteins, amla oil (see alternatives to Keratin).

Ice Cream: please see the Vegetarian Society page on this:
http://www.vegsoc.org/Food/icecream.html

Imidazolidinyl Urea: (See Urea.)

Insulin: From hog pancreas. Used by millions of diabetics daily.
Alternatives: synthetics, diet when possible, human insulin grown in a lab.

Isinglass: A form of gelatine prepared from the internal membranes of fish bladders. Sometimes used in "clearing" wines and in foods.
Alternatives: Bentoinite clay, "Japanese Isinglass," or agar-agar (see alternatives to Gelatin). Mica, a mineral used in cosmetics.

Isopropyl Lanolate: (See Lanolin.)

Isopropyl Myristate: (See Myristic Acid.)

Isopropyl Palmitate: (See Stearic Acid.) Complex mixtures of isomers of stearic acid and palmitic acid.

Jelly/ Jello: usually contains gelatine.

Keratin: From the ground-up horns, hooves, feathers, quills, and hair of various animals. In hair rinses, shampoos, permanent wave solutions.
Alternatives: Almond oil, soy protein, amla oil (from an Indian tree's fruit). Rosemary and nettle give body and strand strength to hair.

L-cysteine: "99% of L-Cysteine in the United of America [sic] is obtained from human hairs."

Lactic Acid: A by-product of the slaughterhouse. Produced by the fermentation of lactose when milk sours or from sucrose and some other carbohydrates by the action of certain micro-organisms. Can be found in blood and muscle tissue. In skin fresheners, as a preservative, in the formation of plasticizers, etc. In sour milk, beer, sauerkraut, pickles, and other food products made by bacterial fermentation. Alternative: plant milk sugars.

Lactose: Milk sugar. Milk of mammals. In eye lotions, foods, tablets, cosmetics, baked goods, medicines. Lactose is from pork rennin or whey.
Alternative: plant milk sugars.

Laneth: (See Lanolin.)

Lanogene: (See Lanolin.)

Lanolin, Lanolin Acids, Wool Fat, Wool Wax: A product of the oil glands of sheep, extracted from their wool. In many skin care products and cosmetics, and in medicines. Some cosmetics companies won't use it because it commonly causes allergic reactions and skin rashes, and they consider it to be a cheap filler. Vegetable sources are thought to be better moisturisers -- lanolin is too greasy, waterproof, and sealing; skin can't breathe. (See Wool for cruelty to sheep.) Derivatives: Lanolin Alcohols, Lanosterols, Triterpene Alcohols, Aliphatic Alcohols, Sterols, Lanogene, Laneth, Isopropyl Lanolate, Cholesterin.

Lanolin Alcohol: (See Lanolin.)

Lanosterols: (See Lanolin.)

Lard: Fat from hog abdomens. In shaving creams, soaps, cosmetics. In baked goods, French fries, refried beans, and many other foods.

Alternatives: pure vegetable fats or oils.

Leather, Suede, Calfskin, Sheepskin, Alligator skin, Other types of skin:

Subsidises the meat industry. Used to make wallets, handbags, furniture and car upholstery, shoes, etc.

Alternatives: cotton, canvas, nylon, vinyl.

Lecithin, Choline Bitartrate: In all living organisms. Frequently obtained for commercial purposes from eggs, lard, or soybeans. Also from nerve tissue, blood, milk, corn. Choline bitartrate, the basic constituent of lecithin, is in many animal and plant tissues or prepared synthetically. Lecithin can be in eyecreams, lipsticks, liquid powders, handcreams, lotions, soaps, shampoos, other cosmetics, and some medicines.

Alternatives: soya lecithin, soy lecithin, and vegetable lecithin should be ok.

Linoleic Acid: An essential fatty acid. Used in cosmetics, vitamins.

Lipase: Enzyme from the stomachs and tongue glands of calves, kids, and lambs. Probably in some vitamins. Alternatives: vegetable enzymes.

Lipids: (See Lipoids.)

Lipoids, Lipids: Fat and fat-like substances that occur in animals and plants.

Marine Oil: From fish or marine mammals (including porpoises). Used in soap-making. Used as a shortening (especially in some margarines), as a lubricant, and in paint.

Meatless: the US government standards to use the word meatless allow up to 2% animal product/meat content. I’m not sure about UK classifications.

Methionine: Found in various proteins. Used as a texturiser.

Milk: Vitamin D3 is produced from sheep's lanolin. In the final form to dairies, these vitamins [A & D] are mixed with the carrier (corn oil and emulsifiers, which may be from pork) to help them dissolve in lowfat or skim milk.
Alternatives: Try Oat Milk! http://www.vegsoc.org/Recipes/oatmilk.html

Milk Protein, Hydrolyzed milk protein: From the milk of cows. In cosmetics, shampoos, moisturisers, conditioners, etc.
Alternatives: soy protein, other plant proteins.

Mink Oil: From the animal mink. In cosmetics, creams, etc.
Alternatives: vegetable oils and emollients such as avocado oil, almond oil, and jojoba oil.

Mono- and Diglycerides, Glycerides: (See Glycerine.) From animal fat ( often made straight from Pork fat). In margarines, cake mixes, candies, foods, etc. In cosmetics.
Alternative: vegetable mono- and diglycerides.

Musk (Oil): Painfully obtained from musk deer, beaver, muskrat, civet cat, otter genitals. Wild cats are kept captive in cages in horrible conditions; beavers are trapped; deer are shot; cats are whipped around genitals to produce the scent. In perfumes and in food flavourings.
Alternatives: labdanum oil (which comes from various rockrose shrubs). Other plants have a musky scent also. Labdanum oil has no known toxicity.

Myristal Ether Sulfate: (See Myristic Acid.)

Myristic Acid: In most animal and vegetable fats. In butter acids. Used in shampoos, creams, cosmetics. In food flavourings. Derivatives: Isopropyl Myristate, Myristyls, Oleyl Myristate, Myristal Ether Sulfate.
Alternatives: nut butters, oil of lavage, coconut oil, extract from seed kernels of nutmeg, etc.

Myristyls: (See Myristic Acid.)

"Natural Sources": Can mean animal or vegetable sources. Most often in the health food industry, especially in the cosmetics area, it means animal sources, such as animal elastin, animal glands, fat protein, and oil. Natural Fruit Flavour may also be processed with animal products.

Nucleic Acids: In the nucleus of all living cells. Used in cosmetics, in shampoos, in conditioners, etc. Also in vitamins, supplements.
Alternatives: plant sources.

Ocenol: (See Oleyl Alcohol.)

Octyl Dodecanol: Mixture of solid waxy Alcohols. Primarily from Stearyl Alcohol.

Oleic Acid: Obtained from various animal and vegetable fats and oils. Usually obtained commercially from inedible tallow. In foods, in soft soap, bar soap, permanent wave solutions, creams, nail polish, lipsticks, many other skin preparations. Derivatives: Oleyl Oleate, Oleyl Stearate.
Alternatives: coconut oil. (See alternatives to Animal Oils and Fats.)

Oleths: (See Oleyl Alcohol.)

Oleyl Alcohol, Ocenol: Found in fish oils. Used in the manufacture of detergents, as a plasticizer for softening fabrics, and as a carrier for medications. Derivatives: Oleths, Oleyl Arachidate, Oleyl Imidazoline.

Oleyl Arachidate: (See Oleyl Alcohol.)

Oleyl Imidazoline: (See Oleyl Alcohol.)

Oleyl Myristate: (See Myristic Acid.)

Oleyl Oleate: (See Oleic Acid.)

Oleyl Stearate: (See Oleic Acid.)

Palmitamide: (See Palmitic Acid.)

Palmitamine: (See Palmitic Acid.)

Palmitate: (See Palmitic Acid.)

Palmitic Acid: From fats, oils (see Fatty Acids). Mixed with stearic acid. Found in many animal fats and plant oils. In shampoos, shaving soaps, creams. Can come from palm oil, vegetable sources. Derivatives: Palmitate, Palmitamine, Palmitamide.

Panthenol, Dexpanthenol, Vitamin B-Complex Factor, Provitamin B-5: Can come from animal or plant sources or synthetics. In shampoos, supplements, emollients, etc. In foods. Derivative: Panthenyl.

Panthenyl: (See Panthenol.)

Pepsin: Enzyme from hogs' stomachs. A clotting agent. In some cheeses and vitamins. Same uses and alternatives as Rennet.

Placenta, Placenta polypeptides protein, Afterbirth: Contains waste matter eliminated by the foetus. Derived from the uterus of slaughtered animals. Animal placenta is widely used in skin creams, shampoos, masks, etc.
Alternative: kelp. (See alternatives for Animal Fats and Oils.)

Polyglycerol: (See Glycerine.)

Polypeptides: Obtained from slaughterhouse wastes.

Alternatives: plant proteins and enzymes.

Polysorbates (e.g. 60, 65, 80): Derivatives of fatty acids, such as Stearic Acid which may be animal derived. In cosmetics, foods.

Pristane: Obtained from the liver oil of sharks and from whale ambergris. (See Squalene.) Used as a lubricant and anti-corrosive agent. In cosmetics.
Alternatives: plant oils, synthetics.

Progesterone: A steroid hormone used in face creams. Can have adverse systemic effects.
Alternatives: synthetics.

Propolis: Collected by bees. Needed for their protection. In toothpaste, shampoo, deodorant, supplements, etc.
Alternatives: vegetable or synthetic.

Provitamin A: (See Carotene.)

Provitamin B-5: (See Panthenol.)

Provitamin D-2: (See Vitamin D.)

Quaternium 27: From tallow. Found in deodorants, other skin care preparations.

Rennet, Rennin: From calves or pigs stomachs. Used in cheese-making, rennet custard (junket), and in many coagulated dairy products. See section on Cheese.

Alternatives: microbial coagulating agents, bacteria culture, lemon juice, or vegetable rennet.

Rennin: (See Rennet.)

Resinous Glaze: from insect secretions

Ribonucleic Acid: (See RNA.)

RNA, Ribonucleic Acid: Obtained from slaughterhouse wastes. RNA is in all living cells. Used in many protein shampoos and cosmetics.
Alternative: plant cells.

Royal Jelly: Secretion from the throat glands of the honeybee workers that is fed to the larvae in a colony and to all queen larvae. No proven value in cosmetics preparations.
Alternatives: aloe vera, comfrey, other plant derivatives.

Sable Brushes: From the fur of sables (weasel-like mammals). Used to make eye make-up, lipstick, and artists' brushes. Alternatives: synthetic fibers.

Saffron (Kesar): botanical name crocus sativus, is the most expensive spice in the world. Derived from the dried stigmas of the purple saffron crocus, it takes anything from 70,000 to 250,000 flowers to make one pound of saffron. Moreover, the flowers have to be individually hand-picked in the autumn when fully open.

Sea Turtle Oil: (See Turtle Oil.)

Shark Liver Oil: Used in lubricating creams and lotions. Derivatives: Squalane, Squalene.
Alternatives: vegetable oils.

Shellac: insect secretions

Sheepskin: (See Leather.)

Silk, Silk Powder: Silk is the shiny fibre made by silkworms to form their cocoons. Worms are boiled in their cocoons to get the silk. Used in cloth. In silk-screening (other fine cloth can be and is used instead). Taffeta can be made from silk or nylon. Silk powder is obtained from the secretion of the silkworm. It is used as a colouring agent in face powders, soaps, etc. Can cause severe allergic skin reactions and systemic reactions (if inhaled or ingested).
Alternatives: milkweed seed-pod fibers, nylon, silk-cotton tree and ceiba tree filaments (kapok), rayon, and synthetic silks.

Snails: In some cosmetics (crushed).

Sodium Tallowate: (See Tallow.)

Spermaceti, Cetyl Palmitate, Sperm oil: Waxy oil derived from the sperm whale's head or from dolphins. In many margarines. In skin creams, ointments, shampoos, candles, etc. Used in the leather industry. May become rancid and cause irritations.
Alternatives: synthetic spermaceti, jojoba oil, and other vegetable emollients.

Sponge (Luna and Sea): A plant-like animal. Lives in the sea. Becoming scarce. Sold as a natural sponge.

Alternatives: synthetic sponges, loofahs (plants used as sponges).

Squalane: (See Shark Liver Oil.)

Squalene: Oils from shark livers, etc. An emollient from "natural sources." It is a precursor of cholesterol in biosynthesis. In cosmetics, moisturisers, hair dyes, surface-active agents.

Alternatives: vegetable emollients such as olive oil, wheat germ oil, rice bran oil, etc.

Stear- :-anything beginning with, or containing, the letters may be animal derived as below.

Stearamide: (See Stearic Acid.)

Stearamine: (See Stearic Acid.)

Stearamine Oxide: (See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Stearates: (See Stearic Acid.)

Stearic Acid: Fat from cows, sheep, dogs and cats from animal shelters, etc. Most often refers to a fatty substance taken from the stomachs of pigs. Can be harsh, irritating. Used in cosmetics, soaps, lubricants, candles, hairsprays, conditioners, deodorants, creams, chewing gums, food flavouring. Derivatives: Stearic Hydrazide, Stearamide, Stearamine, Stearates, Stearyl Betaine, Stearyl Imidazoline, Stearoyl Lactylic Acid, Stearone, Stearoxytrimethylsilane.
Alternatives: stearic acid can be found in many vegetable fats, coconut.

Stearic Hydrazide: (See Stearic Acid.)

Stearone: (See Stearic Acid.)

Stearoxytrimethylsilane: (See Stearic Acid.)

Stearoyl Lactylic Acid: (See Stearic Acid.)

Stearyl Acetate: (See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Stearyl Alcohol. Sterols: A mixture of solid alcohols. Can be prepared from sperm whale oil. In medicines, creams, rinses, shampoos, etc. Derivatives: Stearamine Oxide, Stearyl Acetate, Stearyl Caprylate, Stearyl Citrate, Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate, Stearyl Heptanoate, Stearyl Octanoate, Stearyl Stearate, Stearyldimethyl Amine.

Alternatives: plant sources, vegetable stearic acid.

Stearyl Betaine: (See Stearic Acid.)

Stearyl Caprylate: (See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Stearyl Citrate: (See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate: (See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Stearyl Heptanoate: (See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Stearyl Imidazoline: (See Stearic Acid.)

Stearyl Octanoate: (See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Stearyl Stearate: (See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Stearyldimethyl Amine: (See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Steroids, Sterols: From various animal glands or from plant tissues. Steroids include sterols. Sterols are alcohol from animals or plants (e.g., cholesterol). Used in hormone preparation. In creams, lotions, hair conditioners, fragrances, etc.
Alternatives: plant tissues, synthetics.

Sterols: (See Stearyl Alcohol and Steroids.)

Suede: (See Leather.)

Sugar: processed sugar, unless kosher or other may contain (ground) bones as it is sometimes used to maintain that clear white look. Check with manufacturer.
Alternatives: Brown Sugar?

Tallow: Tallow fatty alcohol. Stearic acid. Rendered beef fat. May cause eczema and blackheads. In wax paper, crayons, margarines, paints, rubber, lubricants, etc. In candles, soaps, lipsticks, shaving creams, other cosmetics. Chemicals (e.g., PCB) can be in animal tallow. Derivatives: Tallow Acid, Tallow Amide, Tallow Amine, Tallow Glycerides, Tallow Imidazoline, Talloweth-6, Sodium Tallowate.
Alternatives: vegetable tallow, Japan tallow, paraffin and/or ceresin (see alternatives for Beeswax for all three). Paraffin is usually from petroleum, wood, coal, or shale oil.

Tallow Acid: (See Tallow.)

Tallow Amide: (See Tallow.)

Tallow Amine: (See Tallow.)

Tallow Glycerides: (See Tallow.)

Tallow Imidazoline: (See Tallow.)

Talloweth-6: (See Tallow.)

Toothpaste: Colgate Toothpaste, Crest Toothpaste (except their basic fluoride toothpaste w/o features) Mentadent Toothpaste.
Alternatives: Promise; Indian Aruvedic Toothpastes.

Triterpene Alcohols: (See Lanolin.)

Turtle Oil, Sea Turtle Oil: From the muscles and genitals of giant sea turtles. In soap, skin creams, nail creams, other cosmetics.
Alternatives: vegetable emollients (see alternatives to Animal Fats and Oils).

Tyrosine: Amino acid hydrolyzed from casein. Used in suntan products. Derivative: Glucose Tyrosinase.

Urea, Carbamide: Excreted from urine and other body fluids. Also produced synthetically. In deodorants, ammoniated dentrifices, mouthwashes, hair colourings, hand creams, lotions, shampoos, etc. Used to "brown" baked goods, such as pretzels. Derivatives: Imidazolidinyl Urea, Uric Acid.

Uric Acid: (See Urea.)

Vanilla: may be processed with glycerine.

Vitamin A: Can come from fish liver oil (e.g., shark liver oil), egg yolk, butter, lemongrass, wheat germ oil, carotene in carrots, and synthetics. It is an Aliphatic Alcohol. In cosmetics, creams, perfumes, hair dyes, etc. In vitamins, supplements.

Vitamin B Factor: (See Biotin.)

Vitamin B-Complex Factor: (See Panthenol.)

Vitamin B12: Usually animal source. Some vegetarian B12 vitamins are in a stomach base. Alternatives: some vegetarian B12-fortified yeasts and analogs available. Plant algae discovered containing B12, now in supplement form (spirulina). Also, B12 is normally produced in a healthy body.

Vitamin D, Ergocalciferol, Vitamin D-2, Ergosterol, Provitamin D-2, Calciferol, Vitamin D-3: Vitamin D can come from fish liver oil, milk, egg yolk, etc. Vitamin D-2 can come from animal fats or plant sterols. Vitamins D-2 and D-3 may be from fish oil. All the D vitamins can be in creams, lotions, other cosmetics, vitamin tablets, etc.

Alternatives: plant and mineral sources, synthetics, or completely vegetarian vitamins. Many other vitamins can come from animal sources. Examples: choline, biotin, inositol, riboflavin, etc.

Vitamin H: (See Biotin.)

Vitamin K, Vitamin B6, Tocopherol: no explanation given

Water: The point of boiling water is that boiled water (for a certain amount of time) is without Jivas. Water that is not boiled is conducive for Jivas to constantly reproduce and die and reproduce.

Wax: May be a Bee product.

Whey: From milk. Usually in cakes, cookies, candies, and some breads. In cheese-making.
Alternative: soybean whey.

Wool: From sheep. Used in clothing. Ram lambs and old "wool" sheep are slaughtered for their meat. Sheep are transported without food or water, in extreme heat and cold. Legs are broken, eyes injured, etc. Sheep are bred to be unnaturally woolly, also unnaturally wrinkly, which causes them to get insect infestations around the tail areas. The farmer's solution to this is the painful cutting away of the flesh around the tail (called mulesing). "Inferior" sheep are killed. Shearing does hurt the sheep. They are pinned down violently and sheared roughly. Their skin is cut up. Every year hundreds of thousands of shorn sheep die from exposure to cold. Natural predators of sheep (wolves, coyotes, eagles, etc.) are poisoned, trapped, and shot. In the U.S., overgrazing of cattle and sheep is turning more than 150 million acres of land to desert. "Natural" wool-production uses enormous amounts of resources and energy (to breed, raise, feed, shear, transport, slaughter, etc., the sheep). Derivatives: Lanolin, Wool Wax, Wool Fat. Alternatives: cotton, cotton flannel, synthetic fibers, ramie, etc.

Wool Fat: (See Lanolin.)

Wool Wax: (See Lanolin.)

References

Animal Factories by Jim Mason and Peter Singer (1980)

Animal Liberation by Peter Singer (1975)

A Consumer's Dictionary of Cosmetic Ingredients by Ruth Winter (1984)

Cosmetic Ingredients Glossary by Feather River Co. (1988)

John Cardillo's List of Animal Products and Their Alternatives compiled by Nermin Buyukmihci, Box 206, Milner, GA 30257

Slaughter of the Innocent by Hans Ruesch (1983)

Sweethardt Herb Catalogue

Non-Food Animal Products and Their Alternatives

Look out for "All Man Made Materials".

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