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SamanSuttam

23. Sravakadharmasutra

Precepts on householders's Religion

Sampattadamsanai, paidiyaham jaijana sunei ya.

Samayarim paramam jo, khalu tam savagam bimti. (301)

He is called a Sravaka (householder) who, being endowed with right faith, listens every day to the preachings of the monks about right conduct. (301)

Pamcumvarasahiyam, satta vi visanai jo vivajjei.

Sammattavisuddhamai, so damsanasavao bhanio. (302)


A pious householder is one who has given up (eating) five udumbar-fruits (like banyan, Pipala, fig (Anjeer), kathumara and pakar), is free from seven vices and is called Darsana Sravaka, a man whose intellect is purified by right faith.(302)

Itthi juyam majjam, migavva vayane taha farusaya ya.

Dandafarusattamatthassa dusanam satta vasanaim. (303)


The seven vices are: (1) sexual intercourse with other than one's own wife, (2) gambling, (3) drinking liquou (4) hunting, (5) harshness in speech, (6) harsh in punishment and (7) misappropriation of other's property. (303)

Mamsasanena vaddhai dappo dappena majjamahilasai.

Juyam pi ramai to tam, pi vannie paunai dose. (304)


Meat-eating increases pride, pride creates a desire for intoxicating drinks and pleasure in gambling; and thus springs up all aforesaid vices. (304)

Loiyasatthammi vi, vanniyam jaha gayanagamino vippa.

Bhuvi mamsasanena padiya, tamha na paumjae mamsam. (305)


Scriptures of other religions have described that sages moving in air have fallen to the ground on eating meat; therefore meat-eating should be avoided. (305)

Mijjena naro avaso, kunai kammani nimdanijjam.

Ihaloe paraloe, anuhavai anamtayam dukkham. (306)


A person loses control over himself by drinking intoxicating liquors and commits manycensurable deeds. He experiences endless miseries both in this world and in the next. (306)

Samvegajanidakarana, nissalla mamdaro vva nikkampa.

Jassa dadha jinabhatti, tassa bhayam natthi samsare. (307)


A person who has firm devotion towards Jina like the steady mountain Meru, inclination for renunciation and is free from defects of character (salya) will have no fear in this world. (307)

Sattu vi mittabhavam, jamha uvayai vinayasilassa.

Vinao tivihena tao, kayavvo desaviraena. (308)


Since even an enemy approaches a man of humility with friendliness, a house-holder must cultivate humility of three kinds: (in thought, speech and action). (308)

Panivahamusavae, adattaparadaraniyamanehim ca.

Aparimiicchao vi ya, anuvvauyaim viramanaim. (309)


Injury to living beings (himsa), speaking falsehood, taking away a thing which is not given (theft), secual enjoyment with other than one's own wife (incontinence) and limitless desire for possession (parigraha)-abstinence from these acts are called (five) small vows. (309)

Bandhavahacchavicchee, aibhare bhattapanavucchee.

Kohaidusiyamano, gomanuyaina no kujja. (310)


One should not tie, injure, mutilate, load heavy burdens and deprive from food and drink any nimal or human being with a polluted mind by anger or other passions (these five) are the transgration (aticara) of the vow of Ahimsa. (310)

Thulamusavayassa u, virai duccam, sa pamcaha hoi.

Kannagobhu alliya-nasaharana-kudasakkhijje. (311)


Refraining from major type of falsefood is the second vow; this major type of falsehood is of five kinds; speaking untruth about unmarried girls, animals and land, repudiating debts or pledges and giving false evidence. (311)

Sahasa abbhakkhanam, rahasa ya sadaramamtabheyam ca.

Mosovaesayam, kudalehakaranam ca vajjijja. (312)


making a false charge rashly (or without consideration), divulging any one's secret, disclosing the secrets confided to by one's own wife, giving false advice and preparation of a false document or writing these should be avoided. (312)

Vajjijja tenahada-takkarajogam viruddharajjam ca.

Kudatulakudamanam, tappadiruvam ca vavaharam. (313)


One should desist from: buying stolen property, inciting another to commit theft, avoiding the rules of government, use of false weights and measures adulteration and preparation to counterfeit coins and notes. (313)

ittariyapariggahiya parigahiyagamananangakidam ca.

Paravivahakkaranam, kame tivvabhilasam ca. (314)


One should refrain from having intercourse with a woman kept by a vagabond or with one looked after by none, from committin unnatural sexual act, from arranging another's marriage (alternatively from marrying twice) and from intense desire for sexual act. (314)

Viraya pariggahao, aparimiao anamtatanhao.

Bahudosasamkulao, narayagaigamanapamthao.

Khittai hirannai dhanai dupayai kuviyagassa taha.

Sammam visuddhacitto, na pamanaikkamam kujja. (315 & 316)


Persons should refrain from accumulation of unlimited property due to unquenchable thirst (i.e. greed) as it becomes a pathway to hell and results in numerous faults. A righteous and pure-minded person should not exceed the self-imposed limit in the acquisition of lands, gold, wealth, servants, cattle, vessels and pieces of furniture. (315 & 316)

Bhavijja ya santosam, gahiyamiyanim ajanamanenam.

Thovam puno na evan, gihinassamo tti cintijja. (317)


A person who has accepted the vow to limit the possessions should remain contented (with what he has). He should not think for himself, "This time I have resolved to possess a little (amount of property) unknowingly but in future I will not do that i. e. if it will be necessary I will accumulate more. (317)

Jam ca disaveramanam, anatthadandau jam ca veramanam.

Desavagasiyam pi ya, gunavvayaim bhave taim. (318)


Resolving not to ravel beyond the self-determined limits of ten directions (digvrata), refraining from purposeless activities (Anarthadandaviramanavrata) and resolving not to cross the fixed regional boundaries for the purpose of sensuous enjoyments (desavakasika) these are three gunavratas (i. e., the three meritorious vows). (318)

Uddhamahe tiriyam pi ya, disasu parimanakaranamiha padhamam.

Bhaniyam gunavvayam khalu, savagadhammammi virena. (319)


Lord Mahavira has said that the first Gunavrata in the religion of a householder is digvrata, accoring to which one should limit his activities (for the purpose of business and enjoyment of the senses, etc.) to certain regional boundaries in the upward, lower and oblique direction. (319)

Vayabhangakaranam hoi, jammi desammi tattha niyamena.

Kirai gamananiyatti, tam jano gunavvayam vidiyam. (320)


Know that the second Gunavrata (desavakasika gunavrata) is not to visit any particular geographical region where there is possibility of voilation of an accepted vow (i. e. to cross the fixed regional boundaries for the purpose of sensuous enjoyment). (320)

Virai anatthadande, taccam, sa cauvviho avajjhano.

Pamayayariya himsappayana pavovaese ya. (321)


The third gunavrata consists in refraining from a futile voilent act which might be one of the four-types, viz. (1) entertaining evil thought, (2) negligent behaviour, (3) lending to someone an instrument of violence and (4) advising someone to commit a sinful act. (321)

Atthena tam na bamdhai, jamanatthenam tu thovabahubhava.

Atthe kalaiya, niyamaga na u anatthae. (322)


Meaningful activities (of himsa etc.) do not cause so much bondage as useless activities, The meaningful activities (of himsa etc.) are only performed under some circumstances (i.e. the needs of time etc.) but it is not the case of useless activities. (322)

Kandappam kukkuiyam, mohariyam samjuyahigaranam ca.

Uvabhogaparibhoga-ireyagayam cittha vijjai. (323)


A person observing the vow of (Anarthanda viramana) should refrain from amorous activities, mimicry, abusive talk, garrulity, keeping instruments and weapons of violence, excessive sexual enjoyment and possessing in excess the things of daily requirement. (323)

Bhoganam parisamkha, samaiya-atihisamvibhago ya.

Posahavihi ya savvo, cauro sikkhau vuttao. (324)


Setting limit to the consumable and unconsumable objects of sensuous enjoyment, practising the mental equanimity (Samayika), offering food etc. to the monks, guests and other needy persons and performing fast alongwith the religious set called pausadha, all these are known as four disciplinary vows. (324)

Vajjinamanamtagumbari, accamganam ca bhogao manam.

Kammayao kharakamma-iyana avaram imam bhaniyam. (325)


The first disciplinary vow (i. e. bhogapabhoga viramana) is of two types, viz., that in respect of enjoyment and that in respect of occupation. The former consists in refrainment from eating the infinite souled vegetables (i.e. bulbous roots), fruit containing microscopic organism which are called udumbaras and flesh etc., the second is refrainment from such trades and industries which involves violence and other sinful acts. (325)

Savajjajogaparirakkhanattha, samaiyam kevaliyam pasattham,

Gihatthadhamma paraqmam ti nacca, kujja buho ayahiyam parattha. (326)


Aimed at refrainment from sinful acts, the only auspicious religious act is samayika. Hence considering it to be something superior to a householder's ordinary acts, an intelligent person ought to perform samayika for the sake of one's own welfare.(326)

Samaiyammi u kae, samano iva savao havai jamha.

Eena karanenam, bahuso samaiyam kujja. (327)


While observing the vow of Samayika (i. e., refraining from sinful acts and practice for mental equanimity) a householder becomes equal to a saint; for reason, he should observe it many times (in a day). (327)

Samaiyam ti kaum, paricimtam jo u cimtai saddho.

Attavasattovagao, niratthayam tassa samaiyam. (328)


If a householder thinks of other worldly matters (than his self) while practising samayika, he will become engrossed in distressful concentration; his samayika will be fruitless. (328)

Aharadehasakkara-bambha vavaraposaho ya nam.

Dese savve ya imam, carame samaiyam niyama. (329)


Posadhopavas involves abstinence from food, from embellishment of the body, from sexual union and from violence. It is of two types, viz., partial and total and performing posadha of the latter type one must necessarily perform samayika. (329)

Annainam suddhanam, kappanijjana desakalajuttam.

Danam jainamuciyam, gihina sikkhavayam bhaniyam. (330)


A householder who offers pure food etc. to the monks in a proper manner and according to the rules and the needs of place and time, observes the fourth disciplinary vow (called Atithisamvibhaga). (330)

Aharosaha-satthabhaya-bheo jam cauvviham danam.

Tam vuccai dayavvam, nidditthamuvasayajjhayane. (331)


Donation is of four types, viz., that of food, that of medicine, that of scriptural teaching, that of assurance against fear. And in the scriptural text `Upasakadhyayana' this fourfold donation is declared worthy of performance. (331)

Danam bhoyanamettam, dijjai dhanno havei sayaro.

pattapattavisesam, samdamsane kim viyarena. (332)


A householder, who gives food in charity becomes praise-worthy, what is the good of inquiring about the fitness or unfitness of the person receiving the charity? (332)

Sahunam kappanijjam, jam na vi dinnam kahim pi kimci tahim.

Dhira jahuttakari, susavaya tam na bhumjamti. (333)


The pious householders who are prudent and have good conduct as per scriptures, do not take food in a house where no charity of any kind is ever given to a monk. (333)

Jo munibhuttavisesam, bhumjai so bhumjae jinuvadittham.

Samsarasarasokkham, kamaso nivvanvarasokkham. (334)


He, who eats which is left after a monk has taken food, enjoys the best worldly happiness and will gradually obtain the bliss of emancipation. This is the preaching of the Jina. (334)

Jam kirai parirakkha, niccam marana-bhayabhiru-jivanam.

Tam jana abhayadanam, sihamanim savvadananam. (335)


Know that giving protection always to living beings who are in fear of death is known as abhayadana, supreme amongst all charities. (335)