Nemi Chandra Siddhantha Chakravarti
Translation and commentary by Sarat Chandra Ghoshal.
1. I always salute with my head that
eminent one among the great Jinas, who is worshipped by the host of Indras and
who has described the Dravyas (substances) Jiva and Ajiva.
2. Jiva is characterized by upayoga, is
formless and an agent, has the same extent at its own body, is the enjoyer (of
the fruits of Karma), exists in samsara, is Siddha and has a characteristic
3. According to Vyavahara Naya, that is
called Jiva, which is possessed of four Pranas, viz., Indriya (the senses),
Bal (force), Ayu (life) and Ana-prana (respiration) into the three periods of
time (viz., the present, the past and the future), and according to
Nischaya Naya that which has consciousness is called Jiva.
4. Upayoga is of two kinds, Darshana and
Jnana. Darshana is of four kinds, Darshana is known to be (divided into)
Chaksu, Achuksu; Avadhi and Kevala.
5. Jnana is of eight kinds, viz., Jnana
and Ajnana of Mati, Sruta and Avadhi, manah-paryaya and Kevala. (It is also
divided into Pratyaksha and Paroksa (from another point of view).
6. According to Vyavahara Naya, the
general characteristics of Jiva are said to be eight kinds of Jnana and four
kinds of Darshana. But according to Suddha Naya, (the characteristics of Jiva)
are pure Jnana and Darshana.
7. According to Nischaya Naya, Jiva is
without form; because the five kinds of colour and taste, two kinds of smell,
and eight kinds of touch are not present in it. But according to Vyavahara
Naya [Jiva] has form through the bondage [of Karma.]
8. According to Vyavahara Naya is the doer
of the Pudgala Karmas. According to Nischaya Naya (Jiva is the doer of)
Thought Karmas. According to Suddha Naya (Jiva is the doer) of Suddha Bhavas.
9. According to Vyavahara Naya, Jiva
enjoys happiness and misery the fruits of Pudgala karmas, According to
Nischaya Naya, Jiva has conscious Bhavas only.
10. According to Vyavahara Naya, the
conscious Jiva, being without Samudghata, becomes equal in extent to a small
or a large body, by contraction and expansion; but, according to Nischaya,
Naya (it) is existent in innumerable Pradesas.
11. The earth, water, fire, air and plants
are various kinds of Sthavara possessed of one sense. The Trasa Jivas,
conches, etc., are possessed of two, three, four and five senses.
12. [Jivas] possessing five senses are
known [to be divided into] those having mind and those without mind. All the
rest are without mind. [Jivas] having one sense [are divided into two classes]
Badara and Suksma. All [of these have again to varieties each] Paryapta and
13. Again, according to impure (Vyavahara)
Naya, Samsari Jivas are of fourteen kinds according to Margana and Gunasthana.
But according to pure Naya, all Jivas should be understood to pure.
14. The Siddhas (or liberated Jivas) are
void of karmas, possessed of eight qualities, slightly less than the final
body, eternal, possessed of Utpada (rise) and Vyaya (fall), and existent at
the summit of Loka.
15. Again, Ajivas should be known to be
Pudgala, Dharma, Adhrma, Akasa and Kala. Pudgala has form and the qualities,
Rupa, etc. But the rest are without form.
16. Sound, union, fineness, grossness,
shape, division, darkness and image, with lustre and heat (are) modifications
of the substance (known as) Pudgala.
17. As water assists the movement of
moving fish, so Dharma (assists the movement of moving) Pudgala and Jiva.
(But) it does not move (Pudgala and Jiva which are) not moving.
18. As shadow (assists the staying of) the
travellers, (so) Adharma assists the staying of the Pudgalas and Jivas which
are stationary, But that (i.e. Adharma) does not hold back moving (Pudgalas
19. Know that which is capable of allowing
space to Jiva etc. to be Akasa, according to Jainism Lokakasa and Alokakasa,
thus (Akasa is) of two kinds.
20. Lokakasa is that in which Dharma,
Adharma, Kala, Pudgala and Jiva exist. That which is beyond (this Lokakasa) is
21. Vyavahara Kala (Time from the ordinary
point of view) is that which helps to produce changes in substances and which
is known from modifications (produced in substances), while Parmarthika (i.e.
real) Kala is understood from continuity.
22. Those innumerable substances which
exist one by one in each Pradesa of Lokakasa, like heaps of jewels, are points
23. In this manner this Dravya is said to
be of six kinds, according to the subdivisions of Jiva and Ajiva. The five,
without Kala, should be understood to be Astikayas.
24. As these exist, they are called "Asti"
by the great Jinas, and because (they have) many Pradesas, like bodies,
therefore (they are called) Kayas. (Hence these are called) Astikayas.
25. In Jiva and in Dharma and Adharma, the
Pradesas are innumerable, in Akasa (The Pradesas are) infinite and in that
which has form (viz., Pudgala) (these are) of three kinds, (viz., numerable,
innumerable and infinite). Kala (Time) has one (Raradesha). Therefore it is
not (called) Kaya.
26. An atom (of Pudgala), though having
one Pradesa, becomes of many Pradesas, through being Pradesa in many Skandhas.
For this reason, from the ordinary point of view, the omniscient ones call (it
to be) Kaya.
27. Know that (to be) surely Pradesa which
is obstructed by one indivisible atom of Pudagala and which can give space to
28. We shall describe briefly those
varieties of Jiva and Ajiva also which are (known as) Asrava, Bandha, Samvara.
Nirjara and Moksha with Punya and Papa.
29. That modification of the soul by which
Karma gets into (it) is to be known as Bhavasrava, as told by the Jina, and
the other (kind of Asrava) is the influx of Karma.
30. Then, it should be known that of the
former (i.e., Bhavasrava) (the subdivisions are) Mithyatva, Avirati, Pramada,
Yoga, Anger, etc., (which are again of) five, five fifteen, three and four
31. That influx of mater which causes
Jnanavaraniya etc., it to be known as Dravyasrava as called by the Jina and
possessing many varieties.
32. That conscious state by which Karma is
bound (with the soul) is called Bhava-bandha, while the interpenetration of
the Pradesas of Karma and the soul is the other (i.e., Dravyabandha).
33. Bandha is of four kinds, according to the
(subdivisions, viz.,) Prakriti, Sthiti, Anubhaga and Pradesa, Prakirti and
Pradesa are (produced) from Yoga, but Sthiti and Anubhaga are from Kasaya.
34. That modification of consciousness which is
the cause of checking Asrava (influx) of Karma, is surely Bhavasamvra, and the
other (known as Dravyasamvra is known from) checking Dravyasrava.
35. That Vratas (Vows), Samitis (attitudes of
carefulness), Guptis (Restraints), Dharmas (Observances), Anuprekasas
(Meditations), Parisaha-jayas (the victories over troubles) and various kinds
of Charitra (Conduct) are to e known as varieties of Bhava-samvara.
36. That Bhava (modification of the soul) by
which the mater of Karma disappears in proper time after the fruits [of such
Karma] are enjoyed [is called Bhava-Nirjara], also [the destruction of Karmic
matter] through penances [is known as Bhava-Nirjara.] And that destruction
[itself] [is known as Dravya-Nirjana] Thus Nirjara should be known of two
37. That modification of the soul which is the
cause of the destruction of all Karmas, is surely to be known as Bhava-moksha
and (actual) separation of the Karmas [is] Dravya-moksha.
38. The Jivas consist of Punya and Papa surely
having auspicious and inauspicious Bhavas (respectively). Punya is
Satavedaniya, auspicious life, name and class, while Papa is (exactly) the
opposite (of these).
39. Know that from the ordinary point of view,
perfect faith, knowledge and conduct are the cause of liberation, while really
one's own soul consisting of these three (is the cause of liberation).
40. The three jewels (i.e., Perfect Faith,
Perfect Knowledge and Perfect Conduct) do not exist in any other substance
excepting the soul. Therefore, the soul surely is the cause of liberation.
41. Samyaktva (perfect faith) is the belief in
Jiva, etc. That is a quality of the soul, and when this arises, Jnana
(knowledge), being free from errors, surely becomes perfect.
42. Samyak Jnana (Perfect Knowledge) is
the detailed cognition of the real nature of the ego and non-ego, is freed
from Samsaya (Doubt), Vimoha (Perversity) and Vibhrama (Indefiniteness), and
is of many varieties.
43. That perception of the generalities of
things without particularities in which there is no grasping of details, is
called Darsana in (Jaina) scriptures.
44. In Samsati Jivas, Jnana is preceded by
Darshana. For this reason [in him], the two Upayogas (viz. Jnana and Darshana)
do not (arise) simultaneously. But in Kevalis, both of these two (arise)
45. Know Charitra to be refraining from
what is harmful and engagement in what is beneficial. But according to
Vyavahara Naya, Charitra (Conduct) has been mentioned by the Jina to consist
of Vrata, Samiti and Gupti.
46. That checking of external and internal
actions by one who has knowledge, in order to destroy the causes of Samsara,
is the excellent samyak Charitra (Perfect Conduct) mentioned by the Jina.
47. Because by the rule a sage gets both
the (Vyavahara and Nischaya) causes of liberation by meditation, therefore
(all of) you practise meditation with careful mind.
48. If you wish to have your mind fixed in
order to succeed in various kinds of meditation, do not be deluded by or
attached to beneficial objects and do not be averse to harmful objects.
49. Repeat and meditate on (the Mantras),
signifying the Paramesthis and consisting of thirty-five, sixteen, six, five
four, two and one (letter) and other (mantras) taught by the Guru (preceptor)
50. That pure soul existing in an
auspicious body, possessed of (infinite) faith, happiness, knowledge and power
which has destroyed the four Ghatiya Karmas, is to be meditated on as an Arhat.
51. Meditate on the Siddha - the soul
which is bereft of the bodies produced by eight kinds of Karmas, which is the
seer and knower of Loka and Aloka, which has a shape like a human being and
which stays at the summit of the universe.
52. That sage who attaches himself and
others to the practice of Virya (Power), Charitra (Conduct) and Tapa (Penance)
in which faith and knowledge are eminent is to be meditated as Acharya
53. That being, the greatest of the great
sages who being possessed of the three jewels, is always engaged in preaching
the religious truths, is (known as) Upadhyaya (Teacher). Salutation to him.
54. That sage who practices well conduct
which is always pure and which is the path of liberation with perfect faith
and knowledge is a Sadhu. Obeisance to him.
55. When a Sadhu attaining concentration
becomes void of conscious effort by meditation on anything whatever, that
state is called real meditation.
56. Do not act, do not talk do not think,
so that the soul may be attached to and fixed in itself. This only is
57. As a should which (practises)
penances, (holds) vows and (has knowledge of) scriptures, becomes capable of
holding the axle of the chariot of meditation, so to attain that (meditation)
be always engaged in these three (i.e. penances, vows and Sastras).
58. Let the great sages, full of the
(knowledge) of Sastras and freed from the collection of faults, correct this
Dravya-samgraha which is spoken by the sage Nemichandra who has little
(knowledge) of the Sastras.