Summary of Prasamarati
Fist Adhikara (1-23) is an introductory chapter in which the author, after paying homage to Pancaparamesthins39 states the purpose of his undertaking to write this book. The main object of this work is to make ones mind firm on the path of non-attachment to reach an absolutely unperturbed state of the Self.40 This work is composed out of devotion (7) towards Jinavacanas that are meant for the benefit of the lay men. Then the writer, with a characteristic modesty, requests the scholars not to mind his intellectual weakness and any type of slips in this work-(8-11). The author says that he is not preaching any new principle but repeating the ideas which are already told and retold by ancient Acaryas and scholars (12). He defends this repetition by saying that just as certain mantras and medicines, which are used repeatedly, cure diseases of attachment (13-15). Here the author explains the term prasama occurring in the title of the present work as a synonym of vairagya-non-attachment (17). Then the author introduces the central theme of this work stating that attachment and aversion (raga-dvesa) are the cause of the karmic bondage in samsara and describes the nature of the mundane soul (kasayijiva) (20-23).
Second Chapter (24-30) deals with four kinds of passions (kasayas) viz, anger (krodha) pride (mana), deceit (maya) and greed (lobha) as the root cause of mundane life.
Third Chapter (31-33) deals with their relations to raga and dvesa on one hand and to mamakara-(mineness) and Ahankara ego of I-ness on the other. Raga consists of deceit and greed and dvesa consists of anger and pride. Raga and dvesa are the synonyms of mamakara (mineness) and Ahankara (Iness) respectively. The pair of mineness and I-ness are the roots of these four passions. These four fundamental passions accompanied by wrong belief (mithyadrsti), want of control (avirati), negligence (pramada) and psycho-physical activities (yoga of mind, speech and body) are the causes of eight kinds of karmic bondage of Atman.
In the Fourth Chapter (34-38) the author discusses the eight kinds of Karmas, their sub-divisions and six types of Lesyas (color or tint of soul).
Fifth and Sixth Chapters (39-80) explain the cause of repeated births and deaths and also deaths and also show the pathway to stop this cycle respectively. Passions, wrong belief, want of control, negligence and yoga are the cause of accumulation of Karma and are the root cause of chain of repeated births and deaths. The one who has no control over senses, engrossed in sense-object enjoyment meets with death like those of the deer, the mouth, the black bee, the fish and the elephant who meet with death bound by the rope of their native tendencies (41-46). The great net created by raga and dvesi can be completely destroyed by following the right path, right conduct, austerity, meditation, observing five vows, which lead one to the complete withdrawal of Self from the psyco-physical activities which in turn lead to the breakage of the chain of births and rebirths. This breakage leads to the ultimate freedom I. e., Moksa.
Seventh Chapter (81-111) deals with eight kinds of prides viz., pride of caste, family, beauty, strength, gain, intellect, popularity and knowledge which are not only root cause of mental agitation but cause of long chain of births and deaths.
In the Eighth Chapter (112-148), five kinds of code of conduct viz, Right faith, Right knowledge, Right conduct, Penance and Rigour is prescribed for monks of destroying attachment, aversion, passions etc.
In the Ninth Chapter (149-166) the author discusses the important conception of 12 Bhavanas known as Aunpreksas on which a monk has to reflect constantly. Reflection on these 12 Bhavanas leads to renunciation of attachment to worldly pleasures.
Tenth Chapter (167-181) deals with ten kinds of Sramanadharma-a virtuous path such as Supreme forgiveness; (Ksanti), Modesty (Mardava), Straightforwardness (Arjava), Purity (sauca); Self-restraint (Samyama), Renunciation (Tyaga), Truthfulness (Satya), Penance (Tapa), Chastity (Brahmacary).
Eleventh Chapter (182-188) teaches us to avoid four kinds of unworthy talks such as story about women, food, thief and different countries which generate interest in worldly enjoyment, and to engage ones self in four kinds of religious talks such as Aksepani, Viksepani, Samvedani and Nirvedani, which inspire us to perform religious duties.
In the Twelfth Chapter (189-193) the author mentions the nine fundamental principles viz., Jiva (soul), Ajiva (non-soul), Papa ( demerit), Punya (merit), Asrava (inflow of Karma), Samvara (stoppage of influx of Karma), Nirjara (destruction of stock of Karma), Bandha (bondage) and Moksa (Liberation) and kinds of Jivas.
The Thirteenth Chapter (194-195) tells us that consciousness is the common defining characteristic of all souls. This consciousness is also divided into two kinds viz. determinate (sakara) and indeterminate (ahankara). The former is of eight kinds and the latter is of four types.
In the Fourteenth Chapter (196-206), the author explains the six kinds of bhavas i. e. characteristic conditions of the soul due to audayika (rising state of Karma), parinamika (natural state), aupasamika (state of subsidence of Karma) ksayika (state of destruction of Karma) ksayopasamika (state of destruction and subsidence) and sannipatika (mixed state of remaining five kinds of states.) They are subdivided into many kinds. The Jiva conditioned by these different states of Karmas obtains births in different regions having different senses. The Self exists from the point of view of its own substance, space and time, and time (202). Real of Substance is that which possesses the three characteristics of production (Utpada), destruction (Vigama) and permanence (Dhruva) (204).
Fifteenth Chapter (207-227) gives detailed explanation of six substances, nature of universe and nine fundamental Tattvas. Firm faith in these Tattvas is called Samyagdarsana. There are two kinds of knowledge: direct and indirect (Pratyaksa and Paroksa). The former is of two kinds and latter is of three kinds.
Sixteenth Chapter (228-242) teaches us about five kinds of right conduct viz. Samayika, chedopasthana, pariharavisuddhi, suksmasamparaya and yathakhvata which are chief means of liberation (228-229), Right faith, Right knowledge and Right conduct together constitute the path of liberation. If one of them is absent the path is imperfect (230).
In the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Chapters, Dharmadhyana and its classification is discussed respectively (243-245 and 246-254). Meditation on dharmadhyana leads one to apurvakaranagunasthana (I. e. 8th step).
In the Nineteenth Chapter (255-272) the author shows, how the aspirant gradually ascends to ksapakasreni, by destroying mohaniyakarmas and after remaining antarmuhurta in the 12th stage, he ascends to 13th stage which is the stage of Kevalajnana.
Chapter twenty (273-276) deals with the process of Kevalisamudghata.
In the Twenty-first Chapter (277-282) the author explains the process of yoganirodha performed by Kevali. After retiring from samudghata, the Kevali adopts yoganirodha-elimination of activities of mind, speech and body.
The Twenty-second Chapter (283-313) deals with the process of ascending sailesi stage by Kevali and state of Siddhahood. Kevali, being free from all types of activities, and Lesyas immediately after the time taken to pronounce five syllables, obtains a state of Sailesi (283). In this state he destroys the even germs of karmic matter and simultaneously annihilates Ayu, Vedaniya, Nama and gotra Karmas and throwing up his body immediately ascends to the to of the universe, and obtains Siddhahood, which is ever free from the impurities of matter and Karmas, beyond pain, suffering and transmigration. The Jiva obtaining this infinite, incomparable, undisturbed state of happiness, becomes the very essence of right knowledge.
In this chapter itself, code of conduct for householders is also discussed. This is a preparatory stage for becoming a monk. Following these principles, householders will obtain heaven after death and within eight births, being perfectly pure, obtain Siddhahood.