Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Austerities (Taps)
Introduction
Classification
External
Internal
Others

Other Austerities (Tapasyas)

 

 

There are some other common external austerities. They are:

 

  1. Navkarsi: One must take food or water forty minutes after sunrise. Even the brushing of oneís teeth and rinsing    of once mouth must be done after sunrise.

  2. Porsi: Taking food or water three hours after sunrise.

  3. Sadh‑porsi:  Taking food or water four hours and thirty minutes after sunrise.

  4. Purimuddh: Taking food or water six hours after sunrise.

  5. Avadhdh: Taking food or water eight hours after sunrise.

  6. Biyasan: Taking food twice a day sitting in one place while taking food.

  7. Ekasan: Taking food only once and sitting in one place.

  8. Ayambil: Taking food only once in one sitting. The food should not have any taste and spices and should be boiled or cooked. Also, one shall not use milk, curds, ghee, oil, and green or raw vegetables.

  9. Upavas: One must not take any food for twenty four hours starting from sunrise to sunrise the next day.

  10. Tivihar upavas: One may drink only boiled water during upavas.

  11. Chauvihar upavas: One does not even drink water during upavas.

  12. Tivihar: After sunset no food or juice shall be taken, but one may take only water until sunrise the next day.

  13. Chauvihar: After sunset no food or water is taken until sunrise the next day.

  14. Chhath: Upavas for two consecutive days.

  15. Attham: Upavas for three consecutive days.

  16. Atthai: Upavas for eight consecutive days.

  17. Masakshaman: Consecutive upavas for one month.

  18. Navapad oli: During every year for 9 days starting from the 6/7th day of the bright fortnight until the full moon day in Ashwin and Chaitra months, one does Ayambil. This is repeated for the next four and half years. These ayambils can also be restricted to only one kind of food grain per day.

  19. Varshitap, Vardhaman, and visasthanak tap, etc.

 

In Ekasan, Biyasan, Ayambil, or upavas one drinks boiled water only and that too only between sunrise and sunset. It is better if one can do a chauvihar or tivihar on the night before starting these austerities. If any of the austerities allow food, one shall not take raw vegetables, underground roots, and raw grains while performing such austerities.