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      www.jainworld.com                         Tatvarth Sutra                  English..Upadhaya  Shritsagar 

                                                             Acharya Uma Swami                  

Chapter 7  

               ETHICAL CODE

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Hinsa(a)nrta-steyabrahma-parigrahebhyo viratirvratam

_Desisting from injury, falsehood, stealing, unchastity and attachment is the fivefold vow.

   

ns’k&loZrks .kq&egrhAA 2AA

Desasarvato (a)numahati

_The vow is of two kinds, small and great from 

its being partial and total.

   

rRLFkS;kZFkZ Hkkouk% iap&iapAA 3AA

Tatsthairyartham bhavanah pancha-pancha

_For the sake of stabilising the vows, there are 

five observan-ces for each of these.

   

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 R;kyksfdrikuHkkstukfu iapAA 4AA

               Van-mano-guptirya-dananikshepana-

                 samityalokitapanabhojanani pancha

_Control of speech, control of thought, observing the ground in front while walking, care in taking and placing things or objects, and examine the food in the sunlight before eating/drinking are five observances of non-violence.

   

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 U;uqohph&Hkk”k.ka p iapAA 5AA

Krodha-lobha-bhirutva-hasya-pratyakhyana-

nyanuvichi-bhashanam cha pancha

_Giving up anger, greed, cowardice or fearfulness and jest, and speaking flawless words according to the scriptures are five observances of truth.

   

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HkS{k’kqf)&l/kekZfolaoknk% iapAA 6AA

Shunyagara-vimochitavasa-paroparodhakarana-bhaiksha shuddhi-sadharmavisanvadah pancha

_Residence in a solitary place, residence in a deserted habitation, causing no hindrance to residence by others, acceptance of clean food and not quarrelling with brother monks, are five observances of vow against stealing.

   

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o‘“;s”Vjl&Lo’kjhj& laLdkjR;kxk% iapAA 7AA

Striragakathashravana-tanmanoharanganirikshana-

purvaratanusmarana-vrsyeshtarasa

svasharirasanskaratyagah pancha

_Giving up listening to stories that excite attachment for women, looking at the beautiful bodies of women, recalling former sexual pleasure, delicacies stimula-ting amorous desire and adornment of own body, constitute five observances of chastity.

   

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Manogyamanogyendriyavishaya-raga-dvesha-varjanani pancha

_Giving up attachment to objects agreeable to the five senses and aversion to objects disagreeable to the five senses constitute five observances of non-attachment.

   

fgalkfnf”ogkeq=kik;k&o|n’kZue~AA 9AA

Hinsadishvihamutrapaya-vadyadarshanam

_The consequences of violence, falsehood, stealing, unchastity and attachment are calamity and reproach in this world and in the next birth.

   

nq%[keso okAA 10AA

Duhkhameva va

_These five sins should be considered and thought off as the cause of all sufferings.

   

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 xq.kkf/kd&fDy’;ekukfous;s”kqAA 11AA

Maitri-pramoda-karunya-madhyasthani cha sattva-gunadhika-klishyamanavineyeshu

_Benevolence towards all living beings, joy at the sight of the virtuous, compassion and sympathy for the afflicted, and tolerance towards the insolent and ill-behaved are the right sentiments.

   

txRdk;LoHkkokS ok laosxoSjkX;kFkZe~AA 12AA

Jagatkayasvabhavau va sanvegavairagyartham

_ In order to cultivate awe at the misery of wordly existence and detachment to worldly things one should medidate over the nature of mundane existence of the universe and the body.

   

izeRr;ksxkRizk.kO;ijksi.ka fgalkAA 13AA

Pramattayogatpranavyaparopanam hinsa

_The severance of vitalities through pramattayoga (the mind, the speach and the body out of passion) is injury or voilence.

   

vlnfHk/kkueu‘re~AA 14AA

Asadabhidhanamanrtam

_Speaking through pramattayoga what

is not commendable is falsehood.

   

vnRrknkua Lrs;e~AA 15AA

Adattadanam steyam

_Taking through pramattayoga anything

that is not given is stealing.

   

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Maithunamabrahma

_Copulation through pramattayoga is unchastity.

   

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Murchchha parigrahah

_Infatuation is the desire through pramattayoga for acquisition, safeguarding and addition to external and internal possessions.

   

fu’’kY;ks ozrhAA 18AA

Nishshalyo vrati

_Any body free from deceitfulness, non-belief in realities and desire in worldly pleasures is the votary.

   

vxk;Zuxkj’pAA 19AA

Agaryanagarashcha

_The votaries are of two kinds – those who live 

in homes and those who  have denounced home.

   

   v.kqozrks xkjhAA 20AA

Anuvrato (a)gari

_One who observes the small vows and live

 at home is a householder.

   

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oklksiHkksxifjHkksxifjek.kkfrfFk&lafoHkkxozrlai�’pAA 21AA

Digdeshanarthadandavirati-samayika-proshadhopa-

vasopabhogaparibhogaparimanatithi-

sanvibhagavratasampannashcha

_The householder votaries also follow three minor vows i.e. abstaining from activity with regard to direction, country and purposeless sin, an four supplementary vows i.e. periodical concen-tration, fasting at regular intervals (on eighth and fourteenth day of each lunar period of 15 days), limiting consumable and non-consumable things, and partaking of one's food after feeding an ascetic.

   

ekj.kkfUrdha lYys[kuka tksf”krkAA 22AA

Maranantikim sallekhanam joshita

_At the end of one's duration of life, the householder votaries should make their body and internal passions emaciated by abandoning their sources gradually at the approach of death. This is called Sallekhana.

   

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laLrok% lE;Xn`”Vsjfrpkjk%AA 23AA

Shankakanksha-vichikitsa-(a)nyadrstiprashansa-

samyagdrsteraticharah

_Doubt in the teachings of the Jina, desire for worldly enjoy-ment, repugnance or disgust at the afflicted, admiration for the knowle-dge and conduct of the wrong believer and praise of wrong believers, are the five trans-gressions of the right believer.

   

ozr’khys”kq iap&iap ;FkkDjee~~AA 24AA

Vratashileshu pancha pancha yathakramam

_There are five transgressions for each of the vows, minor vows and the supplementary vows.

   

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Bandha-vadhachchhedati-bhararopanannapana-nirodhah

_Binding, beating, mutilating limbs, overloading and withholding food and drink are the fire transgressions of non-voilence.

   

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U;klkigkj&lkdkjeU=Hksnk%AA 26AA

Mithyopadesha-rahobhyakhyana-kutalekhakriya-

nyasapahara-sakaramantrabhedah

_Perverted teaching, divulging what is done under secrecy, forgery, misappropriation, and proclaiming others' thoughts are the five transgressions of truth.

 

 

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                 Stenaprayoga-tadahrtadana-viruddharajyatikrama-

                 hina-dhikamanonmanapratirupaka-vyavaharah

_Prompting others to steal, receiving stolen goods, underbuying in a disordered state, using false weights and measures, and deceiving others with artificial or imitation goods are the five transgressions of non-stealing.

   

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Paravivahakaranetvarika-parigrhitaparigrhita-

gamananangakridakama-tivrabhiniveshah

_Bringing about marriage of persons other than own family members, intercourse with an unchaste married woman, cohabitation with a harlot, perverted sexual practices and excessive sexual passion are the five transgressions of chastity.

   

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Ksetra-vastu-hiranya-suvarna-dhana-dhanya-dasi-

dasa-kupya-pramanatikramah

_Exceeding the limits set by oneself with regard to cultivable lands and houses, riches such as gold and silver, cattle and corn, men and women servants and clothes are the five transgressions of non-attachment.

   

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Urdhvadhastiryagvyatikrama-kshetravrddhi-smrtya-ntaradhanani

_Exceeding the limits set in the directions, namely upwards, downwards and horizontally, enlarg-ing the boundaries in the accepted directions, and forgetting the bound-aries set, are the five transgressions of the minor vow of direction.

   

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Anayana-preshyaprayoga-shabdarupanupata-pudgalakshepah

_Asking someone staying outside the country of one's resolve to bring something from there,  commanding someone there to do something, indicating one's intentions by sounds, by showing oneself, and by throwing clod etc. are the five transgressions of the minor vow to abstain from activities beyond a country.

   

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 fdj.kksiHkksx&ifjHkksxkuFkZD;kfuAA 32AA

Kandarpa-kautkucya-maukharya-samikshyadhi-

kiranopabhoga-paribhoganarthakyani

 _Vulgar jokes, vulgar jokes accompanied by gesticulation, garrulity, unthinkingly indulging in too much action, keeping more than required consumable and non-consumable objects, are the five transgressions of the vow of desisting from unnecessary sin.

   

;ksx&nq”izf.k/kkukuknj&Le‘R;uqi& LFkkukfuAA 33AA

Yoga-duspranidhananadara-smrtyanupa-sthanani

_Misdirected activity of mind, speach and body, lack of earnestness and fluctuation of thought are the five transgressions of concentration.

   

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Dje.kkuknj&Le‘R;uqiLFkkukfuAA 34AA

Apratyaveksitapramarjitotsargadana-sanstaropa-

kramananadara-smrtyanupasthanani

_Excreting, handling sandal-wood paste, flowers, etc., and spreading mats and sitting or sleaping thereon without inspecting and cleaning the place and the materials, lack of earnestness and lack of concentration are the five transgressions of fasting at regular intervals.

   

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Sachittasambandha-sammishrabhishava-duhpakvaharah

 _Taking food containing (one-sensed) organisms, placed near organisms and mixed with organisms, stimulants and ill-cooked, are the five transgressions of vow to limit consumbales and non-consumbales.

   

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Sachittanikshepapidhana-paravyapadesa-matsarya-kalatikramah

_Placing the food on things with organisms such as green leaves, covering it with such things, offer food donated by others inform the same, offer food without respect, and offer food in an untimely manner, are the five transgressions of vow to partake food after feeding an ascetic.

   

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Jivitamaranashansa-mitranuraga-sukhanubandha-nidanani

_Desire for life, desire for death, recollection of affection for friends, recollection of pleasures and constant longing for enjoyment, are the five transgressions of Sallekhana.

   

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Anugrahartham svasyatisargo danam

_Charity is the giving of one's wealth to another for mutual benefit.

   

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Vidhi-dravya-datr-patra-visheshattadvisheshah

_The distinction with regard to the effect of a gift consists in the manner, the thing given, the nature of the giver and the nature of the recipient. The desired qualities are the manner - with reverence, the thing - promotes austerities, study etc., the giver - free from envy and dejection, and the recipient - qualities which lead to salvation.

 =================================================

ETHICAL CODE

Vows And Observances:

The vows are renunciation of violence, untruth, stealing, unchastity and possessiveness.

The vows are of two kinds: Partial and total.

There are five observances each for imbibing these five vows.

The five observances for the vow of nonviolence are:

carefulness of speech,

carefulness of thoughts,

carefulness in walking,

carefulness in lifting and placing objects,

carefulness in obtaining and preparing one's food and drink .

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The five observances for the vow of truth are speaking according to the principles of religion, and giving up anger, greed, cowardice and frivolity.

The five observances for the vow of non-stealing are:

residence in a solitary place,

residence in a deserted habitation,

sharing one's place and possessions,

accepting clean and simple food, and

avoiding criticism of peers in society.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The five observances for the vow of chastity are:

renunciation of stories of attachment to the opposite sex,

seeing their attractive bodies,

remembering past sexual experiences,

aphrodisiacs, and

beautifying one's own body.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The five observances for the vow of nonpossessiveness are:

Giving up attachment to and aversion from pleasant and unpleasant objects of the five senses.

Violence, untruth, stealing, unchastity and possessiveness lead to calamity and disgrace.

Ultimate consequence of these is unhappiness.

Therefore, we should have feelings of friendliness for all living beings, feelings of joy for the virtuous, compassion for those in distress and indifference towards those who mistreat us.

We should meditate upon the nature of reality to imbibe the spirit of non-attachment to the world and the renunciation of worldly pleasures.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Definition Of Violence

Violence is defined as obstruction of the life processes of self and of others effected by lack of conscientiousness.

Characteristic of Votary:

A votary is beyond any sting. Intrigue, delusion and desire of future material pleasures are stings because they arouse feelings of guilt.

Votaries are householders and homeless ascetics.

Householders are with partial vows.

Householders also practice the following:

(a) The three augmenting vows:

Limiting one's field of activity,

limiting one's duration of activity and

avoiding unnecessary activity.

(b) The four learning vows:

Meditation of the soul and its relationship with nature,

fasting,

limiting the use of consumable and non-consumable goods and

sharing one's food with guests.

In the final days of life, a householder observes peaceful death.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Transgressions (Failures Of Conduct):

Skepticism, desire, disgust, and, appreciation and praise of irrational people and concepts are the transgressions of rational perception.

Misleading proselytizing, divulging other's secret, forgery, misappropriation and revealing other's intentions are the transgressions of the vow of truth.

Promoting stealing, dealing in stolen goods, violating or evading the laws, cheating in weights and measures, and dealing in adulterated goods are the transgressions of the vow of non-stealing.

Desire for life, desire for death, affection for relatives and friends, recollection of pleasures, and longing for worldly pleasures in future are the transgressions of peaceful death.

Charity:

Charity is giving one's wealth for mutual benefit.

Charity is distinguished by the procedure, material, donor and acceptor.