The Social Divisions in Jainism are
concerned with society. It seems that in the Early Medieval Period, Jaina saints
converted a large number of people to Jainism, and formed their social groups
and named them in different ways. From their names such as Humba´┐Ża and Dhaska´┐Ża,
it seems that they originated from tribal people. Some are territorial in
nature. Some Kulas, titles and surnames were converted into castes. Some
castes originated from the professions. The Jaina system of social organization was in the
beginning based on the distinction of function. Later on, birth was considered
as a criterion of these castes because of the influence of Brahmanical religion
and of Muslim rule. Most of the Jaina castes in North - India originated in
Rajasthan. Later on, they gradually migrated to the different regions. These
Jaina castes were divided into ´┐Żvetambara and Digambara castes on the basis of
religious sects. Among the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbara castes, Osv´┐Żlas, Porav´┐Żlas and ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żl´┐Żs
are famous, while in the Digambaras, Bagherav´┐Żlas and Kha´┐Ż´┐Żelav´┐Żlas are well
known. As people migrated and settled in different regions outside Rajasthan, it
shows their adventurous spirit. Some castes of the same name as ´┐Żgrav´┐Żlas,
´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żl´┐Żs, Porav´┐Żlas and Kha´┐Ż´┐Żelav´┐Żlas are found both among the Jainas and the
non-Jainas. In South India, castes among the Jainas were determined by the
professions. These castes were gradually divided into several gotras. The
marriages of the individuals of the caste were determined after considering the
Jaina Castes and Gotras of Rajasthan
: Most of the
castes and their gotras found among the Jainas in the North have their origin,
in Rajasthan. The time and the manner of their origin is shrouded in
considerable mystery. There are many legendary accounts of their origin which
tell us that they are of great antiquity. But, as a matter of fact, no names of
these castes and their gotras before the seventh century are traceable.
From the historical point of view, these castes and their gotras seem to
have come into existence between the eighth and the thirteenth century A.D., the
time of golden age for Jainism in Rajasthan. There were born great influential
saints like Hemachandra and Jinachandra who converted the Rajputs Br´┐Żhma´┐Żas and
Vai´┐Żyas to Jainism. Even the Jaina statesmen like Vimala and Vastup´┐Żla tried to
spread Jainism by rendering meritorious services. The merchants also spent
countless wealth for its propagation by constructing beautiful temples and
placing images in them. In this way, Jainism was accepted by a large number of
masses who formed different Castes.
(1) Osav´┐Żlas : Osav´┐Żlas are
found in all the important cities of Rajasthan. They occupy a prominent position
both in administrative and commercial spheres. Their origin is from the place
named Osia in Marwar. This town was visited by Uppaladeva, the Scion of the
ruling family of ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żla who being pressed by his enemy sought refuge at the
hands of a ruler of the Prat´┐Żh´┐Żra dynasty which was then supreme in Marwar. At
this time, the Jaina saint Ratnaprabhas´┐Żri came to this place and found the only
son of Uppaladeva bitten by a snake. The king requested Ratnaprabha to cure him
which he did. The king with his subjects embraced Jainism and Ratnaprabhas´┐Żri
formed the Osav´┐Żla Caste of these
people. There are three views about the time of the
1. According to the
N´┐Żbhinandanoddh´┐Żra-prabandha and the Upake´┐Żagachchha-charitra,
Ratnaprabhas´┐Żri, the seventh pa´┐Ż´┐Żadhara in the line of P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha,
established the Osava´┐Ż´┐Ża in V´┐Żra Nirv´┐Ż´┐Ża Sa´┐Żvat 70 (457 B.C.). 2. In the opinion
of the Bh´┐Ż´┐Żas, the caste of the Osav´┐Żlas with their eighteen Gotras was
established by the teachings of Ratnaprabhas´┐Żri at Upake´┐Żanagara in Marwar in
222 V.E. (165 A.D.) 3. But both these views do not seem to be correct, because
there is no mention and trace of this caste before the 8th century A.D. It seems
to have come into existence afterwards. The king Uppaladeva and his subjects
were converted to Jainism by Ratnaprabhas´┐Żri who formed their caste of
Gotras of the Osav´┐Żlas
: After the
conversion, Osav´┐Żlas continued to multiply and they formed eighteen Gotras
according to the traditions. But the process of the multiplication continued
further particularly because they ceased to be a fighting race; and there was no
mass casualty due to any battle. It is believed that there are 1444 Gotras of
the Osav´┐Żlas. But these are not the main Gotras. They just represent simply the
branches and sub-branches. Yati ´┐Żr´┐Żp´┐Żla refers to the manuscript which mentions
609 Gotras.1 The poet R´┐Żpachanda of the
eighteenth century A.D. in his Osv´┐Żlar´┐Żsa mentions about 440
Gotras.2 Some are territorial, some are
individualistic, and others are occupational.
(a) Territorial Gotras : Some
Gotras were named after the places of their origin. Jinadattas´┐Żri gave
v´┐Żsakshepa to the two princes namely ´┐Żr´┐Żdhara and R´┐Żjadhara of R´┐Żvala
S´┐Żgara at Bha´┐Żas´┐Żla in Jaisalmer. The Princes and after them their
descendants and still further those who were closely or remotely related to
them, all came to be called Bha´┐Żas´┐Żl´┐Żs. And thus was established the Bha´┐Ża´┐Ż´┐Żl´┐Ż
Gotra.3 In 1542 A.D., S´┐Żha V´┐Żdaka of this
Gotra celebrated the consecration of Chandraprabha through Jinabhadra S´┐Żri at
Jaisalmer.4 So the Gotra must have strated not
later than 1500 A.D. The K´┐Żchholi Gotra was formed after the village named
K´┐Żchchhola in Sirohi State probably at the beginning of the 13th century A.D. In
1286 A.D., Ajayasi´┐Żha of this Gotra installed the image of P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha at
Kachchhol´┐Ż for acquiring merit for his parents.5 Koran´┐Ża Gotra originated from the
place named Koran´┐Ża in Marwar. In 1450 A.D. S´┐Żha V´┐Żsala of this Gotra for
acquiring merit for himself celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of
Sumatin´┐Żtha through Kakkas´┐Żri of this Gachchha.6 Some Osav´┐Żlas of P´┐Żgala settled at
another place, and they began to be called by the name P´┐Żgala. Me´┐Żatav´┐Żla Gotra
came into existence after the city of Mert´┐Ż in the former Jodhpur State. The
inscriptions of the 16th century of this Gotra are available at Mert´┐Ż and
Udaipur.7 The Osav´┐Żlas who came from Kanauj,
were grouped under Kanauji´┐Ż Gotra. In 1502 A.D., S´┐Żkhe´┐Żha of this Gotra for the
merit of his father consecrated the ´┐Ż´┐Żtalan´┐Żtha bimba through Devagupta
S´┐Żri.8 K´┐Ż´┐Żkr´┐Ża Gotra originated from
Bh´┐Żmas´┐Ż who lived in the village K´┐Żnkar´┐Żvata.9 He was the S´┐Żmanta of Mah´┐Żr´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż of
Udaipur and was converted to Jainism by Jinavallabhas´┐Żri of the Kharatara
Gachchha. There is a mention of this Gotra in the inscription of 1442 A.D. found
at Alwar.10 It is clear that these Gotras
started mostly between the 13th and the 15th centuries A.D.
(b) Occupational Gotras :
Some Gotras originated from the occupations of certain Jainas. R´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Ża R´┐Żva
Ch´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż gave his treasury to ´┐Żh´┐Żkaras´┐Ż. It is therefore the descendants of
´┐Żh´┐Żkaras´┐Ż that began to be called Ko´┐Żh´┐Żr´┐Ż. From the inscription of 1456 A.D., it
is clear that Megha of this Gotra celebrated V´┐Żsap´┐Żjya bimba through
Vinayaprabhas´┐Żri of N´┐Żgendra Gachchha.11 Those people, who did the work of
cashiers, were called Khaj´┐Ż´┐Żch´┐Ż. The Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żr´┐Żs claim ´┐Ża´┐Żr´┐Żo as their great
ancestor.12 In 992 A.D., he adopted Jainism
from Ya´┐Żobhadras´┐Żri of the Sa´┐Ż´┐Żeraka Gachchha. Officially, ´┐Ża´┐Żr´┐Żo was designed
as Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żr´┐Ż or the person in charge of the store-house; and consequently,
his descendants became known as Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żris. The earliest inscription of this clan
at N´┐Ż´┐Żl´┐Żi of 1132 A.D. refers to Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żri N´┐Żga´┐Żiva as a witness to a certain
grant.13 Another inscription of 1184 A.D.
refers to one Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żri Ya´┐Żov´┐Żra as the lord of Palla (a village six miles to the
west of Jodhpur).14 A Jalor inscription of 1185 A.D.
records the rebuilding of the Jaina temple by Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żri Ya´┐Żovira, son of P´┐Żsu, in
accordance with the orders of Mah´┐Żr´┐Żj´┐Ż S´┐Żmanta Si´┐Żha.15 The descendants of the person, who
deals in ghee, were called Gh´┐Ży´┐Ż. In 1569 A.D., Naraba´┐Ża of this Gotra set up
the image of Sambhavan´┐Żtha through H´┐Żravijaya of Tap´┐Ż Gachchha.16 It is heard that the ancestor of
the people of Vaidys Gotra cured the disease of an eye of the queen of Mah´┐Żr´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
of Udaipur. Therefore, he was given the title of Vaidya, and his descendants
became famous by Veda Gotra.17 In 1455 A.D., Bh´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żka of this Gotra
installed the image of Vimalan´┐Żtha through Kuka´┐Ż´┐Żch´┐Żrya of Upake´┐Ża
Gachchha.18 The Mah´┐Żjani Gotra was probably
formed from the profession of Mah´┐Żjana. The inscription of 1457 A.D.
records that N´┐Żlh´┐Ż of this Gotra consecrated an image of ´┐Ż´┐Żntin´┐Żtha through
Kakkas´┐Żr´┐Ż.19 There are also Chan´┐Ż´┐Żliy´┐Ż and Bambi
Gotras found among the Osav´┐Żlas. Their business was with these sorts of people;
and, therefore, they began to call themselves by these names. In 1745 A.D.,
Ratnap´┐Żla of Chan´┐Ż´┐Żliy´┐Ż Gotra set up
the image of Suvidhin´┐Żtha for the merit of his father through
Pu´┐Żyanidh´┐Żnas´┐Żri of Maladh´┐Żri Gachchha.10
(c) Gotras after Personal Names
: The names of the Gotras were also given after certain famous persons. The
´┐Żdityan´┐Żga Gotra originated from the well known person ´┐Żdityan´┐Żga who was very
famous for liberal charities and solicitude for social welfare.21 Numerous inscriptions of the 14th,
15th and 16th centuries on the pedestals of the images of this Gotra are also
found in various places such as Jodhpur, Nagaur, B´┐Żlotar´┐Ż etc.22 After addressing Pa´┐Żv´┐Żra R´┐Żjap´┐Żta
L´┐Żla Si´┐Żha in 1110 A.D.,
Jinavallabha S´┐Żri established the L´┐Żl´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż Gotra.23 L´┐Żla Si´┐Żha had seven sons. The
eldest son was very strong (Ba´┐Ż´┐Żha) and from him originated Ba´┐Ż´┐Żhiy´┐Ż Gotra. In
1444 A.D., S´┐Żha Jayava´┐Ża of L´┐Żl´┐Żn´┐Ż Gotra set up the image of Dharman´┐Żtha through
Jayake´┐Żari S´┐Żri of A´┐Żchala Gachchha.24 In 1479 A.D., S´┐Żha H´┐Żm´┐Ż of B´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żhiya
Gotra made the celebration of Jinavarendra Pa´┐Ż´┐Żik´┐Ż through Jinachandra
S´┐Żri.25. It is said that the descendants of
Gad´┐Żs´┐Żha were called Gadahiy´┐Ż.26 In 1411 A.D., S´┐Żha ´┐Żn´┐Ż of this
Gotra for the merit of his wife Bh´┐Żman´┐Ż celebrated the consecration ceremony of
the image of ´┐Ż´┐Żntin´┐Żtha through. Devaguptas´┐Żri of Upake´┐Ża
Gachchha.27 L´┐Ż´┐Żiy´┐Ż Gotra was named after L´┐Ż´┐Ża
Si´┐Żha who accepted Jainism from Jinadatta S´┐Żri. In 1456 A.D., the image of
P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha was consecrated by Ge´┐Żaka of this Gotra through Jinabhadras´┐Żri of
Kharatara Gachchha.28 In 1148 A.D., Hemachandras´┐Żri of
P´┐Żr´┐Żatala Gachchha by addressing
Pa´┐Żv´┐Żra Rajap´┐Żta Jagadeva converted him to Jainism.29 S´┐Żra and S´┐Ż´┐Żvala were the two sons
of Jagadeva. The descendants of S´┐Żra were called Sur´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż and of S´┐Ż´┐Żval´┐Ż were
known as S´┐Ż´┐Żkhal´┐Ż.30 In 1444 A.D., Sonap´┐Żla of Sur´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
Gotra installed the image of Sumatin´┐Żtha through Vijaya Chanda S´┐Żri of
Dharmaghosha Gachchha.31 The consecration ceremony of the
image of Sumatin´┐Żtha was performed
by L´┐Żkh´┐Żka of S´┐Ż´┐Żkhal´┐Ż Gotra through Vijaya Chanda S´┐Żri of Dharmaghosha Gachchha
in 1438 A.D. 32 D´┐Żga´┐Ż and S´┐Żga´┐Ża, the two brothers
accepted Jainism from Jinachandras´┐Żri.33 The descendants of D´┐Żga´┐Ża were
called D´┐Żga´┐Ża and of S´┐Żga´┐Ża by the name S´┐Żga´┐Ża. In 1460 A.D., N´┐Żgar´┐Żja of this
Gotra celebrated the consecration of the image of ´┐Żrey´┐Ż´┐Żsan´┐Żtha through
Somasundara of Rudrapalli Gachchha.34 The Bothar´┐Ż Gotra was named after
Bohitha, the son of the king named S´┐Żgara of Delav´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż.35 In 1477 A.D., the installation
ceremony of the image of ´┐Żrey´┐Żn´┐Żan´┐Żtha was performed by Th´┐Żh´┐Ż of Bothar´┐Ż Gotra
through Jina Chanda S´┐Żri of Kharatara Gachchha.36 From the person D´┐Żdher´┐Ż, this Gotra
became famous as Dudheriy´┐Ż Gotra.37 On the preaching of Jinak´┐Ż´┐Żala
S´┐Żri, D´┐Ż´┐Żgara Si´┐Żha, the Chauh´┐Żna
R´┐Żjp´┐Żt accepted Jainism. From this name, his descendants were called
(d) Kulas Converted into Gotras
: Some Kulas also in course of time were converted into Gotras. The ancient
Ka´┐Żyapa Kula in course of time was converted into Ka´┐Żyapa Gotra. From the
inscription of 1458 A.D., it is clear that Chu´┐Ż´┐Ż of this Gotra celebrated the
consecration ceremony of the image of Nemin´┐Żtha through ´┐Ż´┐Żvaras´┐Żri of Sa´┐Ż´┐Żeraka
Gachchha.39 In the 13th century A.D., ´┐Żrava´┐Ża,
the son of Kar´┐Ża Si´┐Żha, accepted Jainism from Ya´┐Żobhadra S´┐Żri.40 His descendants also followed
Jainism and became known by Sisodiy´┐Ż Gotra.
(e) Gotras Formed After Actions
: Some Gotras have been also formed after certain actions. The Bara´┐Żiy´┐Ż
Gotra is said to have originated in about the 11th century A.D. from N´┐Żga
Vyantara who gave Varadiy´┐Ż (gave promise) to N´┐Żr´┐Żya´┐Ża.41 Bara´┐Żiy´┐Ż is the Apabhra´┐Ż´┐Ża of
Varadiy´┐Ż. In 1527 A.D., the image of ´┐Ż´┐Żntin´┐Żtha was consecrated by S´┐Żha ´┐Żo´┐Żara
of this Gotra.42 P´┐Żsu was an expert in examining
jewels. His descendants were, therefore, known by P´┐Żrakha or
Par´┐Żksh´┐Ż.43 In 1461 A.D. Surapati of this Gotra
celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Suvidhin´┐Żtha through Jina
Chandra of Kharatara Gachcha.44 In 1120 A.D., Jinadatta S´┐Żri after
addressing Jobana and Sachchu established B´┐Żhupha´┐Ż´┐Ż Gotra.45 His descendants did not move from
the battlefield and therefore they were called N´┐Żha´┐Ż´┐Ż. It may also be suggested
that B´┐Żhupha´┐Ż´┐Ż Gotra was named after the well-known person named
Bappan´┐Żga.46 It is known from the inscriptions of 1329 A.D. that
Mokha´┐Ża of this Gotra for the merit of his parents set up the image of
Sumatin´┐Żtha through Kakka S´┐Żri41. In 1439 A.D., M´┐Żja´┐Ża of N´┐Żha´┐Ż´┐Ż
Gotra constructed devakulik´┐Ż of Vimalan´┐Żtha temple at Karaha´┐Ża through
Ma´┐Żjanas´┐Żgara S´┐Żri.48 The Sultan of M´┐Żndalgarh being
impressed by the virtues of Jh´┐Ż´┐Żjhana Si´┐Żha, allowed him to keep the Ka´┐Ż´┐Żra
(knife) in the royal court. His descendants, therefore, became famous by
Ka´┐Ż´┐Żriy´┐Ż Gotra.49 By the influence of the discourses
of Bhuvana Sundara, Sa´┐Żghav´┐Ż Tukade, P´┐Żsade, Punas´┐Ż and M´┐Żl´┐Ż of Ka´┐Ż´┐Żriy´┐Ż Gotra
constructed a devakulik´┐Ż in Jir´┐Żpall´┐Ż temple in 1426
A.D.50 The people, who went on pilgrimage,
were given the title of Sa´┐Żghav´┐Ż. A person named K´┐Żk´┐Ż was given the title of
Nagara Se´┐Żha. His descendants therefore began to be called
Se´┐Żhiy´┐Ż.51 In 1095 A.D., Jinavallabhas´┐Żri came
to Mandor which was ruled by the king named N´┐Żnu´┐Że Pa´┐Żih´┐Żra. His son was
Kuka´┐Żadeva who was suffering from leprosy. The king requested him to cure him.
He asked the king to bring ghee of some cow and got it rubbed over the body of
the prince. After the treatment of three days, he became all right. The king
with his family accepted Jainism and S´┐Żrij´┐Ż established his Kukai´┐Ż´┐Żchopa´┐Ż´┐Ż
Gotra.52 The minister of the Pa´┐Żih´┐Żra king
named Ga´┐Żadhara also accepted Jainism and S´┐Żriji established Ga´┐Żadhara Chopa´┐Ż´┐Ż
Gotra. There is the mention of the Kuka´┐Ż´┐Ż Chopa´┐Ż´┐Ż Gotra in the inscription of
1479 A.D.53 The inscription of 1436 A.D.
records that P´┐Żsa´┐Ża of Ga´┐Żadhara Chopa´┐Ż´┐Ż Gotra set up an image of Sup´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha
through Jinabhadras´┐Żri.54 Kharata Si´┐Żha R´┐Ż´┐Żho´┐Ża at the
preaching of Jinadattas´┐Żri accepted Jainism. His elder son, Ambadeva faced the
thieves (chora se bhi´┐Żiy´┐Ż) and caught them. The name in course of time became
It is known from the inscriptions of
the images that some Gotras were specially connected with some Gachchhas. The
people of these Gotras celebrated the consecration ceremony of the images
through the Acaryas of their respective Gachchhas. The people of
´┐Żdityan´┐Żga Gotra performed the
consecration ceremony of the various images but all through the ´┐Żch´┐Żryas of
Upake´┐Ża Gacchha. Similarly, the persons belonging to Gadahiy´┐Ż Gotra, B´┐Żpha´┐Ż´┐Ż
Gotra and R´┐Ż´┐Żak´┐Ż Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony through the ´┐Żch´┐Żryas
of Upake´┐Ża Gachchha. The people of Ga´┐Żadhara Chopa´┐Ż´┐Ż Gotra, ´┐Ż´┐Żg´┐Ż Gotra, Dos´┐Ż
Gotra and L´┐Ż´┐Żiy´┐Ż Gotra generally performed the installation ceremony of the
images through the Acaryas of Kharatara Gachchha. The people of Gh´┐Ż´┐Żgh´┐Ż Gotra
and Cha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żliy´┐Ż Gotra set up the images mostly through the ´┐Żch´┐Żryas of Maladh´┐Żri
Gachchha. Chh´┐Żjaha´┐Ża Gotra is specially related to Palliv´┐Żla Gachchha because
its persons installed the images generally through the Acaryas of this Gachchha.
The persons of Sisodiy´┐Ż Gotra are
seen installing the images through the Acaryas of Sha´┐Ż´┐Żeraka Gachchha. The
persons belonging to D´┐Żga´┐Ża Gotra and M´┐Żtha´┐Żiya Gotra are seen setting up the
images respectively through the ´┐Żch´┐Żryas of B´┐Żihad Gachchha and A´┐Żchala
Gachchha. Sometimes, the persons of the Gotra installed the images through the
Acaryas of two Gachchhas. This is specially seen in the case of S´┐Ż´┐Żkhav´┐Żlech´┐Ż
Gotra. They installed the images through the Acarya of Kora´┐Ż´┐Żaka Gachchha and
Kharatara Gachchha. It is also noticed though rarely that the persons of one
particular Gotra set up images through the Acaryas of more than one
´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żl´┐Żs : ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żl´┐Żs among Jainas originated
from ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żla now known as Bhimal in Marwar. In course of time, they multiplied
and spread specially in Jodhpur,
Udaipur and Sirohi. They occupied the influential position in the society. Their
origin may be traced back to the 8th century A.D. There is a stanza in the
pra´┐Żasti56 of K´┐Żlak´┐Żch´┐Żrya Kath´┐Ż of
1308 A.D. which tells that ´┐Żr´┐Żvaka
D´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż of ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żla caste after listening to the religious discourses from ´┐Ż´┐Żnti
S´┐Żri constructed the Chaitya of ´┐Żdin´┐Żtha in 647 A.D. at Navahara. The oldest
genealogy of the ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żla Caste says that a merchant To´┐Ż´┐Ż of Bh´┐Żradv´┐Żja Gotra and
of ´┐Żr´┐Żmala Caste was addressed by a Jaina Saint in 738 A.D.57 From both these instances, it is
clear that Jainism was popular and prevalent in ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żla in the eighth century
A.D. The king named Vijayanta of ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żla accepted Jainism from Udaiprabha S´┐Żri.
Along with him, sixty-two se´┐Żhas, followers of Br´┐Żhmanism, also accepted
Jainism.58 All were called ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żl´┐Żs. From the
Pa´┐Żchapa´┐Żar´┐Żsa written by the poet Udayaratna concerning the history of
the Acaryas of Dvivandanika, the branch of Upake´┐Ża Gachachha, it is known that
in 700 ´┐Żaka era, Ratnaprabha S´┐Żri came to this town where he established the
Sr´┐Żm´┐Żla caste.59 From all these instances, it is
clear that ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żl´┐Żs among the Jainas came into existence in the seventh or
eighth century A.D.
In course of time, ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żl´┐Żs were
divided into two classes namely Laghu ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż and B´┐Żihad ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż. The inscription of
1488 A.D. indicates that Sahasakara´┐Ża of Laghu ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż of the Sr´┐Żm´┐Żla Caste for
the merit of his mother celebrated the consecration of the image of ´┐Żdin´┐Żtha
through Siddh´┐Żnta S´┐Żgara of A´┐Żchala Gachchha.60 There is als an inscription of 1944
A.D. of B´┐Żiddha ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż of ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żla caste.61 Besides, there are various Gotras
found among the ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żl´┐Żs as known to us from the inscriptions. These are based
on occupations, place names and other grounds.
Gotras of ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żlis : The Gotras of ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żl´┐Żs originated
in various ways. Ambik´┐Ż Gotra seems to have originated from the deity Ambik´┐Ż. In
1477 A.D., ´┐Żresh´┐Żhi Ch´┐Żndras´┐Żva of this Gotra for the merit of ancestors
performed the installation ceremony of the image of ´┐Ż´┐Żntin´┐Żtha through
Lakshm´┐Żs´┐Żgara ´┐Ż´┐Żri.62 Ailahara Gotra is mentioned in the
inscription of 1442 A.D.63 There are also the inscriptions of
Govaliy´┐Ż Gotra64 and Ghevariy´┐Ż
Gotra.65 The inscription of 1452 A.D.
records that J´┐Żva´┐Ża of G´┐Żndhika Gotra set up the image of
Dharman´┐Żtha.66 In 1476 A.D., the consecration of
the image of ´┐Ż´┐Żntin´┐Żtha was celebrated by P´┐Żsa´┐Ża of Gautama
Gotra.67 Here, this Gotra seems to have
originated from the Kula founded by some saint named Gautama.
Cha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żlech´┐Ż68 Gotra and ´┐Żau´┐Ż´┐Ż Gotra are also
found in the inscriptions.69 Dos´┐Ż Gotra,70 Naluriy´┐Ż Gotra, Jun´┐Żv´┐Żla Gotra,
Jhungatiy´┐Ż Gotra, N´┐Żvara Gotra,71 Bh´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żiy´┐Ż72 Gotra, Mau´┐Żhiy´┐Ż73 Gotra, M´┐Żnthalapur´┐Ż
Gotra,74 Vahagat´┐Ż Gotra,75 ´┐Żresh´┐Żh´┐Ż Gotra,76 S´┐Ż´┐Żgha´┐Ża Gotra,77 Phophaliya Gotra,78 Bh´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żavata Gotra,79 M´┐Żsala Gotra80 and Siddha Gotra81 are found in the inscriptions of
the 15th century A.D. Dh´┐Żn´┐Ż Gotra,82 P´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż Gotra83 and Muhava´┐Ż´┐Ż Gotra84 are seen in the inscriptions
belonging to the 16th century A.D.
Porav´┐Żlas : It is saud that Porav´┐Żlas
originated simultaneously with ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żl´┐Żs from ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żla in the eighth century A.D.
The people of the eastern gate of ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żla, who accepted Jainism from the Jaina
saints in the eighth century A.D., were called Porav´┐Żlas.85 The origin of the Porav´┐Żlas from
´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żla does not seem to be correct. In old inscriptions and manuscripts,
Pr´┐Żgv´┐Ż´┐Ża has been used for the Porav´┐Żla.86 Pr´┐Żgv´┐Ż´┐Ża was another name of Mewar
(Medap´┐Ż´┐Ża). It seems that the people of Pr´┐Żgv´┐Ż´┐Ża country in course of time began
to be called Pr´┐Żgv´┐Ż´┐Żas or Porav´┐Żlas. The Porav´┐Żlas tell their origin from the
village Pura in Mewar. Like ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żl´┐Żs, Porv´┐Żlas were also divided into Laghu
´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż and B´┐Żihad ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż. We have the inscription of Laghu ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż of Porav´┐Żla caste
of 1653 A.D.87 The image of Sumatin´┐Żtha was set up
in 1534 A.D. by Mantri V´┐Żsaka of B´┐Żiddha ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż of Pr´┐Żgv´┐Ż´┐Ża
The Gotras89 of the Porav´┐Żla Caste as known from
the inscriptions and manuscripts are as follows90 ´┐Ż Jh´┐Żlara, Mu´┐Ż´┐Żhaliy´┐Ż, L´┐Żmb´┐Ż,
Ma´┐Ż´┐Żaliy´┐Ż, Kunagir´┐Ż, Pa´┐Żela, Narva´┐Ża, Lol´┐Żniya, Posa´┐Ż, Koth´┐Żr´┐Ż, Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żr´┐Ż, Amb´┐Żi,
Ko´┐Żak´┐Ż and N´┐Żga. In 1546 A.D., the brothers Tejap´┐Żla, R´┐Żjap´┐Żla, Ratanas´┐Ż and
R´┐Żmad´┐Żsa of Ko´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żri Gotra of Pr´┐Żgv´┐Ż´┐Ża Caste constructed the temple of Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra,
at the village named Pin´┐Żav´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż in Sirohi State.91 ´┐Ż´┐Żnti of Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żri Gotra installed
the image of Munisuvratan´┐Żtha in 1447 A.D.92 In 1571 A.D., Vyaavah´┐Żri Kh´┐Żm´┐Ż of Amb´┐Ż Gotra set up
the image of Dharman´┐Żtha.93 In 1586 A.D., M´┐Żla of Ko´┐Żak´┐Ż Gotra
celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of ´┐Żdin´┐Żtha through Vijayasena
S´┐Żri of Tap´┐Ż Gachchha.94
Pall´┐Żv´┐Żla Caste : Pall´┐Żv´┐Żlas both among the
Digambaras and ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras, seem to have been named after P´┐Żl´┐Ż in Marwar the
name of which in olden times was Pallik´┐Ż. It is said that the people of this
place were converted to Jainism in about the eigth century A.D. by
Ratnaprabhas´┐Żri who converted the people of Osi´┐Ż and ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żla. Pall´┐Żv´┐Żlas are
known to have celebrated the consecration ceremony of images from time to time.
In 1253 A.D., Ded´┐Ż of this caste installed an image of Mallin´┐Żtha through
Ya´┐Żobhadra of Chandra Gachchha.95 People of this caste also led
Sa´┐Żghas to holy places from time to time from P´┐Żl´┐Ż.96
Kha´┐Ż´┐Żelav´┐Żla Caste : There is no doubt that the Caste of
Kha´┐Ż´┐Żelav´┐Żlas originated from the place named Kha´┐Ż´┐Żel´┐Ż. But there is some
difficulty in assigning the time to this incident. According to the legendary
account, Jinasen´┐Żch´┐Żrya in the line of
the saint Apar´┐Żjita, converted the Chauh´┐Żn king of Kha´┐Ż´┐Żel´┐Ż with his
subjects to Jainism in V.S.I.97 Eighty-two Rajbuts and two
goldsmiths were ruling over eighty-four villages of the kingdom of Kha´┐Ż´┐Żel´┐Ż. The
eightyfour Gotras were formed either after the name of the villages or the heads
of villages. The Gotras of the two goldsmiths became ´┐Żmn´┐Żya Baja and Mohan´┐Żya
Baja. The time assigned to this incident is not correct. There are no solid grounds for the
existence of this caste before the eighth century A.D. The earliest mention of
this caste is found in the inscription of 1197 A.D.98
The origin of the eightyfour Gotras,
from the eightyfour villages at one particular time, does not seem to be
correct. The number eightyfour seems to be only conventional. There are
eightyfour castes, eightyfour postures (´┐Żsanas) etc. Originally, these
Gotras may be less in number, but gradually they increased. Some Gotras not even
in existence at the beginning were added in order to make them eightyfour in
number. These Gotras seem to be based on the place names, occupations and
Regional Gotras : The Gotras also seem to be regional
in nature. Ajmer´┐Ż Gotra was probably named after Ajmer. Sunakhat´┐Ż, the wife of
S´┐Żha Surajana of Ajmer of this Gotra, got the Pradyumnacharitra written
and gave to the nun Vinaya´┐Żr´┐Ż in 1538 A.D. There is also the mention of this
Gotra in the inscription of 1594 A.D. P´┐Ż´┐Żod´┐Ż Gotra seems to have originated from
the village P´┐Ż´┐Żod´┐Ż in ´┐Żekh´┐Żvat. It is found in the Pra´┐Żasti of 1764
A.D.100 Dos´┐Ż Gotra seems to have originated
from the place named Daus´┐Ż in Jaipur State. Bohitha of this Gotra of Ajmer set
up the image of Chaub´┐Żs´┐Ż in 1601 A.D. The Gotra K´┐Żsal´┐Żv´┐Żla seems to have come
into existence from the village K´┐Żsal´┐Ż near S´┐Żkara in Jaipur State. It is
mentioned in the Pra´┐Żasti of the copy of the manuscripts written in 1524
A.D.101 P´┐Ż´┐Żan´┐Ż Gotra started from the
village named P´┐Ż´┐Żana, near Kha´┐Ż´┐Żel´┐Ż. P´┐Żtam´┐Żde, the wife of Pahar´┐Żja of this
Gotra of Nagaur, presented a copy of the ´┐Żdipur´┐Ż´┐Ża to Dharmachanda in
1520 A.D.102 There is also a mention of this
Gotra in the inscription of 1594 A.D.103 To´┐Żgy´┐Ż Gotra may have originated
from Tonk. It is mentioned in the pra´┐Żati of 1522 A.D.3 K´┐Żl´┐Ż Gotra seems to have been named
from K´┐Żl´┐Żdev´┐Ż near Chomu in Jaipur State. Roho of this Gotra celebrated the
consecration ceremony of an image of 1516 A.D.105 It is also found in the pra´┐Żasti
of 1607 A.D.106
: The Gotras were
also formed after the occupations. Veda Gotras started from the person who
followed the profession of medicines. His descendants in course of time began to
be called by this name. In 1584 A.D., Mok´┐Ż with his wife and sons of this Gotra
installed the Samyagdar´┐Żana Yantra.107 From the legendary account, it is
clear that the ancestor of Baja Gotra was a goldsmith at the time of his
conversion to Jainism. In 1646 A.D., H´┐Żth´┐Żn´┐Żtha of this Gotra performed the
prati´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Ż of Da´┐Żalaksh´┐Ża Yantra.108 The name of this Gotra is also
found in the pra´┐Żasti of 1688 A.D. The Son´┐Ż Gotra also indicates the
profession of the people. The earliest mention of it is known from the
inscription of 1584 A.D. in which S´┐Żha Tel´┐Ż of this Gotra installed
Karaku´┐Ż´┐Żap´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha Yantra.109 It is also mentioned in the
pra´┐Żasti of 1688 A.D.110 Bohar´┐Ż Gotra seems to have
originated from the persons who lend money. Ratan´┐Ż of this Gotra with his sons
celebrated the consecration ceremony of the yantra in 1484
Titles and Surnames :
Titles and surnames
also seem to have developed into the Gotras. ´┐Żaha Gotra seems to have originated
from the term S´┐Żha used for respect and veneration for the person. S´┐Żhatu of
this Gotra with his wife and sons installed the Arham Yantra in 1539
name of this Gotra is also found in the pra´┐Żasti of 1518
A.D.113 The title of Chaudhar´┐Ż was given by
the Government to those who did the work of revenue collection. In course of
time, it was developed into the Gotra. S´┐Żha Mah´┐Żr´┐Żj´┐Ż of this Gotra got the copy
of the P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żthacharitra written and gave it to Dharmachandra in 1554
A.D.114 Chh´┐Żba´┐Ż´┐Ż Gotra seems to have come
into existence from S´┐Żha plus Ba´┐Ż´┐Ż (S´┐Żha plus great). First, it
was S´┐Żba´┐Ż´┐Ż but in course of time, it became Chh´┐Żba´┐Ż´┐Ż. S´┐Żha Not´┐Ż of S´┐Żba´┐Ż´┐Ż Gotra
got the copy of the N´┐Żgakum´┐Żra-charitra written and presented it
to Lalitak´┐Żrti.115 There is also a mention of this Gotra in the inscription of 1591
A.D.116 Bhains´┐Ż Gotra was probably formed
from the terms Bha´┐Ż plus S´┐Żha. It is found in the pra´┐Żasti of 1694
A.D.117 When the people of this Gotra
became large in number, they were known as Ba´┐Żaj´┐Żty´┐Ż (Big caste). At present,
Bhains´┐Ż Gotra and Ba´┐Żaj´┐Żty´┐Ż Gotra are considered to be identical Gotra. Se´┐Żh´┐Ż
Gotra probably originated from ´┐Żresh´┐Żhi which meant rich merchant. This term is
frequently found in ancient Buddhist and Jaina literature. This Gotra is
mentioned in the pra´┐Żasti of 1575 A.D.118
Besides, there are other Gotras
which are known from the inscriptions and pra´┐Żastis. The earliest mention
of Godh´┐Ż Gotra is found in the inscription of 1413 A.D. It records that V´┐Żlha´┐Ża
of this Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of the
images.119 The other Gotras are ´┐Żholy´┐Ż
Gotra120, Pah´┐Ż´┐Ży´┐Ż Gotra,121 Bil´┐Żl´┐Ż Gotra,122
Ga´┐Żgav´┐Żla Gotra,123 Godik´┐Ż Gotra,124 P´┐Ż´┐Żdy´┐Ż Gotra,125 R´┐Ż´┐Żvak´┐Ż Gotra,126 and Sog´┐Żn´┐Ż Gotra.127 There is also a mention of
Kurakur´┐Ż128 Gotra in the inscription of 1584
A.D. which records that K´┐Żlu with his sons and grandsons of this Gotra performed
the installation ceremony of ´┐Żink´┐Żra Yantra. This Gotra is not found in the list
of eightyfour Gotras of Kha´┐Ż´┐Żelav´┐Żla caste. It is known both from the
pra´┐Żastis and inscriptions that the people of this caste were generally
associated with the ´┐Żch´┐Żryas of M´┐Żla Sa´┐Żgha and rarely with the ´┐Żch´┐Żryas of the
other Sa´┐Żghas. It indicates that the centre of the activities of M´┐Żla Sa´┐Żgha
remained in Rajasthan.
Bagherav´┐Żla Caste : Bagherav´┐Żla caste originated in
about eighth century A.D. from Bagher´┐Ż, a place of great antiquity. Old Jaina
temples and images were discovered and its name is also found in the Bijaulia
Rock Inscription dated 1170 A.D.129 This place was aslo the seat of the
Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas in the twelfth century A.D.130 There is a belief that R´┐Żmasena and
Nemasena, the Digambara Jaina saints, converted the king of this town with his
subjects to Jainism.131 If not all, majority of the
citizens of the town must have embraced Jainism from their hands. Pt. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żdhara,
who went to Dh´┐Żr´┐Żnagar´┐Ż from M´┐Żndalaga´┐Żha
for fear of the invasion of
Muhammad Ghori in the 12th century, was of Bagherav´┐Żla caste.132
P´┐Żna Si´┐Żha, who repaired the famous
K´┐Żrtistambha at Chitor in the 15th century A.D. during the reign of
Kumbhakara´┐Ża, was of this caste.133 The Gotras of this caste as known
both from the inscriptions and pra´┐Żastis are as follows ´┐Ż (1)
R´┐Żyabha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żri134, (2) ´┐Ż´┐Żnkhav´┐Żla,135 (3) ´┐Ż´┐Żn´┐Żpati136 (4) ´┐Żhol´┐Ż,137 (5) Ko´┐Żv´┐Ż,138 (6) Prabh´┐Ż139 and (7) Sirav´┐Ż´┐Ży´┐Ż.140
Agrav´┐Żla Caste : The Agrav´┐Żlas are found in large
numbers in Rajasthan. They occupy a respectable position in the society. They
are highly educated and much advanced. They are found both among the Jainas and
the Hindus. They are also an important middle class of business men. They
enthusiastically supported Jainism in the past. They performed the installation
ceremony of numerous images and got copies of the manuscripts written. According
to the traditions, Agrav´┐Żla caste originated from the place named Agroh´┐Ż in the
Punjab and was founded by Agrasena. Once he performed a sacrifice but stopped it
when he saw the animals in a miserable condition. Probably, he was influenced by
the doctrine of ahi´┐Żs´┐Ż. It is not clear whether he accepted Jainism or
not; but from the pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żvalis,141 it is known that Lohity´┐Żch´┐Żrya converted the Agrav´┐Żlas
with their king Div´┐Żkara to Jainism. Later on, Agrav´┐Żlas began to follow
Jainism. Accoring to N´┐Żgendran´┐Żtha Vasu, this Agrasena is the same Ugrasena
mentioned in the Allahabada inscription of Samudra Gupta.142 Lohity´┐Żch´┐Żrya was the master of
Devarddhi Ga´┐Żi who arranged the V´┐Żchan´┐Ż in 453 A.D. at Valabhi. The time
of Lohity´┐Żch´┐Żrya may be thirty years before Devarddhi. He thus converted the
Agrav´┐Żlas along with their king to Jainism in 423 A.D. But this view does not
seem to be tenable. First of all, this Ugrasena was the ruler of Northern India
while Ugrasena Devar´┐Żsh´┐Żraka mentioned in the Allahabad inscription was ruling
in the south. Lastly, we have no definite evidence for the existence of this
caste before the 8th century A.D. Its Gotras as known both from the inscriptions
and the pra´┐Żastis are as follows ´┐Ż Goyala,143 Garga144 Si´┐Żghala145 and Ba´┐Żsala146 etc. The Agrav´┐Żlas seem to have
been mostly associated with the K´┐Żsh´┐Żh´┐Ż Sa´┐Żgha and rarely with M´┐Żla
Chi´┐Ż´┐Żo´┐Ż´┐Ż and N´┐Żgad´┐Ż Castes
: Chitto´┐Ż´┐Ż and
N´┐Żgad´┐Ż castes among the Digambaras originated from the old places Chitor and
N´┐Żgad´┐Ż respectively in Mewar. These castes seem to have come into existence in
medieval times. People of these castes were religious minded and got several
copies of manuscripts written in medieval times in order to present them to
Jaina monks. They constructed temples and placed images in them with great
ceremony. They were generally concerned with the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas of the M´┐Żla Sa´┐Żgha
of V´┐Żga´┐Ża and K´┐Żsh´┐Żh´┐Ż Sa´┐Żgha. Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka J´┐Ż´┐Żnabh´┐Żsha´┐Ża, who lived in the
fifteenth century A.D., wrote the N´┐Żgadr´┐Ż-r´┐Żsa describing the
history of the N´┐Żgada caste among the Jainas.147
Humba´┐Ża Caste : The place of the origin of Humbada
caste is not traceable. Most probably, like other castes, it must have
originated from some particular place. In Rajasthan, the people of this caste
are found in Dungarapur, Banswara and Pratapagarh, the portion of ancient V´┐Żga´┐Ża
province. They are found both among the Digambaras and the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras. In the Digambaras,
they remained in close touch mostly witht the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas of the K´┐Żsh´┐Żh´┐Ż Sa´┐Żgha
and rarely with the ´┐Żch´┐Żryas of M´┐Żla Sa´┐Żgh of V´┐Żgada. This caste also like other
castes seems to have come into existence after the 8th century A.D. The persons
of this caste also performed the installation ceremony of numerous images and
temples. The famous Jaina temple at Jh´┐Żlr´┐Żp´┐Żtan is said to have been constructed
by S´┐Żha Pip´┐Ż of this caste.148
H´┐Żmba´┐Ża caste in course of time was
divided into ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Żs and Gotras. The three ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Żs of this caste known to us are
namely Laghu ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż, B´┐Żihat ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż and Varsh´┐Żvata ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż. Varsh´┐Żvata ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż most
probably originated from Varsh´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żha who was the minister of Mah´┐Ż R´┐Żvala
Harisi´┐Żha.149 On the orders of Mah´┐Żr´┐Żvala, he
invited one thousand families of this caste to K´┐Żnthala from S´┐Żgav´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż. He also
started the work of the construction of the Digambara Jaina temple at Devalia
but its installation ceremony was performed in 1717 A.D. after his death by his
sons Vardham´┐Żna and Day´┐Żla. There are eighteen Gotras of this caste
:150 (1) Kheraju, (2) Kamale´┐Żvara, (3)
K´┐Żkade´┐Żvara, (4) Uttare´┐Żvara, (5) Mantre´┐Żvara, (6) Bhime´┐Żvara,
(7) Bhadre´┐Żvara, (8) Ga´┐Żge´┐Żvara. (9) Vi´┐Żve´┐Żvara, (10) S´┐Żnkhe´┐Żvara, (11)
Ambe´┐Żvara, (12) Ch´┐Ż´┐Żchane´┐Żvara, (13) Some´┐Żvara, (14) Rajiy´┐Żno, (15)
Lalite´┐Żvara, (16) K´┐Żsave´┐Żvara, (17) Budhe´┐Żvara, (18)
Dharka´┐Ża Va´┐Ż´┐Ża : The people of Dharka´┐Ża caste are
found both among the Digambaras and the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras. The author of
Dhammaparikkh´┐Ż named Harishe´┐Ża of this caste lived in the 10th century
A.D.151 There is a mention of this caste in
the inscription of 1230 A.D. at Delav´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż.152 In the two inscriptions of ´┐Żb´┐Ż
also, these people have been described.153 In the beginning, this caste seems
to have originated in Rajasthan but now its people are found in the south. From
the expression, Siriujapuriya ´┐Żhakka´┐Żakula of Harishe´┐Ża, Pt. Nathu Rama Premi holds that it
originated probably from Siroja in Tonk State.154 Mr. Agar Chanda N´┐Żha´┐Ż´┐Ż observes
that it originated from Dhaka´┐Żaga´┐Żha from which also originated the Dhaka´┐Ża
branch of the Mahe´┐Żvari Caste.155 On the evidence of the two
tries to locate this place near ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żla.
1. Mantr´┐Żdal´┐Żya (Matiya´┐Ża)
: Ma´┐Żidh´┐Żr´┐Ż ´┐Żr´┐Ż
Jinachandras´┐Żri, who was born in V.S. 1197 at Vikaramapura near Jaisalmer,
became the Head of the Kharataragachchha in V.S. 1211. He was a great scholar
and an influential teacher. He established the Mantridal´┐Żya (Mahatiya´┐Ża)
caste.157 This caste became popular from the
14th to the 17th century A.D., but afterwards disappeared gradually. People of this caste were not only wealthy but
some of them were high officials. They led pilgrimage to holy places. They were
so much adventurous that they even migrated to Uttara Pradesh and Bihar, and
settled over there. Gradually, this caste was divided into many
People of this caste performed
installation ceremony of images from time to time. The Mantr´┐Żdal´┐Żya caste is
engraved in the three image inscriptions.158
K´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż, Chopa´┐Ż´┐Ż, J´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża Mu´┐Żdato´┐Ża and
Mo´┐Ża were the populer gotras of this caste. Other gotras known are
K´┐Żdra´┐Ż´┐Ż, Ghevaria, D´┐Żnha´┐Ż´┐Ż,
Dullaha, N´┐Żnha´┐Ż´┐Ż, Bh´┐Żdiya, Mahat´┐Ż, Rohadiy´┐Ż, V´┐Żyad´┐Ż, V´┐Żrttid´┐Żp´┐Ż, Say´┐Żt´┐Ż and
Most of the Jaina castes both among
the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras and Digambaras, originated in Rajasthan during the medieval
period. Gradually, they migrated to the neighbouring regions and settled there.
Even in the neighbouring regions of Rajasthan, a few new castes were founded by
Jaina saints. It seems that some Jaina saints converted the tribal people of
these regions to Jainism and established their castes. The Muslim rule in
Northern India during this period is directly or indirectly responsible for
founding these castes. Jaina castes of South India of this period are generally
professional in nature. These castes were gradually divided into several
Gujarat : The name ´┐Żr´┐Żmodha caste is derived
from the ancient town Modhera, South of Anahilav´┐Ż´┐Ż in Gujarat. The famous
Hemachandra S´┐Żri was also born in this caste. The inscriptions of the people of
this caste can be traced from the twelfth century A.D.
Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka R´┐Żmasena of Nandila´┐Ża
gachchha founded the Narasi´┐Żhapura caste after the name of the city
Narasimhapura. He also got constructed the Jaina temple of ´┐Ż´┐Żntin´┐Żtha in this
city. Bh´┐Żma of Narasi´┐Żha caste performed the installation ceremony of images
through Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka Somak´┐Żriti of the K´┐Żsh´┐Żh´┐Ż ´┐Ż Samgha in V.S.
1547.160 Nemisena, disciple of Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka
R´┐Żmasena, was the devotee of Padm´┐Żvat´┐Ż, and founded the Bha´┐Ż´┐Żap´┐Żra caste. Both
Narasi´┐Żhapura and Bha´┐Ż´┐Żapur´┐Ż were the Digambara castes. Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka
Devendrak´┐Żrti, disciple of Padmanandi, established the seat of the M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha at
Surat in the early half of the 14th century, and he established the Ratn´┐Żkara
caste after converting seven hundred families to Jainism.
inscriptions161 of the 15th and 16th centuries
found at Palit´┐Żn´┐Ż, ´┐Żatru´┐Żjaya and other sites, it is known that Osav´┐Żlas,
´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żl´┐Żs, Pr´┐Żgv´┐Ż´┐Żas, Dharka´┐Żas and Humba´┐Żas performed installation ceremony of
images. It seems that some people of these castes migrated from Rajasthan and
settled in Gujarat. ´┐Żr´┐Żva´┐Ż´┐Ża caste is mentioned in the Jaina
inscriptions162 of V.S. 1551 and V.S.
Madhya Pradesh : Some of the Jaina castes are found
mentioned in the inscriptions of the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. Chilla´┐Ża,
who installed two Jaina images during the reign of Naravasman in V.S. 1157 at
Bhojapura, belonged to the Vemaka family.163 The inscription of V.S. 1206 on Jaina
statues at Gudar, contains the name of the Vabaka´┐Żchuka race.164 Besides, there are some other
castes of the Vai´┐Żyas, known from inscriptions and some of them originally came
from outside. The Kha´┐Ż´┐Żelav´┐Żla caste has been mentioned in the inscriptions of
V.S. 1191165, V.S. 1216166, V.S. 1305.167 The Porav´┐Żla
´┐Żr´┐Żvakas168 are known to have performed the
installation ceremony of Vardhan´┐Żpura, now known as Badnawar in V.S. 1308. The
Bagherav´┐Żla ´┐Żr´┐Żvakas169 were also associated with this
installation ceremony of images. These Kha´┐Ż´┐Żelav´┐Żla, Bagherav´┐Żla and Porav´┐Żla
castes originated in Rajasthan in about the eighth century A.D. from Kha´┐Ż´┐Żel´┐Ż,
Bagher´┐Ż and Pr´┐Żgv´┐Żta respectively, but in course of time, some members of these
castes migrated even to Malwa. The Varka´┐Ża caste has been mentioned in the
inscriptions of V.S. 1231.170
N´┐Żm´┐Ż caste among the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras
originated from the Nim´┐Ż´┐Ż region of Malwa. It has been mentioned in three Jaina
inscriptions dated V.S 1506, V.S. 1532 and V.S. 1531
respectively.171 Numerous Jaina image inscriptions
of the 15th and 16th centuries
mention Pr´┐Żgv´┐Ż´┐Ża, Osav´┐Żla and
´┐Żrim´┐Żl´┐Ż.172 It seems that these people of these
castes migrated to Malwa from Rajasthan. Gurjara caste has been mentioned in
inscription dated V.S. 1512, Sohitav´┐Żla in V.S. 1573, Mantr´┐Żdal´┐Żya in V.S. 1519,
´┐Żr´┐Żva´┐Ż´┐Ża in V.S. 1515, Son´┐Żin V.S. 1573 and Modha in V.S. 1656.173
Among the Digambara castes, people
of Kha´┐Ż´┐Żelav´┐Żla, Bagherav´┐Żla and Humba´┐Ża castes were large in number as known
from the Jaina image inscriptions of the 15th and 16th
centuries.174 They also migrated from Rajasthan
and settled in Malwa. From the R´┐Żmapur´┐Ż inscriptions6 dated V.S. 1664 (1667 A.D.), it is
known that Pod´┐Żrtha, Finance Minister of the Chandr´┐Żvata ruler Durgabh´┐Żnu, was
of the Bagherav´┐Żla caste. Porav´┐Żla caste has been mentioned in the inscriptions.
N´┐Żgara caste has been mentioned in the inscription dated V.S. 1220, Jaisav´┐Żla in
V.S. 1319, Narasi´┐Żhapura in V.S. 1529, N´┐Żgada or N´┐Żgadraha in V.S. 1489 and
Chitrak´┐Ż´┐Ża in V.S. 1252.176
New castes and sub-castes among the
Digambaras came into existence in the Jejj´┐Żka bhukti region
(Bundelakahand) of Madhya Pradesh. The G´┐Żihapatis mentioned in the inscriptions
belonged to the Vai´┐Żhya caste. Some of the G´┐Żihapatis followed Brahmanical
religions while others were Jainas. From the Khajuraho
inscriptions177 dated 1000-1001 A.D. it is known
that the ancestors of G´┐Żihapati Kokalla originally lived in Padm´┐Żvat´┐Ż (Pawaya,
near Gwalior), but he came and settled in Khajuraho. He built the wonderful town
and also the Vaidyan´┐Żtha temple. P´┐Żhila, who constructed the Jaina temple of
P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha and made a number of gifts and endowments, belonged to G´┐Żihapati
family.178 The successors of P´┐Żhila are known
to have installed Jaina images. P´┐Żhila and some of his successors held the
ministerial posts. Devap´┐Żla of this caste built the Jaina temple at B´┐Ż´┐Żapur
while his grandson at Madane´┐Ża S´┐Żgarapura. These G´┐Żihapatis were known as
The other Jaina castes known were
Gol´┐Żp´┐Żrva, Gol´┐Żl´┐Żre, Parav´┐Żra, Paurapa´┐Ż´┐Ża etc.179 S´┐Żha Gale and T´┐Żd´┐Ż belonged to
Gol´┐Żp´┐Żrva caste. P´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żha of the Gahot caste hailed from Th´┐Żbona and became very
rich by business. He is known to have constructed several Jaina temples and
installed images in them The gotras180 of these castes were Kochchala,
V´┐Żsalla, Bh´┐Żralla, Gohilla, K´┐Żsilla, Vajhalla, V´┐Żchhala
The Jaina inscriptions found in the
region of Gopagiri give us some idea about the Jaina castes. From the Dabkund
stone inscription181 dated 1088 A.D., it is known that
the two traders ´┐Żishi and D´┐Żhe´┐Ża, on whom Vikramasi´┐Żha had conferred the rank of
´┐Żresh´┐Żhins, built the Jaina temple at Cha´┐Żoha, the ancient name of
Dubhakunda. Further, this inscription informs that their grandfather
´┐Żresh´┐Żhin Jasuka is described as the head of a guild of merchants, which
had come from a twon Jayasapura. Jaisav´┐Żla caste seems to have originated from
Jayasapura but its identification is not known.
The Jaina castes known from the
inscriptions were Parav´┐Żra, Gol´┐Żl´┐Żra, Gol´┐Żp´┐Żrva and Paurapata while their
gotras were Kochhala, V´┐Żsala, Bh´┐Żralla, Goilla, Gohila, K´┐Żsilla,
V´┐Żchhala, Veriy´┐Ż, K´┐Żsiya, V´┐Żjhhala, Pedela and ´┐Żvanab´┐Żh´┐Żra.182
Narwar inscription dated 1284 A.D. (V.S. 1341 A.D.) of the time of Vajvap´┐Żla
ruler Mah´┐Żr´┐Żja Gop´┐Żla mentions a trader named R´┐Żma of Bansavala gotra
hailing from the village Sevayika.183
T´┐Żra´┐Żasv´┐Żm´┐Ż observed no distinction
among different sects, and there was no difference between the upper and lower
castes. His followers were divided into twelve castes (1) Chara´┐Ż´┐Żgara,
(2) ´┐Żyudhy´┐Ż, (3) As´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż, (4)
Gol´┐Żl´┐Żre (5) R´┐Żiramana, (6) Kara´┐Ż´┐Żgara, (7) Samaiy´┐Ż, (8) N´┐Żyaka, (9) Niyam´┐Ż,
(10) K´┐Żmadamana, (11) Rajatasodhiy´┐Ż, and (12 Param´┐Żra K´┐Żatr´┐Ż. There was no
fanaticism among the followers of these castes. Mutual marriages, interdining
were permitted among the followers of these castes.184
Uttara Pradesh : It seems that some of the Digambara
Jaina castes such as Lambak´┐Ż´┐Żchuka, Budhela, Gol´┐Żs´┐Żr´┐Żnvaya and Golasi´┐Żg´┐Żra
originated in Uttara Pradesh. Lambak´┐Ż´┐Żchuka is found in the image inscriptions
dated VS.S. 1412, V.S. 1509, V.S. 1525, V.S.1413, V.S. 1734, V.S. 1760, 1520,
V.S. 1760, V.S. 1534, V.S. 1722, and V.S. 1471 found at
Bu´┐Żhela J´┐Żati has been mentioned in
the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1791, 1772 and 1766. Originally Bu´┐Żhela
was merely a gotra of Ma´┐Żbhech´┐Ż or Lambaka´┐Żchuka caste but it became a
separate caste between V.S. 1590 and V.S. 1670 because of some social dispute.
Gol´┐Żs´┐Żr´┐Żnvaye caste is found in the image inscriptions V.S. 1525, V.S. 1686,
V.S. 1474, V.S. 1511 and V.S. 1515 and Golasi´┐Żg´┐Żr´┐Ż-r´┐Ż´┐Żg´┐Ż gotra in V.S.
Kha´┐Żdelav´┐Żla caste has been
mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1783, V.S. 1520, V.S. 1675,
V.S. 1822, and V.S. 1436 while Agrav´┐Żla in V.S. 1234, V.S. 1537. V.S. 1529, V.S.
1545, 1549 and V.S. 1642. Jaisav´┐Żla caste is known from the Jaina image
inscriptions dated V.S. 1628, V.S. 1601, V.S. 1531, V.S. 1537 and V.S. 1437.
Krake´┐Ża J´┐Ż´┐Żti-Baraha´┐Ż´┐Ż gotra has been mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions
dated V.S. 1551, Dh´┐Żkau (Dharaka´┐Ża) in V.S. 15, Nagara Kotela in V.S. 1411, Pule
caste - Khemija gotra in V.S. 1688, Mahima caste in V.S. 1588 and R´┐Żhata caste
It seems that Krake´┐Ża J´┐Żti
and Kakas´┐Żna J´┐Żti were one and the same. Kharau´┐Ż gotra became
separate from Gol´┐Żn´┐Żra and became independent caste. Nagara Kotera Gotra or
caste became famous after the village Nagara Kota in Punjab. At one time, it was
a holy place of the Hindus and the Jainas. M´┐Żhima Va´┐Ż´┐Ża is known as Mahiy´┐Ż
caste. Varahiy´┐Ż kula was converted into Varaiy´┐Ż caste.186
The ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbara castes such as
Osav´┐Żla, ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żti and Pr´┐Żgv´┐Ż´┐Ża have been mentioned in the inscriptions of the
15th and 16th centuries. A few Jaina image inscriptions prove that ´┐Żr´┐Żvakas
of Mahatiy´┐Ż´┐Ża (Mantr´┐Żda´┐Żya) settled at Jaunapura. These
inscriptions187 prove that people of these castes
migrated from Rajasthan and settled in Uttara Pradesh.
Maharashtra : The metal Jaina image inscriptions
from the 14th to 16th centuries found at Bombay, Nagpur, Amaravati, Chandav´┐Ż´┐Ża
and Manam´┐Ż´┐Ża near Nasik, Nasik, Balapura, Karanja, Chalisaganva, Bhadravati and
Sirpura prove that the ´┐Żr´┐Żvakas of Osav´┐Żla, Pr´┐Żgv´┐Żta, ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żl´┐Ż and
Palliv´┐Żla castes migrated from Rajasthan to Maharashtra and settled
there.188 ´┐Żr´┐Ż V´┐Żya´┐Ża caste has been mentioned
in the metal image inscriptions189 of V.S. 1488 and Mo´┐Żha caste in
V.S. 1616.190 The Mahat´┐Żya´┐Ża (Mantr´┐Żdal´┐Żya) caste
been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1516 of the three Jaina
Bihar : The ´┐Żr´┐Żvakas of Mantr´┐Żdal´┐Żya
caste migrated to Bihar from Rajasthan and settled at different places. There is
a Mahitiy´┐Żna Muhall´┐Ż named after the caste Mahitiy´┐Ż´┐Ża in Patna. They got
constructed Jaina temples and Dharma´┐Ż´┐Żl´┐Żs.192 The name of this caste is mentioned
in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1504, V.S. 1519, V.S. 1524, V.S. 1606
and V.S. 1686.193
The ´┐Żr´┐Żvakas of this caste
got Jaina temple built at Vaibh´┐Żragiri and Vipulagiri at R´┐Żjag´┐Żiha. The
´┐Żr´┐Żvakas of the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbara castes namely Osav´┐Żla, Pr´┐Żgv´┐Żta and ´┐Żr´┐Żm´┐Żl´┐Ż
migrated to Bihar from Rajasthan as known from the Jaina image inscriptions of
the 15th and 16th centuries. The Jaisav´┐Żla caste194 of the Digambaras has been mentioned in the Jaina image inscription
dated V.S. 1638 while that of Bagherav´┐Żla caste in the
inscription195 dated V.S.
South India : The V´┐Żra Ba´┐Żajigas of the South followed
Jainism. Some agricultural sections of the South were devoted to Jainism. In the
inscriptions of South India, the names of the castes are not found mentioned. In
some inscriptions, their designations and professions are found mentioned.
G´┐Żvu´┐Ż´┐Ża or G´┐Ż´┐Żu´┐Ż´┐Ża196 was the designation of village
headman. It is also known that Go´┐Ż´┐Ż or Gau´┐Ż´┐Ż Kamma´┐Żak´┐Żra197 was the name of the mint official.
Perga´┐Że or Hegga´┐Że was the name of the city official.198 S´┐Żmanta199, Mah´┐Żprabhu200,
Mah´┐Żpradh´┐Żna203 are the title names of the
It is noticed that these castes were
associated with the particular Sa´┐Żghas, ga´┐Żas and gachchhas
´┐Ż The Humba´┐Ża caste was related with the Surat branch of Bal´┐Żtk´┐Żra ga´┐Ża, the
Lamech´┐Ż caste with the A´┐Żera branch, the Parav´┐Żra caste with the Jeraha´┐Ża branch
and the Kha´┐Ż´┐Żelav´┐Żla caste with the Delhi-Jaipur branch. The Agrav´┐Żla caste was
connected with the M´┐Żthura gachchha of the K´┐Żsh´┐Żh´┐Ż Sa´┐Żgha, the H´┐Żma´┐Ża caste with
the Nand´┐Żta´┐Ża gachchha and the Bagherav´┐Żla caste with the L´┐Ż´┐Żav´┐Żga´┐Ża
Samprad´┐Żya ´┐Żiksh´┐Ż, p. 656.
Bh´┐Żrat´┐Ż, Vol. XI, No. 11.
3. NJI. III, p.
4. Ibid., No.
5. APJLS., No.
6. NJI., No.
7. NJI., Nos. 1131
8. NJI., No.
9. HOO., p.
10. NJI., No.
11. NJI., Nos. 2084
& Jaina Samprad´┐Żya ´┐Ż´┐Żksh´┐Ż, p. 625.
distinguished Jainas, p. 36.
13. Ibid., p.
16. NJI., III, No.
17. HOO., p.
18. NJI., I,
20. Ibid., II,
P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha k´┐Ż Parampar´┐Ż K´┐Ż Itih´┐Żsa, p. 1109.
22. NJI., Pt. I &
Samprad´┐Żya ´┐Żiksh´┐Ż, p. 626.
24. NJI., No.
25. Ibid., No.
Samprad´┐Żya ´┐Żiksh´┐Ż, p. 628, Gadd´┐Ż ´┐Żaha was the brother of famous Bhains´┐Ż
27. NJI., No.
Samprad´┐Żya ´┐Żiksh´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Żha pp. 635-637.
29. NJI., No.
Samprad´┐Żya ´┐Żiksh´┐Ż, p. 637.
31. NJI., No.
32. NJI., No.
Samprad´┐Żya ´┐Żiksh´┐Ż, p. 638.
34. NJI., No.
Samprad´┐Żya ´┐Żiksha, pp. 639, 640 and 641.
36. NJI., No.
37. HOO., p.
38. Ibid., No.
40. HOO., p.
Samprad´┐Żya ´┐Żiksh´┐Ż, p. 622.
42. NJI., No.
Samprad´┐Żya ´┐Żiksh´┐Ż, p. 628.
44. NJI., No.
Samprad´┐Żya Siksh´┐Ż, p. 631.
P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha K´┐Ż Parampar´┐Ż K´┐Ż Itih´┐Żsa, p. 1109.
47. NJI., No.
48. NJI., No.
Samprad´┐Żya ´┐Żiksh´┐Ż, p. 634.
50. APJLS., No.
Samprad´┐Żya ´┐Żiksh´┐Ż, p. 634.
52. HOO., p.
53. NJI., No.
54. NJI., No.
55. HOO., p.
56. Jaina Pustaka
Pra´┐Żasti Sa´┐Żgraha, No. 35.
57. Jaina S´┐Żhitya
Sa´┐Ż´┐Żodhaka Evam Jain´┐Żch´┐Żrya ´┐Żtm´┐Żr´┐Żma ´┐Żat´┐Żbd´┐Ż Sm´┐Żraka Grantha, Gujar´┐Żti
Vibh´┐Żga, P. 204.
58. Sr´┐Ż Jaina
Gotra Sa´┐Żgraha, pp. 13-23.
Itih´┐Żsa ´┐Ż Introduction, p. 12.
60. NJI., No.
61. Ibid., No.
62. EJI., No.
63. NJI., No.
64. Ibid., No.
65. Ibid., No.
66. Ibid., No.
67. Ibid., No.
68. Ibid., No.
69. Ibid., No.
70. Ibid., No.
71. Ibid., No.
72. Ibid., No.
73. Ibid., No.
74. Ibid., No.
75. Ibid., No.
76. Ibid., No.
77. Ibid., No. 1224
78. Ibid., No. 737
79. Ibid., No.
80. Ibid., No.
81. Ibid., No.
82. Ibid., No.
83. Ibid., No.
84. Ibid., No.
85. ´┐Żri Jaina
Gotra Sa´┐Żgraha, pp. 13-23.
86. Ojh´┐Ż Nibandha
´┐Ża´┐Żgraha, p. 25.
87. NJI., No.
88. Ibid., No.
89. Sr´┐Ż Jaina
Gotra Sa´┐Żgraha, p. 50 (Introduction).
91. NJI., No. 947,
948 and 150.
P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha K´┐Ż Parampar´┐Ż K´┐Ż Itih´┐Żsa, p. 544.
97. Manuscript in the
´┐Ż´┐Żstra Bha´┐Żd´┐Żra at Ajmer.
98. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. 1250
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻU╩í´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩äU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻU´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻĎç´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 1 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŢ▓´┐Ż´┐Ż
(Inscription on the
image of white marble in the temple of Si´┐Żgh´┐Żj´┐Ż at Jaipur).
99. PS., p.
100. PS., P.
101. PS., p.
102. PS., p.
103. See above, p.
104. PS., p.
105. See above, p.
106. PS., p.
107. See above, p.
108. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1703 ´┐ŻĎç´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩é´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU´┐Ż╩É ´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╦č´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż├ľ
109. See above, p.
110. PS., p.
111. See above, p.
112. See above., p.
113. PS., p.
´┐Żiksh´┐Ż, p. 128.
115. Ibid., p.
116. See above, p.
117. PS., p.
118. PS., P.
119. V´┐Żrav´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż, Vol.
120. See above, p. 12
121. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1590 ´┐Ż╩äU ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 9 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐ŻU╩źU´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż╩äU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ľ (Ins. on Da´┐Żalaksha´┐Ża Yantra in
Jaina temple of Pa´┐Żodi at Jaipur).
122. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1799 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 10 ´┐Ż┘É´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚ó´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╚ó´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU├ó´┐Ż (Ins. on the metal image of
L´┐Ż´┐Żakara´┐Żaj´┐Ż Pa´┐Ż´┐Ży´┐Ż, Jaipur.)
123. PS., P.
125. Ibid., p.
126. Ibid., p.
127. Ibid., pp. 44
128. See above, p.
129. EI., V. XXIV, p.
84, Verses, 82-83.
130. IA., V. XX, See
Table of Pontifical Residences, p. 57.
131. Manuscript in the
´┐Ż´┐Żstra Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żra of Ajmer.
132. JSAI., p.
133. ARRMA., Yr.
1926-27, No. 10.
134. NJI., No.
135. Ibid., No.
136. Ibid., No. 628.
137. PS., p.
138. PS., p.
139. Inscription on
Yantra in the Jaina temple at Jaipur.
140. See above, p.
141. ´┐Żr´┐Ż Bhagav´┐Żn
P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha K´┐Ż Parampar´┐Ż K´┐Ż Itih´┐Żsa, p. 550.
142. Ibid., p.
143. PS., p.
144. Ibid., p.
145. Ibid., p.
146. Ibid., p.
147. ´┐Ż´┐Żstra Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żra
´┐Żr´┐Ż Digambara Jaina Mandira Sambhavan´┐Żtha Ba´┐Ż´┐Ż Baz´┐Żra,
Vol. 13, p. 124.
149. Ibid., p.
Vol. 13, p. 124.
151. JSAI., p.
Vol. 3, p. 124.
154. JSAI., p.
Vol. 4, p. 610.
156. Jaina Pustaka
Pra´┐Żasti Sa´┐Żgraha, Nos. 52 & 93.
157. Manidh´┐Żr´┐Ż ´┐Żr´┐Ż
Jinachandra S´┐Żri, p. 74.
158. NJI, I,
Nos. 48, 236, 482.
160. NJI, No.
162. NJI, I,
No. 119, No. 292.
163. E I,
165. CII, VII,
166. Malwa Through
The Ages, p. 512, No. 6.
167. Ibid, No.
168. Ibid, No.
169. Ibid, p.
170. Malwa Through
the Ages, P. 9.
Ke Jaina Lekha, Nos. 50, 162, 254.
Arhat Vachana, V-4, pp. 261-63.
175. E I,
XXXVI, pp. 121-23.
V-4, pp. 262-63.
177. E I.I. pp.
178. Ibid, pp.
III, p. 109.
181. E.I. II,
III, p. 109.
ARADGS, V.S. 1904,
No. 15; Gwalior R´┐Żjya ke Abhilekha, No. 149.
185. Kamta Prasad : Pratima Lekha
186. Kamta Prasad : Pratim´┐Ż Lekha
188. Muni Kantisagar : Jaina Dhatu
Pratima Lekha Samgraha.
189. Ibid., No.
190. Ibid., No.
Nos. 158, 159 and 173.
192. Maindh´┐Żr´┐Ż ´┐Żri
Jinachandra S´┐Żri, p. 20
193. NJI, Nos.
239, 270, 186, 215, 216, 217, No. 257, 271, 272 and 192.
194. NJI, No.
195. Ibid, No.
196. JSLS, V,
Nos. 18, 36.
197. Ibid, No.
198. Ibid, Nos.
81 and 96.
199. Ibid, No.
200. Ibid, No.
201. Ibid, No.
202. Ibid, No.
203. Ibid, No.