PRECEPTS ON VALID KNOWLEDGE 关于正确的知识
<(A) PANCAVIDHA JNANA Five Kinds Of Knowledge 五种知识
Gahanam sammam nanam, sayaramaneyabheyam tu. (674)
Such a grasping of the nature of itself and that of other things, as is free from doubt, mistake and uncertainty is called the right cognition; it is of a determinate form and is of various types. (674)
Tattha pamcaviham nanam, suyam abhinibohiyam.
Ohinanam tu taiyam, manananam ca kevalam. (675)
The knowledge is of five kinds: Mati-Jnana i.e., knowledge derived through the five senses and the mind Sruta-jnana i.e. knowledge obtained from the scriptures, Avadhi-Jnana (clairvoyance) Manahaparya-Jnana i.e. telepathy and Kevala-Jnana i.e. omniscience. (675)
Pamceva homti nana, madisudaohimanam ca kevalayam.
Khayauvasamiya cauro, kevalananam have khaiyam. (676)
Knowledge is thus of five kinds: sensory knowledge, scriptural knowledge, clairvoyance, telepathy and omniscience. The first four result from substance cum annihilation of the relevant Karmas, while omniscience result after total annihilation of Karmas. (676)
Iha apoha vimamsa, maggana ya gavesana.
Sanna sati mati panna, savvam abhinibodhiyam. (677)
Reflection on what has been perceived, reasoning, questioning, examining, searching, understanding and judging these are the varieties of sensory knowledge. (677)
Atthao atthamtaramuvalambhe tam bhananti suyananam.
Abhinibohiyapuvvam, niyamena ya saddayam mulam. (678)
Sruta-Jnana is said to consist in comprehension of the meaning of words that are heard or it is derived from the senses and the mind and it as a rule is born of words. (678)
Imdiyamanonimittam, jam vinnanam suyanusarenam.
Niyayatatthuttisamattham, tam bhavasuyam mai sesam. (679)
The knowledge which is required through the senses and the mind by hearing or reading the scripture and which is capable of expressing its content is called Bhava-srutajnana, the rest of the knowledge (acquired through thought-activities and the senses) is matijnana. (679)
Maipuvvam suyamuttam, na mai suyapuvviya viseso‘yam.
Puvvam puranapalana-bhavao jam mai tassa. (680)
The Srutajnana is acquired through matijnana while the matijnana is not acquired through Srutajnana, but in the act of fortering thoughts, it is the characteristic of matijnana that it precedes the Srutajnana.
Avahiyaditti ohi, simananetti vanniyam samae.
Bhavagunapaccaya-vihiyam, tamohinana tti nam bimti. (681)
The type of cognition which limits the (direct) knowledge is called (Avadhi-Jnana) i.e., clairvoyance, in the scriptures, it is also called simajnana i.e. .imited cognition. This avadhi-jnana is of two types -viz. one that is born on account of a certain type of birth and one that is born on account of the practice of certain various qualities. (681)
Cimtiyamacimtiyam va, addham cimtiya aneyabheyagayam.
Manapajjava tti nanam, jam janai tam tu naraloe. (682)
In this world of human beings, that type of cognition is called manahaparyayajnana, which comprehends other‘s thought, that is already entertained, that is not yet entertained or that is only half entertained, and so on. It is of many types. (682)
Kevalamegam suddham, sagalamasaharanam anamtam ca.
Payam ca nanasaddo, namasamanahigarano‘yam. (683)
That type of cognition which is one, pure, perfect, extra-ordinary, endless, is called Kevalajnana, and here as usual the generic word jnana is to be added to the specific word denotative of a particular jnana Type. (683)
Sambhinnam pasamto, logamalogam ca savvao savvam.
Tam natthi jam na pasai, bhuyam bhavvam bhavissam ca. (684)
Kevala-Jnana grasps in one sweep all that is in this universe and beyond the universe in its entirety; certainly, there is nothing in the past, future and the present which is not grasped by this type of cognition. (684)
<(B) PRATYAKSA-PAROKSA PRAMANA Precepts On Direct And Indirect Knowledge <关于直接的知识和间接的知识
Gehanai vatthusahavam, aviruddham sammaruvam jam nanam.
Bhaniyam khu tam pamanam, paccakkhaprokkhabheehim. (685)
That cognition which grasps the nature of things in a proper and uncontradicted form is called pramana; it is of two types-viz. Pratyaksa (direct) and paroksa (indirect). (685)
Jivo akkho atthavvavana-bhoyanagunannio jenam.
Tam pai vattai nanam, je paccakkham tayam tiviham. (686)
The word “aksa‘ means a soul either because it covers the entire range of the things or because it enjoys these things (the tow meanings depending on two different etymologies of the word “aksa‘ and the type of cognition, which is had be an aksa is called pratyaksa; it is of three sub-types. (686)
Akkhassa poggalakaya, jam davvindiyamana para tenam.
Tehim ot jam nanam, parokkhamiha tamanumanam va. (687)
The physical sense-organs and the internal organ i.e. mind, are something alien to an aksa or self, and the type and the type of cognition had through the instrumentality of these two is called paroksa-just like inferential cognition. (687)
Homti parokkham mai-suyaim jivassa paranimittao.
Puvvovaladdhasambamdha-saranao vanumanam va. (688)
The two cognitions mati and sruta are paroksa i.e. indirect because they are acquired by a soul through the instrumentality of something alien to itself or because they are born of the memory of relationship grasped earlier, just like inferential cognition. (688)
Egamtena parokkham, limgiyamohaiyam ca paccakkham.
Imdiyamanobhavam jam, tam samvavaharapaccakkham. (689)
In a real sense, the cognition acquired through the other sources is paroksa i.e. indirect while cogni-tion acquired directly by the soul is pratyaksa. But the cognition, born of a sense-organ is “pratyaksa‘ practically so called. (689)