CONTENTS

 

No. Introduction Page

I Soul (Jiva) 1

II Non-Soul (Ajva) 14

III Pure Thought-Activity, Shuddha Bhava 24

IV Practical Right Conduct, (Vyavahaar Charitra) 39

V Repentance, (Pratikramana) 50

VI Renunciation, (pratyakhyana) 56

VII Confession, (Alochana) 61

VIII Expiation, (Prayaschitta) 64

IX Supreme Equanimity, (Parama Samadhi) 67

X Supreme Devotion, (Parama Bhakti) 71

XI Real Independence, (Nishchaya Avashaya) 73

XII Pure Consciousness, (Shuddha Upayoga) 79

 

 

 

* INTRODUCTION: *

Niyamasara is one of the most renowned Adhyatmic works of Shri Kundakunda Acharya. He was the preceptor of Shri Uma Swami, the renowned author of Shri Tattwarthadhigama Sutra.

The Sanskrit commentary of Niyamasara was written by Shri Padmaprabha Haladhari Deva, who. appears to have lived about 1000 A. D. He was preceded by Shri Amrit Chandra Acharya, who wrote Sanskrit commentaries on Panchastikaya, Pravachana-sara and Samayasara, the great monumental works on Jaina metaphysics by Shri Kundakunda Acharya. Padmaprabha has frequently quoted and referred to some of the verses of Amrit Chandira in his commentary on Niyamasara.

The treatise is named Niyamasara, because it dales with the path of liberation which is Right Belief, Right knowledge and Right Conduct, the three jewels of faith combined. The word Niyama literally means, rule or law, and Sara means the right. Niyamasara thus signifies the Right Rule, i.e., the true and indispensable law for the attainment of liberation.

The sole object and the whole gist of this treatise is to show that the all-pure, all-conscious, all-blissful and self-absorbed soul alone is the Siddha, a perfect soul. If a soul is in bondage with karmic matter, i. e., if it is imperfect, and under delusion, it is imperfection or delusion which is accountable for the continuance of transmigrations, and experiences of pain and pleasure. La order to obtain liberation, perfection, eternal beatitude. a soul must get rid of all connection with the Non-self. When this connection with the Non-self is completely severed, Siddha-pada, Perfection, is attained.

 

Right Belief, Right Knowledge, and Right Conduct have been dealt with, from two points of view, the. real and the practical.

The real is the only sure and direct path; while the practical is an auxiliary cause to the attainment of the real. Real path of liberation is absorption in the self.

Attachment and aversion, which include all passionate thought-activities; are the main cause of karmic bondage, while non-attachment, or pure thought-activity leads to freedom from bondage.

1. Practical Right Belief is a true and firm belief in Apta, the all-accomplished, all-knowing, source of all knowledge, in the Agama, the Scripture, the written discourse, which first flowed from the omniscient, and in the Tattvas the Principles or categories.

 

The Apta must have three special characteristics:-

(a) Freedom from all defects such as hunger, fear, anger, delusion, (b) Omniscience and (c) non-volitional propagation of truth. Such are the Arhats, the adorable Lords, of whom the most prominent are the twenty-four Tirthankaras.

Agama is the scripture composed by the highly learned and spiritually advanced saints from discourses which flowed from the Arhats. These scriptures are faultless and free from the flaw of inconsistency.

Tattvas, the principle categories or substances are seven, (1) Jiva-soul, (2) Ajiva-non-soul, (3) Asrava-inflow, (4) Bandha-bondage, (5) Sam-vara-the check of inflow, (6) Nirjara-the shedding of previously bound up Karmas, and (7) Moksha-liberation from all Karmic contact.

All that exists is included in one or other of the two principles, soul and non-soul. While a man is alive it is the soul in his body while perceives and knows all objects. A body without soul is incapable of perceiving or knowing anything. Material objects such as a pen, table or chair can not feel or know anything. They are unconscious or inanimate substances.

I. The soul. It is the only conscious substance. Looked at from the real point of view even a mundane soul; is pure, peaceful, all-knowing and all blissful; It is potentially so. From the practical point of view such a soul experiences various kinds of pain and pleasure in different conditions of life.

II. The Non-soul. It comprises the other five teal and independent substances, which, taken together with the soul, make up the six ( Dravyas) substances.

(1) (Pudgala) matter is the most prominent, and plays a very important part in the amphitheater of the universe. The special attributes of matter-substance ( Pudgala ) are touch, taste, smell, and colour. It exists either in the form of atoms, or of molecules. Only gross molecules are cognizable by the senses; fire, electric and karmic molecules which compose the electric and the karmic bodies of all mundane souls are not cognizable by the senses.

(2) Dharma Dravya. Medium of motion .is a single, immaterial substance, pervading throughout the whole of the universe. It is essentially an auxiliary cause of motion for soul and matter.

(3) Adharma Dravya. Medium of rest is also a single, immaterial substance pervading .throughout the whole of the universe It is also an essentially auxiliary cause of rest for soul and matter.

(4) Akasha Dravya. Space is a single;-infinite immaterial substance. Its function is to give place to all substances.

(5) Kala Dravya, Time is an immaterial substance. It is an auxiliary cause of bringing about modifications in all substances.

 

III & IV. Inflow ( asrava ) and (Bandha ).

Every mundane Soul has a karmic body, formed of karmic molecules. The universe is full of karmic molecules. Inflow of these molecules towards the soul caused by its own vibratory activities, through mind, speech, and body, is called Asrava. When these molecules are so attracted towards the soul, they are assimilated in (he existing karmic body. The causes of assimilation or bondage are the souls vibratory activities, and passions. This process is known as Bandha ( bondage ). The processes of Inflow and Bondage of Karmic matter go on simultaneously. The main auxiliary causes of them are;

 

(a) Wrong belief ( Mithyatva).

(b) Vow-lessness ( Avirati).

(c) Passions ( Kashaya )

(d) Souls vibratory activities ( Yoga )

 

V. Samvara. Checking of Inflow and Bondage of Karmic molecules, is called Samvara ( Stoppage ).

The main auxiliary causes of stopping the inflow ,and bondage of karmic molecules are:

(a) Right belief.

(b) Observance of vows.

(c) Passionlessness.

(d)Restraint of souls vibratory activities

 

VI. Nirjara- The shedding of karmas already-bound with a soul at maturity, or prematurely, is called Nirjara. The -premature : shedding of karmas is caused by pure thought-activities, brought about by the practice of right kind of austerities. The shedding on maturity is a natural and automatic process.

 

Moksha. Liberation is freedom from all karmic matter as a result of the non-existence of the cause of bondage and the shedding off all karmas previously bound, ft is the state of a Siddha, the condition of perfection.

 

Continuous devotion to Apta, study of the scriptures, and meditation of the seven principles, cause the subsidence of wrong belief (mithyatva) and of the four error-feeding passions ( anantanubandhi kashaya ) and as a consequence the real right belief which is an attribute of the soul, shines forth in its true splendour. At this stage the right believer is fully convinced of the true and pure nature of his own soul, and this is Real Right belief.

 

RIGHT KNOWLEDGE.

I. Practical Right Knowledge is the acquisition of all the Jaina scriptures. This Right-Knowledge must be free from three main defects (a) doubt ( Samshaya), (b) Perversity ( Viparyaya ) and (c) Indefiniteness ( anadhyavasaya ). It reveals the complete and precise nature of things.

II. Real Right knowledge is to know the true and real nature of the soul as quite distinct from all other non-soul substances.

Constant contemplation of, and unflinching devotion to, the subject matter of practical right knowledge is an auxiliary cause to the attainment of Right Knowledge.

 

RIGHT CONDUCT.

A right believer, who has fully realised the true and real nature of his own soul, and is bent upon getting rid of the karmic filth which is in bondage with his soul, tries to follow Right Conduct. His main object in doing so is to be free from attachment and aversion, and from all impure thought-activities and to attain the condition of equanimity.

 

Practical right conduct consists in observing the following five vows:

(a) Ahimsa ... refraining from doing injury.

(b) Satya ... refraining from falsehood.

(c) Asteya ... refraining from theft.

(d) Brahmacharya ... Chastity, purity.

(e) Aparigraha ... Non-attachment.

 

This practical right conduct can be observed either partially or fully. Laymen observe it partially, while those who observe it fully are saints. Partial observance is merely a stepping stone to the conduct of a saint, without following which it is not possible to advance spiritually and to ultimately liberate the soul from karmic bondage.

A layman is required to follow the seven supplementary vows also, as they are helpful in the proper observance of the first five.

Out of these seven, the following three are called Gunavratas ( multiplicative vows ) because they raise the value of the five vows multifold.

Dig-Vrata, a vow to limit worldly activities to fixed points in all the 10 directions North, South, East, West, North-east, North-west, South-east South-west, above and below.

Desha-Vrata, a vow to limit wordly activity for a fixed period only.

Anartha-Danda Vrata. Taking a vow not to commit purposeless sin. It is of five kinds:

(a) Apa-Dhyana, thinking ill of others.

(b) Papopadesha, Preaching evil of others.

(c) Pramada-charya. Inconsiderate conduct, such as uselessly breaking the boughs of trees.

(d) Himsa-dan, preparing pr supplying instruments of attack.

(e) Dushruti, Reading or listening to improper literature.

 

The remaining four are the following Shiksha Vratas or disciplinary vows; so called because they are preparatory to the discipline of an ascetics life:--

Samayikar-Taking a vow to devote a fixed1 period every day, once, twice, or three times, at sunrise, sunset and noon to the contemplation of the self for spiritual advancement.

Proshadhopvasa Taking a vow to fast on four days of the month, l. e., the two Ashtamis and the two Chaturdashis.

Bhogopobhoga. Parimana. Taking a vow every day to limit ones enjoyment of consumable and non-consumeable things.

Atithi-Samvibhaga. Taking a vow to take ones food only after feeding ascetics or others, with a part of it.

The following eleven stages of spiritual progress have been laid down for a layman.

1 Darshana pratima. A layman who entertains right belief, and follows the five main vows to a limited extent is classed in this stage.

2 Vrata-Pratima. In this stage he observes the five main vows to a limited extent (anuvratas), without transgression and follows the seven supplementary vows

3. Samayika Pratima. In this stage he practices faultless contemplation regularly, three times, in the morning, at midday and in the evening, at least for about 48 minutes every time

4 Proshadhopavasa Pratima. In this stage he observes a fast faultlessly, on the 8th and 14th days of the fortnight.

5. Sachitta Tyaga Pratima, In this stage he does not take animate water and vegetable, etc.


6. Ratri-Bhukat Tyaga Pratima. He does not take or give food or drink at night

7. Brahmacharya Pratima: He gives up sexual intercourse even with his wife.

8. Arambha Tyaga Pratima He gives up all profession and all means of earning money and all wordly occupations.

9. Parigraha-Tyaga pratima. He gives up all desire for objects of the word and abandons all property except a very few limited number of clothes and utensils

10. Anumati-Tyaga Pratima. He would not even offer advice on any worldly matter

11. Uddishta-Tyaga Pratima. In this stage he would not accept food which is prepared particularly for him. He will only accept food which is respect-full offered by a house-holder at the time when he goes out for food. One following the discipline of this stage may be-

(a) Kshullaka, who keeps a small sheet of cloth not sufficiently long to cover his whole body and a small loin-cloth (langoti), and dines in a dish, or

(b) Ailaka, who wears only a small loin-cloth (langoti) and dines off his hands.

They both carry a bowl of water for cleaning the body and peacock-feathers brush for harmlessly removing insects.

Every Jaina houses-holder is ordinarily required to perform the following six daily duties.

1. Deva-Puja. Worship of the Arhats, the adorables.

2. Guru Bhakti Devotion to the gurus or pre ceptor-saints.

3 Svadhyaya Study of the scriptures

4. Samyama. Control of the five senses and the mind. In practicing Samyama, it is necessary to renounce certain objects of enjoyments with the idea of self-control.

5. Tapa. Austerities such as meditating upon the nature of soul, every morning and evening, for a fixed time.

6. Dana or Charity Giving of (a) food, (b) knowledge, (c) medicine, or (d) protection.

As soon as an Ailaka is able to subdue his passion, and regards himself as above passion and emotion, like an infant he discards that small langoti also, becomes a nirgrantha, a naked saint, without any possession, whatsoever, except the bowl for carrying water, for cleaning, but not bathing the body and the peacock fathers brush for carefully removing insects He may keep scriptures as well for daily study.

A saint while observing the five great vows fully and without any transmigration, has to observe the following eight rules of Conduct also:

 

1. Five kinds of caution, (Samiti).

(a) Irya Samiti proper care in walking.

(b) Bhasha Samiti, proper care in speaking.

(c) Eshna Samiti, proper care in eating.

(d) Adana-Nikshepa Samiti, Proper care in lifting and placing the bowl, ect.

(e) Utsarga Samiti, proper care while attending calls of nature.

 

II. Three kinds of Restraint (Gupti), (a) of mind, (b) of word, (c) of body.

These eight rules of conduct taken together with the five vows make the thirteen rules of practical right conduct laid down for a saint.

In dealing with the six essential duties from the real point of view, the author has used the word Avashyaka in its etymological sense. Avasha, means independent; and Avashyaka Karma means independent action. Independent action signifies the idea that a soul of a saint in mediation, is not dependent upon any other thought activity except its own pure and real nature. This is only possible in the condition of self-absorption, when a saint is free from all fareign thought activities.

From the practical point of view, they may be briefly described as follows:-

1. Pratikramana; Repentence means the statement of the sins and transgressions committed by a saint, during the performance of his daily routing; and making penance for them.

2. Pratyakayana. Renunciation means resolving to avoid particular thought-activities and action in future, which tend to disturb the performance of essential duties.

3. Stuti or Praising and

4. Vandana prostration the worshipful saints. They are both aspects of Devotion which are practiced with the object of getting rid of impure thought activities.

5. Samavika or Equanimity. In practicing Samayika a saint resorts to some .undisturbed and calmly and cheerfully withdraws all is activities, and meditates upon his own soul and various attributes and modifications.

6. Kayotsarga. Is the relinquishment of attachment to the body and all other objects associated with it.

Nirvana is the result brought about by the practice of self-absorption, which is the combination of Real Right belief, Real Right Knowledge and Real

Right Conduct.

In the condition of Nirvana the soul retains its own pure and real thought-activities only, and its own natural and eternal bliss.

 

Remarkable thinking

While going deep down into the qualities of the soul, very, vividly Acharya Kundakunda exposes the cause and effect theory, which does not occur in any other book. This is because, many more thinkers of Jainism did not attain that much vision to perceive the basic, permanent and uuderstructive nature of the soul as such is combined by; three basic-things They are called --ֵԵ i.e. the basic phenomena, its qualities and the modes, that occur every moment. While keeping in mind these basic things of Jiva (soul) he explains that the cause of all the modes (ֵԵ) of knowledge, faith and conduct is the basic supreme nature of the soul i. e. ֬ ָָ֯֟ the natural super status of the soul, which can not be deterred, from its perfectly imbibed nature by whatever the sequences thpse arise outwardly or inwardly without changing its( original nature i. e. ׸״֍ ָ ָ֟.

And that fundamental source-is the main super cause of all the variations that occur in it, pure or impure from time to time: If arty soul attains ֻ the perfectness of knowledge, faith and conduct, it is due to that supernatural quality, as called by him Karan paramatma. And if Kaivalya is attained, that kind of state of soul is the effect ֵ of Karana Paramatma. This type of description is only available in Kundakundas sacred books. It is also to be noted that all (ֵ) are performed whefl mode takes (ֻӲ֭) help of ָ ָ֟. Karana Paramatma means the natural attributes of bliss, joy, knowledge etc. It is called Sahaja () naturally potent attributes Sahaja Jnana. Sahaj Ananda, Sahaja Sukha, Sahaja Samadhi. Parama Parinamika Bhava (Sahaja Bhava) is free from subsidential thought-activity (Aupash-mika Bhava) Destructive Subsidential thought-activity (Kshayopashamika Bhava) and operative thought-activity (Audayika Bhava).

This is also very important to note that all the souls in the three Universe are divided as one of the most perfect and the purest soul called ֵ 㬤߾ due to the attainment of ֫, because of ָ ָ֟. The pure and perfect state of soul the cause of which is the ָ ָ֟. exists in all the souls permanently. Secondly, then there are souls who have accepted impurity due to their ֭ (ignorance), and 㬤߾ ( attachment to worldly things, ) That soul is called 㬤߾ (impure soul) and the third type of soul i. e. the Karana Paramatma-the root cause, of purity.

This is the basic thinking of KundaKunda who denounces any Foreign matter, cause or thing that obstructs the soul in becoming piker. ,On the one hind, he deals with the ָ ָ֟ the essential cause of all the faith, knowledge and conduct- He does not take into consideration any other worldy point for discussion. On the other hand he mentions ־ֵָ (outwardly -view-point ) which has been strongly propagated by many thinkers of his time.

He also states that the purity and supreme nature of the soul can not be challenged by any outwardly material which are basically , ֭ ( non-living k matter.) ֻ֤. So his thinking is exceptionally basic, and is touching the very roots of the changes that occour in soul.

All the senses, mind, body, life-span, and breathing are called the outward causes of the living being, in this world But Kundakunda is not very eager to take into account all these causes and effects. If is because he minutely goes into the pure and super nature of cause and effect theory which very much remarkable.

Here one may ask whether the ָ ָ֟ omnipresent in all the souls of the three worlds. Acharya accepts it in affirmations.

Wherever the soul exists with all its impurity, it is also imbibed with , ָ ָ֟. It is because qualities do not leave the things of which they part and parcel. And it is undoubtedly true that the basic, natural qualities do not die away. if t happens the will not exist at ail The very existence (֟) of the various qualities like knowledge faith conduct many others, do not go away from their original soul, though they are separate by are there. Changes are there but it is not that the qualities too diminish

The conclusion is that the soul in its purest form and status always exists in every soul. And that is called the Karana Paramatma, the eternal existence of the purest soul in every soul. If one can meditate and reach the main cause of the changes that take place from time to time, one should not think that there are other outwardly causes for attainment of Siddhatva.

 

INTRODUCTION

THE HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION THE AGE OF KUNDAKUNDA(ELACARYA)

Sri Kundakundacarya. the author of our work, was a very famous Jaina philosopher and theologian. He as also a great organiser of Religious institutions. His name is held in great veneration especially by the Digambara Section of the Jainas. Many great religious teachers claimed it an honour to trace their lineage from the great teacher Kundakunda. Several inscriptions that are found in South India and Mysore relating to Jaina teachers begin with Kunda-kundanvaya-of the line of Kundakunda. Students of Jaina literature are familiar with such phrases as the following-

Shri-Kundakunda-gurupatta-paramparayam.

Sri -Kundakunda-santanam;

Sri-Kundakundakhya-muniddra-vamsa.

These are some of the phrases claimed by Jaina writers such as Sakalabhusana author of Upadesar-atnamala. Vasunandi author of Upasakadhyayknam Brahmanemidatta of Aradhana Kathakosa. Instances may be multiplied without number, for showing the important place occupied by our author in the hierarchy of Jaina teachers.

Some of the epithets employed to characterise him are also significant of his great importance. Munindra-the Indra among the ascetics, Municakravarti-the emperor among the Munis, Kaundesa Lord Kunda are familiar designations of the great) teacher.

The personality of this great teacher, as is generally the case with world famour individuals, is lost in obscurity and shrouded with traditions. We have to depend upon so many written and oral; traditions to have a glimpse of this great person. The early history of India is but a string of speculations and even as such these are very cautious about the history of our author:

The one great landmark in the chronology of] India is Candragupta Maurya. This great emperor] of Magadha is not only referred to in the various literary works of India but is also mentioned by foreign historians especially the Greeks. This emperor Candragupta especially is of peculiar interest to the students of the early history of the Jainas.

LEWIS RICE & Dr. F. W. THOMAS have done considerable service to Indian History by cautiously interpreting several available facts, archaeological and epigraphically. relating to that period. The early faith of Asoka and the migration of Bhadrabahu with Candragupta are now accepted facts of history. The tendency among European scholars to post date the historical events and persons relating to India is a just antidote to the fantastic and legendary notions of indigenous writers who generally measure time by milleniums Nevertheless we have to point out that the orientalist have sometimes overreached their work. They generally proceed on the assumption that writing is a late acquisition in Indian civilization. The learned arguments put forward on panini by GOLDSTHCKER to undermine this assumption have been before the learned public for some decades, The excavations of Jaina Stupas at Mathura and Mr. K. P. JAYASWALS discovery of Konikas Statue with the inscriptions try to set back the pendulum of Indian chronology to an earlier period Speaking about the Jaina Stupas Sir Vincent SMITH writes as follows :-

The assumption has generally been made that all edifices in this Stupa form are Buddhist, When the inscription under discussion was executed not later than 157 A. D., the Vodva stupa of the Jainas at Mathura was already so ancient that it was regarded as the work of the gods. It was probably therefore erected as several centuries before the Christian era.

Again says he,

Assuming the ordinarily received date B. c.527 for the death of Mahavira to be correct the attainment of perfection by that saint may be placed about B. C. 55Q. The restoration of the stupa may be dated about 1300 Years later or A. D. 150. Its original erection in brick in the time of Parasavanatha. the predecessor of Mahavira, would fall at a date not later than B. C, 600 considering the significance of the phrase in the inscription built by the gods as indicating that the building at about the beginning of the Christian era was believed to date from a period of mythical antiquity, the date B. C. 600 for its erection is not too early. Probably therefore this Stupa of which Dr. FUHRER exposed the foundations is the oldest known buildings in India.

When we take these historic discoveries with, the Jaina traditions that a number of Tirthankaras preceded Lord Mahavira we may not be altogether wrong in supposing that adherents of Jaina faith in some form or other must have existed even interior) to Mahavira and that Mahavira himself was more a reformer than the founder of the fait. If there ware Jains influential enough to build Stupes in honour of their saints even anterior to 600 B. C. will it be too much to suppose that the followers; of this religion might have existed in South India even before Bhadrabahus migration to the soulh ? In fact it stands to reason to suppose that a large body of ascetics on account of a terrible famine in] the north migrated to a country where they would be welcomed by their devoted coreligionists. If the1 south were instead of a friendly territory waiting to receive the Sangha of learned ascetics a land populated with strangers and of alien faith, Bhadra-bahu would not have ventured to take with him into strange land a large body of ascetics who would depend entirely upon the generosity of the people; The Jaina tradition that the Pandya King of the South was a Jaina from very early times and that Bhadrabahu expected his hospitality might some historical background.

Up to the time of Bhadrabahus migration there was no split in the Jaina fold. That the schism of the Svetambaras arose about the time of Bhadrabahu I on account of the hardships of the famine is more than probable. This fact is evidenced by the complete absence of Svetambaras in the Deccan and South India. The Jainas be in the South and Mysorea always claim to be of Mulasangha, the original congregation.

One other interesting fact is the migration of the Digambaras from the south to the north for the purpose of religious propagandism. One point of agreement comes out clearly and is note worthy, i. e. the direction of the Digambara migration. It was from the south to the north from Bhadalpur to Delhi and Jaipur. This agrees with the opinion that the Digambara separation originally took place as a result of the migration southwards under Bhadrabeahu in consequence of a severe famine in Bihar the original home of the undivided Jaina Community (Prof. A. F. ) Rudolf Hoernle. Ind. Ant. Vol. XXI Three further Prattavails of the Digambaras, pp. 60 and 61.)

Professor HOERNLE says that the he has not been able to identify Bhadalpur. It is no other than Pataliputra of Patalipura which is the old name of Thiruppappuliyur or modern Cuddalore (Reports on the Archaeological Survey of India, Vol. 1906-07 Artcleon the Pallavas by V. VENKAYYA suggests that it is not the above place and identifies it with Tiruvadi a place near Panruti with many Jaina antiquities and remains. This is only a matter of detail. But the reason given by V. VENKAYYA is not quite sound. The fact that Pathiripuliyur is mentioned in Devaram as sacred to God Siva will not conflict with its being also the center of the Jainas

Now this Bhadalpur or Patalipura is associated with our author Sri Kundakunda as we shall show later on.

Before we proceed further, let us make sure about the age in which he lived and worked. For this we have clear evidence furnished in the several Pattavails preserved by the Jainas both Digambaras and Svetambaras, After Mahavira there had been a succession of teachers as shown below

Years

I- Kevalins Gautama - 12

Sudharma - 12

Jambu - 38

II- Sruta-Kevalins Visnukumara - 14 Nandimitra - 16

Aparajita - 22

Govardhana - 19

Bhadrabahu-I - 29

III.- Ten-Purvins Visakha - 10 Prosthila - 15 Naksatra - 17

Nagaseoa - 18

Jayasena - 21

Sidhartha - 17

Dhrtisena - 18

Vijaya - 13

Buddhilinga - 20

Deva, I - 14

Dharasena - 14

IV.-Eleven Angins Naksatra - 18

Jayapalaka - 20

Pandava - 39

Dhruvasena - 14

Kamsa - 32

Total - 468

Years

V.-Minor Angins Subhadra - 6

Yasobhadra - 18

Bhadrabahu. II.

 

In the year 2 after the Acarya Subhadras ( accession to the pontificate ), the birth of Vikrama took place; and the year 4 of Vikramas reign Bhadrabahu II took his seat on the pontifical chair. Further succession will be evident from the following table-

INDIAN ANTIQUARY VOLS. XX AND XXI The several Pattavalis examined by R. HOERNLE,

Please see this table on file name table page no. 8

 

If we take this date 8 B. C. as the reliable of date of his accession to the pontifical chair then the date of his birth would be about 52. B. C. For, only in his forty-fourth year he became pontiff of an Acarya.

What is his birthplace and scene of his activities? with regard to his birthplace we have no better evidence. Here also we have to depend upon tradition-oral and written. Let us see whether we can have any useful information from these traditions. In a work called punyasravakatha Sri Kundakundacaryas life is cited as an example for sastradana or gift of sastras The account is as follows!-- In Bharata khanda in Daksinadesa there was a district called Pidatha Nadu. tn a town called Kurumarai in this district there lived a wealthy Vaisya by name Kara-munda. His wife was Srimati. They had a cowherd who tended their cattle His name was Mativaran. One day, when he was driving his cattle to an adjoining forest, he saw, to his great surprises. That the whole forest was consumed by forest fire expect a few trees in the center which retained the luxuriant green foliage. This roused his curiosity, and he went and inspected that place. There he found the dwelling place of some great Muni and also a box containing the agamas or the agamas or the Jaina Scriptures. Illiterate as he was, he attributed the safety of the spot to the presence of the agamas which he carried home with great awe and reverence. He put up the agamas in a sanctified place of his masters house and continued to worship the same daily.

Sometime after, a religious monk visited their house. He was-offered bhiksa with great veneration by that wealthy Vaisya. Jost then this cow-herd also offered the agamas to the great risi. On account of these gifts food from Master, and the Scripture from the servant the risi was very much pleased and blessed them both. The Master of the house since he had no children was to have an intelligent son. and the old and faithful servent would be born as the promised son of the house. The happy event come to pass and the son born to the family became a great philosopher and religious teacher. This was our author Sri Kundakunda.

The story further turns upon his religious tours. The mention of his name as the wisest of mortals in the Jsamavasarana of Srimandharasvami in purvavideha the visit of the two caranas to verify the fact, his supposed irreverence to them on account of his concentration, the return of the caranas in disgust, the explanation of the misunderstood event, the reconciliation between the caranas and Sri Kundakunda and the la tiers visit to the samavasarana with the caranas are all incidents mentioned in detail. Further as the fruit of his previous gift of sastra he became a great leader of thought and organiser of institution. Finally he secured the throne of Acarya and thus spent his life in usefulness and glory.

There is another account of his life give in kundakunda caryacaritra, a pamphlet published in Digambara Jaina offiice, Surat. According to this, his birth-place is in the country of Malwa, His pare-ants are mentioned as Kundasresthi and Kundalata. The young boy Kundakunda was apprenticed to religious teacher for the purpose of education. Early in life he should an ascetic disposition and therefore he was ordained as monk and admitted into the sangha. The latter part of the story is almost identical with that of the previous one.

Both these versions appear to be quite legendary The latter judged from the names of the parents is evidently a later construction by some imaginative mind based upon the name of the hero Kundakunda. The places mentioned in the former story are not easily identifiable. The only reliable information there perhaps is that the author belongs to Daksina Dcsa Waiving these two stories as of no material use we have to depend more upon circumstantial evidence Emphasis must be laid upon the fact that Sri Kundakunda belonged to Dravida sangha.

La Communaute digambara portrait le nom de mula sangha. Un synonyme de ce terme parait Etre Dravila Sangha, qui ne signifie sans doubte rein de plus que communaute des pays dravidiens. Le mula sangha comptait plusieurs sectes dont la plus importunate Etait le Kundakunda anvay (-p. 42. Introduction, Reportaire Epigraphic Jaina).

This suggestion of GUERINOTs based upon circumstantial evidence is a useful clue for our purpose.

We have to collect further evidence if possible to corroborate the theory that out author belonged to the Dravidian country.

(1) In an unpublished manuscript treating about Mantra-laksana we have the following slbka-

Daksina-desa-malaye Hemagrame munir Maba-tmasit Elacaryo namna dravilaganadhiso dhiman.

This sloka is interesting to us. The work treats about a female disciple of Elacarya, who was possessed of a Brahma Raksasa. This possessed disciple was no doubt wellversed in Sastras but would get up on the summit of a small hill called Nilagiri by the side of the village, Hemagrama.in which Elacarya lived, and would laugh and weep alternately with all hysterical violence. She is to have been cured by Elacarya with the help of Jvalamalini Mantra.Fort unately we are able to identify all the places mentioned in the above sloka

Malaya is the name of that part of the Madras Presidency comprised by portions of North Arcot and South Arcot traversed by the Eastern ghats. The Taluks of Kalla Kurichi, Tiruvannamali and War.de-wash perhaps form the central tract of this Malaya. Hemagrama which is the Sankritised form of pocnur which is a village near wandewash. Close to this Village there is a hillock by the name Nilagiri. On the top of this hill this hillock on a rock Hhere are even now the foot prints of Elacarya who is said to have performed his tapas thereon Even now Pilgrims frequent this village once in a year, to perform puja to the foot prints. Further the sloka mentions Eleacarya to be Dravidaganadhisa, we know very well that Elacarya, is another well known name for Kundakunda.

Now this Elacarya, is, according to Jaina tradition the author of the great Tamil Classic Thirukkural. This is written in the old indigenous Venba metre of Tamil language. According to the Jaina tradition . this work was composed by Elacarya and given away to his disciple Thiruvalluvar who introduced it to the Madura Sangha. This version is not altogether improbable. Because even the non-Jaina tiadition about the author of Thirukkural appears to be merely another version of this one. The Hindu tradition makes Thiruvalluvar himself the author of the work. He is claimed to be a Saivite by faith and Valluva by birth. His birth place is said to be Thirumaylai or Mylapuri or the modern Mylapore the southern part of the city Madras. The work was composed under the patronage of one Elala Singh, who was evidently the literary patron of Tbiruvalluver.

This Elala Singh of the Hindu Tradition may be merely a variation of Elacarya. Thiruvalluvar figures in both the traditions in the one as author and in the other the introducer before the Sangha. That Mylapuri had a famous Jain temple dedicated to Neminatha (vide Tamil work Tirunur ruanthathi) and that it was a seat of Jaina culture is well evidenced by literary remains and antiquarian facts preserved in South India. Though the work is claimed by different religionist Sivaites, Buddhists and Jains, though there is no authentic record as to the exact faith of the author, still an unbliseed study of work itself with the special view as to the technical terms employed in the couplets and the doctrines, religious and moral, embodied in the -work will constrain one to cone rude that it is a treatise evidently based upon the moral principle of Vitaraga, corner stone of Jainism The praise (.of Agriculture as the noblest occupation is consistent with the traditions of the Vellalas, the landed aristocracy of Southindia who were evidently the earliest adherents to Jaina -faith in this part of the country.

This identification of Elaearya, the author of Kural, with Elacar-ya or Kundakunda would place the Tamil work in the 1st century of the Christian era. This is not altogether improbable. Dr G U. POPE would bring it down to a period later than the 8th century. There is no sufficient historic evidence for his belief. He is actuated by his personal bias that such a sublime work embodying highest moral ideals could not be due to the indigenous Dravidian culture alone, but must have been influenced by Christianity brought here by the early Christian Missionaries. The tradition about St Thomas lends weight to supposition. There is nothing to how from the maternal-evidence that the author of the Work was a were of Christianity. The doctrines treated therein are found widely scattered in Tamil literature especially in those works composed by Jainas such as Naladiyas, Aranericharam, Pazamozi Elathi, etc One who is acquainted with Tamil literature will not grudge the authorship of Kural to purely Dravidian Scholars and moralists who are uninfluenced by foreign culture. Hence we may believe with very great probability that Blacarya, -the author of Kural, was identical with Kundakunda the author of Prabhrtatraya, and that he lived about the beginning of :the 1st century A. D.

This identification of Elaearya, the author of Rural, with Kundakunda brings to another important point of historical interest. It is an acknowledged fact that Kural is anterior to Silappadikaram and Mani-mekh alai. The former was, written by Ilangovadigol the younger brother of Singuttuman Seranthe Chera King of vangi. The latter work which is merely the continuation of the story of Silappadikaram was written by Kulavanikon Sattanar a contemporary and friend of llangovadi. During the pratisha of Devi temple (Silappadikaram) Gajabahu I of ceylon was present, according to Mabavaraa, he reigned about 113 A. D. The Kural therefore must be anterior to this date, so this also goes to corroborate the age of Elaearya or Kundakunda.

All these scattered facts of traditions and literary remains produce cumulative evidence to establish that our author was of Dravidian origin, that he was the leader of the Dravidian Sangha, and that he was evidently highly cultured in more than one language. This use of the word Dravida in the Dravida Sangha must havea specific reference to the Jainas of South India, the Vellalas of the ancient Tamil literature,who strictly followed Kollavratam or Ahimsa-dharma and it is further evidenced by the popular use of the word in the compound. Dravida-Brahmins who are strict vegetarians as contrasted with Gauda-Erahmin who nevertheless perform yagas involving animal sacrifice is a heritage from early Jaina culture in South India.

The early kingdoms of South India were the Cheras, the Cholas and the Pandyas. It is a well-known historical fact pertaining to South India that Pandyas were Jains and were patrons of Jain ism They changed their faith only during the sivaite revival effected by appear and Sundarar about the 8th century. That the Cheras were also Jainas can be inferred from Sillappadikara another great Tamil classic written by, Jaina scholar the younger brother of the Chera king (who was a contemporary of Gaja-bahu of Ceylon). The cholas were also off and on the Patrons of Jainas though in later days they were associated with Sivaitism. These three kingdoms were known about the lime of Ashoka, The court language in all the three was probably Tamil. Can we suppose that Sri Kundakunda belonged to any one of these kingdoms. Our above discussion would lead us to such a supposition and yet there is an Important stumbling block in our way.

The work that is translated here is in prakrit. Further all the commentators of prabhrtatraya. Pan-castikaya Pravacanasara, and Samayasara, mention the fact that these works were written by Kundakun-dacarya for the benefit of his royal disciple Sivakum-ara Maharaja. Who this Sivakumara Maharaja was and over what kingdom he ruled the commentators are silent about. We are once again compelled to have recourse to hypothesis. This Sivakumara Maharaja must have been a follower of Jania faith and must have had prakrit as his court language. Further he must have been somewhere in the south in order to have Sri Kundakunda as his religious teacher. This name does not occur in the dynastic gene-ology of the three Tamil Kingdoms-the Cheras. the Chohi and the? Pandyas. Further there is no evidence that any prince of these dynasties had prakrit as his court language.

Before we proceed to state our theory we have to dispose of the theory proposed by K. B. PATHAK as to the identification of Sivakumara MaJiataja ( The Indian Antiquary, Vol. XIV. 1885, page 15 ) Kundakunda wag one of the most celebrated Jaina authors. The works attributed to him ate. the prabh-rtasara (?) the pravacanasara, the Samayasara, the Rayanasara and the Dvadasanupreksa,

There are all written work in Jaina, prakrit Bala-candra, the commentator, who lived before Abhi-nava Pampa says in his introductory remarks on the Prabhatasara (?). that kundakundacarya was also called Padmanandi and was the Preceptor of Siva Kumara Maharaja I would identify the king with the earlykadamba King Sri Vijaya Siva Mregesa Maharaja For in his time, the Jainas had already been divided into the Nirgranthas and has the Svctapatas and Kundakunda attacks the Svetapata sect when he says, in the Pravasanasara that women are allowed to wear clothes because they are incapable of attaining Nivana.

Citte cinta maya tamfa tasim na nivvanam

Another interesting fact that we learn from his work in that, in the time of this author Jainism had not spread far and wide in these parts and that the body of this people worshipped Visnn for he tells us in the samayasara.

So no difference appears between the people and the Sramanas in respect of the Siddhanta; (in the opinion) of the people, Vtsnu makes (every thing) (in the opinion) of the Sramanas the Soul makes (every thing), on these circumstances as well as on the place assigned to him in Jaina Pattavaifs and on the Fact that his writings are considered by Jaina scholars, both in Dharwar and Maisur, to be the most ancient Jaina works now extent I base my opinion that Kundakundacarya was a contemporary of the early Kadaraba King Siva Mregesa Maharaja

The reasons cited by K. P. PATHAK are all right. Kundakunda is later than the Svetambara Schim which is believed to have taken place about the time of Bhadrabahu, I. And perhaps at the time of Kundakunda the ordinary masses followed the Vedantic form of Vaisnava cult. But still these facts do not form a cogent reason for identifying Sivakumara Maharaja with the Kadamba King Siva Mregesa Varnja (Mysore and coorg By Lewis Rice, page 21.) The Kadambas were rulers of the west of Mysore from the 3rd to the 6th century. And Siva Mregesa Varma ruled about the 5th century A. D. But the pontificate of Sri Khadakunda began in B, C 8.(The early dynasties by J.F. FLEET, page 288of the Bombay Gazetteer, Vol I) and this is altogether too ancient, a period for the early Kadambas. Further we do dot know whether the Kadambas were acquainted with prakrit language. Under these circumstances we have to seek elsewhere as to the whereabouts of siva Kumara Maharaja the decibel of Sri Kundakunda.

Conjeepuram was the capital of the pallava kingdom. The pallavas ruled over Thonda Mandalam and also over a part of the Telugu country up to the river Krisha. Thonda Mandalam or Thondainadu was the name given to the land along the rest coast between the two Pennars. South Arcot and North Pennar in Nellor and to east of the ghats. This land was divided into several Nadu and each Nadu into several Kottams. It was the land of the learned. Several great Dravidian scholars such as the author of the Kural, the great Tamil poetess Avvai, the Sweet Puhazanthi the author of Nalavenba, all belong to Thondimandalam Throughout the Tamil literature there are references to the literary merits and the culture of the inhabitants of Thondinadu Conjeepuram the capital of Thondinadu must have been a great center of learning in the south; So Students from different parts of the country went to Conjeepuram for purposes of study. Scholars thronged there for the purpose of being recognised at the Pallava Court:. Mayura Sarma. a one of the early founders of the Kadamba dynasty, went to the Pallava capital for the purpose of completing his education in the Sacred lore. It was there that he quarrelled with the master of the horses who was a Ksatriya Mayura Sarma, a Brahmin by birth, vowed that even a Brahmin could handle the weapons of warfare with skill and could found a kingdom. This arose the Kadamba dynasty. Thus the glory of Conjeepuram, the Pallav capital, must have wide spread about the 2nd century A. D. The kings of Conjeepuram as patrons of of teaming must have encouraged philosophical discussion among the representatives of the different religious sects, the Hindus, Buddhists and Jainas. Taking part in such religio-philosophical discussions must necessarily have a reaction on the personal faith of the kings, In the early centuries of the Christian era. proselytising was a common factor among the rival religionists. Great religious leaders of different denominations went about from country to country converting king and people. Thus we hear from Jaina History that Samantabhhadrasvami visited Cojeepuram and converted Sivakoti Maharaja who became Sivakoti Muni,the disciple and successor of Samantabhadra. Still Later towards the 8 the century Akalanka visited the capital, defeated the the Buddhists in open philosophical contests and converted Himasilala the then Buddhist King, it is not improbable therefore that the pallava Kings at Conjeepuram during the 1st century of this era were patterns of Jaina Religion or were themselves Jainas by faith.

We also know from several epigraphical records that they had prakrit as their court language. What is known as the Mayidavin grant is an important document for South Indian History. It is in prakrit with the exception of the last verse, which is the closing mangala in Sanskrit. The body of the grant is in a prakritic dialect which comes close to the literary pal,, but shows also a number of peculiarities and divergent forms (Dr BDHLER, Epi, Indica vol.

I, P. 2) which comes nearer to the usage of the Jaina Maharastri dialect than to that of the pali king siva inscriptions. It is issued by the pallava king siva Skandavarma of conjeepuram. Further it may be Pomade out that grant resembled in many particulars the Jama inscriptions from Mathura. The use of the word siddham in the grant beginning of as in well as in the Mathura inscriptions is very suggestive of Jaina origin. The most important point for us is 1^ ,eeking Sivaskada which is merely another form of Siva kumara. No doubt the same name occurs ,n the Andhra line M. J. G. Dubreinal tries to connect the two dynasties by matrimonial alliance. He suggests that the Sivaskandavanna (Yuvamaharaja) of the pallava dynasty is the grandson of Sivaskanda Sata Karni by the daughter and received the name of the Andhra king who was his grandfather. Whether the name was so inherited or was independently adopted to by the pallava kings it is not quite material to decide here. It is enough to nonce the fact that there was a pallava kings by name Sivaskanda or Sivakumara Maharaja. He also figures as Yuva-maharaja in another grant. This name is also curiously identical with Kumara Maba-raia. It is quite possible therefore that this Sivaskanda of Conjeepuram or one of the predecessor of the same name was the contemporary and disciple of Sri Kundakunda.

This would well fit in with several facts known about Kundakunda. Kundakunda or Elacarya must have been in Thondimandalam. So also was Pataliputra, the seat of Dravida Sangha, a town in Thondimandalm.

In this connection we have to reject two theories about pallavas as unfounded and improbable. The Pallavas are generally Supposed to be foreigners from persia. They are identified with pahlavas, ( Mysore and Coorg by L. RICE page 53 ) Which is the Prakrit form of the Paithava meaning Parthi-ans, here especially the Arasacidian Parthians . RICE further builds upon this theory another fantastic one that Chaulkyans who were sometimes the enemies of the Pallavas were by origin Salenkaians V. VENKIYYA adopts the same theory though it is based upon purely etymological, grounds. The hypothesis that is based upon mere similarity of names has no great historical importance unless it is corroborated by independent evidence. This theory unfortunately lacks such a corroboration. Hence it leaves unchallenged the other hypothesis which is perhaps more probable that the Pallavas were a section of the Hindu race in the South.

Another hypothesis deserves notice before dismissal It is the identification of the pallavas with some an original tribes as the Kurumbas This again is based upon the use of the word Kadavar to designate the later Pallavas. No doubt the term Kadavar means the men of the forest. But there is no other ground to show that this Kadavaras were of the foresttribe In Tamil literature it refers to a highly civilised and cultured race, There must be some other reason therefore for the application of the name to the pallavas. It may be merely a contraction of Palakka-davar a people of the Palakkada another seat of Pallava government.

Waiving these two hypotbessis as inprobalbe may we not suppose a much closer alliance between the people of the Thondimandalam and Andhras or the Ardhrabhrityas who succeeded the Mauryas. The term Thondu in Tamil means Service Thondar may simply mean those who serve and may be taken as the Tamil Translation of Andhrabhrityas The Pallavas or the Thonders therefore may merely a section of the Andhras. settled in the south who inherited that portion of the Andhra kingdom either by matrimony or by right. This theory that the Pallavas were an indigenous race with a very high culture and civilization and related to Andhrabhrityas is highly probable and is corroborated by other circu-mstatial evidence.

 

This digression into the history of the Pallavas we have had because such a political environment is required for our author Sri Kundakunda Acarya according to the available data about his life. We may therefore conclude that Sri Kundakunda Acarya wrote his Prabhrta-Traya for one Siva Kumara Maharaja who was most Probably the same as Siva Skanda Varma of the Pallav dynasty.

 

Several work are attributed to Sri Kundakunda Acarya

 

1 Prabhrta-tray (The three Prabhrtas).

2. Satpahudam.

3. Niyamasara. etc

 

Of these the first three, Pancastikaya, Pravacan-asaia and Samayasaia are the best Known and most important. The work that is offereed in translation here is the first of these three Pancas-tikaya Prabhrta which treats about the five cosmic constituents.

 


׭ִֵָ

NIYAMASARA

( Soul-Jiva )

 

״։ ו֝ ߸ ӟָ֤֝֝־ l

ꓔ״ םִֵָ ׻ֻ߳ם֤ ll 1 ll

 

1. Bowing to Vira Jina, who, by nature is the possessor of infinite and supreme knowledge and conation; I shall compose Niyama-Sara, preached by Kevalis and the Shruta Kevalis.

 

Commentary

In this gatha, Shri Kunda-Kunda Acharya, who lived in the first century of the Vikrama Era, renders homage to the last of the twenty-four Tirthankaras, Lord Mahavira, also called Vira, and enshrines Him in his heart for the purification of his thoughts; so that he may be able to fulfil, his undertaking successfully. Further, the Acharya expresses it emphatically that whatever he will write will not be his won independent teaching, but will be fully based upon the authoritative pronouncement of Kevalis and Shruta-Kevalis.

Kevalis are those Omniscient Supreme souls, who still occupy a highly refined physical body, but are free from the four destructive Ghatiya Karmas, and whose perfect ( Kevala ) knowledge is full, all- pervasive, and independent of senses, and comprehends all-at-once without effort, the whole manifested and unmanifested universe, with all its past and future modifications.

Shruta-Kevalis are those saints who have obtained perfect knowledge of all the Scriptures.

 

֐ ֐ֱן ׾ ו֝֝ ִ֌֤ l

֐ ꌏֈֵ ם־֝ ll 2 ll

 

2 In the Jaina Scriptures, the Path and the Fruit of the Path are described as the two parts The means of liberation constitute the Path, and liberation is the Fruit.

 

םִֵ ۝ִֵ ֤֝֝֓׸ l

׾־ָߵ֯׸ ם֤ ֻ ָ״פ ֵ֝ ll 3 ll

 

3. What is in reality worth doing ( is) Niyama, and that is belief, knowledge, conduct. In order to avoid deflection, the word Sara has teen particularly affixed to it.

 

םִֵ ꌏֈֵ ן ָם־֝ l

ן֝ ׯ ֹ֢֯֝ ll 4 ll

 

4. Niyama ( is ) the way to liberation; its fruit is supreme Nirvana. Each of these three, is again described.

 

֐ִ֟֓֝ ֧֤ ִ֢ l

־֐ֵֆ֤ ֵֻ֐֯ ll 5 ll

 

5. Belief in the Perfect Souls, the Scorers and the Principles is Right Belief.

He who is free from all defects and is -possessed of all ( pure ) attributes is the supreme soul.

 

֝߹ ֐ ؓ֟ ָ ״֓

þ ֤ ׾۝ם֧ ֝㾾 ll 6 ll

 

6. ( The defects are ) hunger, thirst, fear, anger attachment, delusion, anxiety, old age, disease, death, perspiration, fatigue, pride, indulgence, surprise, sleep birch, and restlessness

 

םָ֤ ֻ֝֝ևָ׾ֳ־֕ l

ָ֯ և ۾־ָ߆ ָ֯֯ ll 7 ll

 

7. One free from all defects and possessed of sublime grandeur such as Omniscience is called Paramatma (the Highest Soil!) or thePerfect One One who is not such, ( is ) not Paramatma. .

 

ֵ֤֝ 㾾־ָ׾ָ 㬤 l

֐ִ״פ ׸ ן ֓֟

 

8. Words proceeding from his mouth, pure and free from the flaw of inconsistency are called Agama ( scripture. ) In that Agama the principles (Tativartha ) are enunciated.

 

߾ ꐐֻ֍ֵ ִִ֬ ֻ ֵ l

֢֓ פ ם֤ ֝֐֯֕֋ ӕ l 9 l

 

9. Soul, Matter, medium of motion, medium of rest, space, ( substances ) having dimension, and Time, together with their various attributes and modifications are said to be the principles (Tattvartha.)

߾ ֆִֆ ֆ ֤֝֝ l

֝ֆ ׾ ־֝֝ ׾ֳ־֝֝ ע ll 10 ll

 

10. Soul is characterised by Upayoga. Upayoga is towards Darshana or Jnana. Jnana Upayoga is of two kinds, Swabhava Jnana or Vibhava Jnana.

 

Commentary.

In Panchastikaya Samaya Sara, Volume iii of the Sacred Books of the Jainas Series, page 15, Professor Chakravarti says that the term Upayoga is used to denote Darshana and Jnana. Darshana is perception, and Jnana is knowledge.

In Dravya Samgraha, Volume I of the S B. J. page 9, Mr, Sarat Chandra Ghoshal says that Upayoga is of two kinds, being connected with Jnana, and Dirshana. Upayoga is the resultant of consciousness. Roughly, Upayoga- may be said to be a sort of inclination which arises from consciousness. This inclination is either towards Darshana or towards Jnana.

Mr. J. L Jaini in his Gommatasara Jiva Kanda, Volume V. of S.:B. J. on page 326, translated Upayoga as conscious-attentiveness or attention.

The difference between Darshana and Jnana consists ii this, that in the former the details are not perceived, while in the latter the details are also known.

Mr. Herbert Warren in his Jainism on page 29 says;- Before we know a thing in a detailed way, there is the stage where we simply see, hear, or otherwise become conscious of it in a general way, without going into its ins and outs. We simply know it as belonging to a class. This is the first stage of knowledge it may be called detail-less knowledge or Indefinite cognition (Darshana). If this stage is not experienced there can be no knowledge of the thing-

Mr. J. L Jaini in his Gommatasara Jiva Kanda Volume V, 3- B. J. on page 245- translates Darshana as conation.

In Websters New International Dictionary it is said that conation is present wherever consciousness tends of itself to pass from one condition to another.

Perception is that act or process of the mind which makes known an external object; or the faculty by which one has knowledge through the, medium or instrumentality of bodily organs.

Conception is defined in Beetons Dictionary, as the simple apprehension or perception that we have of any object without proceeding to affirm or deny anything regarding it. In this sense the word conception would express very nearly the idea conveyed by the word Darshana as used in Jain Philosophy. In general language however the word conception as defined in Websters Dictionary signifies that mental act or combination of acts by . which an idea or notion is formed of an absent object of perception, or of a sensation formerly felt. When we see an object with eyes open, we have a perception of it, when the same object is presented to the mind, with the eyes shut, in idea only, or in memory, we have a conception of it.

Cognition is defined as knowledge or certain knowledge as from personal view or experience.

Of the words cognition, conation, perception, and conception, conception would best convey the sense of the word Darshana, but it would be liable to mis-interpretation. Hence conation is the best word we an choose to express the idea. Darshana is that undifferentiated, detail-less indefinite, lazy first stage of knowledge, which always precedes Jnana which is detailed, definite certain knowledge of an object.

Swabhava-Jnana may be translated as natural knowledge, and Vibhava Jnana as non-natural knowledge,

The two are further defined in the next Gatha.

ֻشפָ ֵ ־֝֝ ע l

֝ם֤׾ֵ֯ ׾־֝֝ ׾ ll 11 ll

֝֝ פ ֝֯֕ l

֝ ן׾ֵ֯֯ פև ll 12 ll 㴴 ll

 

11-12. Natural knowledge ( is ) perfect, un-assisted by sense and independent. Non-natural knowledge is of two kinds.

 

Right knowledge of four kinds:-

Sensitive knowledge ( Mati Jnana)

Scripture knowledge ( Shruta Jnana )

Visual knowledge ( Avadhi Jnana ) and

Mental Knowledge ( Mana-paryaya Jnana ), and

Wrong knowledge of three kinds, beginning with sensitive knowledge.

֝ֈֆ ־׾ֵ֤֯ ׾ l

ֻشפָ ֵ ־״פ ם֤ 13

 

13. And conation attentiveness ( is ) of two kinds (i. e.,) natural (Swabhava Darshana), and the opposite of its kind, non-natural (Vibhava Darshana). That, which is perfect, unassisted by senses and independent, is called Natural.

 

Commentary.

Knowledge is the Innate attribute of Soul, It is pure and perfect. But, on account of the operation on mundane soul of knowledge- Obscuring Karma, in varying degrees, it is evolved to a greater or less extent. When knowledge-obscuring Karma is altogether destroyed, the pure and perfect knowledge shines forth. This knowledge is the natural knowledge called Swabhava Jnana.

As long as a soul is in its mundane- condition and is not altogether free from Karma, its knowledge is impure so it is called Vibhava knowledge.

This Vibhava Jnana is of two- kind:- Right knowledge and wrong knowledge Knowledge combined with Right belief is called Right knowledge. Knowledge-combined with Wrong belief is termed Wrong knowledge.

Again Right knowledge has been subdivided into four kinds:-

(a) Sensitive knowledge:-Knowledge of the self and non-self by means of the senses and the mind.

(b) Scriptural-knowledge: Knowledge derived from the reading or hearing of Scriptures or through an object known by Sensitive knowledge.

(c) Visual knowledge;- Direct knowledge of matter, in varying degrees, having reference to the subject matter (Dravya, space (Kshetra), time (Kala), and-quality Bhava).

(d) Mental knowledge:- Direct knowledge of anothers mental activity about matter

Knowledge, thus, is divided into eight kinds:-

1. Perfect or Natural knowledge.

2. Right Sensitive knowledge.

3. Wrong Sensitive knowledge

4. Right Scriptural knowledge.

5. Wrong Scriptural knowledge.

6. Right Visual-* knowledge.

7. Wrong Visual ; knowledge.

8. Mental knowledge:

 

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14 Non-natural conation is said to be of three Kinds: Ocular (Chakshu Darshana).

Non ocular (Achakshu Darshana) and visual (Avadhi Darshana).

Modification (is) of two kinds, irrelative (natural, Swabhava Paryaya).

 

Commentary.

In Ocular conation (Chakshu Darshana,) the object is visible undefinedly:

In Non-ocular conation ( Achakshu Darshana ) the object is undefinedly tangible to the other four senses and to the ( quasi-sense ) mind.

In Visual conation (Avadhi Darshana) there is direct tangibility of material substances just preceding their knowledge without the assistance of the senses and mind.

 

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