THE PATHWAY TO PERFECTION
I.Moksa is the ideal of life. Supernormal experiences, like the yogaja- pratyaksa, arsa, and avadhi, manahparyaya are only incidental. Kevala is symptomatic of the realization of the consummate end of life. Moksa is to be realized through self-discipline in the affective, the cognitive and cognitive sense. Samyak- crater is as important as Samyag-darsana and jana. The way to self-realization is primarily ethical. “if deliverance is to be chained, the lower matter is to besubdued but the higher spirit. When the soul is free from the weight which keeps it down , it rises to the top of the universe where the liberated dwell. The radical conversion of the inner man is way to freedom.”
The Jainas were that physic and mental discipline are necessary conditions of moral discipline. Knowledge and faith are preliminary steps on the path of self- realization. Ordinary sources of knowledge ar not adequate to comprehend the nature of truth. Reason fails here. Kant showed that categories of understanding are fraught with antinomies. One has to transecen reason and seek the truth in the supernormal forms of experience. Inplicit faith in the truth to be sought in is necessary. It is the starit pint of self-realization. Samkara’s prescription of the four qualifications of a student of philosophy, as stated in the commentary on the first sutra of the vednata Sutra, is very pertinent in the case of those who seek the truth. There are different processes which lead us from faith to the realization of the final end. Meditation (dhyana) is an important factor in this process. One cannot gas the truth unless one mediates on it; and one cannot realize it unless one grasps it meditation on the nature of the self is the highest form af Dhyana. One reaches the stage of meditation these if whe one is free from passions and is self- controlled, self-controls is in turn, possible through the practice of physical and mental discipline. Thus the ancient Indian philosophers developed a science of self-realization called yoga. They have bee ingeneral agreement regarding the principles and practice of Yoga, the Yoga presceibed by panatela regard moral and physical discipline to the indispensable preliminaries to the spiritual progress. The Jainas are in agreement with the fundamental principles and practice of this system. Among the Jaina authors Haribhadra gives a comparavtie sudey of Yoga in his works the janarnava of subhacandra and the Yoga sastra of hemachandra are valuable contributions to the study of Yoga as a science of spiritual progress.
II. In ancient India, yoga was a science of self- realization. The word occurs in reveda meaning ‘bringing about conection’. In the atharva-veda is stated that supernatural powers are attained by the ascetic practices.2 Later it was used I the sense of yoking a horse. The senses have been compared to the unbridled horses and Yoga is the means of controlling the horses.3 in the Jaina literature, Harbhadra defines Yoga as that which leads one to emancipation’, and the terms dhyana and samadhi were more in vogue than yoga. It is only in the yoga-sutra of pjatanli that we find the proper location of Dhyana in the whole pores called yoga.5 However, panatela probably did not start the Yoga school, but he must have ‘cooected the different forms of practices and gleaned the diverse ideas which were and could be associated white Yoga’. 6 yoga a we see now is to be considered as fully developed science of self- realization.
The yogatattva upanisad mentions four types of Yoga: 1)Hathayoga is one in which the primary aim is to control bodily activities. 2)Mantra- yoga aims at healing the diseased by means of mantra or incantations of certain esoteric hymns. It is base of the influence of suggestion as psychologiva factor. 3)Layayaoga is based o the physiological analysis of human organism. The aim is to effect concentration of an image through the Mantras and to be absorbed and lost in them . 4) the last is Rajayoga. It is prtanjala Yoga. Its aim is higher; and it consists in achieving spritula beatitude, though bodily control is a part of Patanjali’s yoga. According to S dasagupta. The Yoga practices grew in accordance with the doctrines of the saiva and skta schools and assumed a peculiar form as the Manrayoga. They grew in another direction as Hathayoga throygh constant practices of nervous exercises and produced mystical feats.7 The influence of these practices in the development of Tantra was also great. Jaigisaya in his Dharamastra mentions different parts of the body like heart , tip of the nose, plate, forehead and the centre of the brain as centres of menory where concentration made. 8
Moral discipline is a necessary condition for the practice of Yoga leading to spiritual relization. The purpose of moral discipline is to remove the bondage due to Karma. The Jaina theory of morality is centred round the prici;le of ahimsa, nonvilokence. Patanjali also gives prminance to non-viliece I moral discipline. The Jainas have ditinguised two levels in the practive of orality: I) for the lay follower (sravaka), and ii)for the ascetic (muni). However, some general principles are embided in their theory of moraity. Five vartas (vows) are to be practise more rigorousy by the Muni but with less rigour by the lyman. In the fomer case they are called Mahavratas and in the latter Anuvratas. The five vows are I)ahimsa (non violence),ii)satya (truth, )iii) astey (nonstealing), iv) brahmacarya (cellibacy ) and v) aparigraha a bstinence from personal possessions) 9. A number of ways have been prescribed for the observation of the gows. For instance, regulation of movement (iryasamiti) , and control of thought (manogupti) are prescribed for the practice of non-violence. What is important is the cultivation of equanimity and indifference to the things of the world. Frendship (maitri) right understanding (praoda) compassion (karunya) and indifference towards evil (madhyasthya) are qualities necessary for oral preparation to be developed by one seekig self- realisiation. 10 This in bried is the moral practice as a background to self realization. In te yoga sutra, yama and niyama are ethical preparations for Yoga . wihtout this moral tranining, practice of yoga will not suceceed. Yama is negative in alue; and Niyama gives the code of observance. The five vows mentioned buy the Jainas are also given by patyanjali.11 The yama is unicersal validity regardless of diffececes of aste and aoucnty, age and condition.12 Niyama is for self-prufication. The observances are ausetrity (tapas), aontentment (saatosa ) purification (sauca) and devotion t Fod (isvara- pranidhana ) By practising Yama and Niyajma one develops Ivairagaya or detachment and freedom from desires. It is only to be means to the attaiment of the proper comditions for self- realization. In this sense, patanjali’s yoga is a scienctific deiscipline. The idea of God is a useful hyphtiesis which gives oa focus, a pulley ring as it wre , on which the weight of consciouness can be lifted.13 similaiarly for Haribhadra, Yoga consists of hreligious cativity of far as it leads one to fail emancipation, though there is no place for god in Jainism. Haribhadra gives promithere is not place for god in Jainism. Haribhadra gives prominence to five types of practices in Yoga: I) sthaana (properposture ) ii) urna ( orrect uttenance ofr sound), iii) artha ( proper understnding ) and iv) alamabaa (concentration of abstract attributes of Tirthankara.14 The first two of these are externa activites prepartory to the practive of concentation. The last three are inne activity (jana-yoga) those who have reached the fifth stage of Gunasthana (spritiual progress), viz Desairata samyagdrsti aca practise yoga. Sthana and urna are qualifying conditions for practisisng Dhyaa (concentration) 15 The Jnanarnava describes ith conditions of Asana. A self controlled man may select a sutable place, like the top of mountain, the bank of a river , etc, for the practice of concetration. Some asanas like paryanka, vira , subha and kamala aree said to be most sutabe, the object of an asana is to enabe one to be free from physical discomfort and the consequent mental distraction. 16 Similarly pranayama is a preparation for the concetaration of mind. Subhacandra, ike patanjali realised the importance of Pranayama. Three forms of praayama were suggested: I)puraka, ii)kumhaka and iii)Recaka.17 Pratyahara is given an important place in the stages of Yoga. Here the senses are withdrwan from the external object and ficed on the internal function. 18 however, the ethical preparation. Asana pranayama and pratyahara are only accessories to Yoga and not themselves elements of it. 19 in the practice of Dhyana, the first stage is concatenation on the image of tirthankara . this is the concrete symbol for concentration. After achieving steadfastness in this conception, one should practice aocncentration n the abstract qualities of a tirthankara. The practice of Yoga is closely connected with the various stages of spiritual realization (unasthana) Dhyaa is in its primary stage in the seventh Gunasthana ( appramata- samyata) The urge to self- realization leads us to the eighth stage of Gunasthana, called Apruvaa- karnana: greater self- control and a more definite progress on the path of self-realization are possible in this stage . steadfastness of concentration gradually develops till one reaches the twelfth stage of Gunasthana, called ksina mha ins which the passions are altogether subdued . in this stage, the tranccendetal self is possible to be realized. 20 We have, here analambana yoga. This is the state of omniscience. It is often compared to the asamprajnata samdhi of patanjali. 21 Still there is a higher stage of self- realization. In the fourteenth storage of Gunasthana called ayogakevali a activity is stopped; and the soul attains final emancipation. It is analogous to the dharmamegha of the panatela’s system,. To the amrataman of another system and to the para of still another.
As one oges ascending the stages of self realization and practice of yoga, one gradually develops the perspective of truth (dristi) This gradual development has been classified into eight stage : mitra, tar, bala, dipra, sthira, kanta, probha, and para. The eighth drsitis are capered to the eight fold stages (astanga of patajlli;s yoga ). 23 As higher in the sgages of Drsti the perspective of truth becomes clearer; and finally, in the last stage one reechoes the Samadhi, the consummation of Dhyana.
Practice of yoga may be actuated by I) love (priti) ii) reverence (bhakti), iii) duty prescribed by scriptures (agama) and iv)no consideration (asmga.) When the spiritual activity is done out of oe or recurrence, it leads t worldly or other worldly property (abhyudaya. ) if it is done as a duty or with no motive whatever it leads to final emancipation.24
But Haribhadra is aware of some fiddiculites in the practice of Yoga and the attainment of supernormal experience. He says that we have to overcome some physical and mental inhibition before processing the Yoga exercises. The mind of the common man (prthaagijanacitta) is vitiated by many defects. Eight defects have been mentioned: I) inertia (kheda), ii)anxiety (udvega). ii) unsteadiness (bharanti) vi)attraction for what is not desirable (anyamud), vii) mental disturbance (ruk ) and viii) attachment (samaga)25
In the practice of Yoga on is likely to acquire some physical and mental powers which are beyond the common man. But these are distractions, and would lead us away from the final goal, the Jainas were primarily concerned eith purification of the soul and the development of detachment from the things of the world. They were against the use of paranormal powersand miracles. This was the genera view of other Indian philosopher as well patanjali mentions the acquisition of such powers by the Yogi and warns him against temptations associated with these powers. 26 The Yoga beeches that the citta of ma is like a milstone if we put wheat under it , it grinds it into flour if we put nothing under it, it grinds on until it grinds itself away.
In the highest stage omniscience (kevala) is attained. This is not merely negative state of knowledge. In this one gets experience of everything, past present and future, as if an a moment. In the highest form of samadhi according to patanjali al possibility of confusion between the self and the captivity of the citta ceases.
Concentration of mind (dhyana )is an essential factor as a means to spiritual realization. The lower self sometimes gets the vision of perfection in its purified state ad aims at the attainment of this ideal. On the attainment vision knowledge the self rises to its own our state (paramatama) Dhyana is the concentration of thought in a particular object 28 for a certain length of time. The duration of concentration depends n the bodily constitution. The duration of concentration depends on the bodily constitution. The maximum time concentration can be for one antrmuyhurta (about foresight Mounties )29 Dhyana is further inauspicious (aprasata) and auspicious (prasata) A presets Dhyana leads to the influx of karma (asrava) and the bondage of the soul to the wheel of life (bandha). The auspicious Karma brigs about dissociation and destruction. Artadhyana is painful concentration, as whe we experience the pain in the loss of a lode object or in the anguish of an unsatisfied desire. Taudradhyana is vengeful concentration as whe, smarting under the injury of insult we contemplate on thinking revenge. 30 They express the pain of unsatisfied instinctive urges and are rotted in the anima nature of man. The Jaina analysis of the lower types of Dhyana has a great psychological importance and need to be Dhamadhayana and sukladhyana are conditions of spiritual progress. The nature of revelation, the fact of suffering the operation of karma ad the structure of the universe are object of Dharmadhyaa. Umasvati defines Dharmadhyana as a collection of scattered thought (snrtisamanvahar) for the sake of meditation of the objects of concentration. Jnana ( knowledge),Darsaa (intuition Caritra (good conduct) and virigarya (non attachment) are needed for developing the steadfastness f mind for attaining concentration. 31 A beginner has to select a suitable lonely place and convenient time. Several placed made holy by the sages create a better atmosphere for Dharmadhyana.32 Dharmadhyana is possible from the fought to the seventh stage of Guasthana. As en good higher up I the spiritual development one would have developed sufficient physical and mental strength to aim at the final emancipation. The Jaina analysis f right concentration (Dharamadhyana) is intimately woven int the moral texture in this life. One has to practise the four-fold virutes: mairtri (feiendship), pramoda (apprectiation or the merits of other ), karuna (compassion) and madhyasthya ( undisturbed equanimity) as the pre-requisites of this type of concentration. 33 And in the graded level of concentration the consummation is reached when the pure and perfect self is the object of cndetration. The same type of concentration is to be reached in sukladhyana except for the fact that in the Sukadhyana we get perfect concentration.
In the sukladhyana the range of the objects of concentration is narrowed to the concentration of the atom, just as poison spread our the body is first collected at a point by a mantra and then remove by amore powerful Mandtra .34 For this type of concentration one must have good physique and must be at least in the sent stage of Gunasthana. Four types of sukladhyaa have been mentioned . in the first two types mind concentrated on the minutest entity like the atom. Then it gets pure and perfect enlightenment , the last two stages lead to final emancipation. The self becomes motionless as a rock and is free from any activity of mind, body and speech, as in the stage of highest Samadhi. 35 in the practice of Dhyana first stage is concentration of the image of Tirthankara. This is the concrete symbol for concentration. After achieving steadfast ness in this concentration, one should practice concentration on the abstract qualities of a Tirthankara. The practice of Yoga is clearly connected with the various stages of spiritual realization. Dhyaa, in its primary stage is in the seventh Gunasthana. Steadfastness and concentration gradually develop till one reaches the twelfth stage of Gunasthana. In this stage the transcendental self is possible to be realized.
The analysis of Dhyaa so far give has a psychological and moral significance. Body and mind have to work together physical strength is the precondition of mental concentration. The Jainas have not been negative in this respect . the body is not merely meant to be cast away as something unholy. Self mortification is not an end in itself, but is only to be understood as a means to an end for the attainment of perfection. Moral life has also to be emphasized as an important means to the attainment of the highest ideal of perfection. The problem perfection. Has been looked at from different points of view. In this sense the spirit of Anekanta periods the analysis of the psychological conditions of perfection as expressed in Dhyana.
III. Having studied the proactive of Yoga as the pathway to perfection in the light of the eightflod principles of patanjali’s yoga we may add a comparative note of Jaina Yoga and sivayoga as presented by the irasavia philosophers. The object of this study is to present a synoptic picture of the pathway t perfection and to see how the spirit of Aekanta pervades the application of this principle.
As civilization advances there is a gradual change in the main festation of thought and action. In the early stages of civilization., life was simple and confined itself to interaction between the fewer individual. The environment was smaller, the material facilities we comparatively meager self-expression could narrowed to the withdrawal of the mind. But as we advanced in external developments life became comoex, and men were rotted ad absorb I the ort activities of life. It was difficult for most men to practice physical and mental discipline on a scale possible in the early stages of civilization, when problems were few and life was simple. New ways to self realization had to be adopted, conforming to the social structure and suited t the individual linking in complex societies. This gave prominence to the devotional method (bhakti-yoga ) as a means to the realisation of the selg. Revival of bhakri marga as a means of purification and love, may be for absorption in highest, is an important step in the development of the sef. Bhakti-yoga is implied in the sivayoga which the virasaiva saints perched. The second principle f sivayoga is sakti some have suggested that yoga must have its origin in I)Hiranyagarbha and ii)Rudra. The former has a predominantly cognitive orientation and the later is permeated with cognition and will Hiranyagarbha Yoga is presented in the patanjali Yoga and the Rudrayoga is shown in the saivagamas. Where the first ends, the second begins.36
The ultimate end of a virasaica is liberation form the bonds of the lie. Positively, it is union with the Highest which may be described as aikya The realization of this end lies in self-surrender and emergence of the self in God it is sivatva. The end to be attained is not merely to discard not to transcend , the life of existence but to divines the human and to spiritualize the matirial.37 The way to reallise this end is through the spriitulaization of the human and demotion to the Highest . it is achieved thorough a special form of Yoga called sivayoga.
Yoga may be identified with Sahdana. According to different traditions of thought different forms have been recognised Virasaiva philosophers recognise different forms of Yoga and their efficacy in their own way. But sivayoga has distance features which make it suitable for the way of self –realization followed on the basis of self –surrender (sara) and devotion (bhakti) coupled with the necessary energy of self-realisation (sakti) It emphasizes a syntesis of discipline and devotion. The kaivalykalavallari of sarpabhusana sivayogi is a poetic presentation of the four types of yoga , showing their inherent defects.
Hathayoga may enable one to control the bodily and mental functions and make it possible for one to get paranormal powers. It does not ad us to the path of spiritual progress. In his advice to Goraksa, Allama prabhu exdhorts him to give up the acrobatics of physical and mental expercise, which may supreme human beings but will not leased to the path of spiritual progress. Men practicing Hathyoga cannot be coninced of their folly, as a blind man cannot see his imagae in the mirror.
The same can be said of those pradtisig mantrayoga those who practice Mantrayoa through the incantations of hymns, like om om namah sivaaya etc ;practice suitable Assans and at specific times of the day. But it will lead to mechanical development of certain types of mental habit and not to the final spiritual progress .40 In te Layayoga one practices concentration of mind on an image fo a god or any object of concentration by the physiological processes, ida pingala and nadi. 41 This is a lower form of concentration which is ansogous to the Arta-dhyana of the Jainas . but such a type Yoga and concentration is not useful for developing one’s way to self-realization. It is not possible to reach Moksa but this emthod.42 Allama Prabhu exhorts the hermits in the forests not to be fascinated by such practices of self- mortification .
Patanjali’s yoga has been considered as Rajayoga. In this self- realization is to be attained, not by the objective use of the mind, but by the suppression of the activities of mind. All mental states and events have to be held up so as to remove the impediments in th way of this end. The eightfold path eunciated by the patanjali’s yoga gives the methods of attaining the highest end Samadhi, almost developing the steps into a science of meant cantrol. Stil in the patanjali’s yoga as also among the Jainas, though physical health is not the end of hymen life it is still in of the essential conditions. It is to be treated as only a means to and end. Even surrender to a spiritual power like god is to be considered as a useful seep for concentration and not and end in itself . the idea of God is a useful hypothesis for patanjali.
Sivayoga is different from the four toupees of yoga so far described , alsotg it contains the essetia elements of Rajayoga as a method The cardinal principle of sivayoga are:
i)belief in the existence of the supreme being, fod and the ultimate end of the human life as union with the Highest (Lingaanga-aikaya).
ii) Devotio and self-surrender to the Highest as a principal way t this end bhakti and we may mention sarana interpreted as self –surrender.
iii)Sakti (orpsychic and spiritual energy) leading the devotee to the final goal. Sivayoga s as we mentioned earlier, so a synthesis of the devotional and the contrive aspects of human efforts to self- realization.
iv) Astangayoga of Patanjali is also made use of the extent necessary. The final end is the aikya sthala. It is to be realised by the devotee. Physical and mental discipline has to be practiced to the extent necessary to reach this goal.
The first principle f sivayoga is belief in the existence of God , and the ultimate end is to be united (aikaya) with God in the Patanjali’sYoga the ultimate end is t free the self(purus) form the bonds of prakrti (matter). The idea of God was not an intergra part of Samkhaya and consequently of the Yoga philosophy devotion and self-surrender to God is an integral element of sivayoga. But self-surrender need not involve sacrifice of one’s body of one’s child etc. the story of bedar Kannappa shows that such forms of selfsurrender were present in the early devotional literature. Sivaoga does not admit f such expressions. Aama prabhu shows the ways to Goggayysa but pointing out that prasada is the right way and ahuti is the wrong way. 45 this attitude emphasizes that nonviolence is the fundamental principle of the Virashaiva also. In srlf surrender there is self-effacement and the elimination of the ego-sense. This is evident in the humility Basavesvara shows to Allama prabhu . 46
In Sivayoga the power of will for spiritual progress (samkapa sakti is an important eement for the realistion of the highest end. In this the physical and the mental are not negated , but transmuted and transcended. The bodily and the menta are purified and divinised through the power of the citskti. The force of samkala-sakti is is expressed thorugh piysusagranthi, the pineal gland. The fuller expression of potential powers in the pineal glant will lead the indiidual to the acquisition of omniscience and spiritual forece leadig to the state of union with the Abosulte. 47 the integral Yoga of shree aurobindo also emphasizes the primacy of samkalpasakti in the programme of self-reaisation. In sivyagoa as also in intergral Yoga the bodily and the menta are not denied. To this end wehave to use the methods of Astanga of Patanjali for self –purification. It is not necessary to go through the impossible process fo the eight stages of Raja-yoga in all their rigidity that wouod distract us from the main path reaching unuon with God what is neeeded is a simple process of Yoga which is possible for even the cmmon ment, women and children. This type of Sadhana is possbibel through Istalingaouja karma and the concetaration through trataka .
In the siayoga darpana we get a description of characterisctcs of sivaayoga. Five forms of sivayoga have been mentioned: 1)sivajana, 2)sivadhayana 3)sivapuja 4)sivavrata 5)sivacara. The symbol of ‘om’ is significant. Yoga through sambhavi mudra is a significant step is sivayoga. In the eye is the infinite energy of the sun the moon ans the fire. The. Detailed description of the practice of sivayoga as given in this book would be beyond the scope of this work.
However it is stated that the importance of sivayoga can beknown by siva only and to by others. This process of Yoga would lead us to the supreme experience. 49 therefor it is also called sianubhave Yoga.
In this sense we can also say that there is some agreement between sivayoga and the Yoga preached by Patanjali in the fundamental stages are accepted in both. But we may say that sivayoga has democratized patanjali’s yoga in the sense that it has give men the possibility of reaching the goal it has emphasized the importance of Anubhava as a mystical element in the culmination of this process for Yoga.
But the Jaina way is individualistic and rigorisctic . these boodle and mental are empirical adjuncts to be eliminated if possible and also to be used in the process f reaching the highest as one uses a ferry-boat to cross the river and does not carry the boat aslant with him after reaching the other side, out of gratitude for the boat . there for, it is after t say that the Jainas do not discard the odd and aim at it crucifixion only. Fr them as for others the body and bodily health are as necessary for yoga as discarding of the mental activity is necessary (cittavritti-nirogha).
For a virasaiva the final end is unity with the Absolute. Belied in for and surrender to god are cardinal principles in sivaayoga. The Jainas do not believe in a supreme deity ,like God. There is no place for divine grace either. We hae to depend on our own efforts, as every soul is divine.
The ontological status of the individual soul in the moksa is different in two regions. The virasaaiva aims tat union with the Absolte (aikaya) while for the Jaina each soul retains its individuality in the highest stage . this has perhaps given the Jainas the need to emphasize the methods of the astangayoga as a discipline and a method.
We can say that the end of human life, according to Indian philosophers, except perhaps the Carvakas, is liberation from the bonds of empirical existence. Maksa as the ideal, is difficult to attain . few have attained it ; and the attainment of such a tarns-empirical end had to be adjusted according to the needs of individuals in the fight of the prevailing social structure. Therefore to compare one tube of yoga as against the other without understanding the background would be a grievous error. We have to look at this problem in the full perspective of life. Moreover it is difficult to understand the comparative significance of yoga unless one lives it .51
IV. The soul has the inherent capacity for self- realization. But self realization is a long process. In the course of its eternal wanderings in various forms of existence, the soul at sometime gets an indistinct vision and feels and impulse to realise it . the soul has to go through the various state of spiritual development. These stages are called gunasthana, and they are liked up with stages of subsidence and destruction of the Karmic veil. These ar fourteen stages of spiritual development. The first stage is characterised by the presence of mithyadrsti, perversity of attitude . here we accept wrong belief and are under that false impression that what we believe is right. This is cause by the operation of mithyatva-karman. However, we are not entirely
bereft of a vision, though indistinct, of the right. Still, due to perversity of attitude we do not relish the truth, just as a man suffering from fever has no taste for sugarcane.
The next stage is called sasvadana- samyagdrsti. It is a halting and transitory stage in which one may get the vision of truth but is likely to tell back on felsehood due to the excitement of passions. In the third stage, of samag- mithyadrsii, we have a mixed attitude of right and wrtong belief. These is neither a desire to have true beliefs nor a desire to remain in ignorance. It is like mixing curds and treacle. This also is a transitional stage. Next comes the stage of right attitude, samyagdrsti. One gets a glimpse of the truth. Yet one has not the spiritual strength to strive for the attainment of it. In this stage we have attainment of it. In this stage we have attained knowledge, but we lack moral effort, as we have not yet developed self- control. We may compare these is gradual expression of self- control. We may compare these four stages to the stage of the persons in Plato’s ‘Parable of the cave.’ The prisoners in the cave would see their own shadows and the shadows of other men and animals. And they would mistake the shadows for realities. This is the stage of mithyatva. If one were to be released, the glare of the light would distess him; and he would persist in maintaining the superior truth of the shadows. This is the stage of sasvadana. But once he gets accustomed to the change, he will be able to see things, and gaze upon the light of the moon and the stars and the spangled heavens. And once he gets the clear vision, he will realize the folly of his fellow prisoners and pity them.
Desavirata – samyagdrsti is the next higher stage of spiritual development, in which we g partial efforts or self- control in addition to the possession of the knowledge of truth. There is a partial destrution of karmic mater which produces passion. Full practice of virtues would not be possible, because there is the possibility of the influence of passions.
In the next stage the moral effort takes a more definite shape, although it is not always successful. A persons has a more or less steady glimpse of the truth; and he tries to develop self- control and the obstacles to the practice of virues are overcome in the sixth stage. But even here, the moral life and the spiritual struggle are not fully successful, because their full expression is vitiated by moral and spiritual inertia. This inertia is called pramada. And pramada is overcome on the seventh stage of apramatta- samyata. Efforts to reach moral excellence take definite shape. The operation of Karma preventing perfect conduct is very feeble; and minor passions called kasayas are also subdued. We can now practise the five great vows and the twenty- four virtues. The process of adhavprahrtti- karana, by which the soul on a lower level can rise higher, begins to operate in this stage.
The eighth stage is called apurvakarana. It leads to greater and more definite self- control. The self attains special purification and is capable of reducing the intensity and duration of Karma. The Gommatasara gives a detailed description of the process of apurvakarana operating in this stage. In this stage, one is affected only by the mild affective stages. It is possible to develop a stoic attitude. In the stages of development called anivrtti – badarsamparaya, it is possible to overcome even the milder emotional disturbances with greater confidence and ease. We have, here, established ourselves as moral and spiritual individuals, although sometimes slight emotional afflictions are possible. In the tenth stage of suksmasamparaya, only greed disturbs us, and that too slightly. Except for this disturbance, one is passionless and clams. This subtle greed can be interpreted as the subconscious attachment to the body even in souls which have achieved great spiritual advancement. But one is free from even the slightest passions in the eleventh Gunasathana. Of upasantamoha. Still the affections are not althogther eliminated. They are only suppressed through the pressure of moral effort. we are mostly free from the baneful influence of the Karma, except the deluding karma (mohaniya- karman). This state is called chadmastha. It is also called vitaraga, as one is able to remain calm and undisturbed through the suppression of karma. In the next stage, of upasanta- moha. There is annihilation of karma and not mere suppression. And when all the passions and the four types of Ghati- karma are destroyed, one reaches the thirtenth stage of spiritual development, called sayoga- kevali. One is free from the bondage of karma, yet is not free activity and bodily existence as the ayuhkarma is still to be exhausted. In this stage, we find omnisicient beings like Tirthamkaras, Ganadharas and the Samanya Kevalins. They attain enlightenment, but still live in this world preaching the truth that they have seen. This stage can be compared to the sate of Jivanmukta. The Vedantasara describes this state as that of the enlightened and liberated man who is yet alive in this physical world. Though he may appear to be active in this world, yet he is inactive, like the man who assists a magician in a magic show yet knows that all that is shown is illusory. Zimmer compares the attitude of the Kevalins in this stage to the function of a lamp ‘lighting the phenomenal expersonality solely for the maintenance of the body, not for the persuit of any gratification of sense or any goal.
The final stage of self- realization is the stage of absolute perfection. All empirical adjuncts, like the bodily functions, are removed. The soul enters the third stage of sukla- dhyana. This stage lasts only for the period of time required to pronounce five short syllables. At the end of this period the soul attains perfect and disembodied liberation. It is described as the stage of parabrahma or Niranjana. It is not possible to give, as Radhakrishnan says, a positive description of the liberated soul. It is state of freedom from action and desire, a state of utter and absolute quiescence. Zimmer shows ha, in this state, the individuality, the makes, the formal personal features are distilled away like drops of rain that descend from the clear sky. Tasteless and emasculate.
I The Jainas were against Gods in general and the God as creator. They presented several arguments against the theistic conception of God. They denied the existence of a created God and refuted the theistic argument of the Naiyayikas. The best way is to dispense with god altogether.
This has raised a question regarding the place of mysticism in Jainism. It is often contended that Jainism and Buddhism are authentic and hence they have no place for mysticism and mystical experience. So there is no God, there is no question of communion with him, and therefore, Jainism is a mundane religion with an empty heart.
II Mysticism has been used to mean the first hand experience and direct contact with God. It is a complex experience. It is a universal yearning of the human spirit for personal communion with God. It is science of the union with the Absolute and nothing else. Mysticism is the attitude of mind in which all other relations are swallowed up in the relation of soul to God. It detaches the heart from all that is not God and directs it entirely to the divine being. All these conceptions of mysticism imply the existence of God and the communion of the soul with God. In this sense, we cannot speak of Jaina mysticism. That would be a contradiction.
But mysticism need not be defined only with reference to the communion with God. Otto and stance, for instance, have shown that it is not necessary to postulate the existence of God for a theory of mysticism. ‘Mysticism can also exist where there is no conception of God at all or where for the final experience itself His existence is a matter of indifference. Stace shows that an atheistic form of mysticism may exist, because the conception of a God need not be the central point of experience. In this sense the Buddha may be considered a mystic. The Buddha denied the existence of supreme Being, although he had the direct experiences of Reality. He got the Enlightenment. The Jaina Tirthankara, as Arhats, had the vision of truth (kevala Darsana and Jnana). Their experiences are not be interpreted, mysticism is to be understood as an immediate non-discursive intuitive relation f the soul to God, there would be no mysticism in atheistic religions, like Buddhism and Jainism. But if mysticism is to cover the whole range of supra- rational experiences presenting the truth in all its aspects as one concrete experience, we can discover the meaning of mystical experiences..
The keynotes of mysticism are growth, autonomy, self- realisation, self-actualisation and self- transcendence. Man cannot complete himself without relating the values of he individualised ego to the wholeness of being and the universe. This is possible only when all the ego- centric desires and goals are transcended into the ultimate- values and meaning of life. The mystic dwells in a different world of his own. The transcendental consciousness dominates the normal consciousness. Time and place, nationality and creed have no relevance for a mystic.
III For a Jaina Moksa is the highest ideal. It is the highest form of self- realsation and the self to be realisation and the self – realised is the transcendental self.
For the Jaina, God- realistion is self- realisation. The Jainas sought the divine in man and establised the essential divinty of man. This conception has been developed in specific directions in Jaina philosophy.
The existence of the soul is a presupposition in the Jaina philosophy. Proof are no necessary. It is described from the phenomenal and the noumenal points of view, it possesses pranas; is the lord (prabhu), dore (karta), enjoyer (bhokta), limited to his body (dehamatra), still incorporeal and is ordinarily found with karma. Form the noumenal point of view, soul is described in its sure from. It is pure and perfect. It is pure consciousness. It is unbound, untouched and no other than itself. We may also say that from this point of view it is characterised by upayoga that is a hormic force. The joys and sorrows that the soul experiences are due to the fruits of karma which it accumulates due to the incessant activity that it is having. This entanglement is beginningless, but it has an end. The deliverance of the soul from the wheel of (samsara) is possible by voluntary means. By the moral and spiritual effort involving samvara and nirjara, karma accumulated in the soul is removed. When all karma is removed, the soul becomes pure and perfect, free from the wheel of samsara. Being free, with its upward motion it attains liberation or moksa. Pure and perfect souls live in eternal bliss in the siddhasila in the ‘alokakasa’. They are the perfect beings. There is no other God. The freed souls are divine in nature as they are perfect and omniscient.
For the Jaina it is not necessary to surrender to any higher being nor to ask for any divine favor for the individual to reach the highest goal of perfection. There is no place for divine grace, nor is one to depend on the capricious whims of a superior deity for the sake of attaining the highest ideal. There is emphasis on individual efforts in the moral and spiritual struggle for self- realisation. One has to go through the fourteen stages of spiritual before one reaches the final goal in the ayoga kevali stage. These stages are the gunasthans.
The final stage of self- realisation is the stage of absolute perfection. All empirical adjuncts, like the bodily functions are removed. The soul enters the third stage of sukla dhyana. This state lasso only for the period of time required to pronounce five short syllables. At the end of this period the soul attains perfect and disembodied liberation. It is described as the state of parabrahma or Niranjan. It is not possible to give, as Radhakrishnan says, a positive description of the liberated of utter and absolute quiescence. Zimmer shows that, in this state, the individuality, the masks, the formal personal features are distilled away like drops of rain that descend from the clear sky, tasteless and immaculate.
In this highest state, the paramatman, the pure and the transcendental self, shines with the light of omniscience like the light of the sun illuminating itself and other object. Within a moment after self- realisation there flashes forth a great light. The whole world is then seen in the Atman. The Jaina conception of omniscience is very important for understanding the mysticism of the Jainas. The Jainas thought that knowledge is due to the sense organs and the mind is not sufficient to comprehend the nature of reality. They accepted the possibility of immediate and direct experience without the use of the sense- organs and the mind. This is pratyaksa. This is supernormal experience. Their types of supernormal experiences have been mentioned: 1) avadhi (chairvoyance), 2) manahparyaya (telepathy) and kevala (omniscience). Kevala is the direct immediate intuitive experiences of the highest type. Kevala jnana is of two types, (I) bhavastha, the omniscience of the liberated who still live in this world, as for instance, the omniscience of the Tirthankaras; and (ii) the omniscience of one who is totally liberated, who may be called sidha. The bhavastha omniscience is, again, of two types (I) sayogi and (ii) avogi. There are subdivision in both these. Similarly, siddha omniscience is of two types, (I) anantara kevala and (ii) parampara kevala, each having its own subdivisions.
The Jaina view of omniscience may be compared to the Nyaya view of divine knowledge and the yoga theory of divine perception. Divine knowledge is all – embracing and eternal. It has no break. It is a single all- embracing intuition. It is perceptual in character, as it is direct and not derived through the instrumentality of any other cognition. The divine perception grasps the past, the present, and the further in one eternal ‘now’. The soul, according to the Jainas, is itself divine and perfect, and there is no transcendental being other than the individual soul. Each soul is a god by itself, although the karmic veil in its empirical state. The kaivalya state of the individual soul may be compared to the divine omniscience. However, the Naiyayikas and patanjali admit that man has sometimes a flesh of intuition of the future and can attain omniscience by constant meditation and practice of austerities. The Jainas believe that, by the removal of obscuring karmas by meditation, the threefold path and self- control, the individual soul reaches the consummation of omniscience, the state of kaivalya. That is the finality of experience. But others, like the Naiyayikas, posit a divine omniscience which is higher and natural and eternal.
It is not possible to establish the possibility of omniscience on the basis of the methods of investigation which psychology and the empirical sciences follow. However, its logical possibility cannot be denied. Progressive realisation of greater and subtler degrees of knowledge by the individual is accepted by some psychologists, especially since the introduction of psychical research for analysing the phenomena of extra- sensory perception. A consummation of this progressive realization would logically be pure knowledge and omniscience, a single all- embracing intuition.
Now the great meditation is the sure way to omniscience and self- realization. Concentration of mind ( dhyana) is an essentail factor as a means to spiritual realisation. “The lower self sometimes gets the vision of perfection on its purified state and aims at the attainment of this ideal. On the attainment of prominent the self rises to its own pure state (paramatma).
Dhyana is the concentration of thought in a particular object, for a certain length of time. The Jaina analysis of the lower types of dhyana has a great psychological importance and need to be studied in the light of recent research in depth psychology. Dharmadhyana and sukladhyana are conditions.
21. Tattvarthasutra: IX- 27 ‘ Ekagracintannirodhadhyanam.’
Of spiritual progress. The nature of revelation, the fact of suffering, the operating of karma and the structure of the universe are objects of dharmadhyana. Umasvati defines dharmadhyana as a collection of scattered thoughts (Smrtisamanvahara) for the sake of meditation on the objects of concentration. Jnana (knowledge), darsana (intuition) caritra (good conduct) and vairagya (non- attachment) are needed for developing the steadfastness of mind for attaining concentration.
In the sukladhyana the range of the objects of concentration is narrowed to the concentration of the atom. Just as poison spread over the body is first collected at a point by a mantra and then removed by a more powerful mantra. For this type of concentration one must have good physique and must be at least in the seventh of gunasthana. Four types of sukladhyana have been mentioned. In the first two types mind concentrates on the minutest entity like the atom. Then it gets pure and perfect enlightenment, the last two stages lead to final emancipation. The self becomes motionless as a rock and is free from any activity of mind body and speech, as in the stage of highest samadhi. In the practice of dhyana first stage is concentration, on the image of tirthankara. This is the concrete symbol for concentration After achieving steadfastness in this concentration, one should practise concentration on the abstract qualities of a tirthankara. The practice of yoga is clearly connected with the various stage of spiritual realization. Dhyana, in its primary stage, is in the seventh gunasthana. Steadfastness and concentration gradually develop till one reaches the twelfth stage of gunasthana. In this stage the transcendental self is possible to be realized. It is often compared to the asamprajnata samadhi of patanjali. In the fourteenth stage of gunasthana all activity is stopped and the soul attains final emancipation. It is analogous to the ‘dharmamegha’ of the Patanjali system, to the ‘ amrtatman’ of another system and to the ‘ para’ of still another.
IV. We have so far analysed the various psychological aspects of supernormal experiences and we find that we can speak of Jaina mysticism as we can speak of mysticism of devotional saints. The question whether mysticism is possible in Jainism is not relevant for the simple reason that some of the earliest author- saints like Kunda- kunda and Pujyapada have described transcendental experiences and mystical visions, It would be more reasonable to collect data from earlier Jaina works and see what elements of Jainism have contributed to mysticism, and in what way it is akin to or differs from such a patent mysticism as that of monistic vedanta. To take a practical views the Jaina Tirthankaras like Rsabhadeva. Neminatha, Mahavira, etc. have been some of the greatest mystics of the world; and rightly indeed professor Ranade designates Rsabhadeva, the Tirthankara of the Jaina as yet a mystic of different kind, whose utter carelessness of his body is the supreme mark of his God- realization. And gives details of his mystical life. It would be interesting to note that the details about Rsabhadeva given in Bhagavata practically and fundamentally agree with those recorded by Jaina tradition. And Jaina mysticism turns rounds two concepts: Atman and paramatman. Atmans are essentially the same. And Jaina contains the essentials of mysticism in the fact that there is the exalted experiences of perfact personality of Atman and the parmatman. It has a metaphysical structure containing a spirit capable of enjoying itself as intelligence and bliss. To evaluate mystical visions rationally is not to value them at all. These visions carry a guarantee of truth undoubtedly with him who has experienced them: and their universality proves that they are facts of experience. The glimpses of the vision. As recorded by Yogindu, are of the nature of light or of white brilliance. Elsewhere too we find similar experiences. It may be noted in conclusion that the excessive rigidity of the code of morality prescribed for a Jaina saint gives no scope for Jaina mysticism to stoop to low levels of degraded Tantricism. It is for this very reason that we do not find the sexual imagery, so patent in western mysticism, emphasised in Jainism, though similies like muktikanta are used by authors like Padmaprabha. Sex- impulse is considered by Jaina moralists as the most dangerous impediment on the path of spirtiual realization. So sensual consciousness has no place whatsoever in Jaina mysticism. The routine of life prescribed for a Jaina monk does not allow him to profess and practise miracles and magical feats for the benefit of householders with whom he is asked to keep very little company. The way to salvation has been three- fold: 1) the way of knowledge (samyaginana), the way of intuition and devotion (samygdarsana) and the way of action (samyag carita). It would not be proper to say that Jainism is predominantly intellectualistic (jnana pradhanya). The very fact the Jainas have given prominence to right intuition and faith (samyga darsana) as one of the three ways to salvation shows that they have given prominence to right intuition and that they have given proper orientation to the psychological function of intuitive experience.
Intuitive experience is likely to experess itself in devotional literature. In the Jaina literature we have abundant devotional literature. Yogindu’s Paramatmaprakasa is a grand poetic treatise in Jaina mysticism. We may mention samayasara and pravaacanasara of Kunda- Kundacarya as examples
Of literature with the emphasais on intuition and devotion to the Tirthankaras who have conqurered passions (vitaraga Jinendra) Acarya Pujyapada and Samantabhadra have devotional songs addressed to Jaina. Akalanka has given us Rajavartika on the one side Akalanka- stotra on the other.
The Jaina Acaryas have distinguished twelve types of bhakti. M however they have not made distinction between ‘nirguna’ and ‘saguna’ bhakti, although there have been devotional songs of the pure and perfect souls and of the trithankaras as they preached the dharma to the people. The ‘pancaparamesti bhakti’. (devotion and worship of the five superior souls, is psychologically important as it presents the five types of the graded purified souls. The namokara mantra, (offering obescience to the five purified souls) has the greatest importance in the Jaina way of worship for self- purification. We offer our salutations to (I) Arihantas, (ii) the siddhas, (iii) Acaryas, (iv) Upadhyayas and (v) all sadhus.
Apart from the worship of tirthankaras, we find a pantheon of Gods who are worshipped and from whom favours are sought. The cult of the ‘yaksini’ worship and of other attendant Gods may be cited as examples. This types of worship is often attended by the occult practices and the tantric and mantric cermonialism. Dr. P.B. Desai shows that in Tamilnad Yaksini was allotted an independent status and raised to a superior position which was almost equal to that of the Jina. In some instances, the worship of Yaksini appears to have superseded even that of Jina. Padmavati, Yaksini of Parsvanatha, has been elevated to the status of a superior deity with all the ceremonial worship in prmbuccapura in Mysore area. These forms of worship must have arisen out of the contact with other competing faiths and with the purpose of popularising the Jaina faith in the context of the social and religious competition. The cult of Jwalamalini with its tantric accompaniments may be mentioned as another example of this motivation. The promulgator of this cult was, perhaps, Helacarya of Ponnur. According to the prevailing belief at that time, mastery overspells and mantravidya was considered as a qualification for superiority. The Jaina acharyas claimed to be master mantravadins. Jainism had to compete with the other Hindu creeds. Yaksi from the common men towards Jainism, by appealing to the popular forms of worship.
V. Jaina mysticism as we have said earlier, turns round who concepts: the Atman and the paramatman. Paramatman stands for god, though never a creator. And the creative aspect of divinity is not sine qua non of mysticism. Atman and paramatman are essentially the same. In samsara the Atman is in karmic bondage, and once he frees himself from the bondga he is the paramatman. It is for the mystic to realize this identity or unity by destroying the karmic encrustation of the spirit.