STATES OF EXISTENCE AND CLASSES OF BEINGS.


The Animal State of Existence

The Human State of Existence

The Celestial State of Existence

The Infernal State of Existence

 

Explanation Kg. I, 95 , Ps. 13; guna-sthanas Kg. I 97b: yoga Kg. I, 99a Ps. 17; upayoga Kg. I, 99b, Ps. 19; lesya Kg. I, 101 b; margana-sthanas Kg. I 115b, Ps. 92; alpabahutva Kg. I, 137a Ps. 125; bandha-svamitva Kg. I 81b, Ps. 511, Tattv. II-IV, Lp. IV-IX, Utt. 36 Comp. A. Guerinot, "Le Jivaviyara de Santisuri."

 

The most important accidental states of the jiva are his state of existence (gati) and the class of being (jati) to which he belongs. Through realization of certain karman-species the shapeless jiva receives a certain shape which lasts until the quantity of life (ayus), which is necessary for its existence and which is bound in the preceding existence, is exhausted. If this has happened, the jiva is re-born in a new form, conditional upon his karman; and thus it continues till, finally, the jiva has become tired of this constant change of birth and death and takes the road of salvation proclaimed by Mahavira and in the end achieves release. As soon as the jiva has freed himself from all karman, he loses all corporeal shape and exists into all eternity as a pure spirit free from all finite limitations conditional upon the karman.

 

As a principle for the classification of living beings, Jainism takes the number of the senses. There are beings with 1,2,3,4 and 5 senses; the jivas with 1 sense have either a fine or a gross body, those with 5 senses possess either the inner sense (manas) or not and are called accordingly samjnin (endowed with reason) or asamjnin (unreasonable). In this way there result 7 classes of beings. But as all of them are occurring in a developed (paryapta) or in an undeveloped (aparyapta) state, this number must be doubled; there are altogether 14 jivasthanas.

 

Jainism distinguishes 4 different states of existence (gati): that of the celestial, the infernal, the human beings and that of the animals. "Animals are called all those beings which remain if the celestial, infernal and human beings are excluded" (Tattv. IV 28); the name of animal is therefore applied also to plants and elementary beings. Animals occur in all 14 jivasthanas, human beings in the two last alone (i.e. as developed and undeveloped reasonable 5 sensed beings), celestial and infernal beings only as developed samjnipancendriyas.

 

In the following I give a summary of the different species of living beings. I follow the disposition given in the Lp., i.e. I treat first the animals, then human, celestial and infernal beings. In each class I being with some explanatory remarks; I must restrict myself here, however to the indispensable and must for further particulars refer to the literature above indicated. Thereupon I shall discuss to which marganasthana the singular species belongs; I confine myself here to upayoga, yoga, lesya, belief and conduct, because the others require no special treatment. The inconsecutiveness I am guilty of in noting down the gunasthana to which the jivas of the different class of being can attain, although I explain the theory of the gunasthanas later, every one who wishes to inform himself quickly about them after having read the whole of the book will find justified. At the end I indicate which nama-ks are bound by a jiva or exist in him in udaya and satta. The numbers refer to the combinations given in chapter III, 1 and are arranged in such a way that with every bandha combination all udaya and satta combinations printed in the same line are possible.

 

THE ANIMAL STATE OF EXISTENCE.

Note: No animal binds the ks. tirthakara and translocation-body and its limbs.

 

The developed fine one-sensed animals (suksma-paryaptas).

These beings are so fine that they cannot be perceived singly by our senses. They have as body: earth, water, fire, wind or plants. They have only one sense: touch, and all belong to the 3rd sex.

cognition: mati-ajnana, sruta-ajnana, acaksur-darsana.

activity : audarika-kaya-yoga.

lesya : black, dark or gray.

belief : mithyatva.

conduct : avirati.

gunasthana: 1.

 

Beings of this class do not bind the celestial and infernal state of existence, anupurvi, ayus; transformation-body and its limbs. The fire- and wind-beings do not in addition bind human state of existence, anupurvi, ayus and high family surroundings.

 

Table of bandha            udaya            satta of nama-k.

 

23, 25abc, 26, 29abc, 30ab            21a, 24a, 26a            92, 88, 86ab, 80ab, 78ab

  

 

The undeveloped fine, one-sensed animals (suksma-aparyaptas).

These differ from the paryaptas only with regard to the activity and to udaya of nama-k.

Activity: karmana, and audarik-misra-kaya-yoga.

 

Table of bandha            udaya      satta of nama-k.

 

23, 25abc, 26 29abc, 30ab            21a, 24a      92, 88, 86ab, 80ab, 78ab

 

 

The developed gross one-sensed animals (BADAR-paryaptas).

The body of these beings is gross and therefore visible. Whilst the suksmas are equal to one another exteriorly, there exist here individual differences between the groups belonging to one species. The badara-ekendriyas have earth, water, fire, wind or plants as bodies. Earth-beings are: dust, clay, sand, stones, metals, vermilion, orpiment, and so forth; water-beings: water, dew, snow, fog and so on ; fire-beings: flames, coals, meteors, lightning, etc.; wind-beings: squalls, whirlwinds, etc.; plants are of two species: they have, either, together with others a common body, as garlic, onion etc., or each has its own body as trees, shrubs, etc. (JS. II 215 seq.).

 

All these beings have only one sense: touch and belong to the 3rd sex. Cognition, lesya, belief, conduct, gunasthana as with the suksma-paryaptas.

 

Activity: vaikriya-, and vaikriya-misra-kaya-yoga with the wind-beings; with the others audarika-kaya-yoga.

 

Beings of this class do not bind: celestial and infernal state of existence, anupurvi, ayus; transformation-body and limbs. The fire- and wind-beings do not bind in addition human state of existence, anupurvi, ayus, and high family surroundings.

 

Table of bandha      udaya                  satta of nama-k.

 

23, 25abc, 26, 29abc, 30ab      21,24ab,25a,26abc, 27a,      92,88,86ab,80ab, 78ab

                                                         

The undeveloped gross one-sensed beings (BADAR-aparyaptas).

This class of beings differs from the preceding one in a two-fold manner. Firstly: to the earth-, water- and plant-souls, besides the 3 first lesyas, belongs also the fiery one. This is caused by the fact that jivas who belonged in their preceding existence to the celestial classes Bhavanapati, Vyantara, Jyotiska, Saudharma or Isana, can be reborn as earth- and water-beings, or as plants. These have had, as gods, a fiery lesya, (and) have, therefore, in the beginnings- according to the rule given above-also in this existence a fiery lesya (Kg. I, 117b). Further, we see the peculiar phenomenon that the aparyapta-badara-ekendriyas are not all unbelievers, but have also sasvadana-samyaktva (Kg. I, 119b) and can, accordingly be not only in the first gunasthana, but also in the 2nd. The following differences from the paryaptas are still to be noticed:

 

activity: karmana-, and audarika-misra-kaya-yoga.

 

The two-, three- and four-sensed animals.

The dvi-, tri- and catur-indriyas are combinedly treated in the Kgs. under the name "vikalendriya-trika," as they show no difference with regard to the karman-doctrine. We can also follow the example, but we shall however, at first, give a short characteristic of the species of beings in question.

 

Animals with 2 senses (touch and taste) are: worms, shells, leeches, etc.; animals with 3 senses (touch, taste, smell): bugs, ants, cochineals; beings with 4 senses (touch, taste, smell, sight): bees, flies, mosquitoes, etc. All these being to the 3rd sex.

 

The developed vikalendriyas.

cognition : mati-ajnana, sruta-ajnana, acaksur-darsana; with the 4 sensed also caksur-darsana.

activity : audarika-kaya-yoga and asatyamrsa-vag-yoga.

lesya : black, dark, gray.

belief : mithyatva.

conduct : avirati.

gunasthana : 1.

 

Like the beings of the previous classes they also bind only karman suitable to animals and human beings.

 

 

Table of bandha nama-k.            

23, 25abc, 26, 29abc, 30ab            

 

Table of udaya nama-k.

21ab,26d, 28a,29ab,30ab,81a

 

Table of satta of nama-k.

92, 88, 86ab, 80ab,78ab

 

The undeveloped vikalendriyas.

These differ from the paryaptas only in the following points:

cognition: mati-ajnana, sruta-ajnana, acaksur-darsana.

activity : karmana- and audarika-misra-kaya-yoga.

belief : mithyatva and sasvadana-samyaktva.

gunasthanas: 1, 2.

 

Table of bandha      udaya      satta of nama-k.

23,25abc,26,29abc,30ab      21c, 26d      92,88,86ab,80ab,78ab

 

The five-sensed animals.

Animals with 5 senses (touch, taste, smell, sight, hearing) are of three species: aquatic animals (such as fishes and dolphins), terrestrial animals (such as elephants) and air-animals (such as geese). They are divided into two groups. reasonable (samjnin) and unreasonable (asamjnin). "The reasonable beings are those endowed with an inner sense (manas)". (Tattv. II25). Reason considers the state of a thing in the present, past and future (bhuta-bhavad-bhavi-bhava-svabhava-paryalocanam Kg. I 96a). The asamjnins do not possess this capability, they act from instinct. The five-sensed animals proceeding from a womb (garbha-vyutkrantah pancendriya-tiryag-yonijah Siddhasena ad Tattv. II 25), such as cattle, goats, sheep, elephants, lions, tigers, possess reason. Pancendriuyas belong to the male, female and 3rd sex.

 

The developed unreasonable five-sensed beings.

cognition: mati-ajnana, sruta-ajnana, caksur-darsana, acaksur-darsana.

activity : audarika-kaya-yoga, asatyamrsa-vag-yoga.

lesya : black, dark, gray.

belief : mithyatva.

conduct : avirati.

gunasthana: 1.

 

Beings of this class bind karman suitable for all the 4 states of existence.

 

Table of bandha of nama-k.

23,26abc,26,29abc,30ab, 28ab

  

Table of udaya of nama-k.

21c, 26e, 28b, 29cd, 30cd, 31b, 30cd, 31b

 

Table of satta of nama-k.

92, 88, 86ab, 80ab, 78ab, 86ab, 80ab

 

 

The developed reasonable five-sensed animals.

cognition: mati-, sruta-, avadhi-jnana (ajnana); caksur-,

acaksur-, avadhi-darsana.

activity : 13 yogas, i.e. all except of the 2 of the translocation-body.

lesyas : all 6.

belief : mithyatva, sasvadana-samyaktva, samyagmithyatva, samyaktva.

conduct : avirati, desavirati.

gunasthana: 1--5.

 

Beings of this class bind karman suitable for all 4 states of existence.

 

 

Table of bandha of nama-k.

23,25abc,26,29abc,30bd, 28a, 28ab

  

Table of udaya of nama-k.

21c, 26e, 25c, 27b, 28b, 29cd, 30cd, 31b, 28ab, 29cde, 30cde

 

Table of satta of nama-k.

92,88,86ab,80ab,78ab

 

The undeveloped reasonable five-sensed beings.

cognition: mati-, sruta-, avadhi-jnana (ajnana), acaksur-,

avadhi-darsana.

activity : karmana-, and audarika-misra-kaya-yoga.

lesyas : all 6.

belief : mithyatva, sasvadana-samyaktva, samyaktva (not samyagmithyatva ! Kg. I, 98a).

conduct : avirati.

gunasthana: 1, 2, 4.

 

Beings of this class bind only karman suitable for animals and human beings.

 

 Table of bandha      udaya      satta of nama-k.

 

23,25abc,26,29abc,30ab      21c, 26e      92,88,86ab,80ab,78ab

 

THE HUMAN STATE OF EXISTENCE.

Human beings are of three kinds:

 

1.   those living in the 15 Karmabhumis,

2.   those living in the 30 Akarmabhumis,

3.   those living on the 56 Antaradvipas.

 

According to another division (Tattv. III 15) they are divided into aryas and mlecchas. Like animals there are developed and undeveloped beings of this class.

 

The developed human beings.

With the developed human beings all upayogas and yogas, all lesyas, every kind of belief and conduct, and all 14 gunasthanas are possible. The following combinations of nama-k occur in udaya: 20, 21de, 25de, 26fg, 27cde, 28defghi, 29ghiklm, 30fghi, 31c, 8,9.

 

They can bind all species of karman-combinations suitable to all 4 states of existence; all species of satta-combinations are possible with them. The mutual relationship in which bandha, udaya and satta-ks are standing towards one another, differs according to the gunasthana. (See below).

 

Before all other beings mankind enjoys an infinite advantage; human being only can attain perfect self-discipline and thereby acquire salvation. The existence in the human state is, therefore, the condition sine qua non of salvation, and a jiva must be reborn in this state in order to be saved.

 

The undeveloped human beings.

To the undeveloped human beings, i.e. those whose organs or faculties have not fully grown, belong also those created by coagulation. The sammurcchima-manusyas are produced through generatio aequivoca in bile, phlegm, urine, mucus, blood, semen, in a corpse, in impure places, through the union of a man and a woman (stripurusasamyoge), etc. (Kg. I, 117a).

 

The marganasthanas and karman-combinations correspond to those of the undeveloped five-sensed animals.

 

THE CELESTIAL STATE OF EXISTENCE.

Gods (deva) are beings with fine transformation-bodies who pass their lives, which are very long in comparison to earthly conception, relatively in a greater or smaller state of bliss. They enter into existence through "manifestation" (upapata), i.e. they appear suddenly where according to their karman they must originate. If the ayus of a god is exhausted, his existence is ended, without a cause of death (upakrama) being the apparent reason of it. Gods are developed and undeveloped; the latter only if their organs are not fully developed. The faculties (labdhi) of the body, breath, etc. are always completely existing in a god (Kg. I, 115b).

 

cognition: mati-, sruta-, avadhi-jnana (or ajnana), caksur- acaksur-, avadhi-darsana.

activity : 4 vag-yogas, 4 mano-yogas, vaikriya-, vaikriya-misra- and karmana-kaya-yoga.

lesyas : all 6 occur, yet among the classes of gods differences exist, concerning which further details will be given later.

belief : mithyatva, sasvadana samyaktva, samyagmithyatva, samyaktva,

conduct : gods possess no self-control, because there is no possibility for them to practice it, as every wish is fulfilled immediately it arises (Gandhi 111).

gunasthanas: 1--4.

 

Devas are reincarnated as human beings or as animals; if as the latter, however, only as developed gross earth-, water or plant-beings, as well as 5-sensed animals. The following karmans are not bound by them: celestial and infernal state of existence, anupurvi, ayus; transformation-body and limbs; translocation-body and limbs: undeveloped common body, 2-,3-,4-sensed class of beings, fine body.

 

After these general remarks, I give a short characteristic of the 4 celestial classes and their subdivisions.

1.   The lowest species of gods are the Bhavanavasins who, on their part, are divided into 10 classes, which have the following names: Asura-kumara, Naga-kumara, Vidyut-kumara, Suparna-kumara, Agni-kumara, Vata-kumara, Stanita-kumara, Udadhi-kumara, Dvipa-kumara, Dik-kumara. The first named ones are living in the upper part of the uppermost hell (Ratnaprabha), the others in the earth. In appearance they equal princes, as the second part of their name indicates. At the head of each class are 2 Indras; the other members of a class are divided into 9 grades. They satisfy their sexual needs by bodily coition. Their lesya is black, dark, gray or fiery. They bind no tirthakara-karman.

2.   The Vyantaras comprise 8 classes: Kinnara, Kimpurusa, Mahoraga, Gandharva, Yaksa, Raksasa, Bhuta and Pisaca. They live in all 3 worlds, they are partly free, partly serving others--even men. The 1st rank of each class is again occupied by 2 Indras; besides these, there are, however, only 7 other grades. Sexual pleasure, lesya and karman as with the preceding class.

3.   The Jyotiskas are divided into 5 classes: suns, moons, planets; naksatras and fixed stars. In the human world these are continually revolving, in the direction towards the right round the Meru mountain; beyond in they are not in constant movement. There are many Indras here--the suns and moons --besides 7 other grades. The other as with the preceding.

4.   The Vaimanikas are divided into 2 chief classes: Kalpopapannas (inhabitants of Kalpas) and Kalpatitas (kalpa-less). Kalpa means abode of the gods.

1)   The Kalpopapannas are inhabiting the following Kalpas: 1. Saudharma, 2. Aisana, 3. Sanatkumara, 4. Mahendra, 5. Brahma-loka, 6. Lantaka, 7. Mahasukra, 8. Sahasrara, 9. Anata, 10. Pranata, 11. Arana and 12. Acyuta. The 1. Kalpa lies above the canopy of the Meru, then every one above the other. With every Kalpa the lifetime, power, delights, splendor, purity of the lesya, strength of the senses, and sphere of activity of the avadhi-knowledge of its inhabitants is growing whilst the circumstance of the sphere (through which they wander in the universe), the size of the body, the possession and the pride, is decreasing. In 1 and 2 bodily coition is still performed; in the others a more and more refined sort of sexual satisfaction takes its place. At the head of each group stands an Indra, besides whom there are still 9 grades. The lesya is in 1 and 2 fiery, in 3,4,5 lotus-pink, thereafter white. In 1 and 2 each karman assimilable by gods, is bound, in 3-8 not the karmans of 1-sensed class of beings, immovable body, warm splendor, in 9-12, in addition to these not cold luster, animal state, anupurvi, ayus.

2)   The Kalpatitas have a white lesya and no sexual desire at all. With them no difference in rank exists. They are divided into 2 divisions, which again are subdivided into many classes.

I.   The Graiveyakas are 9-fold: Sudarsana, Supratibandha, Manorama, Sarvabhadra, Suvisala, Somanasa, Sumamkasa, Priyamkara, nandikara. They do not bind the karmans: 1-sensed class of beings, immovable body warm splendor, cold luster, animal state of existence, anupurvi and ayus.

 

II.  The Anuttarasuras are the highest species of gods. They are divided into 5 classes: Vijaya, Vaijayanta, Jayanta, Aparajita, Sarvarthasiddha. They all have true belief, are only on the 4th gunasthana and bind karman only possible on that stage. In the 4 first classes are beings who at the utmost are still only reincarnated twice, in the last one there are only such beings who are reborn only once and then attain salvation (Tattv. VI, 27; Lp.27, ,638 seq.)

At the end I give a table of bandha, udaya, satta of nama-ks. All that is here given must be modified with regard to the exceptions mentioned in connection with the different classes of gods.

 

Table of bandha of nama-k.

25a, 26, 29ab, 30b, 30c

 

Table of udaya of nama-k.

21f, 25f, 27f, 28kl, 29no, 30k

 

Table of satta of nama-k.

92, 88, 93, 89

 

THE INFERNAL STATE OF EXISTENCE.

The infernal beings (naraka) are deformed, evil jivas, belonging to the 3rd sex, with a fine transformation-body, who during their long life are tormented by heat, cold, hunger, thirst and pain, and who with innate hatred are directing all that they feel and think to tormenting one another. Like the gods, they arise through "manifestation" (upapata), are, if undeveloped, only karana-aparyaptas; their existence ends only when their ayus has expired; the many wounds they receive are, therefore, never mortal.

 

cognition: mati-, sruta-, avadhi-jnana (ajnana), caksur-, acaksur, avadhi-darsana.

activity : 4 vag-yogas ; 4 mano-yogas; vaikriya-, vaikriya-misra- and karmana-kaya-yoga.

lesyas : black, dark, gray.

belief : unbelief, sasvadana-samyaktva, mixed belief, belief.

conduct : avirati.

gunasthanas: 1--4.

 

The narakas inhabit the numerous hells which exist in the 7 successively descending subterranean regions, which comprise a varying number of stages. The names of these 7 bhumis are: 1. Ratnaprabha, 2. Sarkaraprabha, 3. Valukaprabha, 4. Pankaprabha, 5. Dhumaprabha, 6. Tamahprabha, 7. Mahatamahprabha. The deeper the storey of hell on which a being is existing, the larger is his body, the more horrible his appearance, the more unsupportable are the tortures it has to suffer. The hells of the first 3 regions are hot, those of the 4th and 5th regions hot and cold, those of the last two, cold. The lesya in the 1st and 2nd is gray, in the 3rd gray or dark, in the 4th dark, in the 5th dark and black, in the 6th and 7th black; it corresponds to the increasing sinfulness of the state of mind (tivratara-samklesadhyavasana) of its possessor.

 

In Ratnaprabha gods of the Asura-class can also arise. They are capable of reaching as far as Valukaprabha, in order to torment the inhabitants of the 3 first bhumis (comp. Lp. VIII, 4 et seq).

 

Infernal beings can only be reincarnated as developed 5-sensed animals and as human beings. All do not bind the following 19 karmans:

 

Celestial and infernal state, anupurvi, ayus; transformation-body and limbs, fine, common, immovable body, undeveloped, warm splendor, and 1-4-sensed class of beings.

 

In the regions 4-7 the tirthamkara-k is not bound, in the 7th in addition not human-ayus and, in the 1st and 2nd gunasthanas, like-wise not human state of existence and anupurvi as well as high family surroundings.

 

Table of bandha of nama-k.

     29b, 29c, 30b, 30c

 

Table of udaya of nama-k.

21g, 25g, 27g, 28m, 29p

 

Table of satta of nama-k.

92, 89, 88