|GUIDLINES OF JAINISM||
A Representative Jain Work
Shri Tatvartha Sutra.
If you desire to find in the same (grantha) work practical, critical and intellectual discussions and expositions of all the Jain Siddhantas (theories), you can find them in Shri Tatvarthadhigham Sutra or Shri Tatvartha Sutra.
This concise and comprehensive work written by Sri Bhagwan Umaswati (born 3rd century of the Vikram Era) in Samskrit, in the form of Sutras or aphorisms, has been accepted and esteemed equally by all the Jain schools of thought. In this magnificent work, we get not only a profound and incisive analysis of the philosophical doctrines of Jainism but also simple, easy explanations, with commentaries, of the principles of practical life and the spiritual endeavours for everyday life. This grantha divided into 10 chapters contains about 344 aphorisms. This grantha contains commentaries for the most part. Please have a glimpse nf thl? Tatvartha Sutra.
Chapter Sutras Contents
1 35 The path of salvation; a discussion of theories; Nikshep; knowledge, Naya
2 52 A discussion of thoughts; righteousness, life, senses, mind, awareness etc.,
(a detailed discussion of these things).
3 18 A detailed description of Hell and its torments. A description of
islands, seas, mountains, men, earth etc. A description of the Jain
4 53 Heavenly beings, heaven - life - span - Leshya etc, - a descriptionof these
5 44 A detailed description of Astikay. Time, Anu and Paramanu (the
atoms and minute atoms) and Pudgals and the science of substances.
6 26 A detailed study of the subject of the bondage of Karma.
7 34 A discussion of the thoughts and vows of the life of Shravaks.
8 26 Bondage, Asrav, Nirjara etc,, explained fully.
9 49 A discussion of the principle of Samvar. A discussion relating to
Dharma dhyan (a contemplation of Dharma).
10 7 A description of Moksha and Shukladhyan or the sublime meditation.
Some Influential Jain Personalities:
In this world, there appeared lakhs of great men who by means of their energetic and radiant personalities revealed the influential Jain tradition. Even to mention their names we may require a huge volume; and if we should describe the greatness of those personalities, we may take years and years; and we may have to write many works. Kindly note the names of some great_ men that appeared after Shraman Bhagwan Mahavir.
The group of Shramanas
Gautam Swami, Sudharma Swami, Jamboo Swami, Shayyambhav Soori, Bhadrabahu Swami, Sthoola bhadra Swami, Arya Suhasti, Arya Vajra Swami, Arya Rakshit, Umaswati, Padalipta Soori, Siddhasena Diwakar, Devardhigani, Haribhadra Soori, Bappa Bhatti Soori, Hemachandracharya, Hiravijay Soori, Upadhyay Yashovijayji, etc.
The group of Shramanis
Medicants - nuns
Arya Chandanbala, Mrigavati, Priyadarshana, The seven sisters namely Yaksha etc.. Yakini Mahattara etc.
The group of Shravaks
Pious Jain householders-men
Anand, Kamadev, Nandivardhan, Emperor Shrenik, Emperor Chetak, Mahamantri Abhaykumar, Emperor Sampruti, Emperor Vikramaditya, Amaraja, Kumarpal, Mahamatya Kalpak. Shakatal, Vimalshah Vastupal - Tejpal, Bhamashah, Udayan Mantri, Pethadhshah, Jhanjhanshah, Kavi Vagbhatta, Kavi Rishabh das, etc.
The group of Shravikas
Pious Jain women
Sulasa - Revati - Jayanti, 16 Sathis (great women) Anopama devi, Prathamini etc.
The Sects among Jains:
The Jain Dharma is mainly divided into two sects, namely, Swetambar and Digambar.
(1 ) Idol-worshippers
The Shwetambar idol - worshippers:
The Sadhus and Sadhvis of this sect wear white dress. They faithfully accept and respect the forty five Agam granthas, and all the Shastras and commentaries written by the great Acharyas of the past. Worship and spiritual endeavours are equal for both men and women. The sect comprises the four groups, namely, (1) Sadhus, (2) Sadhvis, (3) Shravaks and (4) Shravikas. They believe that they can take food and water even after attaining Kevaljnan, the highest enlightenment. They worship and decorate the image of the Paramatma with various auspicious substances.
This sect was started by a noble householder, by name, Laukashah (born 2001 years after the Nirvana of Mahavir or 1485 A.D.) and in doing so he gave a practical form to his ideologioal difference with the Swetambar sect. Shri Bhunaji became the first Sadhu of this Lokamath sect. The followers of this faith reject the institutions of temples, idol - worship and installation etc., but they accept only 32 out of the 45 Agamas. Naturally. they cannot accept those Agamas which contain the principle of idol-worship. When certain definite opinions assumed the shape of this sect, certain other rules and prohibitions and principles of practice accumulated around them; yet it has continued to be different from the other sects. Shri Lavaji Rishi, of this sect (born Vikram Era 1704 or 1653A.D.) first introduced the practice of covering the mouth with a Muhpatti.
Shri Bhikhanji Swamy belonging to the Sthanakvasi sect born at Kelava (Rajnagar) in the Udaypur District of Rajasthan, in 1861 A.D. i.e., 2278 years after the Nirvan of Mahavir first propagated this sect, called the Terapanth. Some principles of the Sthanakvasi sect are in vogue in the Terapanth but they clearly and definitely prohibit the principles of mercy and charity.
This sect which believes that nakedness is the only means to attain salvation was started by a Swetambar mendicant by name Shivbhuti in Rathvirpur, 609 years after the Nirvan of Mahavir i.e., in 84 A. D. in his attempt to give a practical shape to his ideological difference with his preceptor Arya Krishnamacharya. The followers of this sect believe that woman as such cannot attain salvation and that a Keval jnani does not take in food etc. Besides holding these beliefs, they totally reject all the Agams of the Swetambars, but they respect the Granthas written by Shri Kunda Kundacharya (born in the 6th Century) and those written by the Digambar preceptors who appeared later. The Digambar Sadhus are naked. They do dot wear or keep any clothes but they carry in their hands a Kamandal - a special kind of pot and a peacock's feather. They take food with their hands. (They do not take it off a plate etc ). They do not believe in decorating the idol and in the various kinds of worship and decorations of the idols.
Though all the sects mentioned above differ from each other in respect of practical life, certain codes of conduct, observance etc., they unanimously accept and believe in such principles as non-violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, celibacy, non-attachment, Anekantvad, Atmavad, Karmavad and the arrangement of the universe.
In accordance With the scope of this book, only an introduction to the essentials of Jainism has been given in it. Certain things have also been excluded. To understand Jainism fully and thoroughly, the
follow ing works have to be consulted.
1.Navkar Mantra - Namaskar Swadhyay (in Sanskrit and Prakrit).
2.Sadhana Marg: Shravak Pragnapti, Dharma Sangraha, Shraddhavidhi, Dharmabindu Panchashak. Dharma Ratna Prakaran. (all in Prakrit and Sanskrit).
3. Bhagwan Mahavir: Mahavirchariyam, Kalpasuitra, Thrishashti Salakapurush Charltra (in Prakrit and Sanskrit)
4. Sangh Vyavastha: Dravya Saptatika (in Sanskrit).
5. Tirth and Jineswar: Shakrastav, Lalitavistara, Bhagvati Sutra (all in Prakrit).
6. Jain Tirth: Jain Tirth Darshan (in Hindi, Gujarati and English).
7. The organization of the Cosmos Lokaprakash, Brihatsangrahini, Kshetra Samas (all in Prakrit and Sanskrit) .
8. Navtatva: Jivavichar, Tatvarta Sutra, Prashamrati (in Prakrit and Sanskrit).
9. Astikay: Tatvarta Sutra; Lokaprakash, Panchastikai.
10. Karma Philosophy: Karma granth, Kammapaydi, Visheshavashyak Bhashya.
11. Leshya: Bhagvati Suitra, Leshya Kosh, Uttaradhyayan Sutra, Panchasak.
12. Rebirth: Visheshavashyak Bhashya.
13. Syadvad: Syadvad Ratnakar, Anekant Jayapataka, Syadvad Maniari, Sammati Tark.
14. Samyaktva: Samyaktva Saptatika, Tatvarta Sutra, Bhagvati Sutra.
15. Jnan: Nandisutra, Anuyogadwar Sutra.
16. Dhyan: Dhyana Satak, Yoga Sastra, Yogabindu, Yogadrishti Samuchchay.
1 7. Navpad: Sirival Kaha, (Prakrit) Sripal Ras (Gujarati).
18. Bhavna: Shantasundharas (in Sanskrit).
19. Great Men: Jain Pattavali. A history of the Jain philosophy (1 - 2 - 3 - 4) (Gujarati).
20. Jain Literature: A history of the Jain Literature (Detailed) Parts 1 to 8 (Hindi).