CHARACTERISTICS OF A SAINT: The characteristics of a saint have already been described in the previous chapter, Acara of the Muni. The Mulacara excellently sums up the attitude of a saint. According to it, the saint should get food by begging, stay in a forest, eat only a little food, avoid excessive speech, get over sleep, endure troubles, keep form social life, practise universal friendship, have non-attachment, give himself to undivided meditation, adhere to spiritual upliftment and lastly turn away from passions, acquisitions, associations, and life-injuring activities. Besides, a saint is required to practise ten-fold Dharama, namely,
1 Atmanu. 41. 2 Sat. Vol. I. p. 176 3 Ibid. p. 175
4 Gomma. Ji. 32. 5 Gomma. Ji. 33. 6 Mysticism. p. 381
7 Mula. 895, 896. 8 Kartti. 394 to 403
1) Ksama: to have an attitude of forbearance towards men, gods, and subhuman beings in site of the fact that the saint is subjected to stupendous torments by them. The saint forgive all, and does not yield to anger. The causes of anger does not perturb him; 2) Mardava: to be modest despite certain attainments in the field of erudition and austerities. 3) Arjava: not to be impure, deceitful and inconsistent in mind, body, and speech, and not to hide his own faults: 4) Sauca: to cleanse the filth of craving and greed by the water of equanimity and contentment and to be devoid of all sorts of hankering after food; 5) Satya: to preach in keeping with the scriptures even though the saint himself has not been able to abide by the high conduct prescribed in them; 6) Samyama: to be constantly vigilant in not injuring even the small lives in all the activities that a saint is supposed to reform; 7) Tapas: to practise austerities without any desire to be fulfilled either in this world or in the next: 8) Tyaga: to renounce tasty food, and such habitation as may engender attachment; 9) Akimcana: to forsake all Parigraha; and 10) Brahmacarya: to abstain himself from the association with women, from looking at their beautiful forms, and from the discussion over female matters.
Before we preached to consider the nature of the next stages of the mystic's advancement, we propose, first, to dwell upon the view of scriptural study, and secondly, to deal with the conception of devotion in Jainism, both constituting the integral parts of the mystic's moral and spiritual organism. Without the due recognition of the first, the aspirant shall not be able to achieve a remarkable success, and without the proper valuation of the second, he shall have to be disappointed in retaining and stabilizing and inspiring the mora and spiritual attainments.
KINDS OF SCRIPTURAL STUDY: Scriptural study or Svadhyaya, is of five types: 1) Vacana: To explain words or meanings or booth to the person curious to learn; 2) Prcchana: To ask questions with a view to clearing away doubts or confirming one's view regarding words, meanings or both; 3) Anupreksa: To dwell upon the assimilated meaning constantly; 4) Amyaya: To memorise and revise the scriptures with unerring pronunciation; and 5) Dharmopadesa: To preach moral principles with a desire to eradicate the unworthy path, to remove doubts and to illuminate the essential aspects of life.
TYPES OF SCRIPTURES: Four types of scriptures have been recognised 1) Prathamanuyoga, 2) Karananuyoga, 3) Carananuyoga and 4) Drav
1 Uttara. 30/34 Sarvartha. IX. 25; Rajava. IX. 25.
yanuoga. Prathamanuyoga depicts one man's character or portrays the characters of sixty three great personalities or is concerned with both. The characters are so portrayed as to illustrate the four objects of human life, the attainment and culmination of the three brilliant jewels, and the accomplishment of Dharma and Sukla Dhyana. The Mahapurana, Harivamsapurana, Padnavapurana, Padmacaritra etc., illustrate this Anuyoga. Karananuyoga speaks of the universe (loka) ad the beyond (aloka), the vicissitudes of time and the four conditions of transmigratory existence. The Trilokasara, the Tiloyapannatti etc., are comprised under this Anuyoga. Carananuyoga dwells upon the conduct of the householder and that of the Muni with a view to pointing out its evolution, development and maintenance. The Mulcara, Bhagavati Aradhana, Purusarthasiddhyappaya, Ratnakaranda Sravakacra etc., come within the scope of this Anuyoga. Dravvanuyoga investigates the nature of Jiva and Ajiva, Punya and Papa, Bandha and Moksa. The Pravacanasara, Pancastikaya, Samyaasara etc., have been regarded as delineating the subject of this Anuyoga. The Tattvarthasutra is the embodiment of the latter three Anuyogas.
SIGNIFIANCE OF SCRIPTURAL STUDY: According to the Jaina, that is right knowledge which enlightens the essence of life, fosters self-control, directs the mind from the "abyss of sensuality tot the plane of the spirit", instills the spirit of detachment, encourages the pursuance of noble path, and helps to develop fraternal feelings with all beings. Scriptural study may very well be equated with this type of knowledge. Besides, it confers on the aspirant the benediction that senses are restrained, three Guptis are observed, mental concentration is obtains, and humbleness is brought about. The man with the knowledge of Sutras saves himself from being led astray, just as the needle with thread is not lost. Kundakunda emphasizes the importance of scriptural study by pronouncing that it serves to exhaust the heap of delusion. Pujyapada points out that the purpose of Svadhyaya is to enrich the intellect, to refine moral and spiritual efforts, to infuse detachment and fear from mundane miseries, to effect an advancement in the practice of austerities, and to purify defects that may occur when one pursues the divine path. In addition to these objectives fulfilled by Svadhyaya, Akalanka recognises that it also
1 Ratna. Comm. II. 2. 2 Ibid. 43. 3. Ibid. 44.
4. Ibid. 45. 5 Ibid. 46. 6 Yogsa of the Saints, p. 66.
7 Mula. 267, 268. 8 Mula. 410, 969. 9 Ibid. 971.
10. Prava. I-86. 11 Sarvartha. IX-25
serves to perpetuate the religion preached by the omniscient Tirthamkara, to uproot one's own doubts and those of the co-religionists, and lastly, to defend the basic doctrines against the onslaughts of antagonistic philosophers. For those who are fickle-minded, intellectually unsteady, nothing is so potent to terminate such a state of mind as the pursuance of Svadhyaya or the scriptural study, just as darkness can only be nullified by the light of the sun. It brings about mental integration and concentration, inasmuch as the aspirant overcomes the hindrances by ascertaining the nature of things through the study of the scriptures. Without the acquisition of scriptural knowledge, there is always a danger of being led astray from the virtuous path, just as the free full of flowers and leaves cannot escape its deadening fate for want of the root. Thus, the significance of Svadhyaya is so great that of the twelve kinds of austerities already discussed in the previous chapter, Svadhyaya is unsurpassable. If scriptural study offers an incentive to the householder to lead the life of a saint by consecrating himself completely to meditation and devotion, it serves as a temporary help for the sojourn of the saint when he experiences meditational fatigue. It imparts meditational inspiration and intellectual fund and satisfaction. It is at once a "tonic to the brain and sauce to the heart." It bestows upon as philosophical satisfaction about the truths of mystical religion and creates an insatiable desire to have an actual experience of these truths. "It brings home to the mystic's mind the sense of weakness, finitude and helplessness and awakens the Sadhaka to the need of making more efforts, of cultivating the moral virtues and of enchanting his meditations and devotions".
NATURE OF DEVOTION: We now proceed to deal with the nature, kinds, and effects of devotion as recognised in Jainism. Devotion implies the sublime affection, circumscribed by the immaculate of thought and emotion, towards the divinity-realised should or towards those who are much advanced on the path of the divine realisation. The devotee profoundly knows the objet of has devotion, namely, Arhat and Siddha. Every fiber of his being feels the supremacy and sublimity of the objet of his devotion to such an extent that when the devotee finds himself confronted with the omniscient and omnipotent God, (Arhat & Siddha) he abruptly and spontaneously, proclaims himself to be shameless, ignor
1 Rajava-IX. 25. 2. Amita. Srava. XIII-83. 3. Prava-III. 32.
4 Amita. Srava. XIII. 88. 5 Mula 409, 970.
6 Yoga of the Saints, p. 64. 7 Ibid. 65. 8 Sarvartha vI. 24.
9 Bhaktamara Stotra 15.
ant like a child and an obstinate owl, etc., This is a sort of religious humility, self-depreciation, self-disvaluation and a consciousness of "creatutehood". This strange and profound mental reaction of calling oneself a creature in the face of that which is transcendent is not a conceptual explanation of the matter but a mode of submergence into nothingness, an attempt to convey the content of the feeling response in the best possible way. Again the object of devotional consciousness is "wholly other" in the sense of its being Anupama, i.e., it is absolutely and intrinsically other than every thing that is and can be thought. It is "majestic" in the sense that its infinite characteristics are incapable of being described by us. Notwithstanding the fact of being possessed by the subjective feeling of the status of a creature and the objective feeling of the devotional objet being supreme and "wholy other", the devotes is led to the singing of the praise of God (Arhat & Siddha) on account of being captured by the fire of devotion like the deer which resorts out of love to save its child from the clutches of a lion or like a Cuckoo (koyala) which sings inautumn merely by the presence of small mangoes. This refers to the "element of fascination" in the devotional object. Though the object is awe-inspiring on account of its infiniteness, yet it is fascinating and very easily captivates and transports the devotee with strange ravishment. The consequence of which is that his vocal cords automatically begin to function in extolling the deity, though in a limited way. Again the devotee who finds all the objects of the world as quite impotent to bestow upon him spiritual solace surrenders himself to God (Arhat & Siddha) for putting an end to transmigratory existence and to tribulations and fears. The devotee is so much attracted by the divine consciousness that he expresses his deep yearning for establishing the holy feet of god in his heart for ever. Intoxicated by the devotional juice, the devotee announces that he keeps the God in his heart, and so allows him (God) to cross the ocean of mundane miseries; but after a moment reverses the position by saying that God serves as the air inside the leather bag of his heart for crossing the ocean of world. The spirit of utter consecration is manifested when Samantabhadra proclaims that that is intellect which remembers
1 Bhaklamara. 15. 2. Svayambhu. 30. 3. Kalyanamandira Stotra. 3.
4 Idea of the Holy, p. 21. 5. Yuktyanusasana. 4 Sat. Vol. I-1
6. Idea of the Holy, pp. 19, 20. 7 Yuktyanusasana, 2.; Bhaktanara, 4 ; Kalyanamandira, 6. 8. Bhaktamara Stotra, 5, 6.
9 idea of the hol, p. 31. 10 Svayambhu. 80.
11 Amitagati-samayikapatha,4. 12 Kalyanamandira Stotra, 10.
God, that is head which bows down to His feet, that is successful life which lives under His pious shelter, that is speech which sings His praise, that is a sacred man who is engrossed in His devotion, that is a learned man who bows down to His feet. Consequently He alone is the object of his belief, he exclusively remembers and adores Him, his both hands are only meant for paying Him obeisance, his ears are ever engaged in listening to His noble characteristics, his eyes are always busy beholding His beauty, his deep-rooted habit is to write something in His praise, and his head is for the sole purpose of bowing to Him.
TYPES OF DEVOTION: We now proceed to deal with the types of Bhakti. It may be mentioned as Arhat Bhakti, Acarya Bhakti, Upadhyaya Bhakti and Pravacana Bhakti. In another way the classification runs as Siddha Bhakti, Sruta Bhakti. In another way the classification runs as Siddha Bhakti, Sruta Bhakti, Caritra Bhakti, Yogi Bhakti, Acarya Bhakti, Nirvana Bhakti, Panca Guru Bhakti, Tirhamkara Bhakti, Nandisvara Bhakti, Santi Bhakti, Samadhi Bhakti and Caitya Bhakti. Kundakunda's Niyamasara categories Bhakti as Nivritti Bhakti and Yoga-Bhakti. The former comprises devotion to right belief, right knowledge and right conduct and to the emancipated soul, the latter implies absorption in self-meditation after one has renounced attachment etc., and all foreign thought activities. We may mention in our own way the different types of devotion as Stuti, Vandana, Idol Worship, Namasmarana, Bhajana, Kirtana, Vinaya, Vaiyavrttya, and Abhiksana-jnanopayoga. We have already dealt with Stuti, Vandana, Vinaya and Vaiyavrtya. Idol Worship needs no dialation. Jaina Temples are the illustrations of this sort of Worship. Namasmarana implies the devoted repetition of Om, the name of Paramesthins and the like. According to the Dravyasamgraha the Namokara Mantra and the other Mantras given by the Guru are to be repeated and meditated upon. Somadeva attaches great importance to the Namokara Mantra. "The counting of the letters is to be done with a rosary composed of lotus need or golden beeds or sun stones or gems and the counting may also be done with flowers or on the finger-joints. The repeating of the Mantras may be vocal or mental; the latter method being the more efficacious. Great mystic value is attached to this formula." Bhajanas also contribute to the development of moral and spiritual life. They may serve as an incentive to spiritual life, indicate the
1 Jina Sataka, 113. 2. Ibid. 114 3. Ta.su. VI- 24.
4 Dasabhaktyadi Samgraha pp. 96 to 226
5 Niyama. 134, 137. 6 Ibid. 134. 135, 137.
7 Dravya. 49. 8 Yas. & I.C. p. 272. 9 Ibid.
necessity of virtuous life, reveal the significance of Deva, Sastra and Guru, and bring out the effects of God-realisation. These different types of Bhajana may be found out in Banarsi Dasa, Bhagacanda, Dyanataraya, Dhudhara Dasa, Ananda Ghana etc., Abhiksana-jnanopayoga implies the strenuous pursuance of spiritual knowledge. Though it is predominantly intellectual, it capable of arousing our devotion towards God (Arhat and Siddha). We have already pointed out the importance of Svadhyaya. To be greatly affected by the importance of Svadhyaya is called Pravacana Bhakti.
IMPORTANCE and EFFECTS OF DEVOTION: Next come the importance and effects of Bhakti. According to Kundakunda, he who bows down with great devotion to the feet of Jina undermines the root of Samsara. Pujyapada pronouns that the self by dint of its devotedness towards Arahanta and Siddha can transform itself into the State of Paramatman. Vadiraja Muni represents that notwithstanding deep intellectual attainments and untainted moral accomplishments the doors of the edifice of liberation licked by delusion are incapable of being thrown open by the aspirant without applying the key of profound devotion. Again, sine God is incomparable and unlike, our devotional outpourings are incapable of unfolding his being, says Vadirajamuni. Despite this disharmony between our words and His Being, our expressions permeated by the nectar of devotion are capable of bestowing upon us the desired fruits. All sorts of mundane pleasantness and supremundane results follow as a consequence of God's devotion, nay, perforce accompany the devotee. Thousands of imperiling disturbances and obstructions forthwith disassociate themselves from the devotee. He who has heard God's pious name and has applied his heart and soul to it has escaped the mountain of distresses. He who unwaveringly and with tears of joy and with jubilant voice adores God relieves himself from diverse heart-rending diseases. Though God has transcended the duality of praise and censure, yet the singing of His glory sweeps away the filth of vices form the mind of devotee. Again, in spite of the fact that the ocean of God's characteristics cannot be crossed by the ship of words, it is unequivocally certain that
1 Bhava. Pa-153. 2. Samadhi. 97. 3. Ekibhava Stotra, 13.
4 Ibid. 21. 5 Ibid. 21. 6. 7 Santi Bhakti,2 : Kalyanamandira Stotra, 9. 8 Kalyanamandira Stotra, 35, 38; Santi Bhakti, 4. 9 Jinasataka, 81 ; Ekibhava Stotra, 3 bhaktamara Stotra, 45;
10 Svayambhu. 57; Ekibhava. 2; Bhaktamara. 7.
every person by his moment's devotion can purify his soul, nay, even God's name is capable of purifying him. Samantabhadra points out that just as iron is turned into gold by a mere touch of Parasa stone, so also the devotee is transformed into an effulgent personality and his words are reckoned as pregnant with great momentousness. According to Vadiraja it is by devotion that the obstacles that might baulk the movement of the devotee towards heavenly pleasures and his pilgrimage towards liberation are overthrown; and the devotee gets endowed with such a penetrating intellect that he never encounters any difficulty in memorizing the scriptures. Samantabhadra exhorts that in his case devotion has resulted in fearlessness and in the dissipation of several diseases, and in making him a magnificent, respectable and virtuous personality. Bhakti, in the view of Dhananjaya, blesses a devotee with eminence, riches and success. We thus see, on the whole, that the effects of devotion are mundane pleasures (this worldly and heavenly) and supermundane happiness, abrogation of distresses and disturbances, banishment of physical diseases, removal of vices and attainment of virtues, overthrowing of the obstacles, acquisition of penetrating intellect, development of effulgent personality and weighty tongue, wide recognition, achievement of success and riches, and lastly, attainment of fearlessness.
SIXTEEN KINDS OF REFLECTION AS THE EMBODIMENT OF JNANAYOGA, KARMAYOGA AND BHAKTIYOGA: In order that the citizenship of superempirical world may be acquired by the mystic, it is incumbent upon him that he should pay the utmost allegiance to the tricoloured flag of Jnanayoga, Karmayoga and Bhaktiyoga properly propped up by the staff of Samyagdarsana. The triple colours refer, first, to the spiritual knowledge treasured up by Svadhyaya in its most comprehensive sense, secondly, to the conduct including the strenuous pursuance of various vows and austerities, thirdly, to the religious humility emanating from the single-minded devotion to God (Arahanta and Siddha), and the staff refers to the basic support in the form of transcendental awakening. The enunciation of sixteen kinds of reflection is the embodiment of Jnanayoga, Karmayoga and Bhaktiyoga, satisfying at once the intellect, the will and the heart. Because of their integral character, they have been considered as being potent to accumulate the suspiciousness in the constitution of
the self to such an extent that he may wear the crown of a Tirthagikara either in this very life or in the ensuing birth. Abhiksanajflanopayogai is suggestive of Jnanayoga; gilavratesvanaticara,9 Samvega,3 gaktitastapa4, Avasyakapariharas may be comprised under the personal aspect of Karmayoga; gaktitastyaga,6 Pravacanavatsalya,7Mdrgaprabhavana8 may refer to the social aspect of Karmayoga; Vinaya-Sampannata,9 Sadhu Samadhi, Vaiyavrtya," Arahanta Bhakti,l2 Acarya Bhakti,l3 Bahugruta Bhakti,l4 Pravacana Bhaktil s may be regarded as indicative of Bhakti Yoga; and Darsana Visuddhii6 which is at the head of them all is suggestive of the pervasive principle of flanayoga, Karmayoga and Bhaktiyoga. - This means that without the recognition of Samyagdarsana w the inspiring and backing essence, the activities of intellect, will and heart will be unfructifying for the ascension of the spirit on sublime heights. The above classification simply points to the predominance of intellectual, emotional and volitional elements in different reflections; but, just as the' three aspects of psychical life are interwoven into a com. plex harmony, so also any of these reflections, when deeply understood; represent the interpenetrating of one Yoga into the other; i.e., each of them may serve as an independent whole of Jnanayoga, Karmayoga and Bhaktiyoga: It is probably on account of this recognition that the great Acarya Pajyapada has explicitly pronounced that these reflections sepal
1 To apply oneself constantly to the earning of spiritual knowledge is Abhikgauajfianopayoga.
2 To observe vows and to renounce passions for their proper pursuance is 9ilavrateevanaticara.
3 To be apprehensive of worldly miseries is Samvega.
4 without the concealment of strength, to pursue proper bodily austerities is Tapa.
05 To perform six essential duties is Avasyakaparihara.
6 To be charitable in food;: shelter and knowledge is Tyaga.
07 To have an affectionate attitude towards the spiritual brethern, as the cow keeps towards the calf, is Pravacanavatsalya.
08 To influence society through the medium of knowledge, austerity, charity, Bhakti or adoration is Margaprabhivang.
09 To possess reverential attitude towards the Guru and spiritual path is Vinaya Sam' pannata.
10 To remove obstacles from the path of a Muni is Sadhu Samadhi.
11 To nurse the virtuous souls is Vaiyavltya.
12 Is To have pure Bhakti in Arahanta, Acarya, Upsdhylya & Pravacana is respectively called Arahanta, Acarya, Bahugruta and Pravacana Bhakti.
1 Transcendental awakening is Darsana-visuddhi.
rately, or collectively may serve as the cause of Tlrthamkaraship. These reflections are helpful both to the house-holder and the Muni. We may point out in. passing that the culmination of Jfianayoga is omniscience, the consummation of Karmayoga is Atmanic steadfastness, and the perfection of Bhaktiyoga is blissful experience.
CERTAIN PROCESS TO BE COMPLETED BEFORE HIGI3ER ASCENSION: After dealing with the process of purgation which is not only negative but also positive, we now turn to higher stages of advancement. When there is rise of Samjvalana and nine sub-types2 of passion in such a mild form that it cannot generate even Pramada in the constitution of the self, the self is in the 7th stage styled `Apramatta Samyata Gunasthana.3 This admits of two kinds, namely, Svasthana Apramatta and Satisaya Apramatta. As long as the self which has abrogated Pramada in its fullness, which is associated with Vrata, Guna and Vila, and which is incessantly absorbed in discriminatory knowledge and in Dharma Dhyana (auspicious meditation), does not turn to ascend to higher stages by dint of either the ladder of subsidence or that of annihilation, it may be regarded as `Svasthana Apramatta' or Niratisaya Apramatta. 4 When it turns, it is Satigaya Apramatta. But here a certain process is to be completed before climbing up higher stages. The Vedaka Samyagdrsti by undergoing the three aforementioned processes of Adhahpravrttakarana etc., transforms' the first types of passions into other types' and' sub-types.' After the lapse of one Antarmuhnrta he either suppresses" the three fragments of vision-deluding Karma or destroys" them by resorting to the same process. In the former case he earns the name of Dvitiyopasama Samyagdrsi and in the latter, he is styled Ksayika Samyagdrsti. It is to be noted here that the self oscillates between the 6th and 7th Gunasthanas thousands of times, and when it attains steadiness, he strenuously prepares himself either for suppressing or _ for annihilating the remaining
1 Sarvartha. VI. 24. 2 We have already dealt with these on p. 53.
3 Gomma. Ji, Comm. Candrika. 45. 4 Gomma Ji. Candrika. 46.
5. Some Acaryas hold that the Dvitiyopasama Saniyagdrsti does Aprasasta Upasama instead of Visamyojana (transformation) of first type of passion i.e., this passion simply, refuses to come in rise (MokBamargapraka~aka, p. 498). But all are unanimous regarding the transformation of the passion in the case of Ksayika Samyagdpsti. 6 First type-Anantanubandhi. 7. Second=, Apratyakhyanavarana. Third= Pratylkhyanavara4a. Fourth =Samjvalana. 8 Labdhi. Comm. 205. 9. Sub-types =We have dealt with these in chapter III. 10. Labdhi. 117. 11 Labdhi. 204. 12 Bhavanicviveka, 101. ,
conduct-deluding Karma of awentyonel kinds.2 Out of the three Kara4as, the self commences with the state of Adhahpravrttakarana for the purpose of higher ascension.3 It will not be amiss to point out here that the Ksayika Samyagdrsti is capable of ascending both the ladder of subsidence and that of annihilation, while Dvitiyopasama Samyagdrsti can only climb up the ladder of-subsidence.
4) ILLUMINATION OR (A) SATISAYA APRAMATTA, (B) APIJRVAKARANA, (C) ANIVRTTIKARANA, (D) SUKSMA-SAMPARAYA, (E) UPASANTA KASAYA, (F) KSINAKASAYA GUNASTHANAS: The second part of the seventh Gunasthana and the rest higher Gnnasthanas up to the 12th are the meditational stages or the stages of illumination and ecstasy. The ladder steps are ascended by the aid of deep meditation. It is through the. medium of contemplation that the mystic pursues the higher path. By this time, he has developed a power of spiritual attention, of self-merging and of gazing into the ground of the soul. He has developed a deep habit of introversion. In the process of Adhahpravrttakarana which is completed with the Satisaya Apramatta Gunasthana, the mystic abundantly experiences the pure states of the self, and, after the expiry of one Antarmuhnrta, he comes to the eighth stage, namely, Apnrvakarana where he realises such states' as were unprecedented in the history of the sou1.4 The maximum sojourn of the self in this stage is one Antarmuhurta. Here the self engages itself either in subsiding or annihilating the residual of conduct deluding Karma according to the ladder it chooses to climb Up .6 After the end of the aforementioned duration, it performs the process of Aruvrttikarana where exists the state of profound purity. This is the ninth stage known as Anivrttikarana Gunasthana. In the tenth Gunasthana known as Snksmasamparaya, there is only subtle greed of the fourth type that can disturb the soul.7 The self which has chosen the ladder of subsidence for its spiritual ascent suppresses even this subtle greed in the eleventh Gunasthana and absolves itself from the rise of all types of passions: This stage is known as Upasantakasaya Gunasthana. This height has been arrived at by the first type of Sukla Dhyana.8 It is the culmination of the first type of white contemplation (Sukla Dhyana). Pujyapada observes that contemplation produces supreme ecstasy in a mystic who
1 Labdhi.., Comm. 205, 217.
2 Twenty-one kinds -The second, third, fourth groups and Sub-types.
3 Gomma Ps. Comm. Candrika. 47. 4 Gomma. Ji. 49, 50, 51. S Ibid. 53.
6 Ibid. 54. 7 Gomma. Jz. 59, 60: 8 Mna'. LXII. 20.
is firmly established in the self, and who has withdrawn himself from worldly intercourse. Such an ecstatic consciousness is potent enough to burn the Karmic fuel; and then the person remains unaffected by external troubles, and never experiences discomposure.' All the stages described above are undoubtedly the stages of illumination. The last stage is the termination of `first mystic life'. If the ladder of annihilation has been ascended, the self instead of entering the eleventh Gunasthana from the 10th rises directly to the twelfth one known as Ksinakasaya Guvasthana. Here the residual of conduct deluding karma is destroyed instead of being suppressed.2 A11 other characteristics are identical with the eleventh stage. The soul remains for one Antarmuhnrta in this stage. With the help of the second type of gukla Dhyana, the self in the last instant of this stage annuls all the remaining3 destructive Karmas; and the mystic enjoys the transcendental life, which shall be presently dealt with. 4
5) DARK NIGHT OF THE SOUL POST-ILLUMINATION: The mystic who possesses the fresh fruits of contemplation may encounter his outright putrefaction, and experience a swing-back into darkness. This "divides the `first mystic life' or illuminative way, from the `second mystic life' or transcendental life. It is generally a period of utter blankness and stagnation, so far as mystical activity is concerned. "The self is tossed back from its hard-won point of vantage".' Technically speaking, the Dvitiyopasama Samyagdrsti, i.e., one who attains the designation of illuminated consciousness in the eleventh Gunasthana falls to the lowest stage of Mithyatva step by step after completing the period of stay in each stage_7 This may be accounted for by saying that the suppressed passions gain strength after the lapse of one Antarmuhurta; and the mystic has to suffer unhappy consequences. The ecstatic awareness of the transcendental self, which was the governing characteristic of illumination, gets negated. The illuminated consciousness is perfectly content and tranquil, but after the lapse of the aforementioned period, the state of illumination begins to break up; and an overwhelming sense of darkness and deprivation envelops the mystic. "This sense is so deep and strong that it inhibits all consciousness of transcendent and plunges the self into the state of
1 Istopa. 47, 48. 2 Gomma Ji. 62. 3 1) Knowledge-covering (JfiAnavararaa),
2) Intuition-covering (Darsan&vara4a) 3) Obstructive (Antaraya).
4 Labdhi. Comm. 600, 609. 5Mystieism. p. 381. 6 Ibid.-381. 7 Labdhi: 344, 345.
negation and misery -which is called the Dark-night.", The dark-night experienced by the Ksayika-Samyagdrsti is not so intense as it is experienced by the Dvitiyopasama Samyagdrsti, inasmuch as the latter may fall to the first Gunasthana in contradistinction to the former who cannot go beyond the fourth one. Those who are great contemplative emerge from this period of destitution, but those less heroic succumb to its dangers and pains. It may be noted here that not all the mystics experience this dark-night. Those of them who ascend the ladder of annihilation escape this tragic period, and forthwith succeed in materialising the final accomplishments, in relishing the fruits of transcendental life in comparison with those who ascend the ladder of subsidence. Mystics of the latter type no doubt will also reach the same heights, but they do so only when they climb up the ladder of annihilation either in this life or in some other to come. As a matter of fact, the soul which has once attained spiritual conversion is entitled to be the inhabitant of the holy world. The question is only of time and not of certitude. To sum up, some souls are confronted with darkness of three types in their life: first, before conversion, secondly, after conversion, thirdly, after the ascension of the ladder of subsidence. In the first, though the self is overwhelmed by utter darkness, he is not aware of it; in the second, the fall from spiritual conversion is not consciously recognised; in the third, the self, having touched the sublime heights, falls to the ground; hence the invasion of darkness is naturally most perturbing and painful.
6) TRANSCENDENTAL LIFE, OR (A) SAYOGAKEVALl, (B) AYOGAKEVALl GUNA5THANAS : The slumbering and the unawakened soul, after passing- through the stages of spiritual conversion, moral and intellectual preparation, now arrives at the sublime destination by dint of ascending the rungs of meditational ladder. The dormant self who is prone to the renouncement and choice of external things, and who, when awakened, is occupied with the rejection of inner evil desires and the acceptance of auspicious psychical states, now by virtue of his metamorphosis into transcendental self neither abandons nor adopts anything, but rests in eternal peace and tranquillity.' The self which was swayed by perversion, non-abstinence, spiritual inertia, and the Samjvalana types of passion and quasi-passions refuses now to be deflected by them; and possesses the dispassionate vocal and physical activities (yogas) which cannot
1 Mysticism. p. 382. 2 Samddhi. 47.
deprive the soul of mystical experience. Activity is not incompatible with transcendent experience. It is a state of Jivan-mukta, an example of divine life upon earth. In the transitional stages, the auspicious Bhavas which were used as temporary structures for taking refuge, have now succumbed, and the Suddha Bhavas which will now serve as a permanent dwelling have emerged. The Antaratman has been displaced by the Paramatman. Potentiality has been turned into an actuality. The disharmony between belief and living has vanished. This is transcendent life, a super mental state of existence. It is the final triumph of the spirit, the flower of mysticism, the consummation towards which the soul of the mystic strenuously engaged itself from the commencement of the spiritual pilgrimage. Technically it is termed "Sayoga Kaveli Gunasthana," since it is accompanied by Yoga (activity) and Kevalajnana (omniscience).' The Gommatasara proclaims that in this Gunasthana the Atman is called `Paramatman'.z The next stage is called `Ayoga Kevali Gunasthana', as there the soul annuls even the vibratory activities, but preserves omniscience and other characteristics; and afterwards attains disembodied liberation in contradistinction to the two types of. liberation enjoyed by the ' self in the previous Gunasthanas. However, the difference in the state of liberation (embodied and disembodied) does not create the difference in spiritual experience, inasmuch as the four types of obscuring Karmas (Ghati Karmas), namely, the knowledge-covering, the intuition-covering, the deluding and obstructive, have ceased to exist in the embodied state of emancipation. Even the influx of Karmas, which is due to the presence of `Yoga', cannot operate in the polluted manner owing to the absence of passions. When the self lands in the `Sayoga Kevali Gunasthana' he may be credited with the designation of `Arhat', and it holds good before the attainment of Siddha state.3 To be more clear, the self in the Sayoga Kevali and the Ayoga Kevali Gunasthanas bears the title of `Arahanta'. 4 Now, there are seven kinds' of Arahantas. They do -not differ in their nature of spiritual experience, but in certain outward circumst
1 Sat. Vol. I-191. Z Gomma. Ji. 63, 64. 3 Bhavanaviveka. 234. 4 Ibid. 234.
5 (i) Pancakalyftadhari. (ii) Tinakalyanadhari. (iii) Dokalyanadhari.
These three are the _types of Titthamkaras. (iv) Samanyakevali.
(v) Satigaya-kevali. (vi) Upasargakevali. (vii) Antak,rtkevali. These four are ordinary omniscient souls or non-Tirthamkaras.
6 Bhavandviveka. 237 to 246.
ances.1 All these forms of Arahantas may be comprised under the two categories of Tirthamkara and non-Tirthamkara or ordinary omniscient soul. The distinction between the two is this that the former is capable of preaching and propagating religious doctrines in order to guide the mundane souls immersed in the life of illusion, and his sermons are properly worded by the Ganadharas; while the latter is not the propounded of religious faith or principles, but silently enjoys simply the sublimity of mystical experience. These two tendencies of the perfected mystics or Arahantas may be compared with the "activists" and "quietistic" tendencies of the mystics.2 Thus the word Arahanta should be primarily esteemed as referring to the Tirthamkara and only secondarily to the ordinary omniscient souls. 3 In view of this whenever we have used the word `Arahanta' and whenever we shall use it, we have meant and would mean thereby the Tirthamkara. It is only the privilege and prerogative of those rare souls to have the designation of Tirthamkara Arahanta, who in the past or the present life have accumulated in themselves the potency of revealing truth by the performance of virtuous activities resulting from their dedication to the sixteen kinds of reflections.4 According to the Jaina dogma the number of Arhats in each cycle of time is limited, i.e., twentyfour.5 The attainment of Siddhahood without passing through the stage of Arhatship in the sense of Tirthamkaraship has been conceived to be a possibility.'
CONCEPT OF Gon : Arahanta is the ideal saint, the supreme Guru, and the divinity-realised soul; hence he may be designated as Paramatman or God. Siddha has also been called God. But "neither Arhat nor Siddha has on him the responsibility of creating, supporting anddestroying the world. The aspirant receives no boons, no favours, and no curses from him by way of gifts from the divinity. The aspiring souls pray to him, worship him and-meditate on him as an example, as a model, as an ideal that they too might reach the same condition".' But it should not be forgotten that unified, single minded devotion to Arahantas or Siddhas accumulates in the self the Punya of the highest kind, which, as a natural consequence, brings about material and spiritual benefits. Samantabhadra -observes that the adoration of Arahanta deposits great heap of
1 Bhavanaviveka. 237. 2 RANADE: Mysticism in Maharahtra, Preface, p. 28. 3 Mok,samargaprakaaka. p. 6. 4Saruartha. VI. 24. We have already dealt with these in this chapter. 5 Pp. Intro. Upadhye. p. 36. 6 Pp. Intro Upadhye. p: 36,
Punya:1 He who is devoted to him relishes prosperity, and he who casts aspersions sinks to perdition; in both these Arahanta is astonishingly indifferent.2 The aspirant, therefore, should not breathe in despondency for the aloofness of God. (Arahanta & Siddha). Those who are devoted to him are automatically elevated. The ultimate responsibility of emancipating oneself from the turmoil's of the world falls upon one's own undivided efforts, upon the integral consecration of 'energies to the attainment of divine life. Thus every soul has the right to become Paramatman, who has been conceived to be the consummate realisation of the divine potentialities.
CHARACTERISTICS OF ARAHANTA OR THE EFFECTS OF TRANSCENDENTAL LWE : We shall now dwell upon the characteristics of Arahantas, the effects of transcendental life, the effects which the realisation of Paramat man produces upon the perfected mystic. The Acaranga tells us that the Arahanta is established in truth in all directions. He is Atmasamahita. He has freed himself from anger, pride, deceit, greed, attachment, hatred, delusion, birth, death, hell, animal existence and pain. Arahantas lead a life of supermoralism but not of amoralism. It is inconceivable that the saint. who has attained supremacy on account of the realisation of perfect Ahimsa may in the least pursue an ignoble life of Himsa, a life of vice. He is no doubt beyond the category of virtue and vice, good and evil, Punya and Papa, auspicious and inauspicious psychical states, yet he may be pronounced to be the most virtuous soul, though the pursuit of virtuous life is incapable of binding him to the cycle of life and death.3 Technically speaking, - Satavedaniya Karma in the absence of deluding Karma cannot sow the seeds of mundane career. Samantabhadra ascribes inconceivability to the mental, vocal and physical actions of Arhat, since they are neither impelled by desire nor born of ignorance.4 Whatever issues from him is potent enough to abrogate the miseries of tormented. humanity: Hundreds of souls get spiritually converted by his mere sight, forsaking their sceptical and perverted attitude towards life. His presence is supremely enlightening. Even his body causes amazement to Indra in spite of his beholding that with thousand eyes.' As he has transcended human nature and is revered and worshipped even by celestial beings, he is supreme God.' Thus he is the embodiment of mystical virtues,
1 Svayambhu. 58: 2 Ibid. 69. 3.In"dnd. LXII. 33.
4 Svayambhu. 74. 5 Ibid. 89, 6 Ibid. 7S.
and is the spiritual leader of society., He is beyond attachment, aversion and infatuation, and consequently he is absolutely dispassionate.2 By virtue of his intuitively apprehending the nature of reality, as also the implications of the sacred text, all his doubts have been resolved.3 The perfected mystic has been able to adorn himself with self-control, since he has abandoned all Himsa and has resisted the temptations of senses and mind. He has also subdued anger, lust, greed etc., by performing the internal and external austerities.4 In mystical language we may say : that with the emergence of the Atmanic experience and steadfastness in it, the conquest over the mind, the senses, and the passions becomes natural to him, i.e., a thing flowing from his intrinsic nature. By virtue of his self realisation, and of having achieved sublime concentration and owing to his simultaneous establishment in the triune path of right belief, right knowledge and right conduct, he has transcended the dualities of friends and enemies, pleasure and pain, praise and censure, life and death, sand and gold's And yet in spite of this transcendence, he embraces reconcilable contradictions; he is self-established yet all pervading, is knowing all things yet detached, is associated with great longevity, yet devoid of senility.6 The transcendent mystic has manifested pure consciousness, destroyed the destructive Karmas, and attained supersensuous knowledge,7 infinite potency and unique resplendence,' As a consequence of which all his desires for bodily pleasures and pains vanish immediately.-9 The infinite life of the mystic has rendered possible the emergence of omniscience which possesses the potency of completely, simultaneously and intuitively or unassistedly.10 apprehending all the substances along with their present and absent modifications" in contradistinction to the limited life of sensuous knowledge which cognises substances incompletely, successively and intellectually or assistedly.l2 In view of the fact of :
1 Svayambhu. 35. 2 Prava. I-14 and Comm. Amrta. 3 Prava. 1-14,11-105. 4 Prava. Comm. Amrta. I-14. 5 Prava. I. 14, III-41, 42. 6 Vifdpahdra Stotra, 1.
7 That is called supersensuous knowledge which knows any substance, with or without space points, with or without form and those modifications which have not come into existence and those which are destroyed. (Prava. I-41, Trans. Upadhye. p. 6).
8 Prava. I-15, 19. 9 Ibid. I. 20.
10 Unassistedly :-Without the help of senses light, and mind. (Sat. Vol. I-9. p. 191). 11 Absent modifications:-Those which have never originated and those in fact that have been and are already destroyed are the absent modifications (Prava. I-38, Upadhye. p. 5) 12 Prava. I-21, 51. Prava. I-40, 50.
possessing omniscience, it will not be contradictory to say that the omniscient being is all-pervading, and that all the objects are within him, since Arahanta is the embodiment of knowledge and all the objects are the object of knowledge.' The omniscient being neither accepts nor abandons, nor transforms the external objectivity,2 but only witnesses and apprehends the world of objects without entering into them, just as the eyes see the objects of sight.3 Yogindu, in a similar vein, proclaims that the universe resides in the Paramatman, and he resides in the universe, 4 but he is not the universe. The pure soul, according to him, is all-pervading in the sense that when delivered from the Karmas he comprehends, by his omniscience, physical and superphysical wordless The knowledge which is independent, perfect, immaculate, intuitive and extended to infinite things of the universe, may be identified with bliss on account of the absence of discomposure arising from the knowledge which is dependent, imperfect, maculate, mediate6 and extended to limited things. In other words, the consciousness of the perfected mystic is not only omnipotent and intuitive but 'also blissful. Bliss is naturally consequent upon the destruction of the undesirable and accomplishment of the desirable. The consummate mystic experiences unprecedented bliss, which originates from the innermost being of self, and which is supersensuous, unique, infinite, and interminable.7 A legitimate question is apt to be asked;' what does the culminate mystic who has swept away the dense destructive Karmas, who "intuits all the entities who does not allow even an infinitesimal fragment of the objects to escape his all-comprehensive knowledge, and who is free from doubts, meditate upon' ? This may be replied by saying that the consummate Atman who is supersensuous, bereft of senses, free from all hindrances, permeated by knowledge and happiness, meditates upon the happiness supreme.' According to Kundakunda he is the real contemplator of the Atman who, after removing the filth of delusion, overthrowing attachment and aversion, detaching himself from the objects of pleasure, restraining his mind, and attaining indifference to pleasure and pain, is established in the intrinsic nature of the Atman; he thus attains inexhaustible bliss." The perfected mystic is the exemplary illustration of this sort of living. Thus the mystical or spiritual consciousness is intuitive, blissful and all-powerful. We may conclude by
1 Prava. I-26. 2 Ibid. I-32. 3 Ibid. I-29. 4 Pp-I-41.
5 Ibid. 52. 6 Prava. I-59 and Comm. Amrta. 7 Prava. I. 13.
8 Prava. II-105. 9 Ibid. 106. 10 Prava. 11. 103, 104.
saying that the cognitive, cognitive and affective tendencies of the perfected mystic reveal their original manifestation in his supreme mystical experience, which is ineffable and transcends all the similes of the world.
ARAHANTA AS THE CATEGORY OF `HOLY': The element of ineffability indicates that the essence of Arhat cannot be completely exhausted in conceptual and rational terms. It points the luminous aspect of Arhat which transcends or eludes comprehension in rational or ethical terms. We may in other words say that the Arhat is the `wholly other'.3 By this, "that aspect of Deity, the mysterious overplus surpassing all that can be clearly understood and appraised, is asserted emphatically against any excessive anthropocentric tendency to scale down the .sacred and Holy to the measure of our human reason."4 It is on account of this element that the mind resorts to purely negative expressions. Though the expressions are negative, what they point out is something positive, which can. only be within the reach of a direct and living experience. Thus the glory of spiritual life is inexplicable and beyond the reach of the Vedas, the gastras and the senses, and can only be experienced through pure meditation or contemplation's "In eternal divinity, there is no devotional control of breath, no object of meditation., no mystical diagram, no mira: coulees spell; and no charmed circle6: It will not be inconsistent if it is averred that the category of Arhat is the category of the holy, a category of "interpretation and valuation." In other words, in the religious consciousness of the transcendent mystic there is "intimate interpenetrating of the non-rational with the rational elements like the interweaving of warp and woof," ineffability being the non-rational element and the evaporation of bodily urges, the emergence of omniscience, obtainment of infinite power, abolition of all fear, enjoyment of illimitable joy, resolution of all doubts, consummation of virtues etc., being the rational elements.
SAMUDGHATA IN SAYOGA KEVALI GUNASTHANA: The acme of the ladder, the fourteenth stage of absolute motionlessness, the Ayoga Kevali Gunasthana- is arrived at when the perfected mystic gets over the vibratory activities of body and speech by resorting to the two types of Sukla Dhyana when the small duration of longevity-determining Karma remains. Though the self has annulled the four Ghati Karmas, yet the four Aghati Karmas, namely, feeling-producing (vedaniya), Longevity deter
1 Jnana.. LXII. 76, 77, 78. - 2 Idea of the Holy. pp. 5-7. 3 Idea of the Holy: p. 25. 4 Idea of the Holy, Preface. WIT. 5 Pp. 23. 6 Pp. Intro. Upadhye: l0.