FIVE SAMITIS 1) IRYA-SAMITI: The saint following the discipline consistent with the Irya-samiti ought to pay heed to (a) the purity of the way, (b) the adequacy of the sunlight, (c) attention, (d) purpose, and lastly (e) the process of moving. (a) That is the proper way which is bereft of such living beings as are ordinarily put to injury in moving, instance, ants etc., as also seeds, grass, green leaves, mud etc.  The path which has been repeatedly trodden by carts and other vehicles, by cattle and horses, by men and women, and which ha already been ploughed and scorched by the sun should be regarded as fit to be traversed. (b) The sun-light or day time is necessary for touring.  The Moon, the stars, and artificial lamps are quite incapable of serving as substitutes for the sun-light (c) The saint should devote his concentrated attention to the keeping of steps on the ground after abstaining himself from the five types of scriptural study and from the objects of the five senses, so that he may avoid injury to the living beings that may be there. (d) He should move only for the accomplishment of a legitimate purpose, i.e., a purpose which is estimable and is in consonance with his spiritual status and honor, for instance, pilgrimage, visiting the Guru and other saints of great repute, meeting a challenge for religious discussion, the preaching of Dharma etc. (e) As for the process of moving, he should slowly and compassionately move, should carefully observe the ground in front of himself to the extent of four cubits (two yards), and should avoid running, jumping, inseriousness, looking in other directions, diggfing ground, and cutting trees and vegetables.

          2) BHASA-SAMITI:  The saint who does not take interest in backbiting, in ridiculing others, in self-commendation, and in speaking harsh words, but who speaks what is beneficial to himself and to others is said


1 Mula. 336. uttara. 24/1,2.

2 Mula. 302. bhaga. Ara. 1191.; Uttara. 24/4. Tattvarthan\sara. VI-7.

3 Bhaga. Ara. Comm. Vija. and Mula. 1191.

4 Mula. 304 to 306.

5 Mula. 11; Niyama. 61; uttara. 24/5.

6 Bhaga. Ara. Comm. Vija. 1191.

7 we shall deal with these in thes usequent chapter.

8 Bhaga. Ara. Comm. Vija. and Mula. 1191 ; Uttara. 24/8.

9 Bhaga. Ara. Comm. Vija. and Mula. 1191.

10 Niyama. 61; Mula. 11, 103; Acara. p. 137.

11 Bhaga. Ara. Vija. and Mula. 1191; Linga pahuda. 15, 16.


 to have adhered to the observance of Bhas-samiti.  He should use blameless and concise speech, avoiding anger, pride, deceit, greed, laughter, fear, loquacity and gossip.  Technically speaking, of the fourfold kinds of speech-truth, untruth, truth mixed with untruth, neither truth nor untruth- the saint in the interest of observing Bhasa-samiti isrequired to speak the first and the last kind of speech, inasmuch as these two kind of speech are not sinful, blamable, rough, stinging, course, and hard.  Besides, these do not lead to sins, to discord and faction, to grief and outrage, and to the destruction of living begins.

          3) ESANA-SAMITI: When a saint pursues the discipline laid down for the acceptance of the articles of food, he is regarded as observing Esana-samiti.  In other words, he who calmly takes such food as is wholesome, pure, and given by others with devotion, but is not prepared, suggested and approved by himself is said to have observed Esana-samiti.  Again, the saint who eats faultless food, rightly handles sinless paraphernalia, and cleanses well the sitting or sleeping place is recognised as pursuing Esana-samiti; carelessness in these observances is degrading.

          ATTITUDE OF THE SAINT TOWARDS FOOD: We now turn to the general attitude of the saint towards faultless food, which will assist us in impressing upon our mind the fact that, notwithstanding, his outward taking of food, he continues to be unattached to it.  The saint never partakes of food with the profane design of increasing strength, enhancing longevity, gratifying relish, and attaining healthy bright look, but with the sacred aim of unceasing performance of scriptural study, successful pursuance of self control, and uninterrupted performance of meditation.  He accepts food for satiating his pangs of hunger, for performing consecrated service to other saints, for conserving his prunes and self-control, and for observing the six essential and the ten Dharmas.  He is scrupulous in food and travels, inasmuch as he is dispassionate, and keeps and attitude of disinterestedness towards this world as well as the next.10  Again, the feeds the body for making the noble effort of releasing the true


1 Niyama. 61; Mula. 12.

2 uttara. 24/9, 10.

3 Acara/ [[/ 150, 151. Bhaga. Ara. 1192. Uttara. 24/11. Tattvarthasara. VI. 9.

7 The faultless food is that which is obtained by begging int he day, is bereft of any Consideration of gust and plaate, is detitute of honey, flesh and the like, and is accepted inthe form in which it is given ( prava. III. 29 and Comm. Amrta).

8 Mula. 481.             9 Ibid. 479.              10 Prava. III. 26.


self, just as the lamp is supplied with oil for seeing the objects clearly.  Thus the ascetics are as good as going without food, even if they accept faultless food, since there by they do not fall a victim to the thralldom of Karman.

          4) ADANA-NIKSEPANA-SAMITI: The Adana-Niksepana-samiti implies the persistence of careful mental state in lifting and putting articles necessary for religious life.  It means wiping a thing and its place after inspecting them with eyes before lifting and putting it.

          5)          PRATISTHAPANA-SAMITI:  The Pratisthapana-samiti prescribes that the saint should dispose of excrements, urine etc. in a place which is unobjectionable, bereft of living beings, and unfrequented by man. To be more clear, excrements, urine, saliva, mucus, uncleanness of the body, offal's of food, badly torn clothes, dead body and any other useless things should be left in palace which is burnt, ploughed, used for cremation, unobjected, spacious, devoid of insects and seeds, not covered with grass or leaves, not perforated by holes, situated at a distance, neither frequented nor seen by other people, and having an inanimate surface layer.

          CONTROL OF THE FIVE SENSES:  Having discussed the nature of the five great vows and the five-old carefulness, we now proceed to discuss the implications of the control of the five senses.  It is an evident fact the the attachment to sense and sensuous pleasures unquestionably creates enormous difficulties in the spiritual path, hence it needs unsympathetic extirpation.  The control of the senses undertaken by the saint is not a new enterprise, since it we to some extent observed by him when he was the observer of partial vows, though unprecedented entrance into higher life brings about more stern forms of accountabilities.  Hence the saint completely controls the five senses, namely, the sense of eye, ear, nose, tongue, and touch from their attachment to colour, sound, smell, taste and touch respectively.  The ascetic, thus, refuses to be seduced by the pleasantness and unpleasantness of the sensuous objects.  He witnesses all the objects of the senses in their metaphysical perspective, and regards them as different forms of Pudgala, which are ontologically foreign to the nature of the real self.  Thus he has attained the inner conviction that none of the objects of the five senses is of any benefit to


1 Niyama. 64. Mula. 14.                        2 Mula. 319. Uttara 24/14.

3 Niyama. 65.     4 Mula. 15, 321, 322. Uttara. 24/15, 17, 18.


 the self.' In order that the senses may be curbed, the saint should observe proper discipline. The sense of sight should neither be attracted by beauty nor repulsed by the ugliness of things; the sense of hearing should not be led away by the tune which originates from the sentient beings and from the non-sentient musical instruments; the sense of smell should be checked from seduction on account of the fragrance of things; the sense of taste should not be overcome by different kinds of juices, and by faultless, pleasant and unpleasant food; and lastly, the sense of touch should not be led astray by the different kinds of touch.'


          PULLING OUT THE HAIR: The next Mnlaguna to be considered is `Pulling out the hair'. It is manifest that the natural growth of hair cannot be retarded; and if they are allowed unceasing growth, lice and other smaller kinds of insects will develop, and consequently Himsa will become inevitable; and if hair cutting instruments are applied, it will mean reversion to worldly engagements, hence the only alternative left is to pull out the hair on the head, beard and moustache with one's own hands after two months, three months or at the most after four months.' This should be done in the day time after having observed the complete fast.'- So doing fosters the spirit of detachment from the body and acquisi­tions, encourages self-restraint and monastic trend and relieves the saint from solicitousness.'

          SIXFOID ESSENTIALS:    To deal with the nature of six essentials, they are so called because of their direct bearing upon the spiritual life. The other Mulagunas are no doubt inseparably associated with the life of the saint, but they affect his life indirectly. They should not therefore be understood to suggest that they are non-essential in character, but they may safely be considered necessary for the successful performance of these six essentials. All the Mnlagunas are on par, but it is customary to lay stress on those principles which imply inward reference, inasmuch as in spiritual life inward change is of great significance, hence it counts the most. Thus, the term `Avasyaka' should be calculated to bring to light the capability of these six essentials for converting the life of the saint intrinsically and for reminding him of the goal of his devoted career. The saint who engages himself in materialising the spirit of outright


1 Samadhi. 5.                          2 Mula. 17 to 21.

3 Mula. 29; Anaga. Dharma. IX-86, 97. Bhaga. Ara. 88, 89; Acara. p. 189. Acarasara. I. 43.

4 Mula. 29.                     5 Bhaga. ara. 91; Acarasara. I-4


denial of dependence upon vicious and virtuous thought-activities by the realisation of his own self, is believed to have performed Avasyaka Karma.' Such a sublime action is indicative of the absolute freedom of the soul. This is the meaning of the term Avasyaka from Niscaya or transcendental standpoint; but, as we have frequently said, when the self finds itself incapable of ascending to such superb heights, it descends to the virtuous performances, and from this angle of vision the Avasyaka Karma traditionally admits of six kinds, namely, 1) Samayika, 2) Stuti, 3) Vandana, 4) Pratikramana, 5) Pratyakhyana and 6) Kayotsarga.2 "Kundakunda's enumeration of AvaSyakas is thus: Pratikramana, Pratyakhyana, Alocana, Kayotsarga, Samayika and Paramabhakti, it is slightly different from the traditional enumeration wherein Alocana is absent, being possibly included in Pratikramana which it precedes in actual performance and in place of Paramabhakti, we have Stuti and Vandana. Kundakunda divides Paramabhakti into two types: Nirvrtti and Yogabhakti, wherein can be smelt the traces of Stuti and Vandana. Either Kundakunda did not want to stick to the traditional enumeration because he was discussing the subject from Niscaya-naya, or he did not find any material difference between the two enumeration's, or he in­corporates, in this context, some early tradition."' We may point out here that the later thinkers have adopted the traditional enumeration of the six essentials.' We shall now dwell upon these six essentials.


          1)          SAMAYIKA:          Samayika means the incessant continuation of the placid and unruffled frame of mind in the midst of life and death, loss and gain, pleasant and unpleasant events, friends and foes, pleasure and pain.' In the life of the householder such a mental turning is a temporary phase, but in the life of the saint it ought to be permanently present as a persistent disposition of mind.          Thus in the act of Samayika the limita­tion of time evaporates totally in the life of the saint.  It is not useful for the saint who is destitute of equanimity to reside in forest, mortify the body, observe various fasts, study the scriptures and keep silence.' He who is detached from all vices, who pursues threefold Guptis, who restrains his senses, who is evenly disposed towards all living beings, who refrains from Arta and Raudra types of Dhyana, who practises Dharma


1 Niyama. 141 to 147; Mula. 515.             2 Mula. 516; Uttara. 29/8 to 13.

3 Intro. Prava. p. XLII.

4 Acarasara. I-35; Anaga. Dharma. VIII-17. IX-3.

5 Mula. 23.            6 Niyama. 124.


and Sukla types of Dhyana, who always keeps himself away from joking, indulgence, sorrow, ennui, disgust, fear, sexual-inclinations, is said to have observed stead-fast equanimity' (Samayika).

          2)          STUTI:        Stuti means to devote oneself to the holy contempla­tion of the divine characteristics revealed by the consecrated twenty-four Tirthamkaras, and to the sacred meditation on the implications of their names.' Out of devotion the saint very often wishes to be bestowed upon with spiritual knowledge and liberation by the great Jina, but this is merely a devotional language; in fact, being beyond attachment and aversion, Jina cannot be expected to offer anything.' The divine souls have graced us with their sermons, which can undermine the bitterness of bondage. Though the perfected souls have transcended the duals, yet devotion to them, nay, mere turning towards them can fulfil our purposes, and annul the accumulated filth of Karman.' It is auspicious attachment and not mundane yearning.'

          3)          VATVDARRA :          Vandana which is the expression of inner modesty signifies the offering of salutation to Arahanta and Siddha Pratimas and to those who excel in righteous and virtuous living, for instance, Tapa

Guru, Sruta Guru, Guna Guru, Diksa Guru, and Radhika Guru.' In other words, the saint should pay obeisance to those who occupy them­selves with study and meditation, practice five great vows, condemn looseness of conduct, observe Darsana, Jnana, Caritra, and Tapa Vinayas, disseminate the merits of virtuous personalities, and are self controlled and enduring.' The well-disciplined saint should not pay respect to the pseudo-saints, to the parents, to the loosely disciplined Diksa Guru and gruta Guru, to the King, to the householder, and to the heavenly gods.' In place of traditional representation of Stuti and Vandana Kundakunda speaks of Parama Bhakti, which from the Vyavahara point of view implies supreme devotion for the various attributes of emancipated souls.' Two kinds of Parama Bhakti have been recognised, namely, Nirvrtti Bhakti and Yoga Bhakti. The former implies the devotion for right belief, right knowledge and right conduct, while the latter is con­cerned with the contemplation upon the Tattvas, which results in


1 Niyama. 125, 226, 129, 131 to 133. Mula. 524, 525, 526, 529.

2 Mula. 24; Anaga. Dhama. VIII. 37.                3. Mula. 567.

4 Mula. 569-572.             5 Ibid. 572.               6 Ibid. 25.      

7 Mula. 595, 596.

8 Mula. 592.                     9 Niyama. 135.



self-absorption after one has renounced attachment etc., foreign thought activities and perversion.'


          4)          PRATIKRAMANA :   It is likely that the saint under the constraint of subtle passions may deviate from the minutest details of right conduct, hence, in order that such faults of commission and omission may not be piled up into a heap so as to devour the spirit of asceticism, the saint ought to purify them daily without any procrastination and deceit by resorting to self-criticism (ninda), to censuring his faults in presence of the Guru (gatha), and lastly to confession by revealing his committed transgression to the Guru (Alocana)2 This is Bhava Pratikramana; and the reading of the Pratikramana-sutra is Dravya Pratikramana.3 That saint who pronounces the Pratikramana-sutras along with this Bhava­ Pratikramana opens the way to the shedding of the Karmas in profusion.' The preceding view concerns itself with the Pratikramana from the Vyayahara point of view. Kundakunda forces us to ascend to the Para­marthika point of view, which describes Pratikramana as the renounce­ment of all the defects by the highest spiritual meditation.' He who meditates upon the self after emancipating himself from all forms of speech, foreign thought-activities, transgression, looseness in right conduct, Arta and Raudra Dhyanas, wrong belief, wrong knowledge and wrong conduct, is said to have performed real Pratikramana.s Till that is accomplished Vyavahara Pratikramana will serve as an auxiliary cause to Niscaya Pratikramana.


          5) PRATYAKHYANA: Pratyakhyana implies the determination of the saint to renounce in future all that is inconsistent with his consecrated pursuit.' Pratikramana has retrospective reference, while Pratyakhyana has prospective one. Pratyakhyana is capable of being practised by one who possesses mild passion, puts senses under restraint, and who is courageous, strenuous, apprehensive of transmigration, and is accustomed to discrimination between the self and the not-self.' Speaking from the transcendental points of view, we may say that he who, having condoned all forms of speech and having kept himself from all auspicious and inauspicious psychical states, meditates upon his own self is said to have practised Pratyakhyana.9


1 Niyama. 134, 137 to 139.

2 Anaga. Dharma. VIII. 62 and Comm; Mula. 620 622, 26.

3 Mula. 623; Anaga. Dharma. VIII. 62; Niyama. 94.

4 Mula. 625.                      5 Niyama. 93.                    6. niyama. 83 to 86, 89, 91,92.

7 Mula. 27; Acaasara. I. 40.                        8 Niyama. 105, 106.

9 Niyama. 95.


          6)          KAYOTSARGA :          Kayotsarga signifies a formal non-attachment to the body for the prescribed period of time.' The bodily organs are required to be without any movement at the time of Kayotsarga.2 He who desires liberation, who has conquered sleep,. who is well-versed in the Sutras and their meaning, and who possesses pure thoughts, along with physical and spiritual strength, is qualified for Kayotsarga.' This has been calculated to be beneficial to the spiritual path, and to be sub­versive of Karmas.4


          NAKEDNESS:          Next comes nudity.          The Digambara monk remains stark-naked.' He lives like a just born child in outward appearance.' The practice of nudity develops certain outstanding characteristics in the saint, for instance, non-acquisition, lightness on account of non­anxiety, fearlessness, and capability of conquering Parisahas.' Besides, the nude saint commands confidence, originates disrespect for sensual objects, and develops love of freedom.' In practically the same manner the Thanamga gives five advantages of nudity: "1) No trouble of examin­ing the clothes; 2) lightness in movement; 3) naked appearance creates faith in others; 4) thus he can carry into practice the law of the Jina which prescribes less requisites; and 5) he can have complete self-con­trol"'. "Nudity is prescribed in Swetambara texts as well, but the com­mentators say that it is meant for Jinakalpi monks"". Despite these constant references regarding nudity in Swetambara texts, the rules of clothing are also found in them. Even if the Swetambara monks wear clothes they are not required to be very particular about them.          To quote Acardnga: To a mendicant who is little clothed and firm in control, it will not occur (to think) :          my clothes are torn, I shall beg for (new) clothes; I shall beg to thread; I shall beg for a needle; I shall mend (my clothes) I shall darn them; I shall repair them; I shall put them on; I shall wrap myself in them."' 1


1 Mula. 28.                     2 Mula. 650.

3 Ibid. 651.

4 Ibid. 652.

5 Ibid. 30.                       6 Sutra. pahuda. 18 Bodha Pahuda. 51.

7 Bhaga. Ara. and Comm. Vija. 83.

8 Ibid. 84.

9 Thanamga. pp. 342 b, 343 a. vide History of Jaina Monachism. p. 162.

10 Prava. Intro. xc vi.

11 Acara. 1-6-3, 1. (Trans. Jacobi. p. 57)


OTHER MULAGUNAS :   Not taking bath, sleeping on the pure ground or on a slab of stone, plank of wood, or dry grass,' not cleansing the teeth, taking meals in the standing posture in the palm of one's own hand, and accepting meals once a day after three Gharis of sunrise and the same period before sunset:' all these have been considered to be the rest of the Mnlagunas. It may be pointed out that the Swatambara monk sleeps on a plank and consumes food in the pot.

          Thus the saint dedicates his integral energies to the cessation and shedding of Karmas. In consequence he regards the subjugation of parasahas (afflictions) and practice of Tapas (austerities) as falling within the compass of his obligations.          The saint allows no compromise with anything entangling him in the mire of Samsara. His career is indicative of his complete detachment from mundane life and living.          Anything incompatible with, and discordant to, his second birth in a holy world, anything which drags him down to breathe in the suffocating air of the profane world must needs be subdued, strangled and overthrown. If the Parasahas are not met with the adequate attitude and disposition of mind, they would tend to mar the saintly life; on the contrary, if they are encountered with the inner conviction of truth, and invaded by the non-violent army of fortitude, meditation and devotion, they would confer jubilation, and yield the joy of victory.          And if the austerities are spiritedly practised they would bring about the inner rejection of desire, which would let the aspirant experience unalloyed happiness far beyond the joys of this world or of any heaven. The overcoming of the Parzsahas results in stopping the influx of Karmas,3 whereas the observance of austerities serves two-fold purpose of holding up, in the first instance, the inflow of fresh Karma and wiping off, on the other, the accumulated filth of Karmas.4 We first proceed to the question of getting over the Parisahas.

          PARISAHAS: THEIR ENUMERATION AND EXPOSITION: Those afflic­tions that are to be endured for the purpose of not swerving from the path of stopping and dissociating Karmas are termed Parisahas.5 The Uttaradhyayana tells us that "a monk must learn and know, bear and conquer, in order not to be vanquished by them (Parisahas) when he


1 Anaga. Dharma. Comm. IX-91 ; Bodha Pahuda. 56.

2 Mula. 31 to 35, 811.           3 Ta. Su. IX. 2.

4 Ta. Su. IX. 3.                     5 Ta. Su. 8.


lives the life of a wandering mendicant."' The Parisahas are of twenty ­two kinds,' namely, 1) hunger (ksudha), 2) thirst (trsa), 3) cold (Sata), 4) heat (usna), 5) insect-bite (daihsra-masaka), 6) nudity (nagnata), 7) ennui (arati), 8) woman (stra), 9) walking (carya), 10) sitting (nisadya), 11) sleeping-place (says), 12) abuse (akrosra), 13) attack (vadha), '14)' begging (yacana), 15) non-obtainment (alabha), 16) disease (roga), 17) pricking of grass (transpires),          18) dirt (mala),          19) respect (satkdra­puraskdra),          20) conceit of knowledge (prajnd),          21) lack of knowledge (ajnana) and 22) slack belief (adarsana). We now discuss the attitude of the saint towards these Parisahas.3 This will also make clear the meaning implied in them. 1-2) The saint accepts faultless food and water. It is just possible that he may not get faultless food and water. Then he, (a) who does not get perturbed by the distress caused by hunger and thirst, (b) who is not inclined to receive food and water in improper country and in improper times, (c) who does not bear even an iota of blemish in the observance of six essentials, (d) who remains occupied with self­study and meditation, (e) who prefers non-obtainment of food and water to their obtainment, is deemed to have swum over the affliction originat­ing from hunger and thirst. Not to dwell upon the pangs of hunger and pains of thirst amounts to the surmounting of hunger and thirst Parzsahas. 3-4) It is evident that the saint has renounced resorting to external protec­tion against cold and heat, and he remains undecided regarding his habitation like a bird; and if, by his sojourn in the forests or at the peak of mountains, he is troubled by cold breeze, or by frozen ice, or by blast­ing hot wind, even then if he does not apply his mind to eschew them, but remains steadfast in his spiritual pursuit, he is called the conqueror of cold and heat Parisahas. 5) In spite of the embarrassments caused by insects (flies, mosquitoes, scorpions, snakes, bugbears and the like) the saint who does not entertain the idea of their removal but who keeps in mind the fixed determination of spiritual advancement, is said to have got over insect-bite Parisaha. 6) The saint who is stark-naked like a newly born child, whose heart has transcended the lustful thoughts, and who observes unchangeable chastity conquers nudity Parisaha.4 Or "my clothes being torn, I shall go naked or shall get a new suit; such thoughts should not be entertained by a monk. At one time he will have


1 Uttara.2.            2 Ta. Su. IX. 9. Uttara. 2.

3 Sarvartha. IX. 9. uttara. 2.               4 Sarvartha. IX. 9


no clothes at another he will have some; knowing this to be a salutary rule a wise monk should not complain about it". 7) The saint who subjugates the feeling of ennui, which may be caused by the control of senses, by certain ills and maladies, by the behavior of vicious persons, and by other formidable difficulties of ascetic life, is understood to subdue ennui Parisaha. 8) If the saint is not seduced by the beautiful forms, the smile, charming talks, amorous glances and laughter of women, he is called the conqueror of woman Parisaha. 9) In leaving one place for another according to the prescribed rules of ascetic discipline, if the saint bears hardships owing to sharp pointed pebbles and thorns lying on the path, he is said to have got over walking Parisaha. 10) The saint who sits down in a burial-ground, or in a deserted house or in a cave, and there who is not frightened even by a roar of lion, and who is accustomed to difficult postures, is believed to have over-come sitting Parisaha.          11) After getting tired of constant self-study and meditation, the saint resorts to sleep at a place which may be rough.          If his mind, in spite of this, is unruffled and is occupied with auspicious Bhavas, he is said to have conquered sleeping-place Parisaha. 12) The saint who keeps an attitude of indifference towards reviles and remonstrations, and remains mentally undisturbed by them, overcomes abuse Parisaha.          13) If the saint does not lose his serene disposition even if his body is being butchered, lie is believed to have overcome attack Parisaha.          14) The saint who does not meanly ask for food, place of stay, medicine etc., even if his Pranas part with him, has conquered begging Parisaha. 15) The subjugation of non­obtainment Parisaha signifies the presence of mental placidity and com­posure when the saint does not obtain his food from the householder. 16) In spite of being invaded by a number of diseases, the saint who conquers disease Parisaha endures them with fortitude without the neglect of his daily duties.          17) The saint who remains undisturbed even if his body gets troubled by the pointed pieces of pebbles, thorns etc., whose mind is always engaged in non-injury of living beings in walking, sleeping and sitting, is believed to have conquered pricking of grass Parisaha.          18) If the accumulation of dirt and dust over the body does not cause the slightest mental disturbance to the saint who is engaged in cleansing the soul from the mire of Karmic impurities by the pure water of right knowledge and conduct, he has got over dirt Parisaha.


1 Uttara. 2/12, 13.


19) If the saint is not disturbed or attracted by the disrespectful or respectful attitude of the persons around him, he has overcome respect Parisaha.  20) By not allowing himself to be puffed up with pride of knowledge, the saint attains the designation of the conqueror of the conceit of knowledge Parisaha.  21) The conquest of lack of knowledge Parisaha points out that the saint does not succumb to despondency, even if he fails to acquire knowledge or inner illumination in spite of his severe austerities.  22) If the saint is not shaken in faith in the doctrine of truth even if years of austerities prove to be of no avail in benefiting him with certain saintly acquisitions, he has overcome slack-belief Parisaha.

          DISTINCTION BETWEEN PARISAHAS AND AUSTERITIES:  After dealing with the kinds and characteristic nature of Parishes and the attitude of the saint towards them, we now proceed to the exposition of the nature of austerities and their distinction from the Parisahas.  The difference between Parisahas and austerities consists in the fact that the former occur against the will of the saint, who endures them or rather turns them to good account by contemplating them to be the means for spiritual conquest, while the latter are in concordance with the will of the saint to have the spiritual triumph.  Secondly, most of the Parisahas may be the creations of vicious man, cruel nature and jealous gods, viewed from the common man's point of view, but austerities are the enuciations and resolutions of the aspirant's soul.  Again, if Parisahas have enduring value, austerities have pursuing value.  Thirdly, Parisahas which are obstacles to spiritual life, represent themselves as the passing phase in the career of the aspirant, whereas the austerities form the indispensable part and parcel of the discipline which is enjoined in order it escape from tugs distressed and sorrowful worldly life.  Lastly, we may say that the performance of austerities subscribes to the endurance of Parisahas with equanimity and unruffled state of mind.

          NATURE AND KINDS OF TAPA (AUSTERITY): Austerity (tapas) implies the renunciation and rejection of desire, which is the real enemy of the soul.  The Satkandagamai pronounces that the extirpation of desire in order to actualize the triple jewels of right belief, right knowledge and right conduct is regards as Tapa.  Thus, in the Jaina view of Tapa, the idea of expelling all desires, the whole root of evil and suffering in favour of attaining to the freedom of the soul, tranquility and equality of mind,


1 Sat. Vol. XIII-p. 55. Anaga. Dharma. VII-2.


is not only prominent but paramount.  It is at the basis as well as at the summit of Jaina preachings.  Despite the supremacy of this inward reference, Jainas do not ignore the outer physical austerities.  In keeping with this trend of exposition, we may say that Tapas admit of two kinds, namely, the external and the internal.  The former is so called because of the preponderance of the physical and perceptible abandonment, while the latter is so called on account of the inner curbing of mind.  Besides, the designation 'external' which is applied to a section of Tapas may be justified on the ground that they are capable of being pursued even by those who are not spiritually converted.  We shall first dwell upon the austerities in their external forms.

          EXTERNAL AUSTERITIES: The external austerities are six in kind, namely, 1) Anasana, 2) Avamaudarya, 3) Vrttiparisamkhyana, 4) Rasaparityaga, 5) Viviktasayyasana, and 6) Kayaklesa.  The Uttaradhyana enumerates the six forms of external austerities thus: Anasana, Unodari, Bhiksacari, Rasaparityaga, Kayaklesa, Samlinata; i.e., instead of Bhiksacari and Samlinata there are Vrttiparisamkhyana and Viviktasayyasana.  Respectively.  However, these do not differ in meaning.  1) Anasana implies fasting or abstinence from food either for a limited period of time, or till the separation of the soul from the body.  It is performed for the purpose of practicing self-control, exterminating attachment, annihilating Karmas, performing meditation and acquiring scriptural knowledge, and not for the purpose of practising self-control, exterminating attachment, annihilating Karmas, performing mediation and acquiring scriptural knowledge, and not for the purpose of any mundane achievement whatsoever.  It may be noted here that Anasana has been recognised as the simultaneous renunciation of food and the attachment to it.  Mere maceration of the body is not fasting.  2)  Avamaudarya means not to take full meals; i.e., out of the normal quantity of thirty-two morsels for man, and twenty-eight for woman, the reduction of even one morsel will come within the range of this Tapa.  The observance of this austerity has


1 Uttara. 30/7; Sarvartha. p. 439; Sat. Vol. XIII. p. 54; Anaga. Dharma. VII-6.

2 Sarvartha. p. 439.

3 Sat. Vol. XIII-p. 59; Anaga. Dharma. VIII-6.

4 IX. 19; Bhaga. Ara. 208 ; Mula. 346.            5 uttara. 30/8.

6 Mula. 347,; uttara. 30/9,; Bhaga. Ara. 209.

7 Sarvartha. p. 438.                  8 Sat. Vol. VIII-p. 55.

9 Morsel consists of 1000 rice grains ( Anaga. Dharma. VII-22.) ; Sat. Vol.; XIII. p. 56.

10 Mula. 350; Bhaga. Arq. 211 212; Anaga. Dharma. VII-22; uttara. 30/15,; Sat. Vol. XIII-p. 56.


been calculated to offer control over the senses and sleep, to assist in the practising of Dharmas successfully, to help in the performance of the six essentials, the self-study, and the like, 3) Vrttiparisamkhyana means the pre-determination of the saint regarding the number of houses to be visited, the particular manner of taking food, the specific type of food, the giver of specific qualification, when he sets out to beg for food.  In other words, the saint adheres to his prediction he would accept food; otherwise he would go without it for that day.  This is to uproot the desire for food.  4) Rasaparityaga indicates the abstinence from the one or more of the following six articles of food, namely, milk, curd, ghee, oil, sugar, and salt; and from one or more of the following kinds of tastes, namely, pacrid, bitter, astringent, sour and sweet.  This is performed for the emasculation of the senses, subduing sleep, and the unobstructed pursuance of self-study, 5) Viviktasayyasana implies the choice of secluded place which is not frequented by women, eunuchs, she-animals, depraved householders etc., and which may serve the real purpose of meditation, self-study and chastity, and is not the cause of attachment and aversion.  6) Kayaklesa means the putting of body to certain discomforts by employing certain uneasy and stern postures and by practising certain other bodily austerities of severe nature, for instance, of remaining in the sun in the summer, and the like.  The object of Kayklesa is to endure bodily-discomfort, to alleviate attachment to pleasures.10


1 Mula. 351; Anaga. Dhama. VII-22.

2 The uttaradhyaana calls it Bhiksacari. "It consists of imposing certain restricions upon one-self regadin the mode of begging or the nature of the donor, or the quality of food or the way in which food was offered. ( History of Jaina Monachism. p. 188)

3 Mula. 355; kartti. 443; Anaga. Dharma. VII. 26; Bhaga. Ara. 218 to 221 ; Sat. Vol. XIII-p. 57.

4 Sarvartha. p. 438.

5 mula. 352; uttara. 30/26; Bhaga. Aa. 215; Sat. Vol. XUI. p. 57.

6 Sarvartha p. 438.

7 Teh uttaradhyayana calls it Samlinata. "It implies he choice of lonely place of stay devoid of women, eunuchs and animals. ( Uttara. 30/28.)

8 Sarvartha. p. 438, Kartti. 445. 447; Acarasra. Vi. 15, 16; Mula. 357, Bhaga. Ara. 228,; Sat. Vol. XIII-p. 58.

9 Mula. 356; Savartha. IX-19; uttara. 30/27; Acarasaa. VI-19, Kartti. 448; Sat. Vol. XIII-p. 58; Bhaga. Aa. 222 to 227.

10 Sarvartha IX-19


          We have so far explained the nature of external austerities, and have seen that the performance of these austerities does not aim merely at the physical renunciation, but also at the overthrow of the thralldom of the body and senses.  In other words, the external asceticism is capable of being justified only when it contributes towards the inner advancement of man; otherwise in the absence of which it amounts to labor which is wholly lost.  The Mulacara says that that external austerity should not engender mental disquietude, abate the zeal for the performance of disciplinary practices of ethical and spiritual nature, but it should enhance spiritual convictions.  This exposition brings to light the inward tendency of outward asceticism, or physical renunciation, and desires the mere flagellation of the body.  The enunciation of Samantabhadra that the external austerity serves for the pursuance of spiritual austerity also clearly shows the emphasis laid by Jainism on the internal aspect of Tapas.  After indicating the claims of the outward ascetic discipline in the ethical set up of Jaina preaching, we set out to discuss the nature of internal austerities.

          INTERNAL AUSTERITIES: The internal austerities are also six in kind, namely, 1) Prayascitta, 2) Vinaya, 3) Vaiyavratta 4) Svadhyaya, 5) Vyutsarga and 6) Dhyana.  1) The process by virtue  of which a saint seeks freedom form the transgressions committed may be termed Prayascitta.  According to Karttikeya, that is the real Prayascitta wherein the commission of some fault s not repeated even if the body is cut to hundred pieces.  It is of ten kinds: (a) Alocana, (b) Pratikramana, (c) Ubhaya, (d) Viveka, (e) Vyutsarga, (f) Tapas, (g) Cheda, (h) Mula, (i) Parihara, (j) Sraddhana.  The Tattvarthasutra enumerates only nine kinds, eliminating Sradhana, and probably substituting the name Upasthapana for Mula.  To dwell upon them in succession:  (a) Alocana implies the expression and confession of transgression before the Guru after the saint has eschewed ten kinds of defects.  1) To express faults by providing the Guru with certain necessary things, and by serving him in various ways in order to arouse sympathy in his mind so that he might give him less Prayascitta is known as Akampita Dosa.9


1  Mula. 358; Bhaga. Ara. 236.               2 Svayambhu. 83.

3 Ta. su. IX-20,; Mula. 360; uttara. 30/30, Acarasara. VI. 21.

4 Sarvartha. iX. 20; Mula. 361; Sat. Vol. XIII. p. 59.

5 Katti. 452.           6 Mula. 362l Sat Vol. XIII. p. 60. Acarasara. VI. 23. 24.

7 IX-22.     8 Sarvartha. IX-22,; Rajava. Ix. 22/2. 9 Bhaga. Ara. 563.


2) To reveal transgressions after expressing one's diseased condition and inferring Guru's attitude for less punishment is Anumanita Dosa.  3-4-5) To manifest only open faults, great faults and minor ones is respectively called Drsta and Badara and Suksma Dosa.  6) To ask the Guru regarding the Prayascitta of certain faults and then to express his own ones come under Channa Dosa.  7-8) To express faults indistinctly amidst loud voice and to doubt and ask others regarding the authenticity of Prayascitta given by the Guru are respectively called Sabdakulita and Bahujana Prccha Dosa.  9-10) To express one's faults before the other person who is devoid of knowledge and conduct and to accept Prayascitta from a saint who is likewise a defaulter are respectively called Avyakta, and Tatsevi Dosa.  The monk expresses his transgression to the Guru in a secluded place, whereas the nun expresses it in presence of three persons.   (b) Pratikramana is self-condemnation for the transgression.  (c) To perform both Alcocana and Pratikramana for certain major faults like bad dreams etc.  is Ubhaya.  (d) To renounce a thing which has been wrongly used is Viveka, or when the Guru prescribes the renunciation of a certain place, time and object, that is also Viveka.  (e) To engage oneself in Kayotsarga is called Vyutsarga.  (f) To engage oneself in external austerities or fasts is called Tapas.  (g) When the Guru cuts short the life of sainthood, it is called Cheda.  (h) To re-establish one in saintly life is Mula.  (i) To expel a saint from the order of monks is called Parihara.  (j) To redevelop belief in the true order is Sraddhana.


1 Bhaga. ara. 570 to 573.             2 Ibid. 574, 577. 582.

3 Ibid. 586.           4 Ibid. 591.              5Ibid. 596.

6 Ibid. 599.           7 Ibid. 603.

8 Rajava 9/22. Amagaradjar,a,ta.. Acaasara amd Rakavarttola ex[ress tjese fai;ts om a so,o;ar wau/

9 Anaga. Dharma. VII. 47; Acarasara. VI. 41; Sat. Vol. XIII. p. 60.

10 Anaga. Dharma. VII. 48,; Acaasara. VI. 42; Sarvartha. IX-22. sat vol. XIII. p. 60.

11 Anaga. Dharma. VII. 49, 50, Acarasara. VI. 43, 44, ; Sat. Vol. XIII. p. 60.

12 Sarvartha. IX. 22.

13 Sarvartha. IX. 22; Acarasara. VI. 46; anaga. Dharma. VII. 52; Sat Vol. XIII. p. 61.

14 Sarvartha. Ix. 22. Acarasara. VI. 47; Anaa. Dharma. VII. 54; Sat. Vol. XIII. p. 61.

15 Anaga. Dharma. VII. 55; Acaasara. VI. 48; Sat. Vol. XIII. p. 62.

16 Sarvartha. IX. 22.

17 Anaga. Dharma. VII. 57,; Acarasara. VI. 65. Sat. Vol. XIII. p. 63.


          2) Vinaya implies either the control of senses and the eradication of passions, or the holding of humbleness towards the triple-jewelweed personalities.  All scriptural study in the absence of Vinaya goes to the wall.  The outcome of the former should be the latter which in turn entails progress and prosperity.  The outward and mundane consequences of Vinaya are wide recognition, friendship, respect, grace of Guru, obedience to the command of Jina, and destruction of ill-will, while the inward and supermundane fruits of Vinaya are easiness in self-restraint, penance's, the acquisition of knowledge, the purification of self, the emergence of the feeling of gratitude, simplicity and commendation of other man's qualities, the destruction of conceitedness, and lastly the attainment of emancipation.  We have five hold classification of Vinaya-namely (a) Darsana, (b) Jnana, (c) Caritra, (d) Tapa and (e) Upacara.  The Tattvarthasutra speaks of the first four and probably includes Tapa Vinaya into Caritra Vinaya.  We have previously spoken of the five types of Acara:  Darsanacara, Jnanacara, Caritracarai, Tapacara, and Viryacara.  The first four seem to be quite same as the first four Vinayas.  Really speaking, Vinaya is a disposition, while Acara is an activity.  The two are related as the inward and the outward, only theoretically distinguishable.  (a) The disposition to observe the eight constituents of Samyagdarsana, and to devote oneself to the adorable five souls has been designated as Darsana Vinaya.  It is also regarded as the belief in Dravyas and Paryayas.  (b) He who reflects, preaches and utilises knowledge for higher progress is regarded as having Jnana Vinaya.  (c) To control the senses and passions, and to observe Gupti and Samiti are included in Caritra Vinaya.  (d) To be elated in presence of saints performing excellent penance's, and not to depreciate others are called Tapa Vinaya.  (a) Upacara Vinaya is worldly modesty.  It is the expression of modesty through body, mind and speech.  To stand up out of respect for the saint, to bow down, to offer him a seat, to give him send off by


1 Sat. Vol. XIII. p. 63; Acarasara. Vi. 69. acarasara. VI. 69 ; Anaga. Dharma. VII. 60 Uttara. 30/32.

2 Mula. 385,; Bhaga. Ara. 128; Anaga. Dharma. VII. 62.

3 Mula 386 to 388; Bhaga. Ara. 129 to 131

4 Mula. 364; Bhaga. Ara. 112; Acarasara. VI. 70; Anaga. Dharma. VII. 64.

5 Ta. su. IX. 23.                        6 Mula. 36; Bhaga. Ara. 114.

7 MKula. 366, 585.              8 Mula. 368; Sarvartha. IX. 23.

9 Mula. 369,; Bhaga. Ara. 115.

10 Mula. 371, ; Bhaga. Ara. 117.


following him a little distance-all these are included in bodily modesty.  To speak words which are beneficial, balanced, sweet, respectful, and purposeful, is vocal modesty.  The controlling of mind from vices and the pursuing of virtues are regarded as mental modesty.  The expression of Upacara Vinaya should not only be limited to Guru, but householders, nuns and other monks are also required to be shown this sort of Vinaya.

          3-4) The rendering of service to saints by means of medicine, preaching etc., when they are overwhelmed by disease, Parisahas and perversities, is called Vaiyavrttya.  This austerity is performed for uprooting the feeling of abhorrence of dirt, disease etc., for spiritual realisation, and for revealing affection for the spiritual path.  We shall deal with Svadhyaya in the next chapter; namely, 'Mystical significance of Jaina ethics.'

          5) Vyutasarga signifies the relinquishment of the external and the internal Parigraha.  The former comprises living and non-living Parigraha, and the latter, the fourteen kinds of passions, already dealt with.  The latter also includes bodily detachment either for a limited period of time or unlimitedly.  This is to practise non-acquisition, fearlessness and detachment from life.