Acara of the Muni


SUMMARY OF THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER : In the previous chapter we have dealt with the householder ethical discipline. We have, in the first place, pointed out that the householder's is incapable of removing the inauspicious psychical states root and branch. Secondly, we have dwelt upon the nature of violence, falsehood, theft, non-chastity and acquisition and have endeavored to derive from it the scope of partial vows (anuvratas) of the house-holder. Thirdly, a survey of the different conceptions of Mulagunas together with the various views regarding the problem of eating at night has been made. Fourthly, the nature and the various interpretations of the seven Sila Vratas have been discussed. Fifthly, the conception of the eleven Pratimas, after reconciling it with the aforementioned Vratas, has been dealt with. Sixthly, we have shown that the representation of the household's ethical discipline on the basis of Paksa, Carya, and Sahana is capable of comprehending in a systematic way the conception of Mulagunas, twelve Vratas, eleven Pratimas, and lastly Sallekhana (spiritual welcome to death). Finally, the nature and process of Sallekhana after distinguishing it from suicide, have been expounded.


1 Ta. su. VII. 37. Puru. 195. Amita. Srava. VII. 15. Saga. Dharma. VIII. 44.

2 Ratna. Srava. 129. 3 Uvasagadasao. I. 57. (Trans. vide N. A. Gore).


ASCENTICISM IS NOT TO RECOIL FROM ACTIONS BUT FROM HIMSA : The upshot of the householder's discipline, as we have seen, was to alleviate Himsa to a partial extent; but the aim of the ascetic discipline, as we shall see, is to adhere and conform to the standard of negating Himsa to the last degree. The life of complete renunciation makes possible the extirpation of inauspicious Bhavas, which remains unrealised in the householder's life of partial renunciation. The life of asceticism is not to recoil from the world of action, but from the world of Himsa, which fact, which fact lies in consonance with the general tenor of the Jaina religion. As a matter of fact, action displaces its mundane form, which inevitably entailed Himsa. Even the high discipline of asceticism associated with auspicious Bhavas along with Samyagdarsana prevents the complete realisation of Ahimsa on account of the presence of spiritual enemies in the form of mild passions. The ascetic life, no doubt, affords full ground for its realisation, but its perfect realisation is possible only in the plenitude of mystical experience. Now, the aspirant in whom the consciousness of sin has deepened to such an extent as to cause revolt against his own form of lower existence, gradually renounces the articles of Bhoga and Upabhoga to the last resort and thereby fosters the spirit of detachment and gets an opportunity to fix his mind on something higher. In other words, after observing the discipline prescribed in the eleven Pratimas with circumspection and zeal for higher life, the aspirant enters on the life of full renunciation as soon as he acrosses the eleventh stage. It is no doubt true that the ascending of each stage is a movement, extrinsic and intrinsic, towards higher discipline; but the full-order nature of renunciation manifests itself after the aspirant transcends the discipline enjoined by the last stage. The gradual renunciation of the articles of Bhoga and Upabhoga, or the ascension towards a higher and nobler path results on account of his being motivated by certain incentives to spiritual life. These are traditionally known as the twelve Anupreksas, which shall be presently dealt with. They necessarily lead the house-holder to the saintly life. In consequence, the new life dawns upon the struggling human soul, bringing with it unprecedented obligations which are to be discharged with all seriousness. In the subsequent pages we shall dwell upon the incentives to spiritual life and the consequent spiritual and ethical duties, the consistent and constant observance of which may pave the way for spiritual realisation and quietude.

ANUPREKSAS AS THE INCENTIVES TO SPIRITUAL LIFE AND THEIR IMPORTANCE : Before we set out to deal with the nature of the spiritual and ethical duties of the saints, we shall deal with the nature and importance of incentives to spiritual life (anupreksas) which prepare the layman and the monk alike for dissipating the metaphysical, the ethical and the spiritual ignorance and for overcoming all those obstacles which impede the advancement, moral and spiritual. If they possess the potency of pushing ahead the layman to peep into the realm of complete renunciation, they profess to serve as the guides for the monk who leads the life of complete renunciation. They have been regarded as the incentive 1) of perpetual flux or transitoriness of things (anitya), 2) of inescapability from death (asarana), 3) of transmigration (samaras), 4) of loneliness (ekatva), 5) of the metaphysical distinction between the self and the non-self (anyatva), 6) of the bodily impurity (asuci), 7) of the constitution of the universe (loka), 8) of the difficulty of attaining the Right path (bodhidurlabha), 9) of the inflow of Karman (asrava). The next three, namely, 10) the Incentive of the stoppage of the inflow of Karman (samvara), 11) the incentive of the shedding of Karmas (nirjara), and 12) the incentive of the Dharma preached correctly (dharmasvakhyatatva) are the means of escape from the stress and storm of worldly career. These three provide us with the proper way of canalizing the energies fir higher path. In other words, if the first nine Anupreksas are negative incentives, the last three are positives ones, i.e., repeated reflection. According to Pujyapada's commentary on the Tattvarthasutra, Anupreksa means to ponder over the nature of the body etc. The Karttikeyanupreksa represents it as the reflections on the noble principles leading upward. The difference in characterisation is due to the difference emphasis. The former lays stress on the negative incentives, while the latter, on the means of escape from the turmoil's of the world, i.e., on the positive incentives. The Anupreksas have been contemplated to subserve the noble cause of spiritual progress, to engender detachment and to lead the aspirant from the domain of passion to that of dispassion. They have also been


1 Ta. su. IX. 7. 2 Ta .su. IX. 7. 3 Sarvartha. IX-2

4 Kartti. 97. 5 Jnana. p. 59.


recommended for the attainment of the purity of thoughts, for the growth of the desire for salvation, for the development of detachment and self-control, and lastly, for the experience of tranquillity as a result of the extinction of passions. According to the Mulacara these Bhavanas bring about detachment, and he who identifies himself with them attains liberation as a result of the disruption of Karmic bondage. In general, these Bhavanas lift the mind of the aspirant above profane relations and considerations, and thereby prepare the self for meditation and emancipation.

ACCOUNT OF EACH INTENTIVE : Let us now turn to explain the nature of each incentive. 1) The incentive of perpetual flux or transistoriness of things (antiyanupreksa) : Everything is subject to change and mutation. Birth accompanies death; youth is tied up with senility; wealth and prosperity may disappear at any time; and the body may fall victim to various kinds of ills and disease. Thus impermanence of the state of things stares us in the face. Whatever form is born must necessarily perish. Attachment to ever transforming modifications leads us astray and clouds the spiritual and veritable aspect of life. Friends, beauty, wife, children, wealth etc.,- all these things which in general captivate man's mind and energy are fraught with transientness, thus are not the eternal associates of the self. Besides, body, fame, pleasures of the senses and other things of Bhoga and Upabhoga are unstable in character like a bubble of water, or lump of ice, or rainbow, or lightening. Keeping in mind the transient character of the mundane pleasure and objects, the aspirant should part with their fraudulent company and utilize this inherent challenge of the process of the process of the world for his spiritual beneficence so that happiness par excellence may sprout.8 Kundakunda tell us that body, possessions, pleasure and pain, friends and enemies are not the enduring accompaniments of the self unlike the eternality of the conscious soul itself; and he, whether a householder or a monk, who after deriving inspiration from this meditates upon the supreme Atman destroys the knot of delusion,9 This expression is indicative of the way of the utilisation of the incentive of transitoriness of things for superb attainments.


1 Jnana. II. 5, 6. 2 Mula. 763, 764. 3 Kartti. 5.; Jnana. p. 17. 10.

4 Kartti. 4. 5 Kartti. 6.; Mula. 693, 694. 6 Prava. II.101.

7 Sarvatha. IX-7.; Bhaga. Ara. 1727.; Kartti. 7, 9.

8 Kartti. 22. 9 Prava. II. 101, 102.


2) The incentive of inescpability from death (asrananupreksa) : Inevitability of death serves as a potent incentive to spiritual life. One experiences helplessness on the advent of death. Death knows no partiality. It behave equally and indiscriminately with the young and old, the rich and poor, the brave and coward, and the like. Nothing mundane, whatsoever, is capable of resisting the challenge of death. Neither earthly powers nor heavenly gods can save us from the clutches of death. Besides, there is no place where death cannot stretch its wings. Every stratagem and contrivance is impotent in rescuing a living being who is breathing his last. Thus, those who want to evolve an incentive to spiritual life through the consideration of inescapability from death are necessarily prompted to seek a life which will be forever beyond its ordinarily irresistible grip.


3) The incentive of transmigration (samsaranupreksa) : Every creature under the sway of perverted belief and poisons falls a victim to births and deaths. The transmigrating soul leaves one body and resorts to another incessantly and uninterruptedly. Under the constraint of Karmic bondage the mundane soul falls an easy prey to repeated birth and death. Briefly speaking, four categories of post-existence have been recognised Human, celestial, hellish and sub-human- where a transmigrating soul is born and is involved in distressing anguish and affliction. The formidable sufferings associated with the hellish and sub-human beings need no dilation. The celestial beings may be deemed comparatively happy, but their pleasures of the senses end in ever-increasing hunger for more, which entails mental agony and perturbation, hence they may be considered only ostensibly happy. The pains of womb, parentless childhood, diseased body, destitution, quarrelsome wife, undutiful son and daughter, and the like are so manifest that every man has to undergo and bear incalculable suffering. Thus the suffering consequent upon these four forms of existence afford an incentive to the seeker to transcend these miseries of life enduringly.


1 Jnana. p. 27-11. 2 Kartti. 25, 26.; Mula. 697.; Jnana. p. 29-16.

4 Jnana. p. 30. 18. 5 Ibid. 6 Kartti. 33. 7 Kartti. 32.

8 Jnana. p. 31. 2. 9 Mula. 707.; Jnana. p. 31-1, 17.

10 Kartti. 34 to 44. 11 Kartti. 58, 59, 60, 61.

12 Kartti. 45, 46, 51, 52, 53.


4) The incentive of loneliness (ekatvanupreksa) : The soul is all alone without any companion to suffer the consequences of his own good and evil deeds. Neither the friends nor the relations, howsoever nearest dearest they might be, are capable of sharing one's sufferings and sorrows, the result of past Karmas, though they may run to enjoy one's wealth. One may feed one's dependents by earning dishonestly, but, at the time of fruition, one alone will suffer. He who constantly reflects thus absolves himself from the trammels of attachment and aversion.

5) The incentive of the metaphysical distinction between the self and the not-self (anyatvanupreksa) : The self is permanently distinct from the body. Though empirically it is one with the body, yet transcendentally it is totally different from it. The body is sensuous, unconscious, impermanent, and with beginning and end, while the soul is suprasensuous, conscious, permanent, and without beginning and end. When one is alien even to this body so nearest to the self, the question of its distinction with other objects of the world around does not arise. The realisation of such a basic distinction would naturally tend to withdraw one's mind from the externalities and to fix it in the depths of one's own self.

6) The incentive of the bodily impurity (asuci-anupreksa) : The physical body is the center of all filth and impurities. The impure nature of the body may be justified by several considerations. In the first place, the antecedent condition of its origination, for example, semen and blood, are themselves abominable, so also the consequent conditions, for instance, flesh, fat, blood etc.; which are stored from the transformation of food particles. Secondly, it is the storehouse of all sorts of nasty things like bile, phlegm, perspiration, and filth of ear, nose and throat. Thirdly, it is constantly discharges excreta through its several openings. Fourthly, its impurity cannot be removed by bath, perfumes, incense and other means. Thinking like this in all earnestness will encourage one to sever the ties of attachment to the body, which will turn our mind towards crossing this ocean of existence.


1 Mula. 698, 699.; Kartti. 74 to 76.

2 Jnana. p. 34-2, 6.; Bhaga. Ara. 1748; Kartti. 77.

3 Jnana. p. 35-5; Bhaga. Ara. 1747.

4 Sarvartha. IX-7. 5 Mula; 702; Sarvartha IX-7. 6 Kartti. 82.

7 Tasu. Bhasya. IX-7. 8 Sarvartha. P. 415



7) The incentive of the constitution of the universe (lokanupreksa): The portion of space which includes the living and non- living substances is termed Loka and the rest of the empty space is called Aloka.1 This universe is beinningless, self- evident, indestructible, and needs no creator as is assumed by some other systems of philosophy.2 The nature of the constitutive substances of the universe has been already discussed in the chapter on metaphysics. Besides, the characteristic nature of the self from different standpoint has also been dwelt upon. Such philosophical reflection would enable the aspirant to know his real status which would necessarily yield spiritual inspiration.


8) The incentive of the difficulty of attaining the right path (bodhi- durlabhanupreksa): The acquisition of the three jewels, which are capable of unfolding the divine potentialities, is very difficult on account of the rarity of adequate qualifications. Man has the privilege of attaining salvation but to be born as a human being is only a chance; it is again a chance to be born with the necessary accompaniments for the practising of austerities and meditiation.3 Somadeva4 remarks that "unceasingly wandering on the ocean of transmigration, a sentient creature is born as a human being by chance. Even then, birth in a family respected by the world and association with the good are as rare as the coming of a quail within a blind man's grasp." "Released from birth in the plant world, after much sufferings a sentient being is again born in the hells on account of his sins, then in the genus of animals, mutually hostile, and then again among uncouth men resembling animals." "He who wastes his human birth, obtained after cherished desire, with thoughts of disease, sorrows, fear, pleasures, wife and children, might as well consign a heap of jewels to the flames for the sake of ashes; verily his soul is blackened by mighty ignorance." Even if by a stroke of fortune he is again born as a human being with all the material facilities, he may lack right instruction.5 Even if that be obtained, sensual pleasures may while away his time.6 Again, even if he gets rid of the sensual enjoyments, the performance of austerities and meditation is met with difficulties. Keeping in view, therefore, these formidable obstacles in the practising of holy asceticism, one should



1. Jnana.p.54-1.; Mula.713. 2. Mula. 712. Jnana.p.54-3,4.

3 Mula. 755, 756.; Bhaga. Ara.1867, 1869.

4. Yas and Ic.p. 306.

5 Sarvartha.IX.7,p. 418. 6 Ibid.


resolve to traverse the path of spiritual realisation and set aside indolence in this very life, here and now.


9) The incentive of the inflow of Karman (asravanupreksa): The influx of the auspicious and inauspicious Asravas is the root cause of mundane existence. We have already discussed the nature and forms of Asrava. To dwell upon the consequences of Asrava would encourage an aspirant to rise above the realm of good and evil.


10-12) We have hitherto expounded the different negative incentives that lead us to the pursuit of spiritual life. We shall now close this topic by dwelling upon the positive incentives which will enable us to transect the miseries of mundane existence. The reflection on the ways of 10) stoppage (samvarnupreksa) and 11) the shedding (nirjarnupreksa) of Karmas and on 12) the Dharma preached correctly (dharmasvakhya- tatvanupreksa) are the ways of escape from the meshes of terrestrial existence. Samvara result from Gupti, Semite, Dharma, Anupreksa, Parisahajaya and Caritra,1 whereas Nirjara is effected by Tapa.2 We have dealt with the Anupreksa. We shall deal with the Gupti, the Semite, the Parisahajaya and the Tapa later on. Dharma means compassion.3 It has also been classified into ten kinds.4 We shall deal with these kinds in the next chapter. To meditate on the self is Caritra,5 or it is that which is practiced for spiritual development.6 The Dharma preached correctly (dharmascakhyatatva) recognises Ahimsa s its veritable characteristic. Again, it tells us that truth is its basis; modesty, its root; forgiveness, its strength; continence. Its armor; self- control, its necessity; and non- acquisition, its support.7


FORMAL ATTINMENT OF SAINTLY LIFE: Now, being prompted by the incentive mentioned above, the aspirant cherishes a negative attitude towards worldly actions and acquisitions, and a positive enlightened, tenacious, and resolute attitude toward the life of the spirit. He bids adieu to all sort of profane relations including the wife, the children, and the elders.8 Permeating his mind with the five types of ascetic discipline, namely, Jnanacara, Darsanacara, Caritracara, Tapacara and Viryacara, he prostrates before a great saint who is adorned with mystic characteristics, who abounds in virtues, who is associated with a family of daitinction, who possesses an attractive physical form, who is endowed


1. Ta.Su.IX.2,3. Kartti. 96, 102 2. Ibid. 3. Kartti. 97.

4.Ta.Su.IX 6. 5. Kartti.99. 6.Rajava.IX.2.7. 7.Sarvartha.p.419

8. Prava.III.2..


with mature age, who is bereft of mental insobriety, and who is honored and extolled by other sints.1 He then beseeches him to initiate.2 In consequence the consecrated favour is gained. Detaching himself from all mundane objects whatsoever, subduing the senses and the mind, he naked.3 To be more clear, "his external emblem consists in possessing a form in which he is born, in pulling out hair and moustache, in being pure, in being free from Himsa etc., and in not attending to the body.4 Besides, his internal emblem, which is the cause of negation of births consists in being free from infatuation and sins, in being endowed with purity of psychical states and activities, and in having no desire for anything else.


THE INTERNAL AND THE EXTERNAL PROCEED SIDE BEY SIDE: It may be borne in mind that the internal and external emblems proceed side by side and keep pace with each other. Samantabhadra is of opinion that just as in the mundane performances the coming together of extrinsic and intrinsic causes results in the completion of a work, so in the process of liberation there works this eternal law.6 They are the obverse and the reverse of the same coin; and so neither the external nor the internal should be exclusively emphasized. The two are complementary and not contradictory. Those who damn the physical asceticism prescribed by Jainsim forget the stress laid by the Jaina Acaryas on the importance of inner askesis. Jainsim doubts if there can be inner spirtualisation of the human being without its manifestation in his outward life, and unceremoniously condemns the sheer outward expression of asceticism without its internal spiritual counterpart. Both the internal content without its proper outward manifestation and the external form without its proper origin and source are one- sided. The latter becomes burdensome and is degrading, while the former is unintelligible and inexplicable. Believing that the intrinsic purification will seek expression in the outward form of physical austerities for its stability, just as oil is protected from pollution by the outward covering of the seed, or the Karnel by the outward peel or skin, the Jaina Acaryas have laid great stress on the importance of the psychical purity and the control of intense passions.


1. Prava. III, 2,3 and Comm. Amrta. 2 Ibid.

3 Prava.III.4. 4. Prava.III.5 ( Trans. Vide Upadhye)

5. prava.III.6.(Trans. vide Upadhye) 6. Svayambhu.33,60.


The Jaina recognises that the spiritually ignorant man, notwithstanding his physical austerities, requires hundred thousand crores of lives for destroying that filth of Karman which may be annulled in an infinitesimal destroying that filth of Karman which may be annulled in an infinitesimal fraction of time by the spiritually endowed.1 This is sufficient to instruct the ignorant soul steeped in sheer physical austerities to the exclusion of spiritual background. As a matter of fact, the two aspects are interwoven into a complex harmony, hence both of them are valuable and valid. Again, the aim of renouncing the external paraphernalia consists in the inner renunciation of intense passion and desire; without this, the sheer extrinsic relinquishment is irrational and superfluous.2 Even the slightest internal defilement prevents the soul from the highest ascent, which may be illustrated by the life of the great monks like Bahubali and Madhupinga. Sivabhuti, whose Bhava was pure, attained omniscience by simply uttering "tus-masa-bhinna"3, though he was devoid of scriptural knowledge. Thus religious practices and authorities, scriptural study and knowledge are stripped of their legitimate consequences in the absence of Bhavas or mental askesis; even when they are sometimes highly esteemed, the purity of Bhavas remains implied in though, though often not expressly stated in language.


ADOPTION OF THE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EMBLEMS: To revert from the digression, after adopting the internal external emblems, at the sacred hands of an excellent Guru, after paying obeisance to him, and after attending to the course of discipline prescribed, the aspirant wins the supreme credit of being styled Sramana.4 Since he cannot interminable remain steadfast in the Atmanic experience at the commencement of his spiritual pilgrimage, he strenuously strives to pursue the conceptual twenty- eight Mulagunas which are: five great vows, five- fold carefulness, control of five senses, pulling out the hair, six- fold essentials , nakedness, not taking bath, sleeping on the ground, not cleansing the teeth, taking meals in a standing posture and taking only one meal a day.


ADVANEMENT OF THE MUNI OVER THE HOUSEHOLDER : The partial character of the householder's vows is disrupted by the potent life of the Muni, hence the Muni observes complete vows. In other words, inauspicious Bhavas associated with the householder on account of the


1. Prava. III. 38. 2.Bhava. Pa. 3. 3. Ibid. 53. 4. Prava. III. 7.

5.Prava. III. 8, 9. Mula. 2, 3, Acarasara. 16, Anagara. Dharma. IX. 84, 85


partial character of the vows disappears with the observance of the complete vows. The consequence of this is that vice totally vanished from the life of a Muni, and there remains virtue which will also be transcended as soon a the fight in the realm of the spirit is made. In a different way, the inauspicious Asrava which occurs on account of the presence of the intense passions is stopped, and the soul for the first time experiences complete cessation of inauspicious Karman. Moreover, the subduing of the Apratyakhyanavarana passion means the advancement of the aspirant over the householder's discipline. Again, the life of asceticism aptly illustrates the existence and operation of Subha Yoga, Subha Dhyana, and Subha Lesya, which, in the life of the householder, are never found unmixed with their contraries.

Five Great Vows 1) AHIMSA-MAHAVRATA: This first Mahavrata consists in the due observance, even in dreams, of the principle of non-injury to all living beings-mobile and immobile, gross and subtle-by avoiding three fold ways of acting, commanding and consenting through the triple agency of mind, body and speech. Broadly speaking, the four fundamental passions, when they are combined with the three stages of action, namely, Samarambha, Samarambha and Arambha, committed by dint of mind, body and speech in the three-fold ways of Krta, Karita and Anumodana, cause hundred and eight kinds of Himsa. The monk who renounces these, and extend active friendship to all living begins as such for the purpose of purifying one's Bhavas, and curbing one's passions, is said to observe Ahimsa-Mahavrata. In order that this vow may be properly observed, he is required to be cautious regarding his movement, speech, mental thoughts, handling of things, food and drink.

2) SATYA-MAHAVRATA: This Mahavarata consists in ever abandoning all forms of falsehood already discussed in the previous chapter, since the allowance of any kind of falsehood points to the presence of intense-passion, which is repugnant to the life of the saint. The false and oppressing words likely to be uttered under the constraint of attachment, aversion, jest, fear, anger, and greed should be renounced along


1 Jnana. VIII. 8; Niyama. 56; Mula. 5, 289; Bhaga. Ara. 776; Acara. p. 202.

2 Acarasara. 11, 12; Anga. Dharma. IV. 27; Jnana. VIII. 10; VI. 8.

3 janna. VIII. 10, 11.

4 Mula. 337; Anaga. Dharma. IV. 34; Ta. su. VII. 4.; Bhaga. Ara. 1206; Acara. pp. 203, 204; 32.


with the improper pronouncement of scriptural meaning. The five kinds of longings that strengthen the vow of truthfulness are recognised as thoughtfulness in speech and as restraining from anger, greed, fear and joking.


3) ASTEYA-MAHAVRATA: This Mahavrata consists in renouncing all forms of stealing already referred to in the previous chapter. To express it differently, the renouncement of the possession of all 'Para Dravyas' lying either in a village or in a town or in a wood without their being offered comes within the purview of Asteya-mahavrata. The perfection of this vow consists in getting books etc., after one has asked one's superiors, in seeking the permission for certain necessary things from the possessor, in denying all attachment to things taken, in allowing oneself to accept faultless articles, and in handling things of co-religionists according to the prescribed rules. According to the Acaranga, it is brought out by restricting to limited alms, seeking the permission of the superiors before consuming food and drink, taking possession of limited part of a ground for a fixed time, renewing the permission, and begging for a limited ground for one's co-religionist. According to the Tattvarthasutra, it consists in staying in the deserted places of abode, and secluded place like caves etc., in not denying other persons intending to stay, in maintaining purity of food, and in not developing the habit of quarrelsomeness.

4) BRAHMACARYA-MAHAVRATA: This fourth great vow prescribes avoidance of sexual intercourse with the four kinds of females-human, animal, celestial, and artificial- along with the denial of seeking sexual gratification in unnatural ways. The adherent of the Brahamacarya-Mahavrata ought to renounce the following also for the purpose of facilitating the observance of the vow: Bodily make up, sense indulgence, use of passion-exciting food articles, taking of excessive food, attending to songs and dance, association with women, exciting residence, passionate thinking about a women, seeing the sexual organs, holding


1 Mula. 6, 290; Acara. p. 204.

2 VII. 5; Anaga. Dharma. IV. 45; Acara. pp. 204, 205; Ca. Pa 33; Bhaga. ara. 1207.

3 Mula. 7, 291; Acara. p. 205; Bhaga. Ara. 953.

4 Mula. 339.

5 Acara. pp. 206, 207. 6 Sarvartha. VII. 6; Ca. Pa. 34.

7 Mula. 292; Acara. II. 15-IV


to their after-effects, reviving the past sexual enjoyments, planning for future sexual enjoyment, and seminal discharges. The accomplishment of this vow consists in refraining from discussing matters concerning females, contemplating the lovely forms of woman, remembering former sexual enjoyment, eating seasoned meals, or eating too much, decorating the body and having a habitation associated with woman.


5) APARIGRAHA-MAHAVRATA: This fifth great vow consists in detaching oneself root and branch from the internal and external attachment or from the internal and external attachment of from intrinsic impurities and extrinsic sentient and non-sentient Parigraha (paraphernalia). It has been pointed out that the man who performs the activities in vigilantly cannot escape internal Himsa, no matter whether a living being in injured or not, while careful performance of actions never binds a man by mere external Himsa. Consequently, he remains forever uncontaminated like the lotus in water. Thus, bondage may or may not accrue when the Pranas of a being depart on account of physical activities, but the thralldom to Karman is inevitable in presence of Parigraha; that is why ascetics give up all Parigrahas. In other words, it is inconceivable that in spite of the association with any kind of Parigraha one does not become the victim of infatuation, of mundane engagements and of unrestraint; and he who is preoccupied with the profane things in incapable of realising his true self. Considered from the highest perspective, Parigraha includes the slightest attachment even to the body; and those who are desirous of liberation have been preached non-attention and non-attachment to the body. It follows, then, that the other kinds of Parigraha cannot be appreciated even in the least. This is the ideal state and the real Dharma; but till the saint is short of this achievement, he may accept that Parigraha which does not cause bondage, is not longed for by others, and does not engender psychical impurity like infatuation etc. In other words, when the shining summit of spiritual experience is enduringly climbed, any kind of Parigraha has no meaning, but below that a saint may keep that Parigraha which is compatible with


1 Jnana. XI. 7 to 9 ; Anaga. Dharma. IV. 61; Mula. 996 to 998' Njaga. Ari. 879, 880; Uttara. 16-1 to 10.

2 Mula. 340; VIi. 7 ; Acarasara. V. 59, 60. Acara. pp. 207, 208; Bhaga. Ara. 1210; Ca. Pa. 35.

3 Niyama. 60; Mula. 293; Acara. II. 15. V; Bhaga. Ara. 1117.

4 Prava. III. 17. 5 Prava. III. 18. 6 prava. III. 19.

7 Prava. III. 21. 8 prava. III. 23.


Subhaopayoga, or which does add to the sustenance and enhancement of Subha Bhavas. This shows that this kind of Parigraha is indispensable for the maintenance of sainthood. Such Parigraha includes the body with which one is born, the spiritual words of the Guru, the sacred texts capable of unfolding the true nature of self, and devotion and modesty towards the spiritually developed souls. The celebrated book 'Mulacara' describes the nature of Aprigraha-mahavrata by saying that in consists in renouncing the sentient and non-sentient Parigraha, and in adopting an attitude of non-attachment to other unforbidden and sinless Parigraha. Thus a Muni may possess a book (jnanopadhi), a peacock-feather broom (samyamopadhi), and a pot for water, (saucopadhi). Just as the Subha Bhavas in the absence of Suddha Bhavas adorn the life of the saint, so do these paraphernalia without any contradiction. The pot for water is used after answering calls of nature. The peacock-feather broom serves the purpose of avoiding Himsa of living beings. This sort of broom possesses five characteristics. It does not get soiled either with dust or with sweat, it has the qualities of softness, non-injuriousness, tenderness and lightness. In contract to the Nirgrantha Digamara monk, the Svetambara monk has been allowed to keep with him clothes, alms bowl, Kampala, and broom. Besides, he may keep Mukhapati (Mouth cloth) and Gocchaga (cloth for cleaning the alms bowl). These are not regarded as Parigraha. With the details of these we are not concerned here. This vow is properly followed when the monk adopts and attitude of indifference towards the pleasures of hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting and feeling.

THREE GUPTIS AND FIVE SAMITIS: We now proceed to dwell upon the five-fold carefulness (samiti). AS we have already stated, the influx of the Karman is through 'Yoga'. The ideal thing for the saint is to control totally the physical, mental and vocal activities and to fix himself in the Atmanic experience. Such a sublime and sacred endeavour is called 'Gupti'. The supreme cause by virtue of which the Atman receives enduring shelter from the mundane career as such and manifests the potency of transcending birth and death, is termed 'Gupti'. It means


1 Prava III. 25. 2. Mula. 9. 3. Mula. 14.

4 Bhaga. Ara. 98. Mula. 910. 5. Acara. p. 23' [/ 5.

6 ittara/ 26-23. 7 Ibid.

8 Acara. pp. 209, 210; Mula. 341; Tasa. VII-8 Ca. Pa. 36' Njaga/ Ara/ 1211.

9 Sarvartha. IX. 2.


that ascension by which man ceases to be occupied with the thing, pleasant and unpleasant, and continues to live as a tranquil, eternal spirit. This expresses the implication of the term 'Gupti' from the highest perspective possible. When a Muni finds himself unable to ascend such heights, he acquiesces in taking recourse to the observance of five Semites (carefulness), namely, 1) Irya-Samiti, 2) Bhasa-Samiti, 3) Esana-Samiti, 4) Adana-Niksepana- Samiti, and 5) Utsarga or Pratisthapana- Samiti. The connotation of the term 'Gupti' changes with the change of reference. From the standpoint of the highest ascent, it implies the withdrawal of mind, body and speech from virtue and vice, and from the auspicious and inauspicious activities; but from the standpoint of Subhopayogi, Muni, it means the recoiling of the triple agencies merely from the inauspicious deeds. According to Niscaya-naya, turning away from attachment etc., is control of mind; setting one's face against falsehood etc., or observing silence is control of speech; refraining from bodily actions, non-attachment to body , and keeping from Himsa signify control of body in conformity with Vyavahara-naya, the renunciation of impure psychical states is the restraint of mind; the renouncement of gossip concerning women, state, theft, and food, or the renouncement of telling a lie is the restraint of speech; and refraining from bodily action such as binding, piercing, and beating living beings, it the restraint of body. In order to relinquish evil tendencies, meditation and scriptural study have been prescribed. It may be pined out here that 'Gupti' possesses negative force, whereas Samiti fosters positive sprite. the former negates vicious activities, while the latter affirms virtuous performance of activities. The purpose of Samitis is to avoid all sorts of unpleasantness to the living beings without any exception, while one is moving, speaking, taking food, keeping and receiving things, evacuating bowels etc. These Semites have been calculated to keep the Muni away from the commitment of sins like the lotus flower in water or like the armored man in the battle-field. These three Guptis and five Samitis have been technically called Pravacanamata, inasmuch as they guard the belief, knowl


1 Tattvarthasara. VI. 6. IX. 5; Mula. 10, 301.

2 Mula. 334, 331; Bhaga. Ara. 1189.

3 Niyama. 69, 70. and Comm. padmaprabha; Mula. 332, 333; Bhaga. Aru. 1187, 1188. 4 Niyama. 66, 67, 68. 5 Mula. 335,; Bhaga. Ara. 1190. 6 uttara. 24/26. 7 Sarvartha. IX. 2; Ca. Pa. 37.

8 Mula. 326, 327, 328; Bhaga. Ara. 1201, 1202.



edge and conduct of the saint in such a way as the mother protects her child.