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ANTIQUITY OF JAINISM

Jain Books

Glossary of Jaina terms

Abhyantara tapa: internal austerity

Abrahama: unchasity

Acharaya: the head of a group of sadhus

Adana-niksepa samiti: regulation of actions of taking or placing

Adharma: medium of rest

Agama: sacred precepts

Aghatiya karma: the non-destructive karma

Ahimsa: abstention from injury to living beings

Ailaka: the grade of ascetics of Digambara sect below that of Nirgrantha grade

Ajiva: non-soul, non-living substance

Akasa: space

Aksata: sacred rice

Amanaska Jivas: souls having no mind

Anagara-dharma: ethical code for non-householders, i.e. ascetics.

Ananta-chatustaya: infinite quaternary

Ananta-darsana: infinite perception

Ananta-jnana: infinite knowledge

Ananta-sukha: infinite bliss

Ananta-virya: infinite power

anarthadanda-vrata: a vow to abstain form wanton unnecessary activities

Anasana: fasting

Anatmavada: belief in the non-existence of soul

Anekanta: manifoldness

Anekantavada: many-sided view-point, doctrine of manifold aspects

Anga: essential requisite, component, limb

Anihnava: Without concealment of knowledge

Antaraya karma: the obstructive-karma

Anumana: inference

Anupreksa: reflection

Anu-vrata: a small vow

Anu-vrata Andolana: the small vow movement

Aparigraha: abstention from greed for worldly possessions

Apauraseya: of non-human origin

Apavadiki nivrtti: partial renunciation

Ap-kaya jivas: water-bodied souls

Apta: Tirthankara

Arati: waving of lights in front of an idol

Arjika: a female ascetic

Artha: wealth, worldly prosperity

Asatya: falsehood

Asrama: a stage in life

Asrava: the attraction of karmic matter towards the soul

Asubha-asrava: influx of vice or demeritorious karmas into the soul

Asteya: abstention from theft

Atichara: transgression, short coming

Atithi-samvibhaga-vara: a vow to feed ascetics and/ or pious householders

Atman: soul, spirit

Atmavada: belief in existence of soul

Autsargiki nivrtti: complete renunciation

Avadhi-jnana: clairvoyant knowledge of matter

Avamodarya: eating less

Avasarpini: descending

Avasyakas: necessary daily duties

Avatara: incarnation

Avidya: ignorance

Avirati: vowlessness, non-renunciation

Aviveka: want of discrimination

Ayu-karma: the age-determining karma

Baddha jivas: souls in bondage

Bahumana: great honor or zeal

Bahya-parigraha: actual possession of worldly objects

Bahya-tapa: external austerities

Bla-mada: pride of power, pride of one’s own strength

Bandha: bondage of soul by karmic matter

Bhakti: faith, devotion

Bharata-varsa: India, i.e., the country named after Bharata, the eldest son of the first Jaina Tirthankara Adinatha

Bhasa-samiti: regulation of mode of speech

Bhattaraka: a Dharma-guru of Digambara Jainas

Bhavana: contemplation

Bhogabhumi: enjoyment-region

Bispantha: name of sub-sect of Digambara Jainas

Brahmacharya: abstention form unchasity or sexuality

Brahmacharayasrama : the first stage in life of study and preparation

Chiatya: idol or statue

Chaityalaya: a temple

Chaityavasi: temple residents, another name of Murtipujaka sub-sect of Svetambara sect

Chakravarti: Emperor, a paramount sovereign

Charitra: biographies of great teachers and personages

Chatur-indriya-Jivas: souls having first four senses of touch, taste, smell and sight

Chaturyama Dharma: fourfold religion

Chaurya: theft

Chhedopasthapana: recovery of lost equanimity

Dana: charity

Darsanavaraniya karma: the conation-obscuring karma

Dasalaksana dharma: observance of ten virtues

Deravasi: temple resident, another name of Murtipujaka sub-sect of Svetambara sect

Desa-vrata: a vow to limit worldly activity to a particular area.

Deva-gati: celestial condition of existence

Deva-mudhata: belief in false gods

Deva-puja: worship of God

Dharma: religion, religious merit, virtue, medium of motion

Dharma-guru: a religious authority

Dhrauvya: permanence

Dhundhia: searchers, another name of Sthanakvasi sub-sect of Svetambara sect

Dhyana: mediation, concentration of mind

Digambara: sky-clad, naked, name of a major sect of Jainas

Digvrata: avow to limit worldly activity to fixed points in all directions

Diksa: initiation

Diksa-vidhi: initiation rite

Dravya: substance

Dravya-naya: the substantial point of view

Dvi-indriya jivas: Souls having first two senses of touch and taste

Esana samiti: regulation of seeking or eating food

Evambhuta Naya: the ‘such-like’ standpoint

Ganadhara: spokesman of Tirthankara

Gati: form of existence

Ghatiya karma: the destructive karma

Gotra karma: the family-determining karma

Grantha: book, correct use of the words

Grharambhi himsa: accidental injury, injury due to household activities

Grahasthasrama: the second stage in life of a house holder

Guan: quality

Guna-vrata: a multiplicative vow

Gupti: regulation, control

Guru: teacher, preceptor, guide

Gurupasti: worship of the preceptor

Himsa: injury

Iray-samiti: regulation of walking

Jaina: a follower of Jaina religion

Jaina-dharma: Jaina religion

Jati-mada: pride of cast

Jina: spiritual victor

Jina-dharma: Jain religion

Jinakalpi Sadhu: an ascetic who observes prescribed rules of conduct in the strictest form

Jiva: soul, spirit, living substance

Jnana: knowledge

Jana-mada: pride in learning

Jnanavaraniya karma: the knowledge-obscuring karma

Kala: time, period, age

Kama: pleasure want

Kalpa: a unit of the cosmic time

Kamandalu: a wooden water pot

Kanksa: desire for sense pleasure

Karma: subtle particles of matter

Karmabhumi: life based on efforts

Karunya: compassion for the afflicted beings

Kasaya: passion

Kaya-gupti: regulation of bodily activity

Kayaklesa: mortification of the body

Kaya-yoga: activity of body

Kayotsarga: the way of practicing penance in a standing posture

Kevalajnana: pure infinite knowledge

Kevala-jnani: the omniscient

Kevali Jina: the Jina who has attained Kevala-jnana

Krodha: anger

Ksullaka: the lowest grade of ascetics of Digambara sect

Kulakara: law giver

Kula-mada: pride of family

Lanchhana: emblem

Loka: universe

Lobha: greed

Loka-mudhata: belief in superstitions

Mada: pride, arrogance

Madhya-marga: middle path

Madhyastha: indifferent to ill-behaved persons

Maha-vrata: a great vow

Maitri: friendship

Mana: pride

Manahparyaya-jnana: capacity to know other’s mind

Mandira-margi: temple goers, another name of Murtipujaka sub-sect of Svetambara sect

Mano-gupti: control

Mano-yoga: activity of mind

Manu: law giver

Manusya-gati: human form

Matha: monastery

Mati-jnana: sense-knowledge

Maya: deception, illusion

Mithyadarshana: wrong belief

Mithyatva: wrong belief

Mohaniya karma: the deluding-karma

Moksa: attainment of complete freedom of the soul from karmic matter, salvation

Moksa-marga: way to salvation

Mudhata: superstitious belief

Mukta jiva: a liberated soul

Mukti: complete liberation or emancipation

Mula-gunas: basic attributes, root-virtues

Muhapatti: a piece of white cloth kept always on the mouth by Svetambara sadhus

Muni: an ascetic

Muni-dharma: ethical code for ascetics

Murtipujaka: idol-worshipper, a major sub-sect of Svetambara sect

Naigama-naya: the figurative point of view

Nama karma: the body-making karma

Naraka-gati: hellish form

Naya: a particular point of view, a mode of expressing things

Nayavada: system of describing reality from different points of view

Nirgrantha: naked, a naked ascetic, the highest grade of Digambar ascetics

Nirjara: gradual removal of karmic matter from the soul

Nirvana: salvation, liberation

Nischya naya: the realistic point of view

Niyoga: levirate

Pakhandi mudhata: belief in false ascetics

Pancha-indriya Jivas: souls having all five senses of touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing

Papa: demerit

Paramasravaka: best householder

Parigraha: worldly attachments and possessions

Parigraha-parimana: limitation of worldly attachments

Parigraha-parimana vrata: a vow not to exceed worldly attachments beyond a pre-determined limit

Parihara-visuddhi: pure and absolute non-injury

Parisaha: suffering, hardship, affliction

Parisaha-jaya: subdual of sufferings

Prayaya: mode or form

Paryaya-naya: the modal point of view

Pichhi: a peacock-feather whisk-broom

Pramada: carelessness

Pramada-yoga: careless activity of mind, speech or body

Pramana: means of acquiring knowledge

Pramoda: delight for better qualified persons

Pratikramana: the recitation of the formulae of confession of past faults

Pratima: a stage of ethical progress in a householder’s life

Pratyakhyana: the recitation of the formulae for averting future faults

Prayaschitta: expiation

Prthvi-kaya jivas: earth-bodied souls

Prosadhopavasa vrata: a vow to fast on the four days of a month

Pudgala: matter

Puja: worship

Puja-mada: pride in worship

Pujera: worshippers, another name of Murtipujaka sub-sect of Svetambara sect

Punya: merit

Purana: a biography of great teachers or persons

Rasa-parityaga: renunciation of one or more delicacies in food

Ratna-traya: the three Jewels, viz., samyag-darsana, jnana and charitra

Rddhi-mada: pride of wealth or accomplishments

Rjustra Naya: the standpoint of momentariness

Sachitta: flowers, fruits and green vegetables

Sadhu: a male ascetic

Sadhu-margi: followers of Sadhus, another name of Sthanakvasi sub-sect

Sadhvi: a female ascetic

Sagara-dharma: ethical code for householders

Sakala-charitra: complete or unqualified conduct

Sallekhana: ritual peaceful voluntary death by fasting

Sambhirudha naya: the specific standpoint

Samanaska jivas: souls having mind

Samanya kevali: the Jina or the omniscient involved in his own salvation

Samayika: equanimity, meditation

Samiti: carefulness

Samsara: cycle of transmigration

Samsari-jivas: mundane souls, embodied souls

Samyag-jnana: right knowledge

Samyak: right

Samyak-charitra: right conduct

Samyaktva: firm faith in Jaina religion/realities

Samyama: practice of self-control

Samvara: the stopping of asrava

Sangraha naya: the class point of view

Sankalpa: preconceived idea

Sankalpi himsa: intentional injury

Samsaya: doubt

Samnyasa-asrama: the last life stage of absolute renunciation

saptabhangi: another name of Anekantavada, the doctrine of seven-fold predication

Sat: reality

Satya: truth, abstention from false speech

Sabda naya: the verbal view point

Sanka: doubt, scepticism

Sastra: scripture

Siddha jiva: a liberated soul

Sila-vratas: supplementary vows

Sopadana: propriety of behaviour

Sravaka: male householder, a layman

Sravaka-dharma: ethical code for layman

Sravaka-gunas: qualities of an ideal householder

Sravika: female householder, a lay-woman

Sruta-jnana: scriptural knowledge

Sthanaka: a building meant for prayer and religious activities

Sthanakvasi: a major sub-sect of Svetambara sect, Stahanak-resident

Sthanaka: a building meant for prayer and religious activities

Sthanakvasi: a major sub-sect of Svetambara sect, Sthanaka-residents

Sthavara jiva: immobile soul

Sthavirakalpi Sadhus : ascetics who observe their rules of conduct in a milder form

Subha-asrava: influx of virtue or meritorious karmas

Suddha ammaya: pure and sacred tradition

Sukla dhyan: pure mediation

Suksma-sampraya: all but entire freedom form passion

Sutra: aphoristic expression

Svadhyaya: study of scriptures

Svetambara: white-clad, name of a major sect of Jainas

Swastika: the particular sign considered propitious

Syadvada: many-sided view-point, the doctrine of qualified assertion

Syat: in some respect, some how, in a way

Tapa: penance, austerity

Tapa-mada: pride of penance or religious austerities

Tarana-pantha: name of a sub-sect of Digambara sect, name of a major sub-sect of Svetambara sect

Tattva: principle, reality

Tejah-kaya jiva: a fire-bodied soul

Terapantha: name of a major sub-sect of Digambara sect, name of a major sub-sect of Svetambara sect

Tirtha: the contrivance which helps to cross the great ocean of worldly life

Tirthankara: one who makes the Tirtha, ford-maker across the stream of existence, Great Guide, promulgator

Tirthankara Kevali: the Kevali showing the path of salvation to all beings

Tiryancha-gati: sub-human form

Trasa jiva: a mobile soul

Tri-indriya jivas: souls having first-three senses of touch, taste and smell

Udyami himsa: occupational injury

Upabhoga-paribhoga-parimana-vrata: a vow to limit enjoyment of consumable and non-consumable things

Upadhyaya: the sadhu in charge of instruction

Upamana: analogy

Upasraya: a building meant for stay of Svetambara ascetics

Utpada: origination, appearance

Utsarga-samiti: regulation of movements connected with answering calls of nature

Utsarpini: ascending

Uttama-akinchanya: supreme non-attachment

Uttama-arjava: supreme simplicity

Uttama-brahamacharya: supreme chastity

Uttma-dharma: supreme virtue

Uttama-ksama: supreme forgiveness

Uttama-mardava: supreme humility or tenderness

Uttama-samyama: supreme self-restraint

Uttama-satya: supreme truthfulness

Uttama-saucha: supreme purity

Uttama-tapa: supreme austerity

Uttama-tyaga: supreme renunciation

Vachana-yoga: activity of speech

Vag-gupti: stoppage of speech

Vaiyavrttya: rendering service to saints

Vanaprastha-asrama: the third stage in life of retirement form worldly activities

Vanaspati-kaya jiva: vegetable bodied and bacteria type soul

Vapu-mada: pride of body or beautiful form or appearance

Vayu-kaya jiva: air-bodied soul

Vedaniya karma: the feeling karma

Vibhrama: vagueness, indefiniteness

Vichikitsa: disgust of anything

Vikala-charitra: partial or qualified conduct

Vimoha: attachment, delusion

Vinaya: reverent attitude, modest behaviour

Virodhi himsa: protective injury

Vivikta-sayyasana: sitting and sleeping in a secluded place

Vrata: a vow

Vrati: a person who observes vratas

Vrtti-parisamkhyana: taking a mental vow regarding acceptance of food

Vyavahara-naya: the practical point of view

vyaya: destruction, disappearance

Vyutsarga: giving up attachment to the body

Yathakhyata: ideal and passionless conduct

Yati: a male ascetic

Yoga: activity of mind, speech and body.