|The Jaina Path Of Ahimsa||
DR. VILAS SANGAVE
CAREFULNESS IN AHIMSA
The sacred Jaina texts have not only propounded the comprehensive and all inclusive character of the doctrine of Ahimsa and revealed how the basic principle of Ahimsa is present in all the five main and seven supplementary vows prescribed for the observance of Jaina householders, but have also stressed emphatically the dire necessity of exercising utmost care by the Jaina householders in the actual observance of Ahimsa in their daily life. It has been specifically laid down that the prescribed twelve vows should be observed both in proper spirit and action. In this connection it has been recommended to avoid the mental and behavioral faults or defects in the observance of the Vratas. i.e., vows. These defects are mentioned as follows: that is, "In the observance of vows, when there is loss of purity of mind, it is called 'atikrama', i.e., contravention; when there is craving for sensual pleasure, it is said to be 'vyatikrama', i.e., violation; when there is laxity or idleness, it is known as 'atichara', i.e., transgression; and when there is, in fact, a breach or break, it is termed as 'anachara', i.e., immorality or improper conduct "
In these categories of faults or defects, special prominence has been given to the avoidance of 'aticharas' so as to make the observance of Ahimsa more complete and at the same time more meaningful. The main purpose of this injunction is to maintain the purity of the Ahimsa in all its aspects and phases involved in the observance of the twelve vows. It is emphasized that for the maintenance of sanctity of Ahimsa every vow should be observed with great care and zeal, since only such vows can bear desired fruits, and serve as a means to the moral and the spiritual upliftment. That is why extreme carefulness in the practice of Ahimsa has been strongly advocated and with this end in view the Jaina scriptures have particularly laid down the five kinds of 'aticharas', i.e., transgressions, of each of the twelve vows and have specifically enjoined upon the householders to avoid these 'aticharas'. The most authoritative Jaina sacred text "Tattvarthadhigama-sutra" has given a list of five aticharas, i.e., transgressions, of each of the five main vows, i.e., Anutvratas and seven supplementary vows, i.e., Sila-vratas.
Vow of 'Ahimsa':
The partial transgressions of the first vow of Ahimsa Anuvrata are
Vow of 'Satya':
The partial transgressions of the second vow of Satya Anuvrata are:
Vow of 'Achaurya':
The partial transgressions of the third vow Achaurya Anuvrata are:
Vow of 'Brahmacharya':
The partial transgressions of the fourth vow Brahmacharya Anuvrata are :
Vow of 'Aparigraha':
The partial transgressions of the fifth vow Aparigraha Anuvrata are in the nature of violation of the limits imposed on the possession between five pairs of things, namely,
Vow of `Digvrata':
The partial transgressions of the first Silavrata, viz., Digvrata are
Vow of `'Desavrata' :
The partial transgressions of the second Silavrata, viz., Desavrata are:
Vow of 'Anartha-dandavrata':
The partial transgressions of the third Silavrata, viz., Anartha-dandavrata are:
Vow of 'Samayika':
The partial transgressions of the fourth Silavrata, viz., Samayika are :
Vow of `Proshadhopavasa':
The partial transgressions of the fifth Silavrata, viz. Proshadhopavasa, are:
Vow of "Upabhoga-paribhoga-parimana":
The partial transgressions of the sixth Silavrata, viz., Upabhoga-paribhoga-parimana, are:
Vow of "Atithi-samvibhaga"
The partial transgressions of the seventh Silavrata, viz., Atithi-samvibhaga, are:
From the description of the five 'aticharas', i.e., transgressions, of the five main and seven supplementary vows it is quite obvious that householders have been enjoined to observe their twelve vratas or vows in such a way that they would avoid the five 'aticharas', i.e., the transgressions of each of these vows. Since these twelve vows are designed so as to strengthen and fortify the doctrine of Ahimsa, the avoidance of 'aticharas', i.e., transgressions, of these vows makes the observance of Ahimsa as faultless as possible. Thus, the necessity of giving importance to carefulness in the observance of Ahimsa has always been impressed on the minds of the householders with a view to making the actual practice of these vows as correct as possible.