INTRODUCTION

Karma is a word well-known not only in India, but beyond it, far and wide, in all countries of the world, where Oriental Philosophy is studied or talked of.

It was only a few years ago, that a talking picture, with an Indian back-ground was prepared and exhibited in all English-speaking countries and in India, and was called Karma.

Every villager and every citizen in India uses the word Karma in daily parlance as signifying destiny, fate, happening, or event, for which he does not find, or to which he fails to ascribe an immediate cause.

"My karma is bad" is the cry of woe and despair, which is uttered when one is overtaken by a sudden calamity, or is the victim of a fraud, perfidy or swindle. With the majority of people Karma is the unknown factor in life, quantity X.

In all systems of Indian Philosophy the word has been used with profusion.

Shri. Krishna is styled the Great Karma-Yogi, the superman of action. According to Hindu tradition it was on the battlefield of Kurukshetra that Lord Krishna preached the Philosophy of Action, and raised the drooping spirits of Arjun, who hesitated to draw the bow against his respected elders, and near and dear relations arrayed in battle against him.

The Great Warrior, the incomparable Archer, the bravest of the brave, had at that moment been overtaken by the weakness of inaction, indecision, incapacity to act, a sort of mental stupor; and to drag him out from that lethargic condition, the advice given was: "Do what is your duty in the circumstances in which you are placed, and be indifferent to the result." Desire and expectation are sinful. No sin attaches to the more commission of an act, which does not proceed form, or is not based on desire, or expectation, or any ill-will; but is merely a performance of duty, and is not a wanton or negligent act. This Discourse is called the Bhagwat Geeta-Song Celestial. It consists of 700 verses and is divided in to 18 Chapters.

In verse 3 of Chapter VIII, it is said that Karma is the emanation (\from the eternal) that gives rise to ideas, which taking shape or form, come to be.

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Stated in simple and clear language, Karma is there said to be the resultant of the vibrations proceeding from Eternal Life; which vibrations take shape and have a duration; an existence for a definite period.

Some sages meant by Karma the acts enjoined by the sacred scriptures; and others considered it as synonymous with a submission to the duties and responsibilities of normal life.

In a modern sense, a Karma-Yogi is a purposeful man or woman, who has settled views, a house-holder practicing Yoga, while actively engaged in the world's turmoil, who calls himself unattached.

In Jaina Philosophy, however, the word karma has quite a different and unique significance. The starting principle of Jainism is that there is an eternal beginningless union between soul and matter. This union though without a beginning is not without an end. When once the union is entirely broken, when once the soul is free from the slightest vestige of a contract with matter, noting can bind it again. It is liberated.

The activity of the soul which invites and enables mater of an exceptionally subtle form of flow into it, as also the matter which actually does flow into the soul, is called karma. The thought-activity is called Bhava-karma; and the actual matter flowing into the Soul and binding it is called Dravya-Karma. It is a substance. It is matter, in itself inert, lifeless, like a pebble, but in combination with Jiva, Life, its potency is immense, beyond calculation, beyond measure. It then keeps the Jiva itself bound and fettered, a prisoner, dancing constantly at Karma's beck and gesture. At each step, the momentum for a new movement is gained. At each embrace of matter, the delighted deluded soul throbs and vibrates for a fresh embrace. Wily matter is ever ready to attack the soul and to flow into it with its million insinuations, and to keep alive and vigorous the bondage of the living by non-living. It is so very fine, so very subtle, that it cannot be perceived, recognised, discerned by any the most highly developed sense organ, or by the most perfected, the highest magnifying microscope. It eluded all efforts of the Chemist and the Physicist to calculate, measure, graph, photograph, utilise, harness or control it. It is millions of times finer and subtler than the waves of sound, light, or electricity, or the electrons, protons, conceived by man. And yet this matter is ever and anon surrounding us on all sides, and permeating through and through every particle of our body and soul. There in no space where is not. And it is perceivable, appreciable, knowable by the Omniscience; and its workings, metamorphoses, make-ups and changes, are explained by Achaaryas, who have heard the letter-less Voice of the Omniscient, and who have transmitted the knowledge thus directly acquired from the Omniscient to others through the pat milleniums, by word, and in writings.

Karma is the Cause, the first, the ultimate, the original Cause which keeps the Universe going. All phenomena, all changes, all manifestations are due to Karmic effects.

And Jaina saints, the Masters of wisdom, have analyzed the workings of Karma in the most minutest details. And what would be a marvel and a miracle to the Modern Man is that they did so without the use of pen, pencil, or paper, without any of the modern resources and appliances. Mind and Memory were the only two instruments they used for researches into the workings and inter-actions of Soul and Matter, with an accuracy and a wealth of details which would command the admiration of the modern scientist.

The Jaina Saints did all this wonderful research work without any selfish motive, without expectation of praise or worship, or service in any shape or kind whatsoever from their admirers, worshippers of devotees. They thought deeply because it was a joy to think, they entered into intricate and far-reaching arithmetical and algebraically calculations because it was a pleasure to do so, because it was the natural, effortless exercise of their exalted, purified, refined intelligence and consciousness. They spoke, they uttered, not from desire but involuntarily, as an inherent, natural physical urge, being stimulated thereto by the intense desire of the seekers after truth.

In the learned and exhaustive introduction to Gommatsara, Karma Kanda Part I, Mr. J. L. Jaini of sacred memory has described the different kinds of substances which compose the Universe, their attributes, modifications, the conditions in which the embodied souls are found, the rules which regulate the com­bination of Soul and Matter, Jiva and Karma, the Bondage, Inflow, Stoppage, and Dissolution of Karmic connection with Soul; and the ways and means of obtaining deliverance, Moksha, Liberation from Karmic contact.

Part II deals with the same subject in details, more minute, more exhaustive and more extensive.

To give, however, a brief idea of the subject-matter by way of introduction, a little recapitulation would be pardonable.

It has already been stated that molecules having the capa­city to adopt the Karmic form, take shape in what have been termed 8 main classes, and 148 sub-classes of Karmas. This division into 8 main and 148 sub-classes has been made for the sake of facility of comprehension, and discussion of the subject. Speaking from an absolute point of view, the classes and the sub-classes are innumerable and even infinite. They vary, and no two are alike in every particular. The divisions into classes and sub-classes are based on points of preponderating similarity.

Karmic matter never remains in an isolated condition. As soon as it takes form, it combines with the physical or fluid body, which stimulates it into activity. The stimulation into activity is called Asrava, Inflow, and the combination Bandha, Bondage. The Karmic molecules produce their effect after a certain period. This duration is called Aabaadhaa, quiescence. The action or effect is called Udaya, Operation. The period for which it continues to operate is called Sthiti, duration, and this varies with the mildness or intensity of passions. The natural siddance, falling, or shedding off, of Karmic molecules in due course during the period of duration is called Nirjara, shedding. This can also be effected earlier, and the operation and duration period can be shortened, by austerities. As regards natural shedding of Karmas, it commences immediately at the moment operation begins and it is gradual, regular, and methodical by a fixed rule of Arithmetical progression. The highest number of molecules shed off in the first instant of duration, and the lowest number in the last instant, while the number goes on decreasing by a common difference at every instant. This has been illus­trated in the Chart Annexure A.

The operation may be tangible, the result may be apparent, appreciable, felt, or it may not be so. That would depend on circumstances ever varying in their nature. Every ordinary mundane soul, every one of us, so to say, binds Karmic matter of all the four passions-Anger, Pride, Deceit, and Greed-at every instant, while it suffers from the action of only one of them, at an instant and the others shed off in the manner shown in Annexure A, without producing any result, without being felt.

For example, take the case of a person engaged in pinots meditation, or in deep study of the Sacred philosophy. The operation of evil and pain-producing Karmas will not affect him and they will continue to shed off in due course. He has a pious desire, and there will be the effect and bondage good Karmas only.

Again Karmas of one sub-class can be transformed into those of another sub-class. Consider again the just-above­-stated case of a person engaged in deep pious study. He will not mind, or feel or be affected by the inclemencies of the weather, by thirst, hunger, sleep, lassitude, etc., but will be enjoying the pleasure of acquisition of knowledge. The pain­ producing Karma will thus be transformed into pleasure producing one.

Duration and effect or fruition of Karmas can also be similarly increased or decreased. A person is thus the maker and master of his destiny, he can make himself happy or miserable, he can rise above circumstances, and can make a hell heaven and a heaven of hell.

A Karma bound in one life may produce its effect in the same life, in the next, or in a life thereafter.

In this second Part of Karma Kanda will be found a rich detail of the various groups of sub-classes of each of the eight main classes, which are bound by a soul, which operate, and which simply remain in existence, at various spiritual stages. For example, a soul in the first stage-wrong belief-binds 22 out of the 28 sub-classes of Deluding Karma-wrong belief, 16 kinds of passion, one of the 3 sexes, fear, disgust, and one from each of the two pairs of indulgence and ennui, laughter and sorrow. Only 10 will be in operation-only one out of the four kinds of each of the 4 passions can operate at one time, and hence 12 kinds of passion fall out of calculation, and only 10 out of the 22 which are bound can operate. Existence there is of a11 the 28.

The object of all this travail is to purify the Soul, to evolve it to its inherent perfection, to remove all the possible Karmic contamination's which obstruct the full and complete enjoyment and exercise of Omniscience, and Omnipotence. And how to attain this end is the subject discussed in Karma Kanda, Parts and II.

The knowledge and analysis of the various forms and work­ings of Karma is helpful in all stages of life, to the child, the student, the householder, the man of business, the admiral, the general, the warrior, the soldier, on land, water and air, the teacher, the preceptor, the protector of the people, the king, the politician, the administrator, the ascetic, the recluse, the saint, and the super-saint. It is a general panacea. May it prove beneficial to the reader.

Shrut-Panchmi,

June 13, 1937.

AJIT PRASADA.


JAINA SIDDHANTA

SHRI GOMMATASARA

KARMA-KANDA II

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CHAPTER IV.

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THE THREE APPENDICES

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398. After having made obeisance, with the head, to the mighty Heroes, the Great Conquerors with unassisted might, I shall describe the three Chulikas (appendices). Hear (this) with a (concentrated) mind.

Commentary.

The opening verse contains, as is customary, a very respectful obeisance to the Tirthankaras, the great Jinendras. They have attained Infinite Power, the inherent attribute of the Pure Perfect Soul. Human strength, might or power is limited. Soul-Power is infinite; and does not stand in need of assistance of any weapon, instrument, nourishment, stimulant, or encouragement. .

Obeisance is made in various ways. It may be a salutation in words only. Such salutation may be accompanied by the placing of the palms together, with fingers opened out, so as to form a hollow between them: it may further be accompanied by a waving of the hands so folded, or the folded hands may be placed against the forehead; or the head may also be lowered as far as it will go. Again one may go down on the ground sitting on the toes and the knees, and bend down the body and bead so that the forehead may touch the ground, and the folded hands. stretched out and beyond the head, be also touching the ground. Again a worshipper may lie full flat on the ground face downwards, with the folded hands, the forehead, and the other parts of the body touching the ground. Here the salutation made while squatting on the ground, is by bowing the head with folded hands touching the forehead.

The three Appendices, Chulikas are:­

(1) Nava Prashna Chulika, an appendix dealing with 9 questions;

(2) Pancha Bhagahara Chulika, an appendix dealing with five kinds of divisors;

(3) Dasha Karana Chulika, an appendix treating of the ten modes of Karmas.

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399. Of what. (Karma Prakrities) is cessation of Bondage caused before, after and simultaneously with (cessa­tion of) operation 1 Of what (is Bondage caused) along with the operation of themselves, of others, and of both; (of what is Bondage caused) continuously, with intervals and in both ways.

Commentary.

The following are the nine questions relating to the bondage of various Karma Prakrities, which are discussed in this Appendix.

1. Of what Karma Prakrities is cessation of Bondage caused before, 2. Of what after, and

3. Of what along with the cessation of their operation.

4. Of what Karma Prakrities is Bondage caused along with operation of these Prakrities.

5. Of others, and

6. Of those and others,

7. Of what Karma Prakrities is Bondage caused continu­ously,

8. After interval,

9. In both ways.

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400-401. (Cessation of Bondage of eight Karma Pra­krities a. e.,) the celestial four (i. e., the celestial condition. celestial migratory form, fluid body and limbs), the assimilative two (a. e., the assimilative body and limbs), notoriety and celestial age, (happens after) (the cessation of their opera­tion); (bondage-cessation) of thirty-one. right-belief-delu­ding, radiant heat, human migratory form, the immobile four (i. e., immobile, fine, undevelopable, and common body), the fifteen passions (a. e., all the 16 passions except perfect conduct-preventing-greed). the fear pair (i. e., fear and dis­gust). the risible pair (risible and ennui), the four genus (i.e. from one sensed to four-sensed beings) and masculine sex, (occurs) simultaneously (with cessation of their operation); while (bondage cessation) of the remaining eighty-one (i. e., all 120 which are taken in bondage minus the above said 8 and 31, occurs) before their cessation of operation).

Commentary.

The first set of the three question is dealt with here. With reference to eight Karma Prakrities which continue binding even when their operation ceases, it should be noted that the celestial four (i. e., celestial condition, celestial migratory form, fluid body and fluid limbs) can not operate beyond the fourth spiritua1stage of vowels right belief, but their bondage ceases at the sixth part of the eighth spiritual stage of New-thought-activity. The assimi­lative two operate only in the sixth stage of imperfect vows, while their bondage ceases at the sixth part of the 8th stage of New­ thought-activity. Notoriety Karma ceases to operate at the end of the fourth stage of vowels-right-belief. while its bondage may con­tinue till the sixth stage of imperfect Vow & The celestial-age , Karma operates only till the first four stages. while its bondage ceases at the end of the seventh stage of perfect vows.

Thirty-one Karma Prakrities named above have the same spiritual stage as regards their cessation of bondage and operation. both. They are in bondage only in those stages where they are in operation. For example, the Right- Belief-deluding Karma opera­tes and is bound only in the first stage. For examples of other Pra­krities see previous Chapters.

The remaining eighty-one Karma Prakrities cease to bind in the spiritual stages preceding those of cessation of their operation, for example the Knowledge-obscuring Karma of five kinds is bound till the tenth stage of Slightest delusion, while it operates tin the twelfth stage of Destroyed-delusion.

See pages 48 and 155 of Gommatsara Karma Kanda, Volume VI, of the Sacred Books of the Jainas.

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402-403. Bondage of (the eleven Prakrities i. e.,) the celestial and human ages. Tirthankara, the fluid six (i. e., the fluid body and limbs, celestial and hellish conditions, and celestial and hellish migratory forms) and the assimilative (body and limbs). (occurs) only on operation of other (karma Prakrities); bondage of (twenty-seven Karma Prakrities i. e..) wrong belief. the (fourteen) destructive (Prakrities) of the slightest (delusion, the 10th spiritual stage, i. e., the five knowledge-obscuring, the four conation-obscuring, and the five obstructive), (the twelve) continuously operative (pra­krities i. e.,) the electric two (i. e.. the electric and Karmic bodies). the colour four (i. e., colour, smell, taste and touch), the pairs of steady and beautiful (i. e., the steady and un­steady, the beautiful and ugly), not-heavy-light and forma­tion (occurs) on their own operation. The remaining eighty-­two (out of 120) are bound in both (ways i. e., on their own operation or on operation of others).

Commentary.

The second set of the three questions is answered in these two verses. The above-mentioned eleven Karma Prakrities are never bound during the operation of such Prakrities, but are bound when other Karma Prakrities are operative. For example, when a soul is in celestial or hellish life, it will never bind celestial or hellish; age, condition fluid body etc. A soul in human or sub-human c­ondition of life may bind celestial age, condition etc. It means that a celestial soul after death can not be born as celestial or hellish. similarly a hellish soul can not just after death take birth in hellish or celestial condition of life. It may take birth in any human or sub-human life. Similarly Tirthankara Karma is bound from the 4th to the 8th spiritual stage of new-thought-activity; but it operates only in the 13th and 14th stages of the perfect soul.

The twenty-seven Karma Prakrities next referred to are bound only when they are operative; for example, wrong-belief is bound only in the first stage of wrong belief, where it is operative also. The fourteen destructive Karmas which are operative till the 12th stage are bound only tin the 10th stage of a1ightest delusion. It should be noted that these twenty-seven Karma Prakrities may re­main operative even when they are not bound; but their bondage will occur only when they are operative. Out of 120 Karma Prakrities, which are taken in bondage, subtract eleven and twenty-seven, and the remaining eighty-two may bind when similar Prakrities are in operation or otherwise- For example, the human age Karma is bound when it is operative or otherwise. A celestial, hellish or a sub-human soul can bind the human age Karma. Similarly the Physical-body Karma can be bound (when it is operative) in human or sub-human life or (when it is not operative) hi celestial or hellish life. Feel­ing-Karma is of two kinds, Pleasure-feeling and pain-feeling. One of the two is operative at a time, but the bondage of any of the two can occur during operation of any of the two. A man while enjoying operation of pleasure-feeling Karma, may bind either pain-feeling or pleasure-feeling Karma according to the nature of his thought ­activity.

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404-405. The forty-seven (Karma Prakrities which are in operation) continuously (i.e., five knowledge-obscuring, nine conation-obscuring, five destructive, wrong belief, sixteen passions, fear and disgust, electric and karmic bodies, not-heavy-light, self-destructive, formation, colour, smell, taste and touch), as well as Tirthankara, assimilative (body and limbs), (four), ages, (all these fifty four are bound) con­tinuously (Nirantara). The hellish two (i. e., the hellish condition and migratory form), four genus (i. e, from one ­sensed to four-sensed), five (kinds of) bones (i.e., all the six except the first adamantine-nerve-joint--and bones), five figures (i. e., all the six except the first symmetrical), awkward movement, the two-hot-light and cold-light), the ten, immo­bile (fine body, undevelopable, common body, unsteady, ugly, unprepossessing, harsh voice, non-impressive and notoriety) pain (feeling), common and female (sexes), ennui, sorrow, these thirty-four are (bound) with intervals (i. e., Santara).

Commentary.

The third set of 3 questions is dealt with here. Out of fifty-­four Karma Prakrities which bind continuously the first forty-seven go on binding continuously till the stage of their cessation of bondage; while out of the remaining seven, Tirthankara and assimilative two are bound continuously only in the stages where their bondage is possible, and age Karma is bound continuously only during one Antar-Muhurta at its proper time of bondage. The thirty-four Karma Prakrities are not bound continuously. They are bound with intervals. For example, hellish condition is bound sometimes. but not always. Similarly one-sensed or two-sensed.

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406-407. (The remaining) thirty-two (out of one ­hundred and twenty Karma Prakrities i. e.,) the pairs of celestial, Human, sub-human, physical and fluid (i. e., celes­tial condition and mi2ratory form, human condition and mig- ratory form, sub-human condition and migratory form, physi­cal body and limbs. fluid body and limbs), graceful-move­ment, adamantine (nerves joints and-bones), the two, destruc­tive (and respiration), symmetrical (figure), five seemed, the ten mobile, (gross, developable, individual, steady, beautiful, amiable, sweet-voice, impressive and fame), pleasure (feel­ing), risible, indulgence, masculine (sex), and the two family (high and low), are (bound) with intervals (i. e., Santara) in presence of (their) opposites; but are (bound) continuously (i. e., Nirantara) on destruction of (their) opposites.

Commentary.

The word "opposite" as qualifying Prakriti signifies The other" Prakriti or Prakrities of the group. The thirty-two Karma Prakri­ti seamed in the verses are bound in both ways, with and without interval. When their opposite Prakrities are not destroyed, they woe did with intervals, but when they are extinct. they are bound continuously till the stage of their bondage-cessation. For example when human, sub-human or hellish condition is bound. celestial con­dition will not be bound. In the spiritual stages where bonds as of all the four conditions of life is possible. celestial condition will be bound only with interval; but in the stage where no other condi­tions of life can be bound, the celestial condition only will go on binding continuously. Such is the case with the other thirty-one Karma Prakrities.

In wrong belief stage, celestial condition and migratory form as well as their opposites, the other three forms and conditions can be bound; viz.. any of the four conditions and migratory forms can be bound. In the downfall stage, only two opposites. sub-human' and human conditions and migratory forms, as well as celestial condition and form are bound. In the mixed and vowless-right-belief stages, celestial condition and migratory form, and one opposite vis the human condition and migratory form are bound. From the fifth stage of partial-vow to the sixth part of the 8th stage of new­ thought-activity, in humans of work-region, and in humans and sub-humans of enjoyment-region. celestial condition and forms only without any opposites are continuously bound. Human condition and migratory forms are bound continuously, without any opposites in the heavens above, the 12th i.e., from the 13th till Sarvartha Siddhi. the last heaven. Sub-human condition and migratory form. and low ­family are continuously bound without any-opposites in the seventh hell. and in the conditions of the fire-bodied and air-bodied souls.

Physical body and limbs are bound continuously without any opposites in hellish and celestial lives. Fluid-body and limbs are continuously bound without their opposites; in hipline and sub­human right-believers, as well as enjoyment regions. Graceful movement is bound continuously. without its opposite. from the mixed stage to the sixth part of the 8th stage of New-thought activity. Adamantine nerves-joints-and-limbs is bound continuously without its opposite in the 3rd and 4th spiritual stages- Destruc­tive and respiration do not bind along with undevelopable; they are bound continuously from the 2nd stage 6th part of the 8th stage. Symmetrical figure is continuously bound from the 3rd stage to 6th part of the 8th stage. Five-sensed genus, mobile, gross, developable, individual,--these five are continuously bound from the downfall-stage to the 6th part of the 8th stage.

Steady and beautiful are continuously bound without their opposites from 7th stage of perfect-vows' to the 6th part of 8th stage. Fame-Karma is continually bound from 7th to 10 stage. Amiable. sweet-voice and impressive are bound without their opposites from the 3rd stage to 6th part of the 9th stage. Pleasure­ feeling Karma is bound with interval till 6th stage upto which, its opposite. the pain-feeling Karma is also bound; but it is bound con­ tenuously without its opposite from 7th stage to the 13th stage' of Vibrating Omniscient. Risible, and indulgence are bound without interval. till the 6th stage upto which their opposites sorrow and ennui are also bound. but from 7th they are continuously bound till the end of the 8th stage. Masculine sex has its opposites, the common. and female sexes. in the 1st stage; and only female sex in the 2nd

stage; and thereafter till the sixth part of the 9th stage, it is bound continually without any opposite. High family is continually bound from 3rd stage to 10th stage of slightest delusion.

Speaking in plain language, on acquiring Right-Belief a person is assured. in the next birth. of a human condition of existence, with masculine sex, symmetrical figure. and in a high family. A right believer has thus no fear of death even, because he knows that death to him only means a change of the present physical body for a better one.

The acquisition of Right-Belief, a firm and unshakable convic­tion in the reality of things, in the real nature of Life, and non­-Life. puts an end to all pain and misery and makes life happy.

Time which hangs heavy on an idle fellow, passes on in happy reverie with an ascetic. He is above want, distress, pain, disappoint­ment, worry or vexation. His is a life of continuous Bliss, showering knowledge. happiness on all beings. What seems mortification of the body to others. is to. him exquisite enjoyment of inherent direct knowledge and power beyond common measure. Every moment he is progressing in spiritual advance, is destroying the past cumulated Karmas until he transcends all, and is eternally Identified. with Omniscience and Omnipotence.

The following Table will make the contents of the above two verse. easy of comprehension :­-

Table 1, of Continuous Bondage 'Without the opposite Sub-classes.

No.

Name of Karma.

Stages where they are continuously bound without any opposite.

2

Celestial Condition and form.

5th to 6th part of 8th, and also in enjoyment-

region.

2

Human Condition and form.

Any stage from 13th heaven to Sarvartha Siddhi.

3

Sob-human condition and form, and low-family.

All stages in 7th hell, and in firebodied and air

bodied souls.

2

Physlca1-body-and limbs.

All stages In hellish and celestial lives.

2

Fluid-body-and limbs.

All stages in human and Sub-human right believer and in the enjoyment region.

1

Graceful movement.

3rd stage to 6th part of 8th stage.

1

Adamantine Bones.

3rd and 4th stages.

2

Destructive, and respiration.

2nd stage to 6th part of 8th stage.

1

Symmetrical figure.

3rd stage to 6th part of 8th stage.

5

Five-sensed, mobile, gross Developable, individual.

2ad stage to 6th part of 8th stage.

2

Steady and beautiful.

7th stage to the 6th part of the 8th stage.

1

Fame.

7th to l0th stage.

3

Amiable, sweet-voice, impressive.

3rd stage to 6th part of 8th stage.

1

Pleasure-feeling.

7th to 18th stage.

2

Risible and indulgene.

7th stage to the 6th part of the 8th stage.

1

Masculine Sex.

3rd stage to 6th part of 9th stage.

1

High Family.

3rd to 10th stage.

32

Karma Prakrities are thus continuously bound without oppsites.

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408. May that Abhayanandi (Acbarya), the ocean of pure scriptural-knowledge. from whom worthy Nemi-chandra has risen pure, and without churning', remove the dirt of bad Karmas.

Commentary.

There is a tradition current that the moon along with other things came out of the churning of the ocean. The author Nemi Chandra Sidhant Chakravarti here pays homage to his preceptor Acharya Abhayanandi, whom he likens to the ocean, because his knowledge was vast and deep. The preceptor, however, had to undergo no painful operation like churning in transmitting scriptural knowledge to this disciple, and with knowledge bestowed, and acquired, without trouble, the pupil shone forth shedding the cool and comforting light of knowledge, far and wide, like the moon. but pure and without the black spots which mar the purity of the moon. The excellence of both the pupil and the preceptor is here extolled.

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409. There are five kinds of divisions i. e., Bhagahara) by which Karmas with the help of to bought-activities of souls are transferred (into other Karmas):­

(1) Udvelad, (2) Vidhyata, (3) Adhah Pravritta, (4) Guna

Samkramana, (5) Sarva Sankramana.

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410. The bound up (Karmas) are transferred; not those which are not bound. There is no transference among the root (eight) Karma-classes (among themselves). (Even among the sub-classes of 8 Karmas), (there is) no (transference) between Righ1-belief.deluding-Karma and Right conduct-delu­ding Karma; (and also) between four (kinds of) age Karma (themselves).

Commentary.

Matter of one kind of Karma already bound up with a soul can be transferred to another kind of Karma. This process is called Sankramaga or transference. Matter of one main class however cannot be transferred to that of another main class, e. g., Karmic matter of Knowledge-obscuring-Karma cannot be transferred to Conation-obscuring or to any of the other six classes. There is transference of matter among sub. classes of a main class. For example, matter of Sensitive-knowledge-obscuring Karma can be transferred to Spiritual- Knowledge-obscuring Karma, or to any other sub-class of that very class.

Feeling Karma is of two kinds, pleasure-feeling and pain-feeling. There can be transferrence of matter between these two only. As an exception to this role it is said that matter of Right-belief ­deluding-Karma can not be transferred to that of Right-conduct-deluding Karma, or vice versa, and matter of any of the fOl1r Age' Karmas, can nut be transferred to that of another age-Karma.

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411. Clouded-right-belief, Wrong-belief, and Mixed -right and-wrong-belief (three sub-classes of right belief-deluding Karma) have DO transference (among themselves) in their own respective spiritual stages. It is also a rule that transferrence of these three sub-classes fright-belief-deluding-Karma does not occur in downfall and mixed (the second and third) spiritu~1 stages.

Commentary.

There is no transferrence of three sub-classes of Right-belief­-deluding-Karma among themselves in downfall and mixed spiritual stages. Again matter of Wrong-belief-Karma will not be subject to transfer in the first spiritoa1stage of Wrong-belief. It will only be subject to transfer in the four stages from fourth to seventh. Similarly in the above four stages matter of Mixed-right and wrong belief-Karma can be transferred into another. As Wrong-belief­ spiritual stage is not the operative stage of. this mixed Karma, matter of this mixed sob-class may in the first stage also, be subject to transfer. There are four stages for operation of Clouded­ right-belief, i. e., 4th 1;0 7th and as transferrence cannot occur in the stages of downfall and mixed, it is evident that its transferrence is possible in the first stage of Wrong-belief only.

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412. As a rule, during (the stage of) wrong belief, (transferrence) of clouded right-belief and mixed-right-and ­wrong-belief (Karmic matter goes on) till one Antaramuhurta by (the division called) Adhab-pravritta; afterwards till last section (of time) but one (dvi-charama Kanda), (transferrence occurs by (the division of) Udvelana.

Commentary.

Transferrence occurring in one instant of time is called ±úÖ×»Ö (Phali); that in a group of many instants ú֝›üú (Kandak).

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413. Necessarily, there is transference of (all) the Karmas referring to Udvelana (division) in the last section (of time i. e., K1indak) by the division called Gunna (Samba. mana); but during the last part of that very action of time, (there is transferrence) by Sarva (Sankramana division).

Commentary .

There are five kinds of transferrence. which take place accord­ing to five kind of divisions.

(1) Transferrence of matter of one Karma to another without the thought. activity of three kinds called Adhah. Apurva and Anivritti (see Page 44, Gommatsara Jiva Kanda volume V, of the Sacred Books of the Jainas) is called transferrence by division of Udvelana Sankramana.

(2) That transferrence which Occurs in a soul with slight purity of thought, after it has passed into the sections of time, (Kandakas) where duration and fruition of Karmas are decreased, or after such thought activities as Guna Shreni etc., by the help of division called Vidhyata, is Vidhyata Sankramana.

(3) Transferrence of matter of a Karma into that of others during their bondage, by division of Adhah Pravritta. is called Adhah Pravritta Sankramana.

(4) Transferrence of Karmic matter by constant innume­rable-fold mul triplication, every instant, by division Guna is called Guna-Sankramana.

(5) Transferrence of all Karmic matter into another during the last part (Phali) of the last section (Kanda) of time is called Sarva-Sankramana.

Clouded-right-belief, and Mixed-belief sub-classes are included into the sub-classes' of Udvelana ; therefore their Guna-Sankramana takes place in the last section of time, and their Sarva Sankramana occurs during the last part of that very section.

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414. (There is operation of eleven sub-classes of body making-Karma during sub-human life only, i. e.,) of the two sub-human (condition and migratory form), four genus (from one-sensed to four-sensed), hot-light, cold light, immobile, fine ­body, and common. They are known as sub-human-eleven or Triyagekadasha.

Commentary.

The eleven sub classes mentioned above come into operation. as a rule. in sub-human condition only. Therefore they are called Tiryagekadasha.

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415. The two Assimilative (body and limbs), Clouded­ right-belief, Mixed-right.-and-wrong-belief, the two Celestial (condition and migratory form). the four hellish (condition migratory form, fluid body. and limbs) high familiar, the two human (condition and migratory form),-these thirteen are called Udvelana sub-classes.

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416. Adhah Pravritta (kind of transferrence occurs) during the bondage (time of Karmas); Vidhyata (kind of transferrence); during non-bondage (of Karmas) only till the seventh (stage of perfect vows); afterwards (till the eleventh stage of sub-sided delusion) there is Gunna (Sankramana. kind of transferrence) of had sub-classes during (their) non­-bondage (time).