Bondage of Karmas may again be viewed as Bhujakara, Increasing, when the numbers bound begin to increase, as would happen when a soul begins to descend from the 11th, where it binds only one, the Feeling Karma.

This increase is of three sorts?

(1) to 6, in the 10th

(1) to 7 in the 9th, 8th, and 3rd and

(2) to 8 in the other stages.

 

When the soul progresses upwards, the bondage decrease, and the Decrasing places Alpatara are also three.

(1) to 7 in the 3rd, 8th and 9th stages,

(2) to 6 in the 10th,

(3) to 1 in the 11th and onwards.

 

When the soul remains steady, Avasthita, binding the same number in every instant, there are 4 such Places; with reference to spiritual stages :

 

(1)   In the 1st to 7th except the 3rd stage, where it binds 7. or 8 Karma, just as Age Karma is not bound or bound.

(2)   In the 3rd, 8th and 9th stage, where it binds 7.

(3) In the 10th, where it binds 6.

(4) In the 11th, where it binds only 1.

 

Whether ascending from 8th to the 11th, or descending from 11th to 8th, the ascent. or descent, must be gradual and no leaping over an intermediate stage is possible, and hence the Increasing and Decreasing Places must stand as described above.

There is also a kind of bondage called Indescribable or Avaktavya, where a soul may not bind any Karma at a stage, but may bind some in the next. This happens .only with reference to subclasses of Karmas.

 

Ͻ ע ׾֝ ӟ֏ߋ l

פ֝ ֈ ׻֤ םִֵ ll 454 ll

™: ִ ן ׾֭ ֖֭ߝֵ : l

֟ߟָ֝ ֟õ: ׻׫ ׭ִֵ֟ ll 454 ll

 

 

454. (There is) operation of eight (classes) till (the 10th stage of) slightest (delusion), (of seven) leaving deluding (Karmas) in (the 11th and 12th stages of) subsided (delusion and delusionless. As a rule(there is) operation of the four non. destructive (Karmas only) in the two (vibrating and non-vibrating) perfect souls.

 

֤ߝ ֽ ߸ א֝ l

פֈl ִ֢ ӟ ן ׯ ll 455 ll

ןֻ֭ ã ߸ א֝ õ l

ߵֵ: ϴ֢ ꐵ֭ ־ۭ ׯ l 455 ll

 

 

455. Souls with imperfect knowledge (Chhadmasthah) have premature operation of (the four) destructive (Karmas), those with attachment have premature operation to the deluding Karma. Pramatta souls (namely those up to sixth stage of imperfect vows, have premature operation) of the third (i. e.. feeling Karma) and age Karma. And souls with vibrations have (premature operation) of the two (i. e., the body-making and family Karmas).

 

Commentary.

Udirna or premature operation of deluding Karmas lasts up to the 10th stage j of the remaining three destructive Karmas, till the 12th stage, of Feeling and Age Karma till the 6th stage, and of Body-making and Family Karmas till the 13th stage of vibrating perfect soul.

 

״ִ֢֯ӟ ֈ֬ ֏ߝ֝ l

־׻ֽ ֐ ֝ ߸ ן ll 456 ll

״֖֯ϴ֢֭ ֵ Ϭ ִ֖ߝֵ : l

־׻ؿ™ ֿ: ֯ ֘ ߸ ־׭֟ ll 456 ll

 

456. Seven, five, and two (classes of Karmas) have pre. mature-operation, respectively, till the (7th stage of) perfect vows excepting the Card) mixed stage; in (the 10th stage of) slightest (delusion) and in (the 12th stage of) delusionless (so long as) one avali (time) remains in (extinction of) the age Karma (already in fruition).

 

Commentary.

There is premature operation of knowledge obscuring, conation obscuring, feeling, deluding, body-making, family and obstructive Karmas, in the stages of wrong-belief, partial-vows, imperfect vows, and perfect vows; of knowledge-obscuring, conation-obscuring, body-making, family, and obstructive Karmas in the 10th stage of slightest delusion, and of body-making and family Karmas in the 12th, delusionless stage. It ceases when one Avali remains in the completion of Age Karma.

 

 

ӟע Ͻ ֢ ߝ ֢ ן ֢ם l

א۴ ϕא۴ ֢׸ ן ֢ם ll 457 ll

֭֟ ן ™ ֢ : ߝ ֯ ־ۭ ֢־׭ l

א׭ ϵא׭ ֟׸ ־׭֟ ֢־׭ ll 457 l

 

 

457. (There is) existence of (all the) eight (Karmas) till (the 11th stage of) subsided delusion; only seven (i. e., all excepting the deluding Karma) have existence in (the 12th stage of) delusionless; while only four (non-destructive Karmas) have existence in (the 18th and 14th stages of) vibrating and non-vibrating (perfect souls).

 

ן׋ ½ ֝׋ ֝־ִִָ֋ |

־ ֳ֐ָ ֝ ll 458 ll

׋ ™ ã֭׭ ֭־ִִָ֭ l

ϡ ֍ָ: ¾ ־ ãִ֭ ll 458 ll

 

458. (There are) three, ten and eight (bondage-places respectively) in the conation-obscuring, deluding and. body making Karmas), the Increasing (Bhujeikara places) occurring only in them; there is only one place in (each of) the remaining (five Karmas).

 

Commentary.

As five sub-classes of Knowledge-obscuring Karma and five subclasses of Obstructive Karma are bound without any variation, therefore each of these two Karmas has only one bondage-place. There are two sub-classes of family Karma and two of the feeling Karma and four of the age Karma. As only one sub-class of each of these three Karmas is bound at a time, therefore each of them has only one place. Conation-obscuring Karma has nine sub-classes. They are bound in three variations. therefore there are three bondage places in it. Deluding Karma has twenty-eight sub-classes which are bound in ten variations and has therefore 10 places. Body making Karma has ninety-three sub-classes which are bound in eight variations, therefore they have eight places.

 

־ ֤ ׾פ־ָõ Ӭ֚֝ם l

֐֤֯ם Ͼ׽ם׾ ֝ ll 459 ll

־ ֙ ֟ ׫ߵ־ָõ ֭ ã֭׭ l

֍ָָֻ֟ם Ͼãֵ֭֟ׯ ֭ ll 459 ll

 

459. (Three) bondage-places of the second (conation) obscuring (karma contain) nine, six and four (sub-classes respectively). Therein should be known the Increasing, Decreasing, Steady, and also (the Indescribable places.)

 

Commentary.

Conation-obscuring Karma has nine sub-classes. At one place all the nine can be bound simultaneously. At the second place, excepting three kinds of sleep Karma, i. e., somnambulism, heavy drowsiness and deep sleep, only six are bound together; at the third place, leaving all five sub-classes of sleep, only four are bound at a time.

 

There are two increasing or Bhujak4ra bond ages :

 

(1). A soul descending from 11th stage of subsidential ladder, and coming down to the 2nd part of the 8th stage, binds the first four sub-classes of conation-obscuring, and then going down to the first part of that stage. it binds only six sub-classes.

(2). A soul which binds six in the 6th, 5th and 4th stage, binds all the nine sub-classes when it goes down to the second or first stage.

 

There are two Decreasing (Alpatara) bondage-places also

 

(1) A soul in wrong belief stage binds all nine sub-classes. When it faces First-Subsidential-Right-Belief and ascends directly to the 4th, 5tb. or 7th stage it binds six only.

(2) A soul in the 1st part of the 8th stage on subsidential or destructive ladder, binds six sub. classes. On ascending to 6th part of the same stage it binds only four.

 

There are three steady, Avasthita, bondage places:

 

1. When there is steady bondage of nine in wrong belief and downfall stages (2) of six from third to 1st part of 8th stage, and (3) of only four from 2nd part of 8th to the 10th stage.

There are two Indescribable (or Avaktavya) bondage-places:

(1). A soul in 11th stage of 8ubsidentialladder does not bind any conation obscuring Karma. Coming down to the. 10th it binds the first four sub-classes.

(2) A saint dying in the 11th stage reaches the 4th stage and crystal condition, when it binds six sub-classes.

 

֍ ֝ע Ӭ ϯ㾾ֳ֯֜֐ע l

֭׸ ן ֢ ֍ֵ ׸ע ll 460 ll

־ ֭ ן ֭: ֙ ϯԯϣֳִ֐ ן l

֟á ־ۭ ֟: ִ֍ֵõ ָ ן ll 460 ll

 

460. There is bondage of nine (sub-classes of conation obscuring Karma) till the downfall (stage), of only six till the 1st Part of (8th) new-thought-activity, and then of four only till the last (instant of the 10th stage of) slightest delusion.

 

ߝע ׸ ӓ ׋ ם֧ l

֢ ߝ֤׸ע ӓ ll 461 ll

ߝ ן ֟ˡ : ֘ ׭֦ ٭֦ : l

õִ ֵ֯֟ ߝ׫ָ ן ֘: ll 461 ll

 

461. There is operation of the (1st) four (sub-classes of conation-obscuring Karma) till (the 12th stage of) delusionless. (This is so while awake). (While asleep), (there is further) operation of one out of five sleeps (up to 6th stage); and of (one) out of two (sleeps) (from the 7th) to the last but one instant of the delusionless (stage). Thus (there is) operation of five (sub. classes altogether).

 

Commentary.

When a person is awake, only the first four conation-obscuring classes are in operation till the last instant of the 12th stage.

A person in sleep will have besides these four, the operation of anyone of the five. ands of sleep till the 6th stage. From the 7th to the last but one- instant of the 12th stage however, either drowsiness or sleep, only, will operate along with the first four sub-classes. .

 

״֌֤ӟע םֵּߏ־֐ֳ֯֜֐ע l

־֢ ߝõ ׸ע ֤׸ |l 462 ll

״ֿ֣֤֭֟ ן |׭־ע֖֯֍ϣֳִ֐ ן l

־ִ֢ ߝõ ׫ָ ן ֙֟׸ ll 462 ll

 

462. (There is) existence of nine (sub-classes of conation obscuring Karma) from wrong belief stage) till subsided delusion (stage of the subsidential ladder), and also till the first part of Advanced thought-activity, (stage of) destructive (ladder); of six till the last but one instant, and of four in the last (instant) of the delusionless (stage).

 

־ִꌍ ָ֢ ־ ӓ l

֤ןֵ֤ Ӭֽ֝ם ll 463 ll

ؾֿןָؾֿן: ֤֯֟ ֵ ־ ֘ l

֟á֍׫ ֭ã֭׭ õ ll 463 ll

 

463. (There are ten) bondage places of Deluding Karma; (bondage of) (1) twenty-two, (2) twenty-one, (8) seventeen, (4) thirteen, (5) nine, (6) five, (7) four, (8) three, (9) two, (10) one (out of the 28 sub-classes).

 

־ִꌍ ָ֢ ָ֢ ן ־ֵ l

֤֝֓ןִֵ֤ꌍ ֝ם ll 464 ll

ؾֿןָؾֿן: ֤֯֟ ֤֯ ֯ סֿ ־֍ l

ã ֘֓֟ס֍׫ õ ã֭׭ ll 464 ll

 

464. As regards deluding (Karma) places of twenty-two, twenty-one, seventeen, seventeen, thirteen (are in the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth stages respectively); nine in (each of the) three (following stages respectively); in (the five parts respectively of) Sthoola (the ninth stage there are places of) five, four, three, two and one ,sub-classes).

 

ϙָ ֧ ֧ ן l

֤ן֤ꌍ ן ֲӬ ll 465 ll

ؾֿןָ™֤ ֟ ֟ ס ֙ l

ã ֟á׫ õ ־׭֟ ֲ֭: ll 465 ll

 

465. Nineteen, eighteen, fourteen, and ten (sub-classes) of Deluding (Karma) are of continuous Bondage (Dhruva Bandha) (in the first five stages); six in (each of) the three (following stages); four, three. two, one, one in the (five parts respectively of the 9th stage) Sthoola.

 

֐ӳ־ֲ֬Ӭ ִ֝ꌍ l

֝ ֝ Ӑ ן ֲӐ ll 466 ll

þ֍ӳ־ֲ֭֬֬ ׫ֵֵ l

ã֭ ֭ ֛ ־׭֟ ֳ˛: ll 466 ll

 

466. (To make up the numbers in verse 464) along with those of continuous Bondage (set out in verse 465 should be counted) one, sex, and one out of the two pairs (of laughter and sorrow. indulgence and ennui). (In each place the number of) sexes being multiplied by (the number of) the pairs gives the (number of) Combinations (Bhangas) in that (place).

 

־ ֤ א־ ן ע l

֤ Ӑ ֽ֬֝ ll 467 ll

֙ ؾֿ֟ ָ֟ ؾֿ֟ ־׭֟ š ן l

֛ ֭ã֭ õ ll 467 ll

 

467. (There are) six Combinations (Bhangas) in Bondage place of twenty-two (sub-classes of Deluding (Karma), four in twenty-one, two (in each, up to those which appertain to stages) till the 6th; thereafter only one.

 

Commentary.

Taking the wrong belief stage the bondage-place in respect of Deluding Karma, is of 22 sub-classes. Out of which 19, namely, wrong belief, 16 passions, and fear and disgust are of continuous bondage. All the three sex Karmas can be bound here; but at a time, only one is bound. Adding one of the three sexes, which can be bound here. and one of the two pairs of laughter and sorrow, indulgence. and ennui, 22 sub-classes are bound altogether. Owing to the varying combinations of the three sexes. and the two pairs, there will be six Combinations of the bondage of 22 sub-classes. )

 

Thus a soul may bind :-

(1) 19+ male sex + laughter indulgence.

(2) 19+ female sex + laughter + indulgence.

(3) 19 + common sex + laughter + indulgence.

(4) 19+ male sex + sorrow + ennui.

(5) 19+ female sex + sorrow + ennui.

(6) 19+ common sex + sorrow + ennui.

 

In the downfall stage. 16 passions and fear and disgust. 18 in all are of constant bondage. Adding to these either the male or the female sex. and one of each of the 2 pairs aforesaid there will be a bondage of 21 sub-classes. These will be bound in four Combinations. In the mixed stage, 12 passions, excluding the four error-feeding ones, fear and disgust, 14 in all are of constant bondage. Only the male sex is bound able here, and adding one from each of two pairs, we have bondage of It sub-classes at a time. and in 2 Combinations. In the 4th stage the bondage is similar to that in the 3rd. In the fifth stage only 8 passions excluding partial vow-preventing, also, fear and disgust, 10 in all are of constant bondage. Only the male sex is bound; and adding one out of each of the two pairs, we have 13 sub-classes which are bound at a time and in two Combinations.

 

In the sixth stage, six only are of constant bondage, vis., the four perfect-conduc1-preventing-passions and fear and disgust. The male sex only is bound. Adding one from each of the two pairs, we have bondage of 9 at a time, and in 2 Combinations. Hereafter bondage of sorrow and ennui ceases. In the 7th and 8th stages there is constant bondage of six as above. Adding male sex, laughter and indulgence, we have bondage of 9 at a time. and there is only one Combination. At the end of the 8th stage, indulgence. laughter. fear and disgust also cease to bind. In the first part of the 9th stage we have a bondage of 4 passions and the male sex. In the second part only the four passions are bound. In the 3rd.part only 3 passions excluding anger, and in the 4th only 2 passions excluding pride also, and in the 5th, only greed is bound. It is obvious that in each of the five parts there is only one Combination.

 

The result may be tabulated as below :

Table No.3 showing umber of places with their combinations.

 

Serial No. of places.

Stage.

No. of Sub-classes bound.

No. of combination.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

Wrong belief

Downfall

Mixed

Vowless

Partial vows

Imperfect vows

Perfect vows

New Thought Activity

Advanced thought activity 1st part

2nd part

3rd part

4th part

5th part

22

21

17

17

13

9

9

9

5

4

3

2

1

6

4

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

13

 

 

25

 

Thus the total number of places is 13 and of Combinations 25.

This is quite consistent with verse 467, where the number of bondage places is described as 10. It should be observed that there are two bondage places containing 17, and 3 containing 9 sub-classes, and hence actually there are only 10 different places.

 

Ӭ֚֝ם l

֐ָ֤֯ם Ͼ׽ם׾ ִ֋ ll 468 ll

ؾֿןָ֤ ֵáֿ֟ ֭ã֭׭ l

֍ָֻ֟ם Ͼã֭֟ׯ ִ֭ ll 468 ll

 

468. Generally in the ten (bondage places) in respect of deluding (Karma, there are) twenty Increasing, eleven Decreasing and thirty-three Steady bondage places. (In detail, they are many more. See verse 471).

 

ϯ Ӭӟ Ӭ ֤ ϯֲӬ׾ l

ֵ֟ ִ Ӭ ֐ ֤ ן ll 469 ll

ϻ ֭֟ ֭ ֤־֭֬sׯ l

ֵ֡ ִ ֭ ֍ָ֤: ־׭֟ ll 469 ll

 

469. Bondage of many (sub-classes) after bondage of a small (number of them), bondage of a small (number) after (that of ) many; and bondage of the same number-in both (of these cases) are respective- (called) Increasing etc., (i. e., Increasing Bhujakara, Decreasing Alpatara, Steady Avasthita).

 

ִ֋־֢ ֝۴ ָ l

פ ׾ ׾ֆ˚ Ӑ ll 470 ll

ִ֭־֌־ Ͼָ֭֟ ָ l

־ן ϯׯ Ͼã֟ ֛ ll 470 ll

 

470. Generally, Indescribable (Avaktavya bondage place) is one, when descending (from the subsidential ladder), and also one at (time to) death there (i. e. in the subsidential ladder); while (there are) only two steady (bondage) places. .

 

Commentary.

The four kinds of bondage places in respect of deluding :Karma are explained in verses 469 and 470. The twenty Increasing bondage places are detailed below :

(1) There are two Increasing places when (a) one sub-class of greed passion only is bound in the 5th part of the 9th stage, descending from there to 4th part, there Is bondage of two, greed and deceit.

 

The 80ul of a saint (b) dying in that stage reaches the 4th stage in celestial condition where it binds 17 sub-classes of deluding Karma.

(2). (a) A soul binding two in the 4th part of the 9th stage descends to the 3rd part where it binds three, pride. along with greed and deceit and (b) when dying and reaching 4th stage, it binds 17.

(3) (a) A soul binding three in the 3rd part of 9th stage descends to the 2nd part, and binds four viz.. anger also. (b) when dying and coming to 4th stage, it binds 17.

(4) (a) A soul binding four passions in 2nd part of 9th stage. descends to 1st part and binds five. (the above four and male sex); (b) when dying and coming to the 4th stage it binds 17.

(5) (a) A 80ul binding five in the first part of the 9th stage descends to the 8th and binds nine. the above five and laughter and indulgence, fear and disgust; (b) when dying and coming to 4th stage it binds 17.

(6) (a) A soul binding nine in 8th. 7th. and 6th stal1:es, descends to the 5th and bind. thirteen. the four total vow preventing passions being added on; (b) when dying and coming to the 4th, or otherwise descending to the 4th it binds 17; (c) a soul which has First-Subsidential-Right-Belief and binds nine. descends at once to the second downfall stage and binds 21 ; (d) a soul which has First Subsidential-Right-belief binding nine descends at once to the first stage of wrong. belief, and binds 22.

(7) (a) A soul in the 5th stage binding 13 comes to the 4th, when living or at death and binds 17. (b) with First-Subsidential Right-Belief, it descends to 2nd stage from the 5th and binds 21; (c) with Destructive-Subsidential or First-Subsidential-Right :Belief it descends to the wrong belief stage. and binds 22.

(8) (a) A soul with First-Subsidential Right-Belief in the 4th stage binding 17 sub-classes, descends to 2nd stage and binds 21; (b) the same and also the soul with Destructive Subsidential-Right belief. binding 17 in 3rd stage of mixed-belief, comes down to the 1st wrong belief stage and binds 22.

(9) A soul. binding 21 in the downfall stage comes down to wrong-belief. and binds 22.

There are thus 2+2+2+2+2+4+8+2+1-20. Increasing places as shown above.

To consider the 11 Decreasing places :

(1) A soul in Wrong-Belief stage binding 22 sub. classes of Deluding Karma. ascends to the 4th, 5th or 7th stage, at once. and then binds 17. 13 or 9 sub-classes respectively. Thus there are 3 decreasing places when ascending from the place of 22.

(2) A soul, as a Destructive-Subsidentia1, or Destructive. Right Believer, binding 17 in 4th stage, ascends to 5th or 7th stage at once. and binds 13 or 9 respectively. Thus there are 2 decreasing places from the place of 17.

(3) A soul in the 5th stage. binding 13, ascends to 7th and binds 9.

(4) A soul in the 7th. binding 9, ascends to 8th, or to the 1St part of the 9th. and binds 5 only.

(5) A soul in 1st part of 9th, binding 5. ascends to the 2nd part, and binds 4.

(6) A soul in 2nd part of the 9th binding 4, ascends to the 3rd part and binds 3.

(7) A soul in 3rd part binding 3. ascends to 4th part and binds 2 only.

(8) A soul in 4th part binding 2, ascends to 5th part of 9th, and binds one only.

 

There is one decreasing place in each of cases 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 and 8.

Thus there are 3+2+ 1+ 1 + 1... 1+ 1+ 1=11 Decreasing-Bondage places.

The Indescribable Bondage-places are two. A soul in the 10th or 11th stage of Subsidential ladder not binding any deluding Karma, comes down to 5th part of 9th and binds one. or it dies in that stage and comes to 4th stage and binds 17.

Adding together the 20 Increasing, 11 Decreasing and 2 Indescribable Bondage-places. we get 33 in all.

When a soul stays in any of these 33 places, it binds the same number of Karmas at every instant during the period of such stay, and thus there are 33 Steady Bondage-places as described hi verse 468 above.

 

֢־ֵ ֻ֤֝ ӓ׸ֵ l

֐ָ֤ם Ͼים׾ ׾ ll 471 ll

֯֟ؾֿ ׬֍֟ ֘֓֟ظ֟ ֘֯֟֟׬֍ִ֟ l

֍ָָֻ֯֟ם Ͼãֵ֭֟ׯ פ ll 471 ll

 

471. In detail (there are in deluding Karma) one hundred and twenty. seven, forty-five, and one-hundred and seventy-five Increasing, Decreasing and Steady Bondage places (respectively.)

 

ֳ ֈ ָ ֈ l

֝֐֤ߝ ןֵןֵ ״֓פ֐ָ ll 472 ll

ֳֿ֟پֿ ֤ ؿֿ ֟™ؾֿ l

ã ֘֓֍֤߭ ֵáֵ ״֣פ֍ָ: ll 472 ll

 

472. The (special) Increasing (bondage-places in deluding Karma) in Wrong Belief etc.. (stages are respectively) zero, twenty-four, twelve, twenty, twenty-four, twenty-eight, two and two (till the 8th stage); while three in each (of the) five parts of the Sthoola (9th stage of Advanced- Thought Activity).

 

Commentary.

This may be discussed in detail as below :

(1) A soul in Downfal1 stage, binding 21 sub-classes of deluding Karma. in four combinations. descends to Wrong-Belief and binds 22 classes in 6 Combinations, Thus there are 6 x 4-24 In creasing Bondage-places.

 

(2) A soul in Mixed stage binding 17 in 2 combinations, descends to Wrong-Belief stage and binds 22 in 6 combinations. Thus there are 6)( 2- 12 Increasing places.

 

(3) A soul in Vowels stage binding 17 in 2 combination, when coming down to downfall stage, binds 21 in 4 combinations. or coming to Wrong-Belief binds 22 in 6 combinations. Thus there are 2 t 6 x 2=20 Increasing places.

 

(4) A soul in. Partial-vow stage, binding 13, in two combinations descends, while living or at time of death, to the 4th or to Mixed stage and binds 17 in every case, in two combinations; or comes back to Downfal1 stage and binds 21, in 4 combinations; or descends at once to Wrong-Belief stage, and binds 22, in 6 combinations. Thus there are 2 2+ 4 x 2 + 6 x 2=24 Increasing places.

 

(5) A soul in Imperfect-vow stage, binding 9, in 2 combinations, descends, to 5th stage, and binds 13, in 2 combinations; or comes back to the 4th, or 3rd stage, and binds 11 in 2 combinations, or goes back at once to Downfall stage. and binds 21, in 4 combinations; or even returns to Wrong-Belief stage and binds 22 in 6 combinations. Thus there are 2 x 2 + 2 x 2 + 4)( 2 + 6 x 2:28 Increasing places.

 

(6) A soul in Perfect. vow stage, binding 9, goes down to 4th at death, and binds 17, in 2 combinations. Thus there are only 2 Increasing places. When it goes down to 6th stage, it binds the same number, and there is no Increasing place there.

 

(7) A soul in New-Thought-Activity, binding 9, descends to 7th and binds 9 only. Here is no Increasing place. When it dies it comes to 4th stage, and binds 17, in 2 combinations. Thus there are 2 Increasing places.

 

(8) A soul in 1st part of 9th stage, binding 5, comes down to 8th stage, and binds 9, or dies and goes to 4th stage. and binds 17, in 2 combinations. Thus there are 3 Increasing places.

 

(9) A soul in 2nd part of 9th, binding 4, comes down to its 1st part. and binds 5, or dies and goes to 4th stage and binds 17, in 2 combinations. Thus there are 3 Increasing places.

 

(10) A soul in 3rd part of 9th, binding 3, comes down to its 2nd part, and binds 4 ; or dies and goes to 4th, and binds 171n 2 combinations. Thus there are 5 Increasing places.

 

(11) A soul in the 4th part of 9th, binding 2, comes down to its 3rd part, and binds 3, or dies and binds 17. in 2 combinations in 4th stage. Thus there are, 3 Increasing places.

 

(12) A soul in the 5th part of 9th, binding I, comes down to 4th part, and binds 2, or dies and binds 17. in 2 combinations, in 4th stage. Thus there are also 3 Increasing places. Ail these added together will come to 127, thus:

 

Stage-I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX/1, IX/2, IX/3, IX/4, IX/5,

Place-O+24+12+20+24+28 + 2 + 2 + 3 +3+ 3 + 3.3-127.

 

ϯ֤ ֳ ֳ ם֝ ׋ ֳ l

֝֐֤ߝ ״ ㋝ ll 473 ll

όָ֟: : دֿ֟ ֳ ֳ: ֙ ֳ : l

ãֻ ֿ֍ִ֤߭: ִۭ 歵ִ ll 473 ll

 

473. And the Decreasing (Alpatara bondage places are) thirty, zero, and one (respectively in each of the first eight spiritual stages): one each (in first four out of) five parts of the Sthoola (the 9th stage) and zero in the last (part of the 9tb).

 

Commentary.

 

(1) A soul in Wrong-Belief stage, binding 22 sub-classes of deluding Karmas in six combinations. going to 3rd or 4th stage, binds 17 in two combinations; or at once ascends to 5th stage of Partial vows, and binds IS, in two combinations, or even goes direct to the 7th stage of Perfect Vows, and binds 9, in one combination. Thus there are 6x2+ 6 x2+ 6x 1~30 Decreasing piaces, in Wrong Belief stage.

 

(2) There is no Decreasing place in Downfall stage, because the soul always comes down to Wrong-Belief, and binges a greater number of sub-classes.

 

(3) Similarly, there is no Decreasing place in fixed stage. As soul in this will either come down to Wrong-Belief stage. Where it binds more deluding Karmas or will only go up to 4th. where it binds the same number of deluding sub-classes. which it bound it the Mixed stage.

 

(4). A soul in Vowless stage, binding 17, in 2 combinations going to the 5th,.binds 13, in 2 combinations, or ascending at once to 7th, binds 9,. in one combination. Thus there are 2 x 2+ 2x 1=6 Decreasing places.

 

(5) A soul in the 5th stage, binding 13. in 2 combinations, goes to 7th, and binds- 9, in one combination. Thus there are 2x1=2 Decreasing places. .

 

(6) A soul in the 5th stage, binding 9, in 2 combinations, goes to 7th. and binds 9. 1bus there are 2xJ.= 2 Decreasing places.

 

(7) A soul in 7th stage going to the 8th, binds the same number deluding Karmas; so there is no Decreasing place.

 

(8) A soul in 8th. binding 9, goes to 1st part of 9th, and binds 5,

 

(9) A soul in 1st part of 9th goes to 2nd part, and binds 4.

 

(10) A soul in 2nd part of 9th. goes to 3rd part, and binds 3.

 

(11) A soul in 3rd part goes to 4th, and binds 2.

 

(12) A soul in 4th part goes to 5th, and binds one.

 

There is only one Decreasing place in each of the cases (8). (9) (10), (11), (12).

 

(13) A soul in 5th part of the 9th, goes to 10th stage and binds nil, so there is no Decreasing place. Thus there are 30 + 0 + 0 + 6 + 2 2 + 0 . 1 + 1 ~ 1 + 1 + l +0=45 Decreasing places in Deluding Karma.

 

Ͼ֢־ ֝۴ ָ l

ן ׾ ן֋ Ͼ׽ Ӑ ll 474 ll

֤ Ͼ֍ Ͼָ֟ן ָ l

־֟ ϡׯ ֵ Ͼã֟ ֛: ll 474 ll

 

474. In detail, the Indescribable (bondage-place is) one on descending (from 10th stage); but there are two also with reference to death. Here also there are only three Steady combinations.

 

Commentary.

The Indescribable or Avaktavya Bondage places are three. Thus ;

 

(1) A soul in 10th stage, not-binding any sub-class of the deluding Karma, comes down to 9th. and binds the Perfect conduct deluding greed-Karma.

(2) A soul while ascending to 10th stage, not binding any deluding Karma, just dies and comes to 4th stage, and binds 17 sub classes. .

(3) A soul in 10th stage, while descending to 9th. just dies, and comes to 4th stage, and binds 17.

Thus there are 127 Increasing, 45 Decreasing, and Indescribable, aggregating 175 Bondage-places.

At every such place, a soul binds the same number of classes,

 


for some instants regularly, and therefore there are 175 Steady bondage-places, as described in verse 471.

 

־ Ͻ ֢ ֝ ֢׸ ׋ l

ֽ֝ ־ ֵ ן םִֵ ll 475 ll

־™ ֯֟ ֙ ֘ ֟׸ l

ã֭׭ ־ ־ۭ ׭ִֵ ll 475 ll

 

 

475. As a rule, there are only nine Operation places (Udaya sthana) in deluding (Karma) of (1) ten, (2) nine, (3) eight, (4) seven, (5) six, (6) five, (7) four, (8) two, and (9) one (sub classes).

 

״֓ ״ ֐ ִ פ ִ֢ l

ֵ֤֕ ִֻ֝ꌍ ll 476 ll

״֣ ״ þ֐ ִ֤ ־ן ִ֌ִ l

ֵ֕ן: ׫ֵֵֻ ll 476 ll

 

476. (At one time operation of) Wrong-belief, and Mixed-right-and-wrong-belief occurs in their own respective spiritual stages; Clouded-right-belief (operates) only during Destructive: subsidential-right-belief. One (out of four kinds of) passion, one (out of three) sex inclinations, (and one each) of the two pairs (of laughter and sorrow, and indulgence and ennui operate at a time). \

 

Commentary.

There are 28 sub-classes of deluding Karma. Out of them, Wrong Belief Karma always operates in a soul in the Wrong-Belief stage only. Mixed-right-and-wrong-belief Karma operates in the third, Mixed stage only. Clouded-right-belief- Karma operates along with Destructive subsidential-right-belief which may be present in four stages from the 4th to 7th.

Of the 16 passions, anger, pride. deceit, and greed, each is of four kinds error-feeding, partial-vow-preventing, total-vow-preventing and perfect-conduct-preventing. At a time, anyone of the four main passions, will operate in a soul, either anger or pride or deceit or greed. At a stage where all the four kinds. error-feeding etc., can operate, four kinds of anger or pride or deceit or greed will operate at a time. At a stage. where error feeding-passions are not operating, only the remaining three kinds (any of the main passions) will operate at a time in a soul. Of the nine minor passions, one sex inclination, out of three, will operate at a time In a soul. Of the pair of laughter and sorrow, one only will operate at a time, Of the pair of indulgence and ennui, only one will operate at a time. The operation of the remaining two. fear and disgust, is discussed in the following verses.

 

ֵ 㓔 ׾ ֝ם l

״֓פ㾾ӟ ֢׸ ן םִֵ ll 477 ll

ֵ ֳֳׯ ã֭׭ l

׭֣֪ԭ ֟׸ ־׭֟ ׭ִֵ ll 477 ll

 

477. As a rule, there are four (kinds of operation) places (of sub-cl8sses of deluding Karma. (1) with fear only, (2) with disgust only, (8) with both of them, and (t) (without any of them) during, the stages from Wrong-Belief to the end of (the 8th stage of) New-thought-activity.

 

Commentary.

Fear and disgust operate in three ways, either both together at a time, or only fear, or disgust only. To discuss in detail the operation of sub-classes of Deluding Karma in different stages.

 

(1) Wrong-Belief stage with operation of error-feeding passions.

 

According to the chart of operation sub-classes given at page 155 of Vol. VI Gommatsara Karma Kanda of the Sacred Books of the Jainas Series, 117 Karma Prakrities generally operate in the first stage. These include only 26 out of the 28 sub-classes of Deluding Karma. Mixed, and Clouded-belief do not operate in this stage. Out of these 26, there will be operation of Wrong-Belief. four kinds of anger, pride, deceit or greed, anyone of the three sexes, anyone of the two laughter and sorrow, any one of the two indulgence and ennui in four ways. m. (1) with operation of fear and disgust both, (2) with fear only (3) with disgust only. or (4) without any of the two. Thus in a soul in the above stage, there will be operation of ten, nine or eight sub-classes at a time.

 

This may, with advantage, be represented in the form of a chart.

 

Table No. 5 relati1tg to Wrong-Belief with error-feeding passion.

 

 

I

II

III

IV

Fear & Disgust.

2

1

1

0

Pairs of Laughter and Sorrow, Indulgence and ennui.

2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2

Three sexes

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

4 Passions of 4 kinds each

4 4 4 4

4 4 4 4

4 4 4 4

4 4 4 4

Wrong-Belief

1

1

1

1

Number of classes which operate, at one instant.

10

9

9

8

Out of

26

25

25

24

 

As stated in verses 476 and 477, ten sub-classes out of 26,9 out of 26, and 8 out of 24 will operate at one instant of time as shown in the above chart, and found by adding up vertically the figures in each of the five horizontal columns. The four vertical columns show that these sub-classes, in each of the 4 groups indicated by Roman figures, will have not only four but many more different combinations, because of the operation of one of the four passions, one of the three sexes, and Laughter and Indulgence, or Sorrow and Ennui, along with others.

As one example of the several variations. a soul may in Group IV have operation of 8 sub-classes- Wrong-Belief with 4 kinds of greed, common sex inclination, laughter and indulgence.

 

(II) Similarly there wit! be four Groups as shown below in the downfall stage. Wrong-belief-Karma wilt be excluded as it does not operate in that stage.

 

Table No.6 showing four groups in the Downfall stage.

 

The Downfall stage Four groups.

I

II

III

IV

Fear & Disgust.

2

1

1

0

2 Pairs of Indulgence & laughter, Ennui and Sorrow.

2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2

Three sexes

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

4 Passions of 4 kinds

4 4 4 4

4 4 4 4

4 4 4 4

4 4 4 4

Number of classes which operate, at one instant.

9

8

8

7

Out of

25

24

24

23