אֻ֤ ֵև ֈֻ ִ֢ l

㾾ִ֐ ֤םֵי֐ ִֽ ll 870 ll

֟׸֓ ֟׭ ֟㿓֟ظ֓ ϴ֢ ָôֿ l

ϯ읿ִ֍ ׭־עֳ֐ áִ™ִ ll 870 ll

ϛֽ ֵ ֳֵ֐۴ ֐ ӟ l

ϛֻ ֈ ־֐ ֍ ꓔ ll 871 ll

™š: ֟ ֳֵ֐ 斴֍ ֭ l

™֟ظ֟ ֟ؾֿ ֯֍ ֣֍ ֵ֖״ ll 871 ll

 

868-69. Seventy-thee hundred and sixty-seven in the Vowless-right-belief, sixteen hundred and sixty four in .Destructive.. right-belief.

Twenty-nine hundred and ninety-one in the Partial Vow, five hundred seventy-six in Destructive Right (belief). among humans. not in the sub-humans.

Forty one hundred and forty-four in (each of the. Imperfect (vow and) the other (Perfect vow), eight less one thousand in each of Subsidential. New. and Advanced thought activity, with Sex (inclination).

 

One hundred and sixty-eight in the (9th stage with) Passion only. forty-eight in the slightest (delusion). and twenty. four in Subsided (delusion). I shall speak gradually for (stages of the) des.

tructive (ladder etc.).

ϛֻ ׸ֵ֯㾾 םֵ׽Ӑ l

ߤ ֳֵ֐ ֢ ֢ ll 872 ll

™֟ظ֟ ֟:֭֟֯ ׭־ע־֐ l

Ͽן: ֵ ֐ ֟ ءֿ֟ ll 872 ll

 

872. (They are) four hundred and forty-eight in (each of) the New and Advanced thought-activity with sex. inclination, eighty with passion (in the 9th); then thirty-two (in the 10th) and sixteen (in the 12th).

א۴ ϕې۴ ֵ֤֝֝ ֐ָ l

ֈֽ ֢ ֐םֵ֤ ־ ll 873 ll

א׭ ϵא׭ ׫ֿ֟֙֘֟ ֍ָ: l

֟:š: ءֿ֟ ֵם֟ ֍: ־ ll 873 ll

 

873. Two-hundred and fifty-six in (each of) the Vibratory and Non-vibratory (are to be) multiplied (by) sixty-four and thirty- two (respectively). (To find out total number of all combinations) 111 all the (stages). after multiplication. one should be deducted (everywhere).

֬ 㬤Ӑ ן םִֵ |

־֤֯ כ Ӑ ֵָ֯ק ll 874 ll

֬ 㬤֛ ءֿ֟ ־׭֟ ׭ִֵ l

־ί֤ ן ֛ ֵָ֯֍ק™: ll 874 ll

874. Pure combinations among the Liberated are necessarily thirty-one. (Thus) combinations with reference to all terms (Sarva-pada) have been described by Lord Mahavira possessed un-assisted Power.

 

Commentary.

The calculations explained above may be shown in a tabular statement as below:

 

 

Stages

Pratyeka-Pada.

Pinda-Pada.

Total Combinations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subsidential.

 

 

 

 

 

Destructive.

I

II

III

IV

IV Destructive Belief.

V

V Destructive Belief.

VI

VII

VIII

IX with Sex

IX without Sex

X

XI

VIII

IX with Sex

IX without Sex

X

XII

XIII

XIV

Liberated.

15

15

16

16

16

16

16

18

18

19

19

19

20

19

20

20

20

21

20

14

13

5

5

4

4

5

5

5

5

4

4

3

3

2

1

1

2

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

7195P/2P1

1799P/2-1

1607 P1

7367 P1

1664 P1

2991 P1

576 P1

4144 P1

4144 P1

992 P1

992 P1

168 P1

48 P1

24 P1

448 P1

448 P1

80 P1

32 P1

16 P1

163841

81921

31

 

The grand total of combinations in all the stages, P being equal to 65536 is:

{ 2 + 1799/2 + 1607 + 7367 + 1664 + 2991 + 576 + 4144+ 4144

+992+992+168+48+24+448+448+80+32+16}-21

+16384+8192+31.

 

P{7195+1799/2+267.1}-21+24607

P{8994/2+25741}+24583

P{4497+25741}+24586

(Px30238)+24586

=65536x30238+24686

=1981677568+24586

=1,98,17,02,154.

֤׾ ־ֳ־ ֳ֝Ӑם l

֤Ӑם Ͼִ ֝ꕕ ll 875 ll

֤ׯ ־ֳ־: ãֳ֛֭: l

ֿ֤֛ ֿ: ִ ֭: ll 875 ll

 

875. Group combinations and the Pada combinations. of all possible thoughts in soul-quests also, should in the same manner, be considered serially, and carefully.

פ֤ ׍׸֝ ی׸֝ ߤ l

ֽ֢֝֝ߋ ׵ֵ֝ ֟ ll 876 ll

Ͽןֿ֟ ׍ִ֭׍֝ : ֟ן : l

֯֟š׭֭ ׵֍֭ ءֿ֟ ll 876 ll

 

876. (The number of systems of Philosophy) has been described. as one hundred and eighty Kriya-vadi, eighty-four Akriya-vadi, sixty-seven Ajnana-vadi, and thirty-two Vinaya-vadi,

 

Commentary.

Established and generally recognised forms of religion are not many: but personal beliefs vary immensely. One may just well say that there are as many sets of belief as there are human beings. Jain philosophers have however reduced all sets of beliefs to 363 kinds.

There are some who have no religious beliefs whatsoever. They may be called negativists or agnostics.

Others are positivists. They attach all responsibility for events to Time, Destiny, Nature, God, Atman:

Illusionists or Epicureans recognise sexual pleasures only; and do not bother themselves to find out the ultimate reality of things.

Devotionists again content themselves with merely worshipping others. They have no idea of soul. power. Jainism reconciles all these differing, inconsistent and contradictory theories by taking a broad and expansive view of things, by showing that there is partial truth in every theory, and the whole truth is found by looking at things from various points. Truth has many facets. Our view, our knowledge, our information is limited in various ways, and each one of us having an imperfect view of the whole quarrels with the other whose view is as imperfect, but is directed from and to a different point. One who can see the whole object from all points at one and the same moment of time knows the whole truth, and can correct and reconcile the various views of ill informed disputants.

The story of the seven blind men, who stumble against an elephant, and give their individual ideas of the animal, is an apt illustration of what is said above. One of them who happens to catch the ear, likens the elephant to a large hand-fan, one who catches hold of the tail says it is like a thick stout rope, one who falls upon the legs calls it a pillar, and so on. But one who can see the whole elephant by his eyes, corrects them all, tells them that each is right from a certain point of view, to a limited extent; and the whole truth he describes by giving details of the parts separately perceived by the blind men, which go to form the whole.

Other systems of thought outside Jainism have been divided into 4 main groups, and are sub-divided into 363.

1. Kriya-vadins. These may be called Positivists. Their sub-divisions are 180, because of the varying theories in respect of the nine categories, Jiva, Ajiva, Asrava, Samvara. Niriara, Bandha, Moksha, Puny. Papa, as affected by Time, God, Soul, Destiny, and Nature, working by itself, through another, permanently or momentarily. 9x5x4=1 80.

Akriya-vadins. Negativists have 64. sub-divisions, due to the varying theories of non-existence in respect of each of the seven tattw88 with reference to Time God, Soul, Destiny, and Nature working by itself or through another; and non-existence of the 7 tattwas with reference to Destiny and Time alone, irrespective of their working by themselves or through another. 7x5x2+7x;2=70+ 14=84.

Ajnana-vadins, or Agnostics, who have no beliefs at all in any. thing, with reference to the 7 aspects of 9 categories, and the 4 aspects of existence, non-existence, existence and non-existence, and idescribableness of the pure soul. 7x9+4=67.

Vinaya-Yadins. Devotionists are of 32 kinds with reference to reverence of God, King, Scholars, Saints, Old-men, Children, Mother, father through mind, body, speech and offerings. 8x4=32.

All kinds of Partial or non-true believers are 180+84+67+32=363.

۟ ֤ ָ׾ םָ֓ם֢֓֝ ־ l

ָֻםֵפ־ Ӑ |l 877 ll

ß þ֟: ָׯ ׭֟׭֟֟ ־֣˸: l

ָֻ֟׭ֵןþֳ־ ֛ ll 877 ll

 

877. Combinations (of Kriyavada) (come about) by (multiplying each of) the nine categories (Jiva, Ajiva, Punya, Papa, Asrava, Samvara, Nirjara, Bandha, Moksha) with Kala (time) Ishwara (God), Atma (soul) Niyati (Destiny) and Svabhava (Nature) and (the 4 ways) Swatah (by itself) Paratah (through another) Nityatva (permanently), Anityatva (momentarily).

 

Commentary.

 

The 7 Tattwas are described in Sacred Books of the Jainas, Vol. II, page 7. They form the 9 categories with merit and demerit.

۟ ָ֤׾ ם֓׸֢֓֝ ־֟ l

ϟ ִ ֻ֤ߝ ꓔ״ |l 878 ll

֟ þ֟: ָׯ ׭֟׭֟֟ ־֣: l

ִ֣: ִ: ֻ֤߭ ֵ֖״ ll 878 ll

 

888. (Each of) the nine categories exists, by itself. by the other, permanently or momentarily. (This is) easy to understand. Shall speak about time, etc.

ֻ ־ ֵ֝פ ֻ ־ ׾֤֝ l

֐ע ׾ ֌ ד֤ ֻ ll 879 ll

ֻ: ־ ֵ֭ן ֻ: ־ ׾ֵֿ֭ן ִֵ l

֐ٟ ֟¾ׯ ֌֟ ۘ֟ ֻ: ll 879 ll

 

889. Time generates all. Time destroys all. It is awake even in those who are asleep. No one can evade time.

 

ϝ֝ ϝ ϯ l

֐ םָ ִ֝ ־ ָ פ ll 880 ll

֭ ϭ߿ ֟ õ : l

þ֐ ׭ָ ִ֭ ־δָ ־ן ll 880 ll

 

880. The soul is ignorant and quite powerless. All pleasure, pain, going to heaven or hell is caused by God.

֯ ׸ ־־־ l

־־Ӑם֐׾ ֓֝ ם֐ ָ ll 881 ll

֟ ֿ ־Ծ֯ l

־כ׭֐ׯ ֭֓ ׭֐ԝ : ָ: ll 881 ll

 

881. There is only one Great Soul, is Almighty, Bright. All pervading, totally unknowable, also conscious, without attribute and Supreme.

 

֢ ֤ םִֵ֝ פ ֢ ֤ l

פ ֤ םֵפ֤ ll 882 ll

֢ ֤ ֣ õ ׭ִֵ֭ ־ן ֢ ֤ l

֣ õ ־פן ֤ ׭ֵן־֤֟ ll 882 ll

 

882. That which must happen at a certain time, through a certain agency, in a certain manner, in respect of a certain object, must happen at that time, through that agency, in that manner, in respect of that object. This is Niyativada (Fatalism).

֝ ן֌֢ ״ֵ׾ִ֤ߝ l

׾׾ ֡ פ ־־ׯ ֡ע ll 883 ll

: ן ֭ ߖ֝֟ ׾ִ֤߭ l

׾׾֬֟ þֳ־ ן ־δׯ þֳ־ ן ll 883 ll

 

883. What creates sharpness in thorns and difference in varieties of animals, birds, etc.? It is Nature. Therefore all is only Nature.

۟ ֤ ָ׾ ֵ֢֯֟ 㝝֯։ l

ֻפפӐ ֢׸ ֤ןӕ֤ ll 884 ll

ß þ֟: ָׯ ֤֣֯֟֯˸ 㝵֯֯: l

ֻפפֈ˸: ֯֟ן: ֟ : כӕ֟: ll 884 ll

 

884. (There are) seventy kinds (of Akriya-vadi ) due to 4 groups of nonexistence theory (1) by itself, (2) through another, (3) the seven categories excluding merit and demerit, and (4) Time etc. (i. e., Time God, Soul, Destiny and Nature).

۟ ֋֤֯ םֵ֤ߤ ֻ֤ ן֯ןֳ־ 1

פ ֢۟ ی׸֝ ߤ ll 885 ll

ß ֤֣֯֟֯˸ ׭ֵן֟: ֻ֟: ס֯כֳ־: l

֟ ן ß֟ ׍֝ ֟ן: ll 885 ll

 

885. (Add) fourteen (combinations) due to 3 groups of nonexistence theory (1) seven categories and (2) Destiny and (3) Time. (There are) eighty four Akriya-vadins.

֝և ־ֳ־ ִ֢֢ Ͼ֓״פ l

Ͼֵ֝֕ ֵ֢֟ פ ֐ ן ֽ ll 886 ll

֭ן ־ֳ־ ִ֢֢ ִ־֓״ן l

Ͼֵ֭֓ ֵ֯֟״ן ֛ ־׭֟ סš : ll 886 ll

 

886. Concerning (the above) nine categories, who knows their existence, non-existence, both (existence and non-existence) indescribability. indescribable existence. indescribable nonexistence or indescribable existence and non-existence. (Each of them) having seven aspects make up 9x7, the sixty-three kinds.

֝և ֑֓։ ־ 㬤 ם֝֯ןֳ־ l

֢׸ ן ˋ ϝ֝ߝ ֢ ll 887 ll

֭ן ֢֓֟ ־ 㬤 ֻ ӫ֌ֳ־: l

ָ֟ ־׭֟ ִ֖׭֭ ֯֟š: ll 887 ll

 

887. Who knows about the four aspects of pure substance. which in two series, (substance and the aspects) gives four Combinations. Thus there are (63+4) 67 (kinds of) Illusionists (ϖ֭ )

 

Commentary.

Illusionists do not believe in the nine categories having reference to seven aspects, nor in the pure substance being described in four aspects. 9x7+ 1x4=67 are the theories propounded by Illusionists. From Jain point of view Soul is described or understood in 7 aspects.

I. Soul exists in view of its individual attributes.

2. Soul does not exist in view of attributes foreign to it.

3. Soul exists with reference to its own attributes, and does not exist with reference to attributes foreign to it.

4. Soul is indescribable. No words can express its full reality at any moment of time.

5. Soul exists, but is indescribable.

6. Soul does not exist, but is indescribable,

7. Soul exists and does not exist, and yet it is indescribable.

Each of the other 8 categories can be similarly. described in 7 ways. The Illusionists do not recognise these aspects. Thus there are 67 kinds of Illusionists.

֝־ֵ֝֍ֵ֤֝֐׾֝־ ם־ևם֕פ l

ֻ ֤ׯ֤۴ ֵ־ פ Ͻ։ ll 888 ll

֭֭֓֍ֵ֤֭׾ֵ֭: ן֖׭ֵן־鬤 l

ֻ ֟ׯ֡꿓 Ծ: ן ™֟ ll 888 ll

 

888. Reverence to God, King, scholars, saints, old men, children, mother and father should be offered through mind, speech, body and offerings. Eight quadrupled (i. e., 8x4=32 are the kinds of devolutionists).

֓פ ׾ֵۯֵם ׽ם ֵם ן۝ l

֏כ ֈ֍ָם ϝםד֢ם ן ם ll

þ֓™׳: ׾֍ۻ֟׭ סš㟍׭ ֟׭ ם l

֏ם֛ ֵ֍֍֝׭ ϖ׭ד֢׭ ׭֟ ׭ ll

 

889. Three-hundred and sixty three are the distracting theories propounded by self-willed heretics. They catch the hearts of the ignorant only.

ϻ֜ םֹ ؍ؓ ӕ֤ |

֝֍߸פ֝ ֈ ׾֝ |l 890 ll

ֻõ֜ ׭ֹ: ׍֮ۘ ӟ |

ß֖֭߸פ֭ – ׾֭ ll 890 ll

 

890. One full of laziness, and devoid of zeal, cannot enjoy any fruit. Breast-milk cannot be drunk without effort.

ִ ָ ֝ ׬֯֯ֈִֵ֝֟ l

ִֻӐ ֝ և Ӑָ |l 891 ll

ִ ָ ֭ ׬֍ ִ֣֭Ѝ l

ִֻ: ֟ Ӑָ ll 891 ll

 

891. Others believe in Destiny alone and despise efforts. as useless. Karma, lofty like the Salf-tree. was killed in battle.

 

Commentary.

Neither Destiny nor Efforts alone are of much avail. A judicious combination of both brings about success. Destiny is the result of efforts. and Destiny helps in efforts. Through effort we can reduce the intensity of bad Karmic forces, and increase that of good Karmas. And yet sometimes Destiny may prevail, and at another time effort alone may bear fruit.

ӕִן ֤ן ֝ ꌍ֌ ֵפ l

Ӭ Ӑ ֝ ׾ֽ ӯ֕ ֵָ ׾ֽ ll 892 ll

ӵִן ֤׭֟ ֕ ֍ : ϵן l

ϭֿ ֭ ֭ ׾™ ӯϵ㟍 ֐ָ ׾™ ll 892 ll

 

892. Some sensible (persons) believe in combined action. A chariot cannot proceed by one wheel alone. Blind and lame men situated in a forest, may both enter the city, by combined efforts. (If the lame is carried by blind, who will be directing him along the right path, both will emerge out of the forest and enter the city safely).

և׽ ֬ ָ ׻֤׾ |

ەִ֯ӛ׏֢ ֻ ӓ׾ ׏֟֟ |l 893 ll

֍۟֟ ۬: Ը ״׻֟ׯ : l

ִ֛֬֯֝ז֯֟ ֻ ֘þׯ ז֯ ll 893 ll

 

893. (Others believe that) once a rumour is afloat, even the gods joined together can not undo it. The garland was placed (round the neck of) the middle,(seated) Pandava (Arjuna); but it was taken as placed, on all five.

 

Commentary.

This is an allusion to the well-known tradition that at selection time, Draupadi chose Arjun as her husband, and garlanded him. It was however given out that the garland fell on all the five, and she was treated as the wife of all the five Pandava brothers.

־פ ֵ֝־ ־פ ן ֵ־֤ l

־פ ֵ־֤ ־פ ן ִֵָ ll 894 ll

־֭֟ ֣֭֓֯: ־ֿ֭ ־ۭ ֵ־֤: l

־֭ ֵ־֤ß־ֿ֭֟ ־׭֟ ִֵָ : ll 894 ll

 

894. There are as many points of view as there are modes of speech. There are as many perverse theories as there are points of view.

 

Commentary.

Whenever a man speaks about a thing, he cannot convey all that he means to say about that thing, in any language or words, how so very much profuse. No description is complete by itself. It comprises only one or some of the various aspects of a thing. There are other aspects also. If an aspect. expressed by one sentence is taken to be the whole description of a thing, that will be incorrect and possibly perverse. All the points of view are partially correct. A man is father to his son, but a son to his father. He is a father and a son both. and neither a father nor a son, as the occasion may be. He is either, neither, and both varying with the point of view in the conversation.

ִֵָ֝ ֵ֝ ״֓ ֻ ־ ֵ֝ l

֝ ֵ֝ ִ ד־ֵ֤֝ ll 895 ll

ִֵָ֭ ֭֓ ״֣ ֻ ־ן ־Ԭ־֭֓֟ l

֭ 3 ֭֓ ִ֌ֻ ד֭֫֟ ll 895 ll

 

895. Statements of heretics are really wrong, on account of (their) absolute assertion. Statements by Jainas are certainly correct because they speak from a relative point of view.

 

End of Chapter VII.

 


CHAPTER VIII.

Three special thought-activities.

ִ ָ֝ ֝ ֬״ִֵ۬־ֳ־ l

ָߝפӤ םִֻ֐ش֤ ߻ ll 896 ll

ִ֟ ָ֝ ִִ֭֬۲ֳ־ ־ִ l

ָ߸ۭ֭ ׭ִԻ֐״ۭ֭ ll 896 ll

 

896. (O Chamundarai), bejewelled with virtues, bow down to the great Moon Viranandi (Achaarya). who has come out of the great ocean of Philosophy-nectar and to the preceptor Indranandi of pure attributes,

 

Commentary.

This Gommatsara was composed by Shri Nemichandra Aoharya for Chamundarai, the great Jain Commander in Chief of Raja Raya mall a of the Ganga dynasty. Nemichandra Acharya at the commencement of a fresh Chapter bows to the great Masters of learning, Acharyas Viranandi and Indra Nandi. There is an allusion to the mythological tradition. that when the celestials and infra celestials churned the Ocean, 14 Gems came out there of and the Moon was one of them.

 

א־ִ־ִ֝֝֝״֢ם ן֍ם l

֜ Ϭ֯־֢ פ ϯִ֢ ll 897 ll

ؾֿןִ֯ցִֿ֭״ן֢׭ ס֍׭ ô֭ l

֡˸ִִ֬: Ͼ ן ־ָ֟ : ll 897 ll

 

897. There are three Karana (special thought activities) which cause destruction. or subsidence of the twenty. one (sub. classes of the) Deluding Karma. A Saint in the Perfect-vow stage performs the first, Adhah Pravrittam.

 

Commentary.

The four error feeding passions are destroyed by One with destructive right belief. Out of the 25 sub. classes of Conduct-deluding Karma, 21 only remain to be subsided or destroyed. This is done through three special processes of thought concentration. The first is called Adhah Pravritta Karana, the primary process, and is used by a saint in the 7th stage.

 

ִ ׸ֳ־ ׽ֳ־ ׸֐ ן l

ִ ֜ Ϭ֯־֢ע םק½ ll 898 ll

ô֤׸ֳ֭־ Ϭßֳ֭־: ֥֍ ۭl

־ָֻ֕ ϣ ִ֬ l Ͼ״ן ׭پ™

 

898. Because, the thought-activity of posterior souls may become as pure as that of prior souls, therefore, the first of the ( 3 kinds of ) thought activity has been called lower thought-activity (Adhah Pravritta Karana).

 

Commentary.

Thought-activity has been divided into 8 kinds, with reference to the degree of purity attainable by one soul with reference to an. other. The first is the lower thought activity, Adhah Pravritta Karana; for here a soul who has commenced purification later, may come upto the level of one who commenced purifying earlier, in point of time. The rate or speed of progress of one soul may be higher than that of another, who started earlier on the road to purity.

The second is called Apurva Karana, new-thought activity. Here arise new thought activities such as had not arisen in the lower thought activity stages. Here, unlike the lower thought-activity stage, there is never attained the same degree of purity in souls who have commenced advancement at different time. Those, who start at the same time. mayor may not have the same degree of purity.

The third and the highest kind is Anivritta Karana, Advanced thought-activity. Here the thought-activities are such that souls who commenced in this stage, simultaneously, shall continue to make uniform progress without any difference in the degree of purity.

See verses 47,48, 49.51, and 56 of Gommatsara diva Kanda Vol. V, of the Sacred Books of the .Jainas Series on pages 88, 89, and 41. Verses 47, 48, 49 and f6 of Jiva Kanda are respectively identical with verses 897, 898,899 and 911 here. See also pages 41,42,48. 44, of Gommatara Jiva Kind Vol. V of the Sacred cooks of the Jainas Series.

ӟ ֛פ ֣ ׸ִ l

ִ֝ӏִ֯ ֹظ ׸־כֵ ll 899 ll

ϭִԭ֓: ֻ֟ ־ן ֡ ׸ִ: l

֍֭ӏ֯ϴ ֵԯ߸ ֥־۬֟: ll 899 ll

 

899. Its duration is one Antar-muhurta. The steps of purity of thoughts there, (are) innumerable times the universe (which has innumerable spatial units). Reaching higher and higher, the (purity) increases in uniform progression.

־֢׸ן ֈ ׸ l

֝֡Ϭ֝׾ ןֵӏ ӏꕕ ll 900 ll

ۯסáם ֟ ֟׸ l

֭֬־׾ֿ: ӏ ־ן ӏ ll 900 ll

 

900. (I order to calculate the steps of purity in though in the lower thought-activity stage of progress, (let us assume) the number of stages ־Ԭ֭ to be 3072, the terms (of progress) 16. the uniformly progressive sub-terms of each term 4, and the common difference in each of the successive sub. terms I, common difference (or the rate of progress) 4, and let 3 be used for purposes of calculating the ӏ reckonable, (as a notation).

פ֤֝ ־ ֵ֓֬֝ ӏֳ֐֯׸֝ l

Ϭ֯־֢ פע ו֝ םק ll 901 ll

פ֟־ ϓֵ֭֬ ӏ ֐֯׸ִ֝ l

Ϭ:Ͼ ־ןןו֭׭٤™ ll 901 ll

ֵ֬֝ ״׻֤ ֤פӏֵֹ֓ l

־֬֝ ִ ֤פӏ ו֤ ֵ֓ ll 902 ll

ֵ֭֬ ״׻֟ ֤ן֐ӏֹ֯ϓֵ: l

־ά֭ ֢ô֟ ֤ןӏ ו֟ ϓִֵ ll 902 ll

ֵ֬֝ߝ ֤ו֤ פ פ׸֝ l

פ۴ ֵ כִֵ֬֝ ־֝ ll 903 ll

ֵ֭֬߭ ֤֟ ־ן פ׸ִ֝ l

֤ ֵ 鬤 ןִֵ֭֬ ־ִ֭ ll 903 ll

 

901. The Jinas have laid down (the rule), that in lower thought activity, the sum of the differences between the first, and succeeding terms, (ϓֵ ֭) is numerable part of (פ ֭), the sum of the value of all terms (assuming the value of each term to be the same as that of the first term).

902. The addition of both the (ϓֵ ֭) and the (פ ֭) is (equal to) the square of the number of terms multiplied by 3 and by the common difference. Therefore the total sum being divided by the square of the terms and by 3 (gives) the common difference.

903. The first term is (obtained) by subtracting the sum of the common differences from the total ( 3072 ) and dividing by the number (of terms). By adding the common difference to each (successive term, are obtained) the various steps for attaining purity of thoughts.

Commentary .

The rule given in Sanskrit Commentary to Verse 901, is that (˯ϓֵ ֭) the sum of the common differences is obtained by half of the number o( terms less one, being multiplied by common difference

and by the number of terms. 16-1/2 x 4 x 16 =15/2 x 64 = 15 x 32.480. This is also called Uttara Dhana. (ָ ֭)

Adidhana = Sarvadhana-Uttara Dhana = 3072-480 = 2592. Verse 900 has assumed:

3072-torepresent the total steps for attainment of purity, ־Ԭ֭.

16-the stages by which such Purity is acquired. Ϭ֭.

4-the rate of increase purity.

3-an arbitrary number.

The sum of all the common difference ϓֵ֭֬ in all the 15 term, excluding the first term, is obtained by the Algebraical formula in Arithmetical progression also.:

 

S=n/2(a+1) = n/2 {2a+(n-1)d)} = 15/2 (2x4+14x4)

= 15/2 (8+56) = 15/2x64=64=15x32=480.

 

And this 480 is obviously a numerable part of 2592 as stated in Verse 901.

According ta the rnle in verse 902, 162 x3x4=256x3x4=256x12 =3072. is the is the ־Ԭ֭ sum total of all the terms. It is also the sum of פ֭ the first term multiplied by 16, the number of terms and ϓֵ֭֬ viz.2592+480=8072

The common difference is 3072/162 / 3=192 / 16 / 3=12 / 3=4.

=162, is the first term.

The same result is obtained by the Algebraical formula

s= n/2 {2a +(n-1)d}

= 16/2 {2a + 15 x 4 } = 8 (2a + 60)

... l6a + 480 = 3070.

or 16a = 3072-480 = 2592

or a = 162.

 

The series would then stand as below:

 

Serial

Serial No. Value of terms. Difference between

the first and successive terms.

1 162

2 166 4

3 170 8

4 174 12

5 178 16

6 182 20

7 186 24

8 190 28

9 194 32

10 198 36

11 202 40

12 206 44

13 210 48

14 214 52

15 218 56

16 222 60

3070 480

 

ֵֵ֓֬֝֝֝ ֵ֓ ֳ־ ִֵ֓ l

֤֯ ֤ ־֟׾ פ םִֵ ll 904 ll

ϓֵ֭֬õֵ֭֭ ϓֵ: ־ß ϓֵ ־ l

֤֯ ֤ ־ԡׯ ־ן ׭ִֵ ll 904 ll

 

904. In order to know the sum of the common differences (Prachaya-dhana), the common difference and the first term of the common difference (Prabhava), which is the same as the common difference, and the terms less one are always (to be taken in calculating according to the rule.

 

Commentary.

The rule enunciated in the Sanskrit Commentary to verse 904 is

 

S=n { (n;1/2Xd )+d } or=15 (14/2X4+4 )=15 (28+4)=15x32=480

כִֵ֬֝׾ ֤ ֵ֓ ֳ־ ׸ l

ϝ׼֤ ־֬֝ ӏֳ֐ ll 905 ll

ןִֵ֭֬ׯ ֤ ϓֵ: ־ֿ ־ן ןָۿ l

ϭ™֤ ־˸֭õ ӏֳ֐ ll 905 ll

 

905. To divide the values of all the (16) (Sarvaadhvana) terms into numerable parts, (which are assumed to be 4) in a series (Anukrishti). (we have to find out) the value of each term (Prati Samaya dhana). the number of terms (Pada), the common difference (Prachaya), and the first term of the common differences (Prabhava), for preparing a tabular statement (Tirashchi).

ϝ׼֤ ֵ֓ ֵ֓ ׸ l

ֵ֓֬֝ ־ ֐֤֯ו֤ ֤ ll 906 ll

ϭ׆֤ ϓֵ ϓֵß ־ן ןָۿ l

ϓֵ֭֬ þ֍֤ו֟ ־פ : ll 906 ll

 

906. In the tabular statement, the common difference, being divided by the number of terms in the series, is the common difference (among the sub-terms of the series) The whole sum minus the sum of the common differences ϓֵ֭֬ divided by the number of terms, is the first term of the series.

פ۴ פ ϝ׼ ֵ ׸ l

פ ן׸ָ֝ Ϭ֯־֢۴ ۴ ll 907 ll

֤ ֬ԟ ϭ™: ֵß ןָۿ l

ן ןֵԐϓ֭ Ϭ:Ͼ ll 907 ll

 

907. In the tabular statement, the common difference is successively added to each term commencing from the first. Such a statement would illustrate the state of progress in lower thought activity (stage of concentration, Adha Pravritta Karana).

 

Commentary.

Each of the 15 terms. shown in the tabutll1 statement, following verse 908, has been divided into 4 sub-terms.

 

The common difference among the 4 sub-terms. will according to the rule given in verse 906 be 4 / 4 = 1.

The sum of the common differences in all the 4 sub-terms, Prubaya Dhana, will again, be 4 1/2 x 1 x 4 = 8 according to rule given in the Commentary just abc1ve referred to.

Further. the first sub-term will be 162-6/4 = 156/4+39. The other 3 terms will be successively increasing by the common difference 1.

Thus we shall have 39,40, 41, 42 as the 4 sub-terms of 162, the first of the 16 terms.

Similarly the first sub-term of the second term 166, will be 166-6/4 = 160/4 = 40, and the other 3 terms. following it 41 42, 43. The same result is obtained by applying the Algebraical rule of Arith metical progression.

 

S = n/2 {2a +(n-1) d }

162 = 4/2{2a + (4 -1) 1 }

= 2 (2a + 3)

= 4a + 6.

.. 4a = 162 - 6 =156

The first term a = 39

The Series is 89 + 40 + 41 + 42 = 162

 

The complete series will be as follows :

Instants.

Thought in each instant.

1st Division.

2nd Division.

3rd Division.

4th Division.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

162

166

170

174

178

182

186

190

194

198

202

206

210

214

218

222

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

40

41

42

43

44

45

469

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

 

To discuss in detail. Let us suppose that 4 persons have entered upon a stage of lower thought activity one having 89, the other 40, the8rd 41 and the 4th, 42 steps of thought purity. Each is advancing every moment by one step. In the next instant the four will respectively have progressed to 40,41, 42 and 48 steps. Then suppose that another set of four persons have entered upon such thought purity. They will have in the first instant, steps of 89, 40, 41 and 42. Here the person who has 40 in the first instant will be equal to that person who has 40 in the 2nd instant, and one who has 41 in the first instant will be equal to the person who has 41 in the 2nd instant. , The one in the first group who has 89 in the first instant will have 42 in the 4th instant. while the 4th person of the 2nd

group has 42 in the first instant. Thus a person entering upon thought-purity later may be equal to one who has commenced earlier.

Where such progress of increase or purity is possible, it is called the lower thought-activity.

See Gommatsara Jiva Kanda, Vol. V, S. B. J. Series, pages 41, 42. 43 & 44.

ӟ֍ֻ ״։ Ϭ֯־֢֍

כִֵ 㕳ӟ ϯ㾾֍ ִۻֵև ll 908 ll

ϭԍ ִ׵֟ Ϭ:Ͼ֍ l

ןִֵ 㬪֯ԍ ִֵן ll 908 ll

 

908. Having passed an Antar-muhurta in the lower thought activity stage, increasing every moment in purity, the soul acquires the next stage of New thcught-activity.

 

Commentary.

A Saint in the 7th Spiritual Stage passes one Antar-muhurta, in the Lower Thought Activity, progressing infinite-fold, at every moment in purity of thought; and then ascends to the 8th stage, and acquires New. Thought-Activity, increasing at every instant infinite fold in purity.

ֈפֈ Ͻ ֝ ֤֝ l

׸ִ׾׾ ֈ ӏ֯㾾֍פ ll 909 ll

֝־ן֓֟:á ™ ֭ ֤֭: l

׸ִ׾ֿׯ֓ ֟׸ ӏ֭֟֯ԍӥ™: ll 909 ll

 

909. In New-Thought-Activity calculation, let four thousand and ninety-six (4096) be the sum ( of thought-steps); eight, the number of instants; sixteen, the common difference (at every instant); and four the arbitrary number.

ӟִ כִִֵӏֻ֐֯׸ִ |

ֈ֯㾾֐ ϝ ۟ םִֵ ll 910 ll

ϭִԴ֡ ןִִֵӏֻ׸ִ: l

־鬤: ϯԐ ϭ™֟ ׭ִֵ ll 910 ll

 

910. The thought steps in New-thought-Activity, are innumerable times the universe (spatial units), increasing for one Antar-muhurta gradually (in purity) at every instant. As a rule, there is no overtaking by another (Anukrishti) here.

 

Commentary.

Persons advance in New- Thought-Activity will go On progressing with a ready and uniform increase in purity, in such a manner that those who have commenced such advance simultaneously may keep pace together, but those who commence later can never over-take them.

According to the rule of Arithmetical progression.

S=n/2 { 2a+(n-l)d }

4096 =8/2 {2a+(8-1) 16 } =4(2a+112)

. . 88=4096-448=3648

:. The first term a=456

The series will be 456+472+188+504+520+536+552+568=4096.

۴ ִֵֻ Ӛ֤֝ ם־ּן l

ם־ּן ן־ ׸ִ ״ ll 911 ll

ן םֵ׼ כִֵ ִꌍםִ |

׾ִֵָֻ֟֝ ם֧־֝ ll 912 ll 㴴 l

ô֭ ִֵֻ ã֭פ׳ֵԣ ׭־֟ԭ l

׭־֟ԭ֟ ֣ׯ ׸ִٴ֣ |l 911 ll

־ۭ ׭־ٟ֭֟ ןִֵ ִ׸ִ: l

׾ִָֻ֭֟־ۿ׳׭Ϥ֍Ծ֭: ll 912 ll 㐴ִ

 

911. Though souls may at one and the same instant, differ from each other in matters like formation of body, yet when they do not differ among themselves in purity of thought, (they are said to be in Advanced Thought-Activity (Anivdtti Karana).

912. They, whose thought-purity is similar at each and every moment. are in Advanced Thought-activity (Anivritti Karana). They are consumers of the forest of Karmas by the flames of the fire of very pure concentration.

 

Commentary.

The souls who commence the stage of Advanced thought-activity in one and the same instant will have equal purity and will progress equally without any difference. Those who .commence afterwards will not be equal to those who began before them.

 

End of Chapter VIII.

 


CHAPTER IX.

DURATION AND MODE OF EXISTENCE OF KARMAS

֬ ׾㬤םֵֻ ֽ֝ ׾ָֽ֝ l

֝״ֵ ָ ꓔ יפֲ֝־ ll 613 ll

֭֬ ׾ֿ㬤׭ֵֻ֭ ϝ™ԝ: ׾֭™ָ֭ l

ϝִ ׿ ֵ֖״ ãןֳָ֭־ִ ll 613 ll

 

913. With head bowed to the Perfect Souls who have destroyed Karmas, annihilated mundane wanderings, and have reached the purest abode, I shall describe ,he duration and variations in the workings of Karmas.

 

Commentary.

In Chapter IX is discussed the quantity of Karmic partials, in their molecular groups, at each instant. These quantities are constantly varying, but in a fixed ratio, a-amenable to calculation, al. though the calculation is very minute and subtle, brain-racking to the beginner, but gaspingly fascinating to the scholar, the thinker, the saint lost in raptures of meditation.

 

ֹӝ֐ֵ֤ פ ֹ l

߸ ־ ־ ־ ll 914 ll

Թ֐֦֟ ן ֹ l

ߝֵ ֲ֬ ־֢־ֳ ll 914 ll

 

914. So long as matter bound up as Karma does not come into operation (at maturity), or into immature operation, (the intervening period) is (called) quiescence, Aabaadhaa.

 

Commentary.

Verses 914, 915, 916, 917, 918, 919, 920 and 921, are identical reproductions of Verses 155, 156, 157, 158, 159,160, 161 and 162, in Gommatsara Karma Kanda, Part I, Vol. VI. of the. Sacred Books of the Jainas Series, on pages, 87, 88, 89 and 90.

Karmic matter flows into the soul on account of soul vibrations; and by operation of Karmic Body sub-class of Body-making Karma; and then binds the soul, for a definite duration, varying with the intensity of passions. The period between the moment of bondage and commencement of its operation, matured or immature, is called Aabaadhaa.

כ ֢֝ ־ ככ ߝ l

ֵ ֯כ֐ ׽ߝ ll 915 ll

ן ֲִ֭֯֬ ߍי߭ l

Կ֟ ֟ןֳ֐ ã֟߭ ll 915 ll

 

915. With reference to (mature) operation, the quiescence of seven Karmas (viz. all except Age) (is) one hundred years for (a duration of) one crore x crore Sagars (Oceans) of years; and is in the same proportion for (those of) other durations.

 

Commentary.

Excepting age Karma, all the seven Karmas have a quiescence of 100 years for a duration of one crore x crore sagars. The quiescence. period (Abadha Kala) of Knowledge-obscuring, Conation-obscuring Feeling and Obstructive Karmas, each of which has a maximum duration of 30 crore X crore sagars will be 3000 years. Deluding Karma has a maximum duration of 70 crore x crore sagars; its quiescence will be 7000 years. Body making and Family Karma has each a maximum duration of 20 crore x crore sagars. and a quiescence of 2000 years.

ӟ֍ךפ ӟִ־ l

ӏꕕ֐׾ߝ ־֕׽פ ll 916 ll

ϭ: ߍיãִ֟֟ ֲ֬ l

ӏ֟֐׾߭: ־Ε֑֭ã֟Ծ ll 916 ll

 

916. For a duration within one crore x crore (Sagars), the quiescence one is Antar-muhurta. It is a numerable part of this for all small durations.

 

Commentary.

100 years =100xl2x30x30=10,80,000 Muhurtas. One Muhurta consists of 2 Gharis or 48 Minutes. The quiescence-period for a duration of a crore x crore Sagars is within this. When quiescence is only one Muhurta, the duration will be 10,00,00,00 00,00000 / 10,80,000 =9259252-16/27 Sagars. This is the period which is therefore meant here by the expression within one crore x crore Sagars, When quiescence is less than this; the duration will be much less.

Working up further, the quiescence for a duration of one Sagar will be 48 x 60 / 9259252-16/27 of a second which is about a millionth part of a second.

The Jaina saints have their own method of calculation, which is independent of mechanical contrivances, and is suited to their mode of life, above all possessions and necessities. They measured time not by the clock, but by the motion of the sun, moon, planets, constellations of stars, and by pulse beats, breath-periods, heat throbbing.

A year is ordinarily taken to consist of 360 days. According to solar Indian Calendar, after some years, a month is added to the year, and the astronomical calculations regarding the seasons, the festivals, eclipses of the sun and moon are quite accurate.

In a year there are 360 days; in a day 30 muhurtas and 3773 pulse beats in one muhurata, which consists of 48 minutes. Thus, in one hundred years there are 100 x 360 x 30 x 3773 - 1080000 x 3773 = 4,07,48,40.000 pulse beats. The quiescence for bondage duration of one Sagar is 4,07,48.40.000 / 10,00.00.,00,00.00,000 of a pulse beat. Thus it is clear that light Karmas whose bondage is of an ordinary duration begin to operate practically immediately.

Ordinarily the durations are of medium types of varying periods. The maximum and minimum durations are extremely rare. Our ordinary passions are neither extremely intense, nor extremely mild. The corresponding bondage-Duration is also of ordinary length. The quiescence for one sagar years duration is roughly 25000th part or exactly speaking 0,00,04.07,484 of a pulse beat. A Sagar consists of innumerable years. Thus it is evident that if a person at an early are binds a karma of 70 or 80 years duration, it must begin to operate after one Avali or wink. i. e. practically at once.

The word Samkhyat which has been translated as numerable, or reckonable, conveys the idea of a fraction which, though very very small is nevertheless reckonable.

The word Asankhyat. irreckonable, innumerable denotes a still sma1ler or a higher figure; and the word Anant, Infinite, a figure smaller or higher than that even, Samkhyat, Asamkhyat, Anant has each been divided into three grades, minimum, medium and maximum.

For Jaina Theory of Numbers see Page 20 of -the Introduction to Gommatsats, Jiva Kanda Vol. V of the Sacred Books of the daises Series.

㾾֝ כןֳ֐֤ӏ֡Ϭע l

ֈ ־ ׽פכ֐ִֈ ll 917 ll

ԝִ י סֳ֐֤Ӗ֯֬ ן ־ l

ϵֲֿ֬ ãן֯ןֳ֐ ֵ: ll 917 ll

 

917. The quiescence of age Karma is a third part of one crore Purrs, (years, as maximum, down to one AS8DKsbepaddba (viz. an in numerable part of an Avali, as the minimum). There is no (role of) proportion (with reference to) its duration.

 

Commentary.

Age Karma for the next life is bound within an Antar-Muhurta. viz.. during a period less than 48 minutes, after the expiry of two thirds of the current Age period. If it is not bound within that: Antar Muhurta the next stage for its being bound will come when two-thirds of the remaining age has expired and win last for one Antar-Muhurta. There are such eight occasions. This is the retire for humans IInd sub-humans of the work region. each of whom, have a maximum age of one crore Purva in the Videha region of the continent Jambu dvipa. 84 lakhs of years- 1 Purvanga, 84 lakhs . Purvangas - I Purva.

In the case of maximum age therefore, one third of a crore Purva is still to be passed, when such soul binds Age Kanna for the next life, and it will come into operation at the end of the present life. The period of 1/3 of a crore Purva is therefore the maximum quiescence of age Karma. The minimum will be an in numerable fraction of an Avali, because a 8ub.human and human having the minimum age of 1/ 18th of a pulse beat time, will bind Age Karma just before death.

 

Beings of enjoyment region bind it 9 months before death, and those of celestial and hellish regions 6 months before death.

־׻ֵ ־ ߸ִ֕ ֢֍֝ l

ָ׾ֵ֡ֈ ߸ ۟ םִֵ ll 918 ll

־׻֍ֲ֬ ߸ִ֟ ֯֟֍ִ֝ l

ָ־ߵֵõ ߝ ß ׭ִֵ ll 918 ll

 

918. With respect to premature operation (Udeerna), the quiescence is one Avali for seven Karmas (viz. all except stage Karma). There is, as a rule, no premature operation of Age Karma bound (in present life) for the next incarnation.

 

Commentary.

The Avali in the above Verse is called ϓֻ־ֻ Aehalaspali or fixed wink, the minimum p6:oiodof quiescence. Premature cessation of Age Karma viz, premature, or accidental death, is not possible among Celestial, and hellish beings, and among such human beings who possess a body for the last time, and who also possess the highest kind of physical body, and among humans and sub-humans of the enjoyment region. Only the rest of the humans and sub-humans have premature, or untimely death.

־םֵ֍׽ם ֢֍֝ l

ֈ ם ֐׽ פ םִֵ ll 919 ll

ϲ֬׭֟֍ãן٭ß ֯֟֍ԝִ l

ֵ ׭: ֭: þ֍ãןֳԾן ׭ִֵ ll 919 ll

 

919. The number of Nisheka (is equal) to the number of instants of duration after deduction of the period of quiescence. The Nishe.hu of Age-Karma are as a rule, equal to the instants of duration.

 

Commentary.

Instant-Bondage, Samaya prsbaddha is the number of Karmic, or no Karmic monticules bound by a soul in one instant. Nihska which has been translated by ,I. L. Jaini as a dripping on page S9, Vol. VI of the Sacred Books of the Jainas Series is that bundle of Karmic molecules in bondage which shed off in an instant. There is no deduction of quiescence time from Age-Karma duration, because the quiescence time of Age-Karma is deemed to have been passed in the previous birth.