This translation was made in 1917 at Indore after I had finished my translation of Jiva Kanda (Volume Fifth of the Sacred Books of the Jainas). Only this, Part I, was translated. My official duties, health and may similar circumstance obstructed both a future translation and an earlier publication. In this, as in the publication of my other long-lain manuscripts, I am beholden beyond repayment to my beloved and revered brethren Jaina Dhrma Bhushana Brahmachari Sital Prasadaji and Pandit Ajit Prasada, M.A., LL.B., both of whom have been doing this labour of love and piety at Lucknow from August 1926.
Karma Kanda in brief, is a scientific analysis of Evil, of Sin. Evil is material, as God or the Pure Soul is certainly immaterial. The Jiva Kanda deals primarily with the Soul; the Karma Kanda with the material and self-forged Karmic fetters of this soul. It describes the matter and manner of this bondage, so that true and accurate knowledge may help the imprisoned, embodied soul to live a life leading to freedom and Bliss.
Indeed the only use of true books-the “Bibles” of the world-is to teach people how to live. Otherwise they are a “dull and endless strife”, and the over production of books on all subjects and in all countries may well be called a prostitution of the press, and distraction and dissipation of the human intellect. The Press is like the Frankenstein of old, which created by man, has mastered him to the strangling point. The fiction Magazine with its teachings of crime and lasciviousness, the daily newspaper with its reports of divorcees, dacoities, and all the dirty details of human defects and aberrations are the greatest interments of the Devil. Our costly and artificial systems of Education and Government also seem to be open to the same objection mostly. Well have the Conquerors of pain and ignorance (the Jinas) prohibited frivolous talk, jests, pranks, stories of sex, crime, political gossip, etc., etc., as Pramada (carelessness) leading to entanglement in Samsasra (mundane life), and obscuring the real qualities of the soul. As it is impossible to improve upon that wonderful gem of Jaina Sacred Literature, the Jaina Bible, I have purposely quoted at length, in the Introduction, from Saint Umasvami’s Tattvartha Sutra, as it gives eternal, patent remedies and procedure for lessening and removing human ills.
It is a very long process to show the application of these remedies to our many and complex needs of every-day life; and its is obviously impossible to indicate their application to individual needs. But the remedies are these, and every man and woman, knowing his or her own faults and frailties, needs and desires, can easily find guidance after studying these general rules of right human conduct. The test of the pudding is in the eating thereof; and the test of the value of these teachings is when a man follows them and finds that they cure his weakness and sorrow and give him peace, power, calmness, a noble delight in his own work and life, and joyous co-operation and brotherly service in his relations with his neighbors and living beings generally. In one work, these teachings instill into one on insight of his being a chip of the eternal Omniscience and Omnipotence which we call GOD, and at the same time excite him into an easy, almost instinctive, realisation of his being a happy member of the Universal Fraternity of all Living Beings.
Whatever is correct in this volume, is due to the grace of the Tithamkaras and the kindness of my devoted friends at Lucknow; but whatever is a mistake in matter and manner is entirely due to my unworthiness and laziness, i.e., to my Pramada.
NEW YEAR’S DAY, 1927. J.L.JAINI
Gommata-Sara, Karma-Kanda is really a complement of Shri Nemi Chandra Siddhanta Chakravarti’s Jiva Kanda of Gommata Sara. For gerneral remarks of the whole book, reference may be made to the Introduction to my translation of Jiva Kanda Volume Fifth of the Sacred Books of the Jainas. Here only Karma Kanda will be dealt with.
The Six Substances.
Space and time are co-extensive and infinite. Space consists of the Universe (Loka), and the Non-Universe (Aloka). The Universe consists of two substances: Living (Jiva) and non-living (Ajiva). The Living alone has consciousness, power to attend and to know. The non-Living has neither Consciousness, nor Attention, nor Knowledge. This is of 5 kinds: (1) Matter (Pudgala) i.e., table chair, brick, stone, etc. (2) Principle of Motion (Dharma) which is an essential auxiliary of the motion of soul and matter. (3) Principle of Rest (Adharma), which is a similar auxiliary of the cessation of the movements of souls and matter. (4) Time (Kala), in virtue of which things become old, new, or continue in their existences. (5) Space (Akaha), which gives their place or location to all substances. These six, Jiva, Pudgala, Dharma, Adharma, Kala, and Akasha, are called the six substances or Dravyas.
Dravya literally means flowing or continuing. It is so-called, because it flows or continues the same through all its modification. It is called “St” or Existence also. Existence or substance is a collective name for a trinity-unity of Birth (Utpada), Decay (Vyaya) and continuance (Dharauvya).
A Substance further is group of attributes and modifications, As there are 6 substances, some attributes are general or common; others are special. Samanya-guna, or common attributes are found in all substances; there are the attributes which are necessary for the existence of the group, as a group or substance.
These are infinite but 6 are principal:
1. Astitava, Is-ness; Indestructibility; permancence; the capacity by which a substance cannot be destroyed.
2. Vastutva, Functionality; capacity by which a substance has a function.
3. Dravyatva, Change-ability, capacity by which it is always changing in modifications.
4. Prameyatva, Know-ability : Capacity of being known by someone, or of being the subject matter of knowledge.
5. Agurulaghutva, Individuality; capacity by which one attribute or substance does not become another and the substance does not lose the attributes whose grouping forms the substance itself.
6. Pradeshatva, Spatiality, capacity of having some kind of location in space.
Chetanatva, Consciousness …..
Amurtatva, Immateriality …..
Are common attributes of the class of substance, or group of attributes, called
Achetanatva, Unconsciousness …..
Are common to Space, Motion, Rest and Time.
Murtatva, Materiality ……
Are commons to matter.
Vishesha guna are special attributes of a particular substance. These are the attributes which distinguish one group from the others.
Vishesha-guna or special attributes of each substance are:-
1. Knowledge. In its full form it arises only in the absence of knowledge-obscuring karma.
2. Conation. In its full form it arises only in the absence of conation-obscuring karma.
3. Bliss. In its full form it arises only in the absence of all the 4 destructive karmas, etc.
4. Power. In its full form it arises only in the absence of obstructive karmas, etc.
5. Right Belief In its full form it arises only
6. Right conduct in the absence of deluding karma
7. Avyavadha. Undisturbable, due to the absence of vedaniya or feeling karma; neither pleasure nor pain.
8. Avagaha, Penetrability, due to the absence of age-karma.
9. Agurulaghutva, due to the absence of family determining karma.
10. Sukshmatva, fineness due to the absence of body making karma.
The first 6 are Anujivi attributes, which co-exist in and constitute the substance.
They arise fully only on the destruction (kshaya) of the 4 destructive (Ghatiya) karmas; Conation and knowledge-obscuring; Deluding; and Obstructive.
The last 4 are Pratijivi attributes, which merely indicate the absence of their opposites.
The last 4 are Prativivi attributes, which merely indicate the absence of their opposites.
They arise fully on the destruction (Kshaya) of the 4 non destructive (Aghatiya) Karmas; Feeling, age; Family-determining and Body-making karmas.
2. Pudgala, matter has for its special attributes:-
3. Smell &
3. Dharma, has for its speical attribute the quality of being the medium of motion.
4. Adharma, medium of rest.
5. Akasha, Space; its special attribute is to give place to all substances.
6. Kala, Time; its special attribute is to bring about modifications.
Modifications occur only with reference to attributes. This alone is what is meant by Birth and Decay. Modifications or conditions change:- i.e., a new condition is born, i.e. comes into existence (Utpada), and the old one decays, i.e., goes out of existence (Vyaya). The essential attributes of the substance always persist through all these modifications. It must be clearly understood and constantly remembered that substance is one; the birth and decay in its modification, and the continuance of the substance itself are only 3 aspects of viewing one and the same thing. Also Substance (Dravya), Attribute (Guna) and Modifications (Paryaya) are three mutually interpervasive aspects of the one trinity-unity; attribute is noting different from substance and modifications. So for all the three. When we talk or think of one, we necessarily talk or think of the remaining two. The threefold distinction is merely for the purpose of exposition and explanation by our limited knowledge to others of limited knowledge. The soul with Omniscience sees the whole trinity unity in its entirety at one and the same time.
The Embodied Soul.
In the Universe, the Jiva Dravya or Soul is found mixed with non-living matter. Even the most ordinary and the least civilized men, even animals, exhibit their recognition of this fact. For Death is a most universal and eternal phenomenon. The living body is living; when death intervenes, the body becomes lifeless, or dies. Life has left the body. This life is the Soul; the body represents the grossest and most visible form of matter, with which the Life was clothed, and which was “Living” only so long as Life or Soul was united with it.
The 7 Tattvas.
The Soul (Jiva)and the Non-soul (Ajiva) are the first two Tattvas. The most important non-Soul is the Pudgala Dravya or Matter-Substance. The most important combination of soul and matter is our body.
It is also manifest that this body is constantly changing, in virtue of our activity of mind, speech and body. A feeling of modesty in the mind of the maiden paints her cheeks with blush. A sad thought gives one a long face. Criminal broodings breed a criminal look in a man or woman. The pious chanting of a hymn or prayer gilds one with the calm detachment and glory of the halo of a priest or devotee. Our food, dress, play and work, all bring about constant changes in the body.
Matter attracts matter. Generally the law of nature is “like to like.” The matter of bad thoughts attracts matter of bad thought, and ultimately becomes the father of a bad habit. This attraction of good or bad matter by the soul in virtue of its mental, vocal, or bodily activity, is called Inflow (Ashrava).
When the attracted matter ha actually become a part of our body, i.e., when it has become bound to the soul as the body is already bound to it, it is called Bondage (Bandha). The Persian word bandah “bound” for man, is literally true in this sense of Jainism. The Christian “Fall of Man” by the obsorption of Sin by man, is a parallel doctrine.
If by pious attention and right conduct, the Inflow is stopped; it is Stoppage (Samvara).
The gradual shedding of the matter already bound is shedding (Nirjara).
The total separation of Soul from the bondage of all matter is Liberation (Moksha).
In brief, Jiva or Soul plus Karma or Matter is what it is now in its embodied, mundane condition; and the embodied soul minus all matter is what the soul will be in its Pure and Liberated condition in Moksha.
This matter (Pudgala) is of 6 kinds :-
1. Gross-gross, of very gross matter (solid), e.g. a mountain, a pillar of iron, etc. This class of matter when divided, cannot be united without the use of a third something;
2. Gross (liquid), e.g. water, oil, etc. On division this can be united without the intervention of a third thing;
3. Gross-fine, e.g. shade, sunshine. It is interesting to compare this with the corpuscular theory of light in Western physics, before it was replaced by the modern wave-theory of Huygens. It is matter which looks gross or tangible, but cannot be grasped;
4. Fine-gross, e.g. fragrance, sound, sweetness etc.; the distinction between this and gross-fine being that gross-fine is more gross than fine because it can be seen as light, shade, etc.; whereas fine-gross cannot be seen, although its origin may be gross. The gases of science would be fine-gross. Fine-gross included all things that may be perceived by the senses of touch, taste, smell or sound;
5. Fine, matter capable of becoming karmie matter. It cannot be perceived by the senses;
6. Fine-fine, matter which has for its atoms the combination of two or more ultimate atoms (paramanu). According to some Saints it is the ultimate atom itself. (Vide Jiva Kanda, Gathas 602-3. Outlines of Jainism, Pages 21-22.)
Form the molecular point of view, Matter is of 23 kinds:-
1. Atom, anu vargana.
2. Numerable-atoms-molecule, Sankhyatanu-Vargana.
3. Innumerable-atoms-molecule, Asankyatanu-Vargana.
4. Infinite-atoms-molecule, Anantanu-Vargana.
6. Assimilation-molecule. Ahara Vargana.
6. “ Unreceivable-molecule, Ahra Agrahya-Vargana.
7. Electric Molecule, Taijasa-Vargana.
8. II Unreceivable molecule, Taijasa Agrahya-Vargan.
9. Speech-molecule, Bhasha- Vargana.
10. “ Unreceivable-molecule Bhasha Agrahya-Vargana.
11. Mind-Molecule, mano-Vargan’.
12: II Unreceivable-molecule, Mano Agrahya-Vargan’.
13. Karmic-molecule, Karmana-Vargana.
14. Fixed-molecule, Dhruva Vargana.
15. Inter-non-inter molecule, Santara-Vargana.
16. II Indifferent molecule, Santara-Shunya-Vargana.
17. Individual body-molecule, Pratyeka Sharlra-Vargan’.
18. Fixed-indifferent-molecule, Dhruva Shanya.Vargana.
19. Gross ‘common-b04y-molecule, Vadara Nigoda-Vargana.
20. “Indifferent-molecule, Vadara Nigoda Shunys:.
21. Fine-common-body-molecule, Sukshma Nigoda-Vargana.
22. Sphere-molecule, Nabho-Vargana ; and
23. Great-molecule-molecule, Maha-Skandha-Vargan’ (see
Jiva Kanda Gathas 594 et seqq).
Of these the, most. important are Nos. 5,. 7, 9, 11, and 13.
Of all mundane souls there are 5 bodies only. .
1. Audarika, the physical body of all men and. animals.
2. Vaikriyika, Fluid, the body of hellish and celestial beings, which they can change at will.
3. Aharaka. assimilative, the spiritual man-like emanation from the head of a saint in doubt, in the sixth spiritual stage.
4. Taijasa. Electric body of mundane souls which always accompanies them.
5. Karmic body found in all mundane souls.
The first 3 bodies are made of Aharaka Vargana molecules of assimilative matter. (No.5).
The electric body is made of Taijasa Vargana (N 0.7).
Our speech is made of BMsh8 Vargana No.9; our mind, of mano Vargana, No. 11; and our karmic body of Karma-vargana, No. 13.
Now it is with this last mostly that we deal here.
Inflow of Karmic matter towards the soul is caused by the vibratory activity of mind, speech and body.
If the vibratory activity is with passion, the inflow leads to bondage of soul by karmic matter. It is called Samparayika or Mundane Inflow.
If it is without passion, i. e., purely vibration in the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth spiritual stages and does not lead to’ bondage, it is called fryapatha or transient or fleeting Inflow.
39 kinds of Inflow.
The Mundane Inflow is of 39 kinds, according to its causes:
5. Caused by the activity of the 5 Senses.
4. ” ” ” 4 Passions;
5. ” ” ” 5 Sins of Injury, Lies,
Theft, Unchastity and
25. ” ” ” 25 kinds of activity as follow :-
1. Samyaktva-kriya, that which strengthens right belief ; e.g. worship, etc.
2. Mithy4tva-kriya, that which strengthens wrong belief, e. g. superstition, etc.
3. Prayoga-kriya, bodily movement.
4. Samadana-kriya, tendency to neglect vows, after having taken them.
5. Iryapatha-kriya,. walking carefully, i.e., looking on the ground for protecting living beings which may be trod upon and thus injured.
6. Pradoshiki-kriya, tendency to accuse others in anger.
7. Kayiki-kriya, a wicked man’s readiness to hurt others.
8. Adhikaraniki-kriya, having weapons of hurtfulness.
9. Paritapiki-kriya, anything which may cause mental pain to oneself or others.
10. Pranatipatiki-kriya, depriving another of vitalities of age, sense-organs, power or respiration.
11. Darshana-kriya, infatuated desire to see a pleasing form.
12. Sparshana-kriya, frivolous indulgence in touching.
13. Pratyayiki-kriya, inventing new sense-enjoyments.
14. Samantanupatana-kriya, answering call of nature in a place frequented by men, women or animals.
15. Anabhoga-kriya, indifference in dropping things or throw oneself down upon the earth, i. e. without seeing whether it is swept or not.
16. Svahasta-kriya, undertaking to do by one’s own hand, what should be done by others.
17. Nisarga Kriya, admiration of hurtful or unrighteous things.
18. Vidarana-kriya, proclaiming other’s sins.
19. Ajna-vyapadiki-kriya, misinterpreting the scriptural in junctions, which we do not want to follow.
20. Anakanksha-kriya, disrespect to scriptural injunctions out of vice or laziness.
21. Prarambha-kriya, engaging in harmful activities or expressing delight in other’s misdeeds.
22. Parigrahiki-kriya trying to persevere in one’s attachment to worldly belongings.
23. Mayakriya, deceitful disturbance of some one’s right know ledge and faith.
24. Mithya-darshana-kriyl1, praising actions due to wrong belief.
25. Apratyakhyana-kriya, not renouncing what ought to be renounced.
Note that the Senses, Passions and Vowlessness are the causes and the 25 kinds of activity are their effects.
Differences in Inflow.
The differences in inflow in different souls caused by the same activity arise from differences in the following:
1. Intensity of desire or thought-activity.
2. Mildness “ “ “ “
3. Intentional character of the act.
4. Unintentional character of the act.
5. Dependence of the act upon living and non-living substances or activities.
6. One’s own position and power to do the act.
The Dependence (Adhikarana) is of two kinds, relating to the souls and the non-souls.
The first, .i. e., dependence on the souls is of l08 kinds due to differences in the following:-
1. Samarambha. Determination to do a thing. Compare intention for an offence in Criminal Law.
2. Samarambha. Preparation for it, i.e. collecting materials for it. Compare in Criminal Law the conduct of the criminal before committing the offence.
3. Arambha. Commencement of it Compare Attempt in-Criminal Law.
These three can be done by three yogas, i.e., activity of mind, body and speech, thus there are 3 x 3=9 kinds. Each one of the 9 kinds can be done in three ways, i.e. by doing oneself, or having it done by others, or by approval or acquiescence. Thus we get 27 kinds. Each one of the 27 may be due to the 4 passions. That gives us 27 x4=108 kinds. Thus the Jaina rosary has 108 beads, one for each of these 108 Jivadhikaranas.
These 108 kinds can become of 432 kinds, if we consider each passion in its 4 aspects of Error-feeding or Right-belief-preventing, partial-vow-preventing, total-vow-preventing and. perfect conduct-preventing.
The second kind of dependence relating to the non-soul is of the following 11 kinds.
2 Kinds of Production: (1) Mala Guna i. e. of the body, speech, mind and respiration, (2) Uttara gana, i. e. production of books, pictures, statues, etc.
4 kinds of putting down a thing (1) Apratya Vekshita. without seeing, (2) Duh -pramrishta, petulantly, peevishly, (E) Sahara hurriedly and (4) Anabhoga, where it ought not to be put.
2 kinds of: mixing up (1) Bhakta-pana, food and drink, (2) Upakarana, mixing up of things necessary for doing any act.
3 Kinds of movement by (1) Kaya, body, (2) Yang, speech (3) Mana, mind.
Inflow of the Eight Karamas.
I-II-KNOWLEDGE AND CONATION-OBSCURING.
The inflow of knowledge and conation-obscuring karmic matter, is caused by the following :-
1. Depreciation of those who are learned in the scriptures.
2. Concealment of knowledge.
3. Envy; jealousy. Refusal to impart knowledge out of envy.
4. Obstruction. Hindering the progress of knowledge.
5. Denying the truth proclaimed by another, by body and speech.
6. Refuting the truth, although it is known to be such.
The inflow 0f pain-bringing-feeling (Asata-vedaniya) karmic
matter is due to the following feelings and acts :
1. Dukha, pain. 2. Shoka, sorrow. 3. Tapa, repentance, remorse. 4. Akrandana, weeping. 5. Badha, depriving of vitality. 6. Paridevana, piteous or pathetic moaning to attract compassion.
These 6 can be produced in one’s own self, in another, or both in one’s self and another. Thus there are 18 forms of this inflow.
1. Bhuta-anukampa, compassion for all living beings. 2. Vratyanukampa, compassion for the vowers, 3. Dana, Charity, 4. Saraga-samyama, self-control with slight attachment; etc” 5. Samyam-asamyama, restraint by vows of some, but not of others, 6. Akama-nirjara, equanimous submission to the fruition of karma, 7. Bala tapa, austerities not based upon right knowledge, 8. Yoga, contemplation, 9. Kshanti, forgiveness, and 10. Shaucha, contentment,- these are the causes of inflow of pleasure-bearing feeling karmic matter, (Sata-vendaniya).
The inflow of right-conduct-deluding karmic matter is caused by the intense thought-activity produced by the rise of the passions and of the quasi -passion, no kashaya.
E. g. Joking about Truth, etc., disinclination to take vows, etc.
including in evil society, etc.
As the age-karma, the inflow of Narakayu karma, hellish age karma is caused by too much wordly activity and by attachment to too many worldly objects or by too much attachment.
E.g. committing breaches of the first five vows of non-killing, truth, non-stealing, chastity, non-attachment to wordly possessions. The point to be noted is that it is not the possession or ownership of wordly wealth which is sinful but it is the attachment to it which is a sin. A man may be in the world; but he must not be of it.
The inflow of Tiryancha-ayu, sub-human age karma is caused by Maya, deceit.
E.g. cheating others, preaching the false doctrines, etc.
The inflow of Manushya-Ayu,. human-age-karma, is caused by slight wordly activity and by attachment to a few worldly objects or by slight attachment.
Natural humble disposition is also the cause of human-age karma.
Vowlessness and sub-vowlessness with slight worldly activity and slight attachment, are causes of the inflow of all kinds of age karmas.
Not taking the vows of laymen and not adopting the restrictions (shila), but having slight attachment to the world and activity in it; can be the cause of the inflow of age-karmic matter of all four kinds.
The inflow of Deva-Ayu celestial-age-karma is caused by :-
1. Saraga-samyama, self-control with slight attachment found in monks only.
2. Samyamasamyama, restraint of some vows, but not of others, found in laymen only.
3. Akama-nirjara, equanimous submission to the fruition of karma.
4. Balatapa, austerities not based upon right knowledge.
Right-belief is also the cause of celestial-age karma, but only of the heavenly order. It applies to human and sub-human beings only. A celestial or hellish right-believer binds the human-agekarma. Note also that if a human or sub-human” being has bound a particular age-karma before gaining right belief, he must enjoy that. (See Jiva Klinda, Gathlis 292, 527, 645).
The inflow of Ashubha-nama, a bad-body-making karma is caused by a non-straightforward or deceitful working of the mind, body or speech or by Visamvada. wrangling, etc., wrong-belief, envy, back-biting, self-praise, censuring others, etc.
The inflow of good-body-making karma is caused by the causes which are opposite of the above viz. by straightforward dealings with body, mind and speech; by avoiding disputes, etc., right belief, humility, admiring praiseworthy people, etc.
The inflow of Tirthamkara-body-making karma is caused by meditation (Bhavana) of the following 16 matters:
1. Darshana-vishuddhi, purity of right-belief. Pure right belief is with 8 Angas or the following 8 qualities :
1. Nisshankita. Free from all doubt.
2. Nishkankshita. Free from wordly desire.
3. Nir vichikitsita. Free from repulsion from anything.
4. Amudha drishtitva. Free from superstitious belief.
5. Upa-brimhana or more popularly, Upa guhana. Advancement in one’s own attributes. . Free from a tendency to proclaim the faults of others.
6. Sthiti karana. To help oneself or others to remain steady in the path of truth.
7. Vatsalya. Tender affection for one’s brother on the path of Liberation.
8. Prabhavana. Propagation of the path of Liberation.
2. Vinaya-sampannata. Reverence for means of Liberation and for those who follow them.
3. Shila vrateshvanatichara. Faultless observance of the 5 vows, and faultless subdual of the passions.
4. Aohikshna-jnanopayoga. Ceaseless pursuit of right know ledge.
5. Samvega, Perpetual apprehension of mundane miseries.
6. Shaktitas-tyaga. Giving to others, gift of knowledge, food, medicine, etc., according to one’s capacity.
7. Shaktitas-tapa. The practice of austerities, according to one’s capacity.
8. Sadhu-samadhi. Protecting and reassuring to saints or removing their troubles.
9. Vaiyavrittya-karana. Serving the meritorious.
10. Arhat-bhakti. Devotion to Arhats or Omniscient Lords.
11. Acharya-bhakti, Devotion to Ach8ryas or Heads of the Orders of Saints.
12. Bahu-shruta-bhakti. Devotion to Upadhyayas or teaching Saints.
13. Pravachana-bhakti. Devotion to Scriptures.
14. Avashyaka-parihari. Not neglecting one’s 6 important daily duties.
15. Marga prabhavana. Propagation of the path of Liberation.
16. Pravachanavatsaiatva. Tender affection for one’s brothers on the path of Liberation.
Even one of these, if properly contemplated and with right belief, brings about the inflow of Tirthankara-body-making-karma.
The inflow of low. family-determining karma is caused by:
1. Paraninda, speaking ill of others;
2. Atma prashansa, praising oneself ;
3. Sad gunochchhadana, concealing the good qualities of others; and
4. Asag guna udbhavana, proclaiming in oneself the good qualities which one does not possess.
The inflow’ of the next, i. e., high family-determining karma is caused by the opposites of the above, i. e.,
1. Para prashansa, praising others;
2. Atma ninda, denouncing one’s self ;
3. Parsad gunaudbhavana, proclaiming the good qualities of others;
4. Atmasad-guna uchchhadana, not proclaiming one’s own good qualities;
5. Nichaih Vritti, an attitude of humility towards one’s betters, and.
6. Anutseka, not being proud of one’s own achievement or attainments.
The inflow of obstructive (Antaraya) karma is caused by disturbing others in charity; gain; enjoyment of consumable things; enjoyment of non-consumable things and making use of their powers.
Note. The inflow of 7 karmas, i. e., of all except the age-karma, is going on always, in souls influenced by the Passions, and of the age-karma also on special occasions; but the predominance of the above causes will determine the intensity of fruition (anubhaga) of their particular inflow.
The special occasions of age-karma are 8 in one man’s life. as follows :- Supposing a man’s life ‘is to be 81 years long. The first occasion for binding the age-karma will be on his passing 23 of it, i. e., when he is 54. The second on his passing 23 of the remainder. i. e., when he is 72. The third on his passing 2 H of the remainder, i. e., when he is ‘78. The fourth on his passing 23 of the remainder again, i. e., when he is 80. Similarly the fifth when he is 80 years, 8 months. The sixth at 80 years. 10 months and 20 days. The seventh at 30 years, 11 months, 16 days and 16 hours.
The eighth at 80 years, 11 months, 25 days, 13 hours, and 20 minutes. If no age. karma is bound yet, the ninth is the last antar-muhurta of his life. The point is that the man is born with his particular age-karma already bound. Therefore he must bind the age karma of his next incarnation at the latest at the last moment.
Causes of Bondage.
The causes of Bandha or bondage are:
Mithyadarshana, wrong-belief, is of 5 kinds.
1. Ekanta. Taking only one aspect of a many-sided thing e. g., man is mortal and immortal. regarded from the point of view of body and soul respectively. Taking only one view is Ekanta.
2. Viparita. Perverse belief, e. g , Animal sacrifices lead to heaven. Injury to anyone cannot be a cause of merit.
3. Samshaya-Doubt, scepticism, hesitation, e. g., as to path of Liberation.
4. Vinaya. Veneration. Taking all religions and gods, even the so-called religions which enjoin cruel or immoral practices, to be equally worthy of pursuit.
5. Ajnana. Wrong belief caused by ignorance Indiscrimination of good and bad.
Wrong belief is caused by Nisarga, inborn error; or by Adhigama, preaching of another.
The last is of 4 kinds: -
Kriyavadi, belief in time, soul, etc. as causing everything in the world. All the substances perform their functions and become statuses of different effects. To uphold-otherwise is wrong belief.
Akriyavadi, opposite of the last. e. g., the soul does nothing. This undermines all truth. If the soul does nothing, who is responsible for the doing and fruition of Our good and bad actions?
Ajnanika, Agnostic.- Everything is not knowable. This is one of the general attributes of all substances How then can it be said that nothing is knowable? It may be unknowable from some point of view; but that is all.
Vaineyika, Religion is identical with veneration of parents, king, etc., e.g., Confucianism. Obviously veneration and eternal truth are not identical.
All these four together form 363 varieties of wrong belief i. e., 180,84,67 and 32 respectively.
Nisargaja is also called Agrahita; and Adhigamaja is called Grahita.
Avirata, Vowlessness, Non-renunciation is of 12 kinds :-
Lack of compassion for 6 classes of embodied souls; and lack of restraint of 5 senses and 1 mind.
Pramada, Carelessness is of 16 kinds :—
4 Kinds of Katha, talk, about :—
1. Food (Bhojana-Katha).
2. Women (Stri-Katha).
3. Politics (Rajya-Katha).
4. Scandal (Desha-Katha).
1 Katha X 1 Sense X 1 Passion X 1 Sneha X 1 Nidra make one combination or one kind of Pramada.
So: 4 kinds of talk X 5 senses X 4 passions x 1 affection X 1 sleep make: 80 kinds.
Kashaya, Passions, are 4, i.e. Anger, Pride, Deceit and Greed.
Yoga, Vibrations in the soul, through mind, body and speech, are of 15 kinds:—
4 of mind :
1. Satya mana, true mind.
2. Asatya mana, false mind.
3. Ubhaya mana, mixed true and false mind.
4. Anubhaya-mana, neither true nor false.
4 of speech :
1. Satya-vachana, True.
2 Asatya-vachana, False.
3. Ubhaya-vachana, Both.
4. Anubhaya-vachana, None.
of body ;
1. Audlirika, physical.
2. Audarika mishra, i e., physical with karmie.
3. Vaikriyika. Fluid.
4. Vaikriyika-mishra Fluid with karmic:
5. Aharaka. Assimilative.
6 Aharaka mishra, i. e. Assimitative with physical.
7. Karmana. Karmic.
Note:-The Taijasa, electric body, is always found with the karmic body. It never has an independent yoga. The electric molecules are drawn like the karmic molecules by the vibrations set in the soul by yoga of any kind. (For details of yoga, see Jiva Kanda Chapter IX Gathas 216 et seqq.)
Karmic matter is bound to the soul by the Vibrations (yoga) of mind, speech and body, coloured by Passions (Kashaya) of Anger, Pride, Deceit, and Greed mainly. The vibrations determine the kind (Prakriti) and the quantity (Pradeshal of the Karmic matter to be drawn towards and bound to the soul. The Passions determine the duration (Sthit) of the bondage, and the mild or intense fruition (Anubhaga of the karma at its maturity.
Kinds of Bandage.
There are 8 kinds of Prakritis of Karmic matter:—
1. Jnanavarana, Knowledge-obscuring.
2. Darshanavarana, Conation-obscuring.
3. Vedaniya, Feeling karma.
4. Mohaniya, Deluding.
5. Ayu, Age.
6. Nama, Body-making.
7. Gotra, Family-determining.
8. Anataraya, Obstructive.
148 8ub-classas of Karma.
These 8 classes have 148 Sub-classes as follows ;
Jnanavarana (- j.), knowledge-obscuring (5).
1, Mati-j, Sensitive-knowledge-obscuring.
2. Shruta-j, Scriptural ” ”
3. A vadhi-j Visual ” ”
4. Manahparyaya-j Mental ” ”
5. Kevala-j, Perfect ” ”
Darshanavarana (- d.), Conation-obscuring (9).
6. Chakshu-d., Ocular-Conation-obscuring.
7. Achakshu-d., Non-Ocular ” ”
8. Avadhi-d, Visual ” ”
9. Kevala-d., Perfect ” ”
10. Nidra, Sleep
11. Nidra-Nidra, Deep sleep.
12. Prachala, Drowsiness.
13. Prachala-prachala, Heavy drowsiness,
14. Styanagriddhi, Somnambulism.
Vedaniya (-v.), Feeling (2).
15. Sata-v., Pleasure. feeling; that which bring pleasure.
16. Asata-v., Pain-feeling; that which brings pain.
Mohaniya, Deluding (28) ... ... ... ... (28)
Darshana-mohaniya, Right-belief-deluding ... (3)
17: Mithyatva, wrong belief.
18. Samyag mithyatva (mishra), Right-wrong belief; mixed wrong and right belief.
19. Samyaktva Prakriti, clouded-right-belief; right belief clouded by slight wrong belief. Full right belief of the subsidential or destructive kind, being a characteristic primary attribute of the ,soul, manifests itself at the subsidence or destruction of this sub-class.
Charitra-mohaniya. Right-conduct-deluding. 25.
Kashaya, Passions. 16.
Anantanubandhi, Error feeding or wrong-belief-breeding or Right-belief preventing-passions. 4.
20. Krodha, Anger.
21. Mana. Pride.
22. Maya, Deceit.
23. Lobha, Greed.
Apratyakhyanavaraniya, Partial vow-preventing pas:5ions. 4.
Pratyakhyanavaraniya, Total-vow-preventing passions. 4.
Samjvalana, Perfect conduct preventing. This is the slightest degree of passion and co-exists with self-restraint of a high order. It relates to the four passions. 4.
No-kashaya or Akash4ya, Quasi-passions; slight or minor passions. 9.
36. Hasya, Laughter; Risible or Laughter-producing.
37. Rati, Indulgence.
38. Arati, Ennui; dissatisfaction.
39. Shoka, Sorrow.
40. Bhaya, Fear.
41. Jugupsli, Disgust; aversion Hiding one’s own, and publishing other people’s shortcomings.
42. Striveda, Feminine inclination.
43. Pumveda, Masculine.
44. Napumsaka Veda, Common sex.
Ayu, Age-Karma (4).
45. Narakayu,. Hellish age.
46. Tiryanch8yu, Sub-human age.
47. Manushyayu, Human age:.
48. Devayu, Celestial age.
Nama, Body-making Karma (93).
Gati, Condition; condition of existence. 4.
49. Naraka, Hellish.
50. Tiryancha, Sub-human.
51. Manushya, Human.
52. Deva, Celestial.
Jati, Genus of beings. 5.
53 Ekendriya, One-sensed.
54. Dvindriya, Two sensed.
55. Tendriya, Three-sensed.
56. Chaundriya, Four-sensed.
57. Panchendriya, Five-sensed.
Sharira, bodies, 6.
58. Audarika, Physical.
59. Vaikriyika, Fluid.
60. Aharaka, Assimilative.
61. Taijasa, Electric.
62. Karmana, Karmic.
Angopanga, Limbs; limbs and minor limbs, 3.
63. Audarika, physical.
64. Vaikriyika, Fluid.
66. Aharaka, Assimilative.
66. Nirmana, Formation; proper formation of limbs and minor limbs in relation to their situation (sthana) and dimensions (Pramana).
Bandhana, Bondage; molecular bondage 5.
67. Audarika, Physical.
68. Vaikriyika, Fluid.
69. Aharaka, Assimilative.
70. Taijasa, Electric.
71. Karmana, Karmic.
Samgh8ta, Interfusion; molecular Interfusion, 5.
72. Audarika, Physical.
73. Vaikriyika, Fluid.
74. Ah8raka, Assimilative.
75. Taijasa, Electric.
76. Karmana, Karmic.
Samsthana. Figure; figure of the body, 6.
77. Samachaturasra, Symmetrical ; perfect symmetry all round.
78. Nyag rodha parimandala, Banyan-like; short in lower but large in upper extremities like a banyan-tree.
79. Svati, Tapering; like a snake-hole, broad in lower but short in the upper extremities, reverse of the last.
80. Kubjaka, Hunchback.
81. Vamana, Dwarf.
82. Hungaka, Unsymmetrical; disproportionate, deformed.
Samhanana, bones, muscle &c.; 6.
83. Vajra-rishabha-aracha-Samhanana, Adamantine. nerves, joints and bones.
84. Vajra-naracha-Samhanana, Adamantine joints and bones. .
85. Naracha-Samhanana, Unbreakable joints and bones.
86. Ardha naracha samhanana, semi-unbreakable joints and bones.
87. Kilita samhanana, Riveted bones.
88. Asamprapta sripatika samhanana, Loosely jointed bones.
Sparsha, Touch, 8.
89 Kathora, Hard.
90 Komala, Soft.
91, Guru, Heavy.
92. Laghu, Light.
93. Ruksha, Rough.
94 Snigdha, Smooth.
95. Shita, Cold.
96. Ushna, Hot.
Rasa, Tastes, 5.
97. Tikta, Pungent.
98. Katuka, Bitter.
99. Kashaya, Astringent, (Saline).
100. Amla, Acid.
101. Madhura, Sweet.
Gamdha, Smell, 2.
102. Sugamdha, Sweet-smelling; fragrant.
103. Durgamdha, Evil-smelling; mal-odorous.
Varna, Colour, 5.
104. Krishna, Black.
105. Nila, Blue.
106. Rakta, Red.
107. Pita, Yellow.
108. Shukla, White.
4 Anupurvi, Migratory form; the power of retaining the form of the last incarnation during transmigration, i. e., in the passage from one to another condition of existence. The names are according to the four conditions of existence. Devanupurvi .means the power of retaining the last form whatever it was, in going to the celestial condition of existence.
109. Naraka Anupurvi, Hellish migratory form.
110. Tiryancha ” Sub-human ” ”
111. Manushya ” Human ” ”
112. Deva ” Celestial ” ”
113. Agurulaghu, Not heavy-light; neither too heavy to move, nor too light to have stability.
114. Upaghata, Self-destructive; Having a self-destructive limb or organ, as a stag's horns.
115. Paraghata, Destructive; Possessing a limb or organ fatal to others, as a lion's claws, etc.
116. Atapa, Hot light; radiant heat; possessed of a brilliant body, which is hot to others but not to the possessor, as the gross radiant earth bodied beings in the sun.
117. Udyota, Cold light, phosphorescence; cold light like moonshine.
118. Uchchhvasa, Respiration.
Vihayogati, Movement; capacity of moving in space. 2.
119. Shubha, Graceful.
120. Aushbha, Awkward.
121. Pratyeka sharira, Individual body; A body enjoyable by one soul only.
122. Sadharana, Common body; Possessed and enjoyable by many souls, as a potato.
123. Trasa, Mobile, with bodies having 2,3,4,5,. senses.
124. Stharara, Immobile, with bodies having one sense only i. e., the sense of touch.
125. Subhaga, Amiable; amiable personality, even though not beautiful.
126. Durbhaga. Unprepossessing; even though beautiful.
127. Susvara, Sweet-voiced. musical.
128. Duhsvara, Harsh-voiced, noisy.
129. Shubha, Beautiful (body).
130. Ashubha, Ugly (body).
131. S1ikshma, Fine (body) uncuttable and all-pervasive.
132. Badara, Gross (body).
133. Paryapti, Developable; capable of developing the body fully.
134. Aparyapti, Undevelopable; Incapable of developing the body fully.
135. Sthira, Steady (circulation of blood, bile etc.)
136. Asthira, (Unsteady circulation of blood etc.)
137. Adeya, Impressive; appearance such as may affect others.
138. Anadeya, Non-impressive; dull appearance.
139. Yashah Kirti, Fame; bringing good fame even if one does not do good actions.
140. Ayashah Kirti, Notoriety; bringing bad name, even if one does good actions.
141. Tirthamkara, A Tirthamkara's career with all its grandeur when He preaches and completes His Ministry.
Gotra, Family-determining. (2).
142. Uchcha, Gotra High Family.
143. Nicha, ” Low ”
Antaraya, Obstructive (5).
144. Dana Antaraya, Charity-Obstructive.
145. Labha Antaraya, Gain ..
146. Bhoga Antaraya, obstructive of Enjoyment, of non-con-sumable things.
147. Upabhogha Antaraya, obstructive of Re-enjoyment of non-consumable things.
148. Virya Antaraya, obstructive of power of exercise of one's
The 8 Karmas have respectively 5, 9, 2, 28, 4, 93, 2 and 5 sub-classes, i. e., 148 sub-classes in all.
Some Acharyas treat the 93 sub-classes of the bodymaking Karma differently.
I. It will be noticed above that the 93 fall under 42 headings, Gati (condition of existence), Jati (Genus) etc. Taking these 42 only as sub-classes, the total instead of 148 is 148-(93-42)=148-51 i. e., only 97.
II. On the contrary, the Body (Sharira) sub class of the Body-making Karma has 5 divisions above (Nos. 58 to 62). But there are 15 combinations of the 5, as below:
1. Physical-physical 8. Fluid electric-karmic.
2. ” electric 9. Aharaka.aharaka.
3. ” karmic 10 ” electric.
4. ” electric-karmic 11. ” karmic.
5. Fluid-fluid 12. ” electric-karmic.
6. ” electric 13. Electric-electric.
7. ” Karmic 14. ” karmic.
Of these, 1,5,9, 13, and 15 are represented by the 5 (Nos. 58 to 62). Therefore if the remaining 10 sub-classes are added, we get 97 + 10 co 107 or 148 + 10 = 158 total sub-classes.
III. The 20 sub-classes (Nos. 89 to 108), i. e., of touch (8), taste (5), smell (2), and colour (5) may be associated with merit (punya) or demerit (papa). This division will add 20 to the totals. Thus the total will be 168.
Thus considering the important Body-making Karma in the above different ways, we get the total of sub-classes of all karmas as 97, 107, 148, 158 or 168.
But mainly in all Jaina books only the total of 148 is considered for all purposes.
The Quantity of Bondage.
As to Pradesha, according to the nature caused by their names, from all round, due to the differences in the vibrations (Yoga) in the soul-activity, not perceptible by the senses, the karmic molecules enter and become one and stay with every Pradesha of the soul. They come in infinite numbers, every moment, to each soul.
The particular number of the molecules actually absorbed is called pradesha-bandha.
Duration of Bondage.
AB to Duration, the maximum duration of the 3 from the first, i.e., Knowledge-obscuring, Conation-obscuring and Feeling karmas, and of Obstructive karmas, is 30 crorex crore Sagaras.
This is possible in a rational 5-sensed, fully developable (pary4pta)
soul, who has wrong belief (Mithyatva).
The maximum duration of Deluding-karma is :-70 crore X crore, Sagaras.
The maximum duration of Nama, Body-making and Gotra, Family-determining, karmas is 20 crore X crore Sagaras for each.
This is also possible as above.
The maximum duration of AYU, Age karma is 33 Sagaras.
The minimum duration of Vedaniya, Feeling karma is 12 Mu-hurtas-12X48 minutes- 48/5-9 hours 36 minutes. That of Nama, Body-making and Gotra, Family-determining is 8 Muhurtas.
Of all the rest, the minimum is one Antar-muhurta, which ranges from, 1 Samaya and 1 Avali at the lowest to 48 minutes minus one Samaya. .
Fruition of Karma.
As to Fruition, it is according to the name of the karma. e.fI.. knowledge-obscuring karma prevents the acquisition of knowledge and so on.
stopping of Inflow.
Samvara is the stoppage of inflow of karmic matter into the soul.
The causes of Inflow and Bondage are given above.
Wrong belief (Mithya darshana) is stopped (Samvara) in the 4th spiritual stage (Guna sthana) ;
Vowlessness (Avirata) in the 5th and 6th ;
Carelessness (Pramada) in the 7th; .
Passion (Kash8ya) in the 8th, 9th and 10th;
Vibration (Yoga) in the 14th stage.
For the 14 Spiritual Stages see below :—
Samvara or .Stoppage of Inflow is produced by :
3 kinds of Gupti, Preservation.
5 ” ” Samiti, Carefulness.
10 ” ” Dharma, Observances; (Dharma).
12 ” ” Anupreksha, Meditation.
22 ” ” Parishaha-jaya. Sub-dual of sufferings; and
5 ” ” Charitra, Conduct.
By austerities is caused the shedding of karmic matter, and also stoppage of inflow.
Gupti, Preservation is proper control (nigraha) over mind. Speach and body.
Samiti, Carefulness is to take care.
Samyaka irya samiti, Proper care in walking.
Samyaka bhbha samiti, .. .. .. speaking.
Samyaka eshan'samiti .. .. .. eating.
Samyaka adana nikshepa samiti. Proper care in lifting and laying.
Samyaka utsarga Samiti. Proper care in excreting.
The 10 observances are;
Uttama-kshama, Supreme Forgiveness.
Uttama mardava ” Humility.
Uttama-arjava, ” Straight-forwardness, (Honesty).
Uttama-shaucha, ” Contentment.
Uttama.satya, ” Truth.
Uttama-samyama ” Restraint.
Uttama.tapa, ” Austerities.
Uttama-tyaga, ” Renunciation.
Uttama-akinchanya, Supreme non-attachment. Not taking the non-self for one's own self ; and
Uttama-brahmacharya, Supreme Chastity.
The 12 Meditations are ;
1. Anitya anupreksha, Everything is subject to change or transitory.
2. Asharana anupreksha, Unprotectiveness ; Helplessness. The soul is unprotected from the fruition of karmas. Death, pain. pleasure, success, failure are the necessary results of our acts in this or past lives.
3. Samsara anupreksha, Mundaneness. Sow moves in the cycle of existences and cannot attain true happiness till he is out of it.
4. Ekatva anupreksha, Loneliness, I am alone the doer of my actions and the enjoyer of the fruits of them.
5. Anyatva anupreksha, Separateness. Otherness. The world. my relations and friends, my body, and mind, they are all distinct and separate from my real self.
6. Ashuchi anupreksha Impurity. The body is impure and dirty. Purity is of 2 kinds :-of the soul itself; and of the body and other things. This last is of 8 kinds.
7. Ashrava anupreksa, Inflow. The inflow of karma is the cause of my mundane existence and it is the product passions, etc.
8. Samvara anupreksha, Stoppage. The inflow must be stopped.
9. Nirjara anupreksha. Shedding. Karmic matter must be shed from or shaken out of the soul.
10. Loka anuprekse, Universe. The nature of the Universe and its constituent elements in all their vast variety proving-the insignificance and miserable nothingness of man in time and space.
11. Bodhi durlabha anupreksa, Rarity of Right Path. It is difficult to attain right-belief. knowledge-and conduct.
12. Dharma svakhya tattvanupreksha, Nature of Right-Path as said by the conquerors. The -true nature of Truth, i. e., the 3 fold path to real Liberation.
These must be meditated upon again and 'again. As to the first kind of meditation, viz., transitoriness, anitya anupreksha, it must be noted that as Substance, everything is permanent. Only condition is transitory. Of the matter assimilated as karma and non-karma by the soul, that which is accepted by the soul is called Upatta. The rest is Anupatta matter which is not taken in by the soul.
For the sake of non-falling-off from the path of Liberation, and for the shedding of Karmic matter, whatever sufferings are undergone calmly and with religious renunciation are called the Sufferings (Parishaha).
The 22 Sufferings are :
5. Troubles form Insect-bites ; mosquitoes. etc.
6. Nakedness. To bear calmly the troubles of climate, unpopularity, etc., due to the vow of absolute possessionlessness, i. e., nakedness.
7. Ennui, dissatisfaction, languor.
8. Women. Resisting temptations from and desire for women.
9. Walking too much: not to feel the fatigue, but to bear it calmly.
10. Continuous sitting in one posture. Not to disturb the posture of meditation, even if there is danger from lion, snakes, etc., etc.
11. Sleeping. Resting on hard earth.
14. Begging. To resist the temptation of begging even when there is great need of protection of body. mind, etc.
15. Failure to get alms.
17. Contact with thorny shrubs, etc.
18. Dirt. Discomfort from dust etc.
19. Respect or disrespect by admirers or e~emie8.
20. To resist Conceit of knowledge; and to be full of humility.
21 Lack of knowledge. Not to be pained, even though it is felt that one does not know much.
22. Slack belief, e g., on failure to attain supernatural powers even after great piety and austerities to begin to doubt the truth of J animism and its teachings.
5. - Charltras.
The 5 kinds of Right-conduct are :
2. Recovery of equanimity after a fall from it.
3. Pure and absolute non-injury.
4. All but entire freedom- from passion.
5. Ideal and passionless conduct (Parihara-vishuddhi). It is found only in a man of 38 years, who has served the Tirthankara for 8 years, i. e. from the age of 30 to that of 38). He must have read the Pratyakhyanapurva. (See Jiva Kanda Gathas 471-2).
Shedding of Karmic Matter.
Nirjara means the falling away of karmic matter from the soul. The fetters may by themselves gradually wear out and leave the soul free: but it is a long process. Therefore a shorter method is adopted; deliberate activity may 'hasten the ripening of a karma and the shedding of its matter. To illustrate: we wish evil to our neighbor A; the thought-activity invites the-karmic matter into the soul (asrava), the matter comes and binds the soul (handha). This karma may take two months to bear its full fruits; in the meantime it is an evil load for the soul. To gain lightness and to get rid of the karma, the soul may deliberately feel an oppo-Jite kind of feeling towards other neighbors B, C, and D, or towards A himself. A still surer way is to practice austerity. By removing the mind from the demands and impulses of the body, and by mortifying the physical man through not listening to its greed and temptations, matter may be Overcome and soul freed from the bondage.
The natural maturing of a karma and its separation from the soul is called savipaka-nirjara. Inducing a karma to leave the soul by means of a contrary karma, or by means of ascetic practices, is called avipaka Nirjara (riddance without fruition).
The terminology of the distinction is derived from botany. A seed grows into a fruit. It may ripen by itself (savipaka); or it may be plucked half-ripe. or even unripe, and then ripened by artificial means.
The causes of stopping of inflow of Karmic matter given above (pages 26-7) are also causes of the shedding of the karmas already bound to the soul.
In addition to these, austerities (tapa) also cause the shedding before its time.
Tapa, austerities are external and internal.
External austerities are:
1 Anashana, Fasting.
2. Avamodarya, Eating less than one's fill, or less than one has appetite for.
3. Vritti-parisankhyana, Taking a mental vow to accept food from a house-holder, only if a certain condition is fulfilled, without letting anyone know about the vow.
4. Rasa parityaga, Daily renunciation of one or more of 6 kinds of delicacies, viz. :- .
1. Ghee (Butter, clarified butter).
5. Vivikta-shayyasana, sitting and sleeping in a lonely place, devoid of animate beings.
6. Kaya klesha, Mortification of the body, so long as the mind is not disturbed.
The other, i.e.. Internal austerities are also 6 :
1. Prayashchitta, Expiation.
2. Vinaya, Reverence.
3. Vaiyavritya, Service of the saints or worthy people.
4. Svlidhyaya, Study.
5. Vyutsarga, Giving up attachment to the body, etc.
6. Dhyana, concentration.
When all the karmic matter has left the soul, it becomes the Pure Soul, the Realised (Siddha) or the Liberated (Mukta) Soul.
Now in Jainism, the soul is immaterial and has none of the special attributes of Matter. Matter is devoid of consciousness and has none of the special attributes of Soul.
Mind is matter. Karmas are matter. Pleasure and pain are matter. Prosperity and adversity are matter, as being the pleasure and pain feeling karma, due to the presence or absence of some kind of matter.
The Saint Shri Kunda Kunda says in Panchastikaya Gath4 82 :
“Things enjoyable by the senses. The five senses themselves, the bodies (including the five kinds of bodies, the mind, the Karmas, and the other material objects - all this know as matter (pudgala)”
All matter is visible, even karmic matter, through not to our physical eye. Certainly mental matter is visible directly to mental knowledge.
The inflow and bondage of Karmic matter being the essential causes of all pain and pleasure, it is possible in the light of Jainism to try to find out, what kind of Karma is the cause of a particular kind of pain or failure, and how the inflow of that karma is stopped and how, if it is already bound, it can be shed. If this is done even roughly and approximately, the study of Karmas becomes of immense and intense practical value. Also with caution and patience, it can be tested by and made a subject of, experiments. Perhaps some day in the hands of some lucky scientist, its results may be proved by science, like. The life, etc., in plants, which given as an axiom in .Jaina books is proved by Sir Jagdis Chander
Bose, only recently scientifically.
Soul moulds matter. Every pain and adversity can be treated scientifically and surely in accordance with the Karma Philosophy of Jainism.
Hence the necessity of studying the Jaina Rearm Philosophy. It is not merely interesting as being of a curioqs character and great antiquity. It is not important only for the study of the History and evolution of some most important aspects of Philosophy and Religion generally, and particularly of Hindu and Jaina origin. It becomes essential (if it is found to be true) foot the diagnosis and cure of, and prescription for our individual, social, moral, economic, political, and religious doubts, difficulties, deficiencies, disputes, troubles, and ailments.
The causes and processes of mundane ailments are adumbrated above. Their remedies, as suggested by Jainism for the last 3,000 years at least, must be of interest and guidance. They are the Eleven stages (Pratimas) of the Householder's Life; and the VOWI. common to the Householder and the Monk, but followed in a more extended andintensiv'e way by the latter.
1. Darshana (faith).-A true Jaina must have a perfect and Intelligent, well-reasoned faith in Jainism, i. e., he. must have a sound knowledge of its doctrines and their applications in life.
2. Vrata (vow)-He must observe the five minor vows (anuVratas), the three guna-vratas, and four shiksha-vratas. To give details: he must not destroy any kind of life, must not tell a lie, must not make use of another person's property without the owner's consent, must be chaste, must limit his necessities of life, and avoid the use of food which involves unnecessary killing of living beings. The three guna-vratas are special vows relating to the limitation and determination of his daily work, food, and enjoyment. The remaining four vows relate to his meditation in the morning, noon, and evening, to his keeping fast on certain days, and to his duty of daily giving charity in the form of knowledge, medicine, comfort, and food.
3. Samayika (worship). He must worship regularly in general for forty-eight minutes, three times daily. Worship means self contemplation and purifying one's ideas and emotions.
4. Proshadhopavasa (fortnightly must fast). He fasts regularly, as a rule, twice a fortnight each lunar month.
5. Sachitta-tyaga (abstinence from the flesh of conscious creatures). He refrains from taking fresh vegetables, because they are living.
6. Ratri-bhukta-tyaga (abstinence from eating at night). He must not take food at night. There are minute living beings which no amount of light can reveal or disperse, and which must be consumed with meals after sunset.
7. Brahma. charya- Celibacy.
8. Arambha-tyaga.-Abandomnent of merely worldly engagements and occupations.
9-11. The remaining three stages are preparatory to the monk's life. Their names are parigraha-tyaga, anumati-tyaga, and uddistha-tyaga, and they enjoin a gradual giving up of the world and retiring into some very quiet place to acquire the knowledge of truth and ultimately to become fit to be a teacher of the path to Liberation.
The vows (vratas) are five, i. e., to be free from
Unchastity (Abrahma). and
Worldly attachment (Parigraha).
For the fixing of these 5 vows in the mind, there are 6 kinds of meditation (bhavana), for each of the vows.
The 5 meditations for the vow against injury are
1. Vaggupti, Preservation of speech:
2. Manogupti, Preservation of mind:
3. Irya, Care in walking;
4. Adal1a-nikshepana-samiti, Care in lifting and laying down things.
5. Alokitapana-bhojana, thoroughly seeing to one's food and drink.
The five meditations for the vow against falsehoo1 are:
1. Krodha-pratyakhyana. Giving up "anger;
2. Lobha ” ” ” greed;
3. Bhirutva ” ” ” cowardice or fear ;
4. Hasya ” ” ” of frivolity;
5. Anuvichi-bhashana, Speaking in accordance with scriptural injunctions.
For the vow against theft, the five meditations are:
1. Sunyagara, Residence in a solitary place. like a mountain, cave, etc.
2. Vimochitavasa, Residence in a deserted place ;
3. Paroparodhakarana. Residence in a place where one is not likely to be prohibited by others, nor where one should be likely to prohibit others;
4. Bhaikshya-shuddhi, Purity of alms, according to the scriptures;
5. Sadharma avishamvada, Not disputing with one's co-religionists, as to “mine" and" thine."
For the vow against Unchastity, the five meditations are:
1. Striraga-katha-shravana tyaga, Renouncing of (reading or) hearing stories exciting attachment. for women;
2. Tan-manohara anga-nirikshana-tyagaj-Renouncing of seeing their beautiful bodies;
3. Purva ratanu smarana-tyaga, Renouncing of thinking over, remembrance of past enjoyment of women;
4. Vrishyeshta rasa-tyaga, Renouncing of exciting and aphrodisiac food or drinks; and
5. Sva sharira sanskara-tyaga, Renouncing of beautifying one'. own body; self-adornment.
For the vow against worldly attachment, the 5 meditations are: giving up infatuation (Raga), and hatred (Dvesha) in the pleasing and displeasing worldly objects of the five senses.
The destructive or dangerous and censurable character of the 5 faults, injury, etc. in this as also in the next world, ought to be meditated upon.
One must also meditate, that the five faults, injury, etc., are pain personified, as they themselves are the veritable wombs of pain.
And we must meditate upon the 4 following:-
1. Maitri, Benevolence for all living beings (Sattveshu).
2. Pramoda, Delight at the sight of beings, better qualified or more advanced than ourselves on the path of liberation (Guna-adhikshu).
3. Karunya, Pity, Compassion for Klishyamaneshu, the afflicted (klishyamaneshu).
4. Madhyasthya, Tolerance or indifference to those who are uncivil or ill-behaved (Avinayeshu).
For Samvega, (the apprehension of the miseries of the world) and Vairagya, (non-attachment to sense pleasures), we should meditate upon the nature of the world and of our physical body. The world is transitory and not fit for love; and the body is impure and hampering in spiritual progress and therefore should be subordinated to the soul.
Definitions of the 5 Sins.
1. By passional vibrations, the hurting of the vitalities is injury (Himsa).
2. Injury or himsa is to hurt the Pranas or vitalities, through Pramattoyoga, i.e., vibration due to the Passions, which agitate the mind, body or speech.
3. Falsehood is to speak hurtful words through Pramattyoga, passional vibrations (Avirati).
4. Theft is to take anything which is not given through Pramattayoga (Steya).
5. Unchastity is coition or sexual contact, through Pramattayoga (Abrahmacharya).
Wordly attachment is murchha, infatuation or intoxication through Pramattoyoga, in the living or non-living objects of the world (Parigraha). Worldly objects are said to be Parigraha, because they are the
external causes of internal attachment.
A Vrati or a vower should be without blemish which is like a thorn (shalya) which makes the whole body restless.
This Shalya or blemish is of 3 kinds :
1. Maya-shalya, the thorn of deceit.
2. Mithya-shalya, the thorn of wrong-belief.
3. Nidana, the thorn of Desire for future sense-pleasures.
Vowers are of 2 kinds: Agari, house-holders (laymen) and Anagara, house-less (ascetics).
One whose five vows are partial is a house-holder. The house
holder's life has 11 Pratimas or stages given above.
The house-holder must be with the following 7 supplementary
vows also :-
1 . Digvrata, Taking a life-long vow to limit his worldly
activity to fixed points in all the 10 directions, i.e., East, West, North, South, South-east, East-north, North-west, and West-south,
and Up and Down.
2. Deshavrata, Traking a vow to limit the above also for a shorter
period of time, e. g., for one's weekly or daily wordly activity.
3. Anartha danda-vrata, Taking a vow not to commit purposeless sin; It has 5 kinds:
1. Apadhyana, Thinking ill of others;
2. Papopadesha, Preaching of sin to others.
3. Pramada-charitra. Thoughtless or inconsiderate conduct as breaking the boughs of trees, plucking flowers, etc. without any purpose.
4. Himsadana, Giving objects of offence to others.
5. Duhshruti, Reading or hearing bad books.
The above 3, i. e., Digvrata, Deshavrata and Anartha-danda, vrata are called Guna vratas, multiplicative vows, because they raise the value of the 5 vows Ahimsa, etc.
4. Samayika, Taking a vow to devote so much time everyday, once, twice or three times, at sunrise, sunset and noon to contemplation of the self for spiritual advancement.
5. Proshadhopavasa; Taking a vow to fast on 4 days of the month, viz. the two 8th and the two 14th days of every lunar fortnight. Fast means abstention from food and drink, and devoting one's time to religious study and contemplation, etc.
6. Upabhoga, paribhoga parimana. Taking a vow every day limiting one's enjoyment of consumable and non-consumable things.
6. Atithi-Samvibbaga. Taking a vow to take one's food only after feeding the ascetics with a part of it.
If ascetics are scarce, another person may be fed in their place, if he is observing the vows of a house-holder or is possessed of right belief; or any afflicted or poor person.
These last 4, i.e. Samayalka, Proshadhopavasa, Upabhoga parimana and Atithi Sam vibhaga are called Shikshavratas, disciplinary vows, so cal1ed because they are preparatory for the discipline of an ascetic’s life.
The house-holder is also the observer in the last moments of his life, of the process of Sallekhana peaceful death which is characterised by non-attachment to the world and by a suppression of the passion.
Thus the house-holder's vows are 12, with the last or peaceful death as their supplement.
There are 5 defects or partial transgressions which should not be found in a man of right-belief.
1. Shanka. Doubt, Scepticism;
2. Kanksha. Desire of sense-pleasures;
3. Vichikitsa, Disgust at any thing, e.g., with a sick or deformed person;
4. Anyadrishti prashansa, Thinking admiringly of wrong believers;
5. Anyadrishti-sanstava, Praising wrong believers.
There are 5 defects respectively in each of the 5 vratas, vows, and 7 Shila, supplementary vows, which should be avoided.
The partial transgressions of the first vow Ahimsa are:
1. Angrily or carelessly tying up an animal or human being.
2. " " " beating " " " "
3. " " " mutilating
4. " " " overloading " " " "
5. " " " with-holding food or drink from
an animal or human being.
The partial transgressions of the second vow Satya are :-
1. Mithyopadesha, Preaching false doctrines.
2. Rahobhyakhyana, Divulging the secret (actions of man and woman,)
3. Kuta-lekba-kriya, Forgery and perjury.
4. Nyasapahara, Unconscientious deaHng by means of speech. e. g. A deposits Rs. 1,000 with B. and then thinking that he has deposited only Rs. 900, demands Rs. 900. B. says: Yes, take whatever you deposited and gives him Rs.900. This is Nyasapahara.
5. Sakara-mantra-bheda, Divulging what one guesses by seeing the behavior or gestures of others, who are consulting in private.
The partial transgressions of the third vow. Achaurya. are :
1. Stena prayoga, Abetment of theft.
2. Tad.ahritadana, Receiving stolen property.
3. Viruddha-rajyatikrama. Illegal traffic. e. g. by selling things at inordinate prices in time of war, or to alien enemies etc.
4. Hinadhika-manonmana, False weights and measures.
5. Prati rupaka-vyavahara, Adulteration.
The partial transgression of the fourth vow Brahmacharya are:
1. Para vivaha.karana, bringing about the marriage of people who are not of one's own family.
2. Itvarika.pari-grahi grahita gamana, Intercourse with a married immoral woman.
3. Itvarika-apari.grahita-gamana. Intercourse with an unmarried immoral woman.
4. Ananga-krida, Unnatural sexual intercourse.
5. Kama-tibrhabhinivesha. Intense sexual desire.
The partial transgressions of the fifth vow, Parigraha-parimanavrata, arise when a man limits the quantity of say two kinds of things, but then changes the proportion of those things, although the quantity remains the same, e. g., he limits his land-possessions to, 4 fields and 2 houses. Then wanting a house more. he acquires 3 houses and reduces the fields by one. Thus though the number and possibly the value of his possessions may remain the same, stilI the limit of his vow is partially transgressed. This sort of transgression may be between 5 pairs of possessions as follows :
1. Fields, and Houses.
2. Silver, and Gold.
3. Cattle. and Corn.
4. Female-servant, and Male-servant.
5. Clothes, things of toilet, etc., and Bhanda, crockery or utensils.
The partial transgressions of the first Gun8vrata, Dig-vrata, are:
1. Urdhva.vyatikrama, In passion or negligence to go up higher than your limit in the vow.
2. Adhah-vyatikrama, In passion or negligence to go down lower than your limit in the vow.
3. Tiryag-vyatikrama, In passion or negligence to go in the other 8 directions, beyond your limit in the vow.
4. Kshetra-vriddhi, In passion or negligence to increase in one and decrease in the other direction, the boundaries of the distance which is the limit in the vow.
5. Smrity-antaradhana, Forgetting the limit in the vow but still to go on recklessly, This transgression will arise even if the limit of the vow is not exceeded.
The partial transgressions of the second Guna, Desha-vrata, are:-
1. Anayana, sending for something from beyond the limit.
2. Preshya.prayoga, sending some one out beyond the limit.
3. Shabda anupata, sending one's voice out beyond limit e. g., by telephone.
4. Rupanupata, making signs for persons beyond the limit; as the morse code with flags, etc.
5. Pudgala-kshepa, throwing something material beyond the limit.
The partial transgression of the “third Guna vrata ", i. e. Anarthad-anda-vrata. are:-
1. Kandarpa, poking fun at another.
2. Kaut-kuchya, gesticulating, and mischievous practical joking.
3. Maukharya, Gossip, garrulity.
4. Asamikshya dhikarana, overdoing a thing.
5. Upa-bhoga, paribhoga-anarthakya, Keeping too many consumable and non-consumable objects.
The partial transgressions of the Samayika Shiksa vrata, are:
1. Mano-dushpranidhanam, misdirection of mind during meditation.
2. Kaya-dushpra-nidhanam, misdirection of body during meditation.
3. Vaka-dushpranidhanam, misdirection of speech during meditation.
4. Anadara, lack of interest in meditation.
5. Smrityanupasthana, forgetting of due formalities.
The partial transgression of the second Shiksha vrata, i. e., Proshadhopavasa are:
1. Apratyavekshita-apramarjita-utsarga. to excrete in a place without inspecting and without sweeping it.
2. Apratyavekshita-apramarjita adana. To take up or lay down things in a place, without inspecting and without sweeping it.
3. Apratya-vekshita-apramarjita-Sanstaropakramana, to spread a mat or seat in a place, without inspecting and without sweeping it.
4. Anadara, Jack of interest.
5. Smritya anupasthana, forgetting of due formalities.
The partial transgression of the third Siksh8 vrata i. e. Upbhoga paribhoga-parimana vrata, are :
1. Sachittahara, taking living things, e. g., green vegetables (which were given up).
2. Sachitta-sambandha-Ahara, taking anything connected with a living thinge; e.g., using a green leaf as a plate.
3. Sachitta-sammishra-Ahara, Taking a mixture of living and non-living thing; e. g., food with unripe seeds.
4. Abishava-Ahara, taking aphrodisiacs, or strengthening or exciting food.
5. Duh-pakva-Ahara. taking badly cooked food.
The partial transgression of the fourth Shikshlivrata i. e., Atithi samvibhaga vrata, are :-
1. Sachitta niksehpa, placing the food on a living thing, e. g., ,on a green plantain leaf.
2. Sachitta-apidhana, covering the food with living thing.
3. Paravyopadesha, delegation of hosts' duties to another.
4. Matsarya, lack of respect in giving, Dr envy of another donor.
5. Kalatikarama, not giving at the proper time.
The partial transgression of Sallekhana peaceful death are :
1. Jivit asansha, desire to prolong one's life.
2. Marn ashansha., desire to die soon.
3. Mitr anuraga, attachment to friends.
4. Sukh anubandha, repeated remembrance of past enjoyment.
5. Nidana, desire of enjoyments in the next world.
Charity is the giving of one's belongings for the good of one's
self and of others.
The fruition of charity is different according to difference in:
1. Vidhi. manner of giving.
2. Dravya, thing given.
S. Datri, person who gives; and
4. Patra. person to whom it is given.
5. The manner of giving is of the following 9 kinds:
1. Sangraha. Respectful reception of an ascetic.
The usual formula is; .. Welcome I welcome! Food and drink are pure here."
2. Uchcha sthana, Seating him on an exalted seat.
3. Pad-odaka, Washing his feet.
4. Archana, Worshipping him.
5. Pranama, Bowing to him.
6-8. V3k-kaya-manah-shuddhi, Being pure in speech, body and mind.
9. Eshana shuddhi, Faultless way of giving food. The thing given must be helpful in study and austerities. The person who gives must have 7 qualities.
1. Aihika-phalanaptksha, Must not wish any gan in this world in its exchange.
2. Kshanti, must give calmly without anger.
3. Mudita, Must be happy at giving.
4. Nishkapatata. without deceit.
5. Anasuyatva, without envy.
6. Avishaditva, without repentance; and.
7. Nirahankar atva, without pride.
The person to whom it is given. must be one of the three kinds:
1. Uttama patra, Ascetics;
2. Madbyama patra, Laymen with vows;
3. Jaghanya patra, Laymen with right belief, but not with vows.
These three with right belief are caned Supatra, good donees; and those who are with proper external conduct but without real right belief are Kupatras, improper donees. Unworthy donees Apatras are those who have neither proper external conduct, nor real right belief. There is no merit in giving them anything.
There is also a Karuna-dana, or the gift of compassion to any-one Jaina or non-Jaina, human or Sub-human being, who is in need of it. This Charity is of 4 kinds :—
1. Ahara, Food.
2. Aushadhi, Medicine.
3. Abhaya, Re-assuring the frightened, or removing their cause of fear.
4. Vidya, Knowledge.
The 14 Stages, and 148 Karmas.
The 14 Spiritual Stages are: 1. Mithyatva, Wrong belief. Delusion. The thought-activity of the soul due to the operation of the right belief-deluding karmas. In this, the soul does not believe in the right path to Liberation. From the first, i.e., this Guna sthana, the soul goes to the 4th Gunasthana always.
2. Sasadana. Downfall. When there is operation in the 4th stage of one of the 4 Anantlinubandhi kashayas, Error-feeding passions, the Error-feeding passions, the soul falls down to the first stage through the second and the thought-activity in the passage through, is called Sasadana.
3. Mishra, mixed. Operation of Samyak-mithyatva-mohaniya karmas or Mishra Mohaniya. Belief in right and wrong at one and the same time. This is reached always on falling down from the fourth stage.
4. Avirata-samyaktva. Vowless right-belief. Belief is produced by the Upashma, subsidence of the 4 Anant anubandhi kashayas, Error-feeding passions and one or three kinds of right-beliefdeluding karmas respectively, i. e., one for a soul who has never been, or three, for a soul who has been in possession of Samaktva, right belief. The soul here has belief in the path of Liberation, but cannot observe the rules of conduct for attaining Liberation. Three kinds of thought activity may be noted in this stage:
1. Upashama-samyakta is attained by the Upashama,
Subsidence of 5 or 7 kinds of deluding karmas.
2. Kshayika samyakta is attained by the destruction of the 7 prakrities.
3. Kshayopashama samyakta is attained by the destruction or subsidence of 6, .and the continuous operation of the 7th, i. e. Samyak-prakrti-mithyatva, right-belief clouded-occasionally-by-the-slightest wrong belief. This kind of thought activity is characterised by 3 defects; i. e.:-,
1. Chala, the defect of being shaken in his right belief, e. g. thinking that, worship to Shantinatha will bring calmness; or that of parsvanatha will remove obstacles, etc., etc., whereas all Arhats are the same.
2. Mala, the defect of having the thought-activity soiled by one or more of the defects or transgressions, e. g., Shanka, doubt; Kanksha, desire of sense pleasures; Viehikitsa, hatred of the sick and deformed, etc. ; Anya-drishti-prashansa. Thinking admiringly of wrong believers; and Anya-dirishti-samstava, Praising wrong believers
3. Agadha, the defect of losing firm hold of right belief, e. g., dedicating a temple and still thinking it to be one's own property.
5. Desha virata, Partial vows, i.e. taking the Partial vows All the 11 Pratimas or stages of a layman's life come in this stage. These are given supra, page
6. Pramata virata, imperfect vows, after renunciation of all wordly objects, still occasionally to turn the mind to the service or needs of the body. -This is, pramattabhava, careless, slackness in concentration. Henceforth the stages are all in the life of a Muni, Saint.
7. Apramatta virata. Perfect vows, Renouncing the careless, slackness of the 6th gunasthana, and being absorbed in spiritual contemplation (Righteous concentration of the highest type).
From here, there are 2 Shrenis, or ways of ascent; 1. Upashama shreni in which the right-conduct-deluding karma subsides; 2. Kshapaka-shreni, in which it is being destroyed. This last i8 the necessary way to Moksha, Liberation.
8. Apurva karana, new-thought-activity, Karana or thought activity which the saint's soul had never yet acquired. This is the beginning of the first Shukladhyana, pure concentration on the pure, Atma or self.
9. Anivritta-karana. advanced thought-activity, special thought activity of :a still greater purity. A stage of Prathama Shakladhyana.
10. Suksma-eamparaya, slightest delusion. All passions are destroyed or have subsided, except very slight nominal greed, this is also first Shukladhyana.
11. Upa-shnta-moha or Upa-shanta-kash8ya, subsided delusion.
A thought-activity which is produced by the subsidence of the entire right-conduct-deluding karmas. This is also first Shukladhyana. A saint must fall down from here, but if strong enough, he can resume his ascent from the Kshapaka mode of ascent in the 8th stage.
12. Kshina moha, delusionless. The entire right-conduct-deluding karmas are destroyed, in this stage, and the thought activity produced belongs to the 2nd Shukladhyana. The saint attaining this, does so directly from the 10th stage without passing through the 11th stage.
13. Sayoga kevali, Vibrating-Perfect soul. Before commencing this, the soul must have destroyed the three remaining destructive karmas: knowledge-obscuring, conation-obscuring and obstructive karmas. Here the soul becomes Arhat or Perfect soul in human body with vibrations in it. Preaching and Peregrinations belong to this stage.
14. Ayoga-kevaIi, vibrationless perfect soul. This is attained when there is before the sayoga keva1i's Liberation, just enough time to speak out the 5 letters ¡¯ÖÏ ‡Ô ˆ Šú »Öé. In this stage-a very brief one indeed -the vibrations of the holy body cease, and the soul attaining Peace and Bliss, becomes one with itself and leaving the body is called SIDDHA.
Now let us see from what particular kind of the 148 karmas the soul is freed in each stage. This can be caught at a glance from the following table:—
(1) The total number of Sub-classes is 148. Of these there are 26 sub-classes which are included in some others of which they are a sort of inseparable accident, and therefore really only 122 distinct sub-classes can come into action at a time. The 26 are as follows:
The body (Sharira) karma is of 5 kinds: Physical, Fluid, Assimilative, Electric, and Karmic The molecular bondage (Bandhana) and interfusion (Samgh8ta) is of 5 kinds each. But the bondage and the fusion are entirely dependant on and associated with the 5 bodies. Therefore these 10 may be considered as nondistinct (Avina-bhavi).
The touch, taste, smell, and colour sub-classes are respectively 8, 5, 2, and 5 in number. But each class has a distinct activity, i. e., there are only 4 distinct sub-classes from this view point. Thus 16, may be considered as non distinct.
Deducting the above 10 and 16, i. e. 26 from 148, we get 122 sub-classes.
Out of these 122 distinct sub classes 2, i.e. Clouded-Right-Belief and Mixed-Right-and-Wrong-Belief sub Classes cannot be bound in the first stage of wrong belief, where the soul has and can have the bondage by the Wrong Belief Deluding Karma alone. Thus the number of biddable sub classes becomes 120. But the soul in this stage cannot possibly have bondage of Sharira or an Aharaka Assimilative-body; Aharaka. Angopanga or Assimilative limbs and minor limbs; nor the Tirthankara-body-making-Karma. Deducting these three from the 120, we get 117 as the total number of bindable Karmas in this stage.
(2) The Hellish and Sub-human Age have had their bondage separation (Bandha Vyuchchhitti) at the end of the first and second stage respectively. But in this stage no a karma is ever bound; therefore the Human and Celestial .Age Sub-classes also must be excluded. At the end of the second stage we had 101- 25=76 bindable sub classes. Deducting the 2 from this 76 we get 74.
(3) In this stage the human, and Celestial Age and the Tirthankara-body sub-classes can also be bound. There fore to the above 74 these 3 must be added. Making the bindable sub-classes 77.
(4) The Aharaka Sharira or Assimilative body and the Ah4raka Angopanga or Assimilative limbs and minor limbs sub-classes are bound only here, therefore (63- 6)- 57 plus these 2-59 is the bindable total here.
(5) At the end of ,this stage there is the bondage separation of the fol1owing 16 Sub-classes:
(1) Mithyatva, Wrong Belief.
(2) Napunsaka veda, Common sex inclination.
(3) NarakByu, Hellish Age.
(4) Naraka Gati, Hellish Condition of existence.
(5) Ekendriya Gati, One-sensed Genus.
(6) Dvendriya Jliti, Two ” ”
(7) Tendriya Jati, Three ” ”
(8) Chaundriya Jati. Four ” ”
(9) Hundaka Sansthana, Unsymmetrical Figure.
(10) AsampraptaSripatika Samhanana, Loosely-jointed bones. .
(11) Naraka-Anupurvi, Hellish Migratory form.
(12) Atapa, Radiant Heat.
(13) Sadharana, Group..Soul.
(14) Sth8vara, Immobile.
(15) Sukshma, Fine body.
(16) Aparyapti, Undevelopable.
That is, the soul which passes from this stage onwards, leaves behind him the liability to be bound by these 16 sub-classes. In the next stage the total number of his bindable sub-classes is is 117-16”101.
(6) The following 25 sub-classes cease to be bindable after this stage.
(1) Nidra-Nidra, Deep sleep,
(2) Prachala-Prachala, Deep drowiness.
(3) Styanagriddhi, Somanambulism.
(4) Anantanubandhi Krodha, Error-feeding Anger.
(5) ” Mana, ” ” Pride.
(6) ” Maya, ” ” Deceit.
(7) ” Lobha, ” ” Greed.
(8) Striveda, Feminine Sexual Inclination.
(9) Tiryauncha Ayu,sub-human age.
(10) Tiryancha Gati, sub-human condition of existence.
(11) Nyagrodha Parimandala SamstMna, Banyan-tree Like figure.
(12) Sviti Samsthana, Snake-hole-like figure tapering.
(13) Kubjaka Samsthana, Hunch-back,
(14) Vamana ” Dwarf.
(15) Bajra Naracha Samhanana. Adamantine joints and bones. .
(16) Nanicha Samhanana, Unbreakable joints and bones.
(17) Ardha Naracha Samhanana. Semi-unbreakable joints and bones.
(18) Kilita Samhanana. Jointed or Riveted bones.
(19) Tiryancha Anupurvi. Sub-human migratory form.
(20) Udyota, Gold light.
(21) Ashubha Vih8yogati. Awkward movement.
(22) Durbhaga. Unprepossessing.
(23) Dusvara. Harsh-voiced.
(24) Amideya. Dull appearance.
(25) Nicha Gotra. Low family.
(7) The 10 sub-classes of bondage-separation are:—
(1) Apratyakhyana Varniya Krodha. Partial-vow-pre-venting Anger.
(2) Apratyakhpana Varniya Mana, Pride ” ” ”
(3) “ “ Maya, Deceit ” ” ”
(4) ” “ Lobha, Greed ” ” ”
(5) Manushya Ayu. Human age.
(6) “ Gati. Human condition.
(7) Audarika Sharira. Physical body.,
(8) “ Angopanga. Physical Limbs and minor limbs.
(9) Bajra Naracha Samhanana. Adamantine joints and bones.
(10) Manushya Anupurvi. Human migratory form.
(8) The four are perfect-vow-preventing Anger, Pride, Deceit, and Greed.
(9) The six are;
(1) Asata Vedaniya; Pain-feeling.
(2) Arati. Dis-satisfaction.
(3) Shoka. Sorrow.
(4) Ashubha-nania-karma. Ugly body.
(5) Asthira.. .. Unsteady circulation of blood.
(6) Ayashahkirti ; bringing bad name.
(10) The Deva Ayu or celestial age karma ceases to be bind able after the end on his, the 7th stage.
(11) The 36 are:
(1) Nidra. Sleep.
(2) Prachala. Drowsiness.
(3) Hasya. Laughter.
(4) Rati. Indulgence.
(5) Bhaya. Fear.
(6) Jugupsa. Disgust.
(7) Deva Gati. Celestial condition of existence.
(8) Panchendriya Jati. Five sensed genus of. beings.
(9) Vaikriyika Sharira. Fluid body.
(10) AharakaSharira.' Assimilative body.
(11) Taijasa Sharira. Electric body.
(12) Karmana “ Karmic body,
(13) Vaikriyika-angopanga, Limbs and minor limbs in fluid body.
(14) Ah8raka-angopanga Limbs and minor limbs in assimilative body,
(15) Nirmana, Formation.
(16) Sama-chaturasra-Samsth8na, Figure with perfect proportion all round.
(17) Sparsha, touch.
(18) Rasa, taste.
(19) Gandha smell.
(20) Varna colour,
(21) Dev~gatyanupurvi. Celestial migratory form.
(22) Agurulaghu. Not heavy-light.
(23) Upaghata, Self distructive.
(24) Paraghata, Destructive.
(25) Uchchhvasa, Respiration.
(26) Shubha Vih8yogati, Graceful movement.
(27) Pratyeka Sharira, Individual-body-plant.
(28) Trasa, Mobile.
(29) Subhaga, Amiable personality.
(30) Susvara, Sweet-voiced.
(31) Shubha, Beautiful body.
(32) Badara, Gross (body).
(33) Paryapti, Developable.
(34) Sthira, Steady (circulation of blood.)
(35) Adeya, Radiant appearence.
(36) Tirthamkara. A Tirthamkara's career with all its grandeur, when he preaches and completes His ministry.
(12) The five are :
(1) Samjvalana-krodha, Perfect-conduct- preventing
(2) “ Mana ” ” ” “ Pride.
(3) “ Maya ” ” ” “ Deceit.
(4) “ Lobha ” ” ”
(5) Pumveda, masculine-inclination.
(13) The sixteen are:—
(1) Mati-J nanbaraniya, Sensitive- know edge-obscuring.
(2) Shruta “ Scriptural” “
(3) Avadhii “ Visual” “
(4) Manahparyaya” Jdental “ ,.
(5) Kevala “ Perfect” “
(6) Chakshu darshanavaraniya, Ocular Conation-obscuring .
(7) Achakshu “ Non-oculat”” “
(8) Avlidhi “ Visual “.,;
(9) Kevala-darshanavaraniya, Perfect Conation-obscuring.
(10) Yashahkirti, Bringing good fame.
(11) Uchcha-gotra, High-family.
(12) Dana-antaraya, Charity obstructive.
(13) Labha “Gain “
(14) Bhoga “ Enjoyment”
(15) Upabhoga” Re-enjoyment”
(16) Virya “Power “
(14) Sata-vedaniya or Pleasure-feeling karma ceases to be bindable after the end of this stage.
(15) All the bindable sub-classes can become operable in this stage, therefore the number of operable sub-classes in this stage is 117.
(16) Out of the 117 operable, 5 cease to be operable at the end of the first stage thus leaving 112. But in this stage the naraka-Anupurvi or hellish migratory form cannot operate, therefore the total is 111;
(17) At the end of the second stage the number of operable sub-classes was 111-9;”;102. There is no transmigration in this stage, therefore the 4 migra-tory sub- classes must be deducted from it. But as the Hellish migratory subclass has already ceased at the end of the first stage. therefore only 3 are to be deducted, leaving 96 (102-3).
But as in this stage there is the operation of the Mixed Right and Wrong Belief Sub-classes, therefore the total of operable sub-classes is 100.
(I8) 'To the above 100 the following 5 have to be added, the 4 migratory sub-classes and the slightly-clouded Right Belief sub-class, and mixed belief is to be directed. Thus there are 104.
(19) At the end of the fifth stage, the operable sub-classes were 87 - 8==79. To these have to be added the Ah4raka Sharira, Assimilative Body and the Aharaka Angopanga Assimilative Limbs and minor Limbs. Thus making the total 81,
(20) At the end of the twelfth stage the operable sub-classes were 57-16-=41. To these the Tirthankar sub-class being added makes the total 42.
(21) At the end of this stage there is an operation separation (Udaya Vyuchchhitti) of the following 5 sub-classes which cease to operate in the soul in any further state.
(1) Wrong Belief.
(4)' Fine body.
(22) The nine are as follows:
(1) Anantanubandhi-krodha, Right-belief-preventing Anger.
(2) ” ” ” Mana, ” ” ” ” Pride.
(3) ” ” ” Maya, ” ” ” ” Deceit'
(4) ” ” ” Lobha, ” ” ” ” Greed.
(5) Ekendriya-Jati. One-sensed-genus' of beings.
(6) Doendria '. Two.. h.. .”
(7) Tendriya .. Three.. .. .. ..
(3) Chaundriya., Four.. .. “ ..
(9) Sthavara .. Immobile.. .. .. ..
(23) Samyaktva-Mithyatva-Prakriti. Mixed Right and wrong Belief ceases to operate.
(24) The 17 are:
(1) Apratyakhyan4varamya-krodha. Partial-vow-pre venting Anger.
(2) ” ” Mana, ” ” Pride.
(3) ” ” Maya, ” ” Deceit.
(4) ” ” Lobha, ” ” Greed.
(5) Narakayu, Hellish age.
(6) Devayu, Celestial age. ,
(7) Naraka Gati. He11ish condition of existence.
(8) Deva Gati; celestial ” ” ”
(9) Vaikriyika-Sharira, Fluid body.
(10) Vaikriyika-angopanga, Limbs .and minor-limbs in fluid bodies.
(11) Narka Anupurvi, Hellish-migratory form.
(12) Tiryancha ” Sub-human ” ”
(13) Manushya ” Human.. ” ”
(14) Deva ” Celestial ” ”
(15) Durbhaga. ” Unprepossessing.
(16) Anadeya, Non-impressive.
(17) Ayashakirti, Notoriety.
(25) The eight are:—
(1) Pratyakhya-n4varaniya-krodha, Total-vow-preventing Anger.
(2) ” Mana. ” ” ” Pride.
(3) ” Maya ” ” ” Deceitr.
(4) ” Lobha ” ” ” Greed.
(5) Tiryanch8.yu-Sub-human age.
(6) Tiryancha gati. Sub-human condition of existence.
(7) Udyota, Cold light.
(8) Nicha-gotra, Low family.
(26) The five are :
(1) Nidra-nidra, Deep sleep.
(2) Prachala-prachal4, Heavy drowsiness:
(3) Styanagriddhi, Somnambulism.
(4) Aharaka-sharira, Limbs and minor limbs in assimilative body.
(5) Ah8raka-angopanga, Limbs and minor limbs in assimilative body.
(27) The four are: -,
(1) Samyaktva Prakriti. Slightly clouded right-belief.
(2) Ardha naracha samhanana, Semi-unbreakable-joints and bones.
(3) Kilita Samhanana, Riveted Jointed-bodies.
(4) Asamprapta Sripatika-samhanana, Loosely jointed bones.
(28) The six are:
(1) Hasya. Laughter.
(2) Rati. Indulgence.
(3) Arati. Dissatisfaction.
(4) Shoka, Sorrow.
(5) Bhaya, Fear.
(6) Jugupsa. Disgust,
(29) The six are :
(1) Samjvalna-krodha.Perfect-conduct-preventing Anger
(2) “ Mana. h “ ”Pride.
(3) “ Maya”. “ ” Deceit.
(4) Striveda, Feminine inclination.
(5) Pumveda, Masculine ..
(6) Napumsaka veda. Common sex ..
(30) The samjvalanaLobha, Perfect-conduct-preventing-Greed sub-class ceases to be operable.
(31) The two are :—
(1) Bajra-Naracha-Samhanana. Adamantine joints and bones.
(2) Naracha ” Unbreakable ” ” ”
(32) The sixteen are ;
(1) Mati-Jnana-Avarniya, Sensitive-knowledge-obscuring.
(2) Shruta ” ” Scriptural ” ”
(3) Avadhi ” ” Visual ” ”
(4) Manahparyaya ” Perfect ” ”
(5) Kevala ” ”
(6) Chakshu-Darshana-Avarniya. Ocular-conation-obscuring.
(7) Achakshu ” Non-ocular ” ”
(8) Avadhi ” Visual ” ”
(9) Kevala ” Perfect ” ”
(10) Nidra. Sleep.
(11) Prachala. Drowsiness.
(12) Dana-antaraya. Obstructive of charity.
(13) Llibha ” ” ” Gain.
(14) Bhoga ” ” ” Enjoyment.
(15) Upabhoga ” ” Re-enjoyment
(16) Virya. ” ” ” Power.
(33) The thirty are as follows :
(1) Either, Sata-vedaniya. Pleasure-feeling.
or Asata ” ” Pain ”
(2) Audarika sharila, Physical body,
(3) Taijasa sharira. Electric Physical body.
(4) Karmana-Sharira. Karmic body.
(5) Audarika-angopanga. Limbs and minor limbs in physical bodies.
(6) Nirmana. Formation.
(7) Sama-chaturasra Samsth8na, Perfect symmetry all round.
(8) Nyagrodhaparimandala. Banyan-tree-Iike Figure.
(9) Svati Samsthana. Snake-hole. like Figure.
(10) Kubjaka ” ” Hunch-back.
(11) Vamana ” ” Dwarf.
(12) Hungaka ” ” Unsymmetrical or deformed.
(13) Vajravrishabha-naracha-samhanana. Adamantine nerves, joints and bones.
(14) Sparsha, touch.
(15) Rasa, taste.
(16) Gandha, smell.
(17) Varna. colour,
(18) Agurulaghu. not-heavy-light.
(19) Upagh8ta, self-destructive.
(20) Paraghata, destructive.
(21) UchMsa, respiration.
(22) Shubha-viMyogati, Graceful movement.
(23) Ashubha.. Awkward..
(24) Pratyeka-sharira, Individual body.
(25) Susvara, sweet-voiced.
(26) Duhsvara, Harsh-voiced.
(27) Shubha, Beautiful (body).
(28) Ashubha. Ugly (bad).
(29) Sthira. Steady circulation of blood.
(30) Asthira, unsteady circulation of blood.
(34) The twelve are:—
(1) Either Sata-Vedaniya, Pleasure-feeling.
or Asata ” Pain-feeling.
(2) Manushyaayu, Human-age.
(3) Manushya gati. human condition of existence.
(4) Panchendriya-jati, five-sensed beings.
(5) Trasa. mobile.
(6) Subhaga. amiable.
(7) Badara, gross (body).
(8) Paryapta, developable.
(9) Adeya, Radiant appearance.
(10)Yashah-kirti, Bringing good fame.
(11) Tirthamkara, a Tirthamkara's body.
(12) Uchcha-gotra; High-family.
(35) Although only 117 sub-classes are bindable and operable in this stage, yet all the 147 exist for the soul who is in this stage, as at any time the 31 sub. classes which were unbindable here may became bindable in a subsequent stage.
(36) The following three are not possible in this:
(1) Aharaka-sharira; Assimilative body.
(2) “ angopanga, limbs and minor limbs in Assimilative body.
(3) Tirthamkara, a Tirthamkar's body.
(37) The Tirthamkara-body-making karma is not possible here.
(38) If the wrong-belief has been destroyed, then the Right believer has the existence of 141, as he has already destroyed the following 7 :—
(1) Mithyatva, wrong-belief.
(2) Samyakgmithyatva, right-Wrong-belief.
(3) Samys.ktva Prakati, Clouded right-belief.
(4) Anantanubandhi Krodha, Error-feeding or right belief preventing Anger.
(5) ” Mana, Error-feeding or right-belief preventing Pride.
(6) ” Maya, error-feeding or right. Belief preventing Deceit.
(7) ” Lobha, Error-feeding or right belief preventing Greed
(39) The one less here is the Narakayu or Hellish age separated at the end of the fourth stage.
(40) The one less here is the Tiryancha-ayu or sub-human age separated at the end of the fifth stage.
(41) Devayu or celestial age sub-class ceases to exist here.
(42) The four are :—
(1) Anantanubandhi krodha, error-feeding or right belief preventing Anger.
(2) ” Mana, Error-feeding or right-belief preventing Pride.
(3) ” Maya, error-feeding or right belief preventing Deceit.
(4) ” Lobha, error-feeding or right belief preventing Greed.
(43) For the soul on the subsidential ladder, whether his Right Belief is acquired by the subsidence or by the destruction of the wrong-belief Karma, the numbers are 142 and 138 respectively in the 9th stage.
But on the destructive ladder, the following 36 also cease to exist, leaving 138 -36=102.
(1) Nidra-nidra, Deep.sleep.
(2) Prachala-prachala, Her.,:y drowsiness.
(3) Styanna gridhi, somnambulism.
(4) Apratya-khyana-Varanlya-krodha, Partial vow-pre venting Pride.
(5) ” ” ” Mana, Partial vow-preventing Pride.
(6) ” ” ” Maya, Partial vow-preventing Deceit.
(7) ” ” ” Lobha Partial vow-preventing Greed.
(8) Pratya-khyan-avaranlya Krodha. Total vow-preventing Anger.
(9) ” ” ” Mana, Total vow-preventing Pride.
(10) ” ” ” Maya Total vow-preventing Deceit.
(11) ” ” ” Lobha. Total yow-preventing Greed
(12) Samjvalana-krodha Perfect conduct preventing Anger.
(13) ” Mana ” ” ” Pride.
(14) ” Maya, ” ” ” Deceit.
(15) Hasya, Laughter.
(16) Rati, Indulgence.
(17) Arati. Dissatisfaction.
(18) Shoke Sorrow.
(19) Bhaya fear.
(20) Jugupsa disgust.
(21) Striveda famine inclination.
(22) Pumveda. masculine, ”
(23) Napumsakaveda, common sex inclination.
(24) Naraka Gati, hellish condition of existence.
(25) Tiryancha “ Sub-human” ” ”
(26) Ekendriya Jati, One-sensed Genus of beings.
(27) Dvindreya Jati, Two sensed Genus of beings.
(28) Tendriya “Three ” ” ” ”
(29) Chatureudriya Jati Four ” ” ”
(30) Naraka-gati-anupurvi, hellish migratory form.
(31) Triyanch, ” ”Sub-human ” ”
(32) Atapa, hot light, radiant heat.
(33) Udyota, cold light.
(34) Sadharana Sharira, common body.
(35) Sthavara, Immobile.
(36) Sukshma, Fine (body).
(44) The Sanjvalana Lobha or slightest Greed Sub-class ceases to exist here.
(45) There is existence-separation of the following 16 at the end of the 12th stage:
(1) Mati-jminavaraniya, Sensitive-knowledge-obscuring.
(2) Shruta “ ” Scriptural ” ”
(3) Avadhl “ ” Visual ” ”
(4) Manahparyaya ” Mental ” ”
(5) Kevala ” ” Perfect ” ”
(6) Chakshu-darshanaraniya, Ocular-conation obscuring.
(7) Achakshu “ Non-ocular ” ”
(8) A vadhi “ Visual ” ”
(9) Kevala “ Perfect ” ”
(l0) Nidni “ Sleep ” ”
(11) Prachalli “ Drowsiness ” ”
(12) Dana-antaraya “ Obstructive of charity.
(13) Labha ” ” ” ” gain.
(14) Bhoga ” ” ” ” Enjoyment.
(15) Upabhoga-antaraya, ” ” Re-enjoyment.
(16) Virya ” ” ” ” Power.
(46) In this stage there is the existence of 5. But in the penultimate instant 72 cease to exist and in the last instant the remaining 13 also cease to exist, leaving the soul entirely