JAINA SIDDHANTA

SHRI GOMMATASARA

KARMA-KANDA

 

괴ָ֙: I

( ԍ֋ )

CHAPTER I.

Description of the Prakriti or Nature of Karmas.

 

֋״ֵ ָ ش ֵָ׾ֳ֋ ־߸ l

ִָ֢֋׋ֵֻ ֵכی֋ ꔔ ll 1 ll

ϋִ ׿ָ ش ָ׾ֳ֋ ־߸ l

ִ֌ָ׭ֵֻ ύןִ㟍ߟԭ ֖״ ll 1 ll

 

 

1. Having bowed with the head to Lord Nemi, (who is) adorned with the jewels of the pure souls attributes, a great hero, (and) a mine of the gem of right-belief, I shall speak of the description of the Prakriti or nature of Karmas.

 

ֵ֛ ߻ ־ ߾Ӑ֋ ϋևӲӬ l

ֵ ֻ ֋֢۟ ֵ ֬ ll 2 ll

ύן: ֳ þֳ־: ߾֛פִ֭: l

֍ֻ ֻ ֵß֟ þֵ ֬ ll 2 ll

 

2. The eternal bondage of soul and Karmic matter is their nature, Prakriti, Shila, Svabhava. The existence (of soul and Karmas) is self-proved (as) the dirt in golden are.

 

Commentary.

The union of soul and matter is self-proved. This is the first point from which Jainism starts. This corresponds to the mighty and pregnant division of all things into Jiva and Ajiva, i. e., living and non-living, or soul and non-soul. Soul always, and soul alone, has consciousness. It alone is living, i. e., is Jiva. An else is non-soul, non-living, devoid of consciousness, which never had and never shall have consciousness, and is incapable of being conscious. Everything that is not Jiva is without consciousness. Pure soul is pure consciousness. Pure non-soul is without consciousness, or without any semblance of consciousness. This is not a merely logical division, convenient for analysis, arrangement or exposition. It is a basic fact. It must be thoroughly understood. Any error or doubt about this will certainly vitiate ones understanding of Truth. The duality of a human being is obvious. My nails are different from my idea of Shakespeare, or my ambition of being a worthy citizen of my country. The nail detached from me is dead matter. Not so the idea of Poetry or Patriotism. A still finer observation may be made. Life means a grouping together of so many vitalities, e. g. those faculties which enable me to apprehend objects by means of my senses, or to sense my own powers of body, speech and mind, or my respiration. These vitalities exist in me, but not in dead matter. Every fact in life, to the truly observant soul, cries out in a most unmistakable tone the message of this inherent and inevitable mundane duality. There is Life. There is Lifelessness. We see it in every thing. We see it around us. We see it in us. It is only the man imbued with a philosophy, in the phrase of Hume, subversive of all speculation, who blinds himself to the obvious existence of these two facts, or who by looking too long and too intently and exclusively only upon one of these, thinks fit to apotheosize the one and to deny the other. Of this one-sided attitude are born the pure materialists and the pure spiritualists, typified by the Charvakas and the Vedantists of India respectively. For one, all is matter; for the other, all is soul. Thus at the very outset, Jainism sounds a clarion note of dissent from these one sided views of Truth. It takes its stand on the plurality of the aspects of Truth, and teaches us that both the materialists and the spiritualists are correct, but only partially. Certainly; there is matter, there is Ajiva; thus Charvaka is right and the Vedantist wrong. There is also Spirit, there is Jiva; thus Vedantism is true, and Charvaka wrong. We must see both, as both are obvious. Take only one broad common phenomenon of death. John dies. The whole of John does not disappear. His body is there. His vitality is not. He is not there; he has gone from the body. That he who has gone from the body and who when he was with it and in it, made it. alive, is the true John, the Jiva who was called John, according to Jainism. The body which he wore and which he dropped or left on death is the other partner in the firm of soul and matter; it is Ajiva. And still though the fact of this duality, this universal union of Jiva and Ajiva is obvious, yet its full grasp and thorough comprehension are far from easy. A beautiful little book by the author of Gommatasara himself gives us as clear a notion of Jiva, as any can be obtained in the peculiar and natural circumstances of things. The reader is referred to Dravya samgraha, where in Gatha 2, the 9 chief characteristics of the soul are enumerated, and each of them elaborated in the succeeding Gathas. But here the point to be realised clearly is this, that matter -one of the 5 chief forms of Ajiva -is in union with soul, the only living and conscious substance. Lifeless matter is found united with living soul. The whole Drama of life is played or danced together by the living soul being in close grasp of lifeless matter. Lifeless space is the stage; Lifeless Time is the duration; and lifeless Dharma and Adharma, the indispensable assistants for the dancers to move or to rest. The exercise of dancing is their eternal movement in the cycle of mundane existences. At each step, the momentum for a new movement is gained. At each embrace of matter, the delighted deluded soul throbs and vibrates for a fresh embrace. Wily matter is ever ready to attack the soul and to flow into it with its million insinuations and to keep alive and vigorous the bondage of the living by the non-1ivng. The inflow of the non-living matter into the living soul is called Asrava; the bondage is Bandha. The stoppage of Asrava is Samvara; the release of bondage is Nirjara; the total Liberation of the living from the bondage of the non-living is Moksha. The 7 Tattvas or Principles of Jainism are treated in Umasvamis Tattvartha Sutra, to which the reader is referred for further information about them. The activity of the soul which invites and enables matter to flow into it, as also the matter which actually does flow into the soul, is technically called Karma. The thought activity is Bhava-Karma; the actual matter flowing into the soul and binding it is Dravya-Karma. This book - the Karma-Kanda of Gommatasara deals with Karmas, their incidence, kinds, etc.

 

Notice also that in the world, all souls are always found united with matter. Pure souls abide only in Siddhakshetra, the Abode of the Liberated. In universal space, souls are from eternity subject to the bondage of matter. The Panchastikaya of Shri Kunda Kundacharya, talking of such souls, tells us in Gatha 27:

 

߾ע פ ֡׾֤ l

ֵ֤֢ ӕ ll

 

Jiva (mundane soul) is (always) combined with Karmas. This bondage of Karmas is from eternity, but when once it is broken and Liberation attained, then it is destroyed totally and for ever. Of course the matter of the bondage is freely and constantly being changed; but the fact and condition of the bondage of Jiva by Ajiva persist through all these changes. Old Karmic matter is shed; and new assumed; but there never has been a moment when the mundane soul was free from its vestment of Karmic matter.

 

߾ פ l

כִֵ ־Ӑ ֵ֢د֛꾾 ֻ ll 3 ll

߾ ֐ן l

ןִֵ ־Ԓ ֵ֟: د֛״־ ִֻ ll 3 ll

 

3. By the operation of the body sub-class of body-making Karma the soul attracts Karmic and quasi-Karmic (physical molecules) every instant to the whole body as a hot iron ball (draws in) water (from all sides).

Commentary.

The soul united with the body, is constantly taking in material molecules to renew and build its Karmic and two other bodies. Karmic molecules build up the Karmic body; and the physical molecules build up the other physical bodies.

In all there are 5 possible bodies of a mundane soul (1) Audarika, the external physical body, (2) Vaikriyika, fluid body of the celestial and hellish beings, (3) Aharaka, the assimilative body in which a saints soul flashes to an omniscient to resolve some doubt, (4) Taijasa, electric body, (5) Karmana, Karmic body. These are all material. The molecules of which they are formed are of 2 kinds. (1) Karma-vargana of which the Karmic body is made. (2) No-karma-vargana, of which the other bodies are made. The no-karma vargana is of 2 kinds Taijasa vargana, of which the electric body is formed; and the Aharaka vargana, of which the externa1 physical, fluid and Aharaka bodies are made. Every embodied soul has at least 3 bodies, the Karmic, the electric and either the fluild or the external physical body. Sometimes it has 4, for one antar-muhurta, when the Aharaka body emanates from a saint in doubt. And in transmigration, i. e., its passage from one to another condition of existence, the soul has only 2 bodies - i. e., the Karmic and the electric.

 

All these bodies are in form like the external body occupied by the soul; they are all co-extensive. Except that the Aharaka body is human in form but in size of a length equal to the forearm of the saint himself, i. e., from the elbow to the tip of his middle finger.

 

The fluid body also, although it is changeable at will. is yet one to begin with, and its identity persists throughout life.

 

֬֋ןֳִ֐ ϳ־֬֋ӟ֐ִ l

ֲִֵ֯֬ Ӭפ ־֤ ׾׸ ll 4 ll

ֳִۭ֭֬֐ ϳ־֤֭֬֐ִ l

ִֵ֯ϲ֬ ֬ן ־ֿ֢ ׾ִ֥ ll 4 ll

 

4. An infinite part of the number of Liberated souls (which is also infinite), and infinite times the number of souls, incapable of becoming liberated is the (maximum and minimum respectively) of unit of bondage, or the number of molecules (which the soul) binds (to itself) in one instant, owing to the souls vibratory activity (intense or mild). But (the number of molecules is) unequal; (i. e., sometimes more and at other less are bound). .

 

Commentary.

Instant-bondage, Samaya Prabaddha, is the number of Karmic or no-Karmic molecules bound by the soul in one instant. Henceforth we call it the unit of Bondage or Instant-bondage.

 

߸פ ֲִֵ֯֬ ֤֡ ֲִֵ֬ l

֋ߋ פ֜ ֲִֵ֯֬ ֢ ll 5 ll

ߵԟ ִֵ֯ϲ֬ ϵ֟: ϭֲִֵ֬ l

֋߭ ִֵ֯ϲ֬ ־ ִ֢ ll 5 ll

 

5. One unit of bondage is shed (every instant); and many units of bondage (are shed in one instant) by effort (i. e., austerities, etc). The one and one-half of Gunahanis (multiplied) by unit of bondage represent the molecules which remain bound to the soul.

 

Commentary.

Note-׭ Gunahani (G) is the numb!:! 01 terms of a series, the sum of which is the number of mol~eules of a unit of Bondage, (M. U. B.) and each term in which is half of the term immediately preceding it.

׭ ִֵ Gunahani-a-yama, (G. A.) is the number of instants (Samayas) in one Gunahani. .

 

׭ ִֵ nana gunahanis is the group of gunahanis in one Unit

of Bondage.

 

׭ ִֵ Anyonya-bhyasta-rashi=2 raised to the power of the number of gunahanis in one Unit of Bondage.

 

Thus guna am-ayama =Duration of Bondage {S).

Number of gunahanis.

 

E.g. If 48 samayas is the duration)of Units of Bondage, and 6 is the number of gunahanis, then gunahani-ay:ama-4 8/6=8.

 

Here nana-gunahani=the group of 6 gunahanis.

 

Anyonya bhyastarashi here=26 -64. This minus one, being the divisor of the number of a Unit of Bondage gives us the last term of the series.

 

E.g. If a Unit of Bondage have 6300 molecules, then the last term I 6300/64I=100.

 

Thus the series of 6. gunahanis here is.

3200 + 1600 + 800+ 400 + 200 I- 100=6300.

 

In the example given above, the soul which binds in one instant 6300 molecules, of a duration of 48 samayas and of 6 gunahanis, will shed 3200 molecules in the 1st 8 samayas.

 

1600 2nd

800 3rd

400 4th

200 5th

100 6th

 

׭ָ Nishekahara (N=2 G.A.)is always double the number of gunahani ayama. Thus in the above example nishekahara is double of 8=16.

 

ֵ Chaya (C) is the regular arithmetic difference between any consecutive two of the terms of the series of a gunahani. Chaya is the molecules of a gunahani divided by

nishekahara + No. of gunahani ayama + 1 x gunahani ayama.

2

 

_______________molecules of a gunahani x 2

(nishekahara + No. of a gunahani ayama + 1) X gunahani ayama.

 

molecules of a gunahani x 2

(2 gunahani ayama+ No. of gunahani ayama+1) X gunahani ayama.

 

M. U. B.x2

- (-2 S/G +S/G + 1) X S/G

 

The molecules shed in the 1st instant (F). in any gunahaniF=Chaya X Nishekahara.

 

   4M / 3S/G+1=M/3S/4G+1/4

 

Where M is the number of molecules in a gunahani; S is the total samayas in Sthiti, and G is the number of gunahanis.

 

4M x G Chaya= 1st term =F/ 2S/G

2 gunabani ayama -

 

Thus in the 4th 8 samayas in the above example, 400 molecules are shed. We want to find out how many molecules are shed in the 1st samaya, and by how many molecules the shedding becomes less and less in each succeeding samaya.

To find out the molecules shed in the 1st samaya. i. e., F we apply the formula.

 

4M - 4 X 400 - 4+ 400 1600 =64.

F- 3S 3x48/6+1 24+ 1 25

 

To find out the Chaya, (C) we employ the formula.

F 64 64

C--2S /G+1 = 2X 48 = 16 4. = 4.

 

Therefore the number of molecules shed in the 4th set of 8 samayas will be 64, 60, 56, 52, 48, 44, 40 and 36=400.

 

If in one instant, the soul binds 6300 molecules of a duration of 48 instants then they are shed as follows:

1st 8 instants 512, 480, 448, 416, 384, 352, 320, 288 3,200

2nd 256, 240, 224, 208, 192, 176, 160, 144 1,600

3rd 128, 120, 112, 104, 96, 88, 80, 72 800

4th 64, 60, 56, 52, 48, 44, 40, 36 400

5th 82, 80, 28, 26, 24, 22, 20, 18 200

6th 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10,9 100

6,300

 

ָ֢֋ ־ע פ ׾ l

ꐐֻد֛ ֢ ־֍ ll 6 ll

ԟֻ ־ ן ־ן ׫׾֬ l

㐤ׯ֋ ֓۟: ־֍ ll 6 ll

 

6. From the point of view of Karma-ness (Karma is) of one kind. As dravya Karma(karmic matter) and bhava Karma (its capacity of fruition) it is of 2 kinds. But the material aggregate of Karmic molecules is dravya Karma; its power to operate is bhava Karma.

 

Commentary.

 

When a Karma for example, the knowledge-obscuring-Karma, operates and the intellect begins to act perversely, we call that perversity a bhava Karma. Here we call the effect, by the name of cause. The bhava Karma is really the power in the knowledge obscuring-Karma to operate and it is slightly figurative to call the result of this operation as bhava Karma.

 

׾ ϛֵֻ ӏֻ l

֋ פע -פע ן ֋֡ ll 7 ll

֟ ָ™׾֬ ™֟ظִ֓ӏֻ l

: ֟ן Ϭ֟ן ־֟: Ӗ ll 7 ll

 

7. Again that (Karma) is of 8 kinds or of 148 kinds. or (of kinds which are innumerable X) innumerable (spatialunits) of the universe (in number). Again of them there are the divisions into Destructive (ghati, and) N on-destructive (aghati.)

 

֋ ֋ ־ָ ֋ֳִֵ l

ֈ֋ִ ֵָ״פ Ͻ ֵ֛ߡ ll 8 ll

֭õ ԭõ ־ָ ߵִߵִ l

ֵִ ֵָ֭״ן ™ ύֵ: ll 8 ll

 

8. The Knowledge and Conation-obscuring; the Feeling; the Deluding, the Age, the Body-making, the Family determining, and the Obstructive-these are the 8 kinds of Karmas

 

־ִָ׾֐֑ ֤ ߾֐֑֤֢֤ l

ֈ֋ִ ׵֋ֵ ϑפע ll 9 ll

־ִ֝׾֭ ן ߾֐֑֭֟֟֟ l

ֵִ ߵ ֣ ϑ֟ן ll 9 ll

 

9. The (Knowledge and Conation)-.Obscuring, the Deluding, and the Obstructive. are destructive; because of their destroying the (manifestation of the) real attributes of the soul. And the Age, the Body making, the Familydetermining and the Feeling-these are non-destructive.

 

ֻ֋֋ ֋ִ֋ӟ׾׸ ׵ִֵ l

׵ֵ֐ פ֤ ֡״֋ ֤ ll 10 ll

ֻ֖֭ ԭִֻ֭֭֟־ߵ ׵֍ִ֌ l

׵֍֭ ֤֟߭ ֵֿ״֍ӿ ֟׭ ll 10 ll

 

10. Perfect knowledge, perfect conation, infinite power and purified right-belief and (other) purified qualities (as conduct, charity etc.), sensitive, (knowledge), and other destructive-subsidential thought-activities, are destroyed (i. e., their full manifestation is prevented, by these destructive Karmas).

 

Commentary

 

1. The knowledge-obscuring Karma obscures perfect knowledge, sensitive knowledge, etc.

2. The conation-obscuring Karma obscures perfect conation, etc.

3. The obstructive Karma obscures Infinite Power; charity. etc.

 

{The right-belief deluding - Karma obscures Purified right belief.

4 {

{The right conduct deluding Karma obscures purified right conduct,

 

֍ִָ۴ ϋפ۴ l

߾ Ͼֽ֋ פ ։ ׻־ ָ ll 11 ll

ԍִ٬ָ֟ ϭפ㟍 l

߾õ־֭ ן ֵ: ߾ ָ ll 11 ll

 

11. In this eternal cycle of existence which is fed by delusion caused by Karmas, the age-karma causes the sojourn of the soul, as the stocks which keep a man down.

 

פפ ߾ֳ ֤ ꐐֻ֋ l

פӟָ׸ˋִ֭ פ ִ ϋ׾ ll 12 ll

֟פ ߾ֳ פ 㐤֭ l

ָ֭֟֟׸ִ֭ ן ִ ϭ׾ִ֬ ll 12 ll

 

12. The body-making Karma of many kinds causes conditions of existence, etc., which differentiate the souls, many kinds of bodies which differentiate matter of various kinds and the change from one to another condition of existence.

 

ӟ֋֍֐ֵ֕߾ֵָ ״פ ֋ l

ߓ ָ ߓ ll 13 ll

ӟ֭֍֐֟֕߾ָ֓õ ״ן l

ߓ ָ Ծ ִ ll 13 ll

 

13. The conduct of the soul coming down from gene. ration to generation is called Gotra (family). High and low conduct becomes high and low Gotra. (The Karma which determines high and low family for the birth of soul is called family-determining or Gotra Karma).

 

ό֋ ϋ־֋ ׋ֵ ֵֹ ֤ l

ִֹ֤ ֤פ פֵ ll 14 ll

ϖˋִ֭־֭ ߵ þֹ ִ֟ l

:þִֹ֟ ֫֟ן ߵִ ll 14 ll

 

 

14. The feeling by the senses is called Feeling. Pleasant-feeling is pleasure-bearing feeling, painful feeling is pain-bearing feeling. That which causes this feeling is called Vedaniya Karma.

 

ϟ یֵ ֋פ ֓ ֧פ ֳ֢Ӑ l

פ ֋ ֋ ִ֢ ן ߾֐ ll 15 ll

ϣ ™ ֭ן ֓֟ ֧ן ֳ֛֯֟׳: l

ן խ ֭ ִ֌ ־׭֟ ߾֐: ll 15 ll

 

15. (The soul) conates things, knows (them by the 7 kinds of Syadvada or Predication) and then believes \them). So conation and knowledge (and) belief are the Souls qualities.

 

ϲָ֤ 㾾 ֋ ֢ ֋ פ l

ִִ֢֤ ׾׸ ߾֕߾֐֤״פ ׸ ll 16 ll

ϳ֟ ֭ ֟ խ ־ן l

ִ֍ִ֟ ߵ ߾֕߾֐֟״ן ָ ll 16 ll

 

16. Being the highest attribute of the soul, the first

(place is given to) knowledge. After that certainly comes conation. (Right) belief after that. Power relates to soul and non-soul both, therefore (it comes) last.

Commentary.

This gatha explains and justifies the order in which the Destructive Karmas are enumerated in Jainism.

 

֤׾ ϑؤ ׋ ֤ ֌֤ l

ִןֵ׋״֢֤ ׾֐ כ ϑפ׸۴ ll 17 ll

֟ׯ ϑ֟߾ ׭: ֭֟ Ͽ֌֟ l

ִֵ֡׭״֢֤ ׾֑֭ ךִ֑ןָ֓ ll 17 ll

 

17. The Obstructive Karma is put after the non-destructive Karmas, (because) even though Destructive, (it is) like the non-destructive, incapable of destroying fully (the powers of the soul), (and operates) with the auxiliary help of the trinity body-making (family-determining, and feeling Karmas).

 

ψֻ Ͼ׽פ ־ פ ִִֈ㾾 l

־״ֵ ߓ㓓 פ ִ֯㾾 ll 18 ll

ϵԻ Ͼãן: ־õ ן ִ ֵ: l

־ִ֟ ߓꓓ״ן ִ֯澾 ll 18 ll

 


18. By the power of the age Karma, the sojourn (of the souls) in mundane existence (is secured), Therefore the age-Karma (is mentioned) before the body-making Karma. High and low family depends on condition of existence : therefore the body-making-karma (is mentioned) before the family-determining Karma.

 

ؤ ֋ߵ ֻ ֤ ߾ l

ן֤ ֤ߋ ֕ פ۴ ל ll 19 ll

ן־֟ ߵ õ ֻ ֵ֟ן ߾ִ l

ן ֟߭ ֬ õ֤ ך ll 19 ll

 

19. The Feeling Karma by the force of the Deluding Karma destroys like the Destructive-Karmas the (real character of the) soul. Therefore it is placed in the middle of the Destructive (Karmas) and before the Deluding (Karma).

 

Commentary.

Vedaniya or Feeling-Karma comes in the list like this. It is the result of the K now I edge and Conation-obscuring Karmas, and operates with the help of the Deluding Karmas, i. e. with the help of its species Rati and Arati, indulgence and ennui. Therefore it is placed after the knowledge and conation obscuring, but before the deluding Karma. It is called nondestructive, because its operation is limited to bringing about occasions for pleasure and pain. The realizing of pleasure and paint depends upon the souls attention and indulgence and ennui. If the soul is non-attentive to such occasions, and is not influenced by them, the Feeling Karma though operative; cannot disturb the thought activity of the soul.

 

Destructive.

Non-destructive.

1.     Knowledge-obscuring

2.     Conation

3.    

4.     Deluding..

5.    

6.    

7.    

8.     Obstructive ..

.

Feeling

Age

Body-determining.

Family-determining.

 

֋ ֋ Ͼָ ֋ߵִֵ l

ֈ֋ִ ֵָ״פ ל״פ ֬ ll 20 ll

֭õ ԭõ ־ָ ߵִߵִ l

ϐֵִ ֵָ֭֟״ן ך״ן ֬ ll 20 ll

 

 

20. The Knowledge and the Conation obscuring; the Feeling; the Deluding; the Age; the Body-making; the Family determining and the Obstructive-this reading (is) thus established.

 

֛כִָ֕׻דֳֻ֢֟ӛָߋ l

־ ׾ ־ ll 21 ll

֙ϟִָ֪׻ד֡֍ֳֻ֋֐׸֋ִ l

֣ ־ ֣ ׋ ֭־׭ ll 21 ll

 

21. The veil (which obscures the sight of the face); the guard on duty (who prevents sight of the King);the sword (coated with honey, licking it, the tongue is cut, so that the pain is more than the pleasure); wine(which intoxicates and deludes); the stocks (which confine one to a certain condition); the painter (who makes different kinds of portraits), the potter. who turns out tall ;and :low pitchers); the treasurer (who obstructs the king in giving money in charity). As

(is) the nature of these,:soa1so the (8) Karmas should be known (respectively).

 

ӓ ־ ׋ Ͻ־ ֈ ֈ l

ꈢָ ֵ ֯֋֐ ָ ן ll 22 ll

ֿ ־ ™ؾֿן: ָ֟: ס֭־ן: l

ָ ֟ ׫֘֍ָ ־׭֟ ll 22 ll

 

22. Five, nine, two, twenty-eight, four, ninety-three or one-hundred and three, two, (and) five, are the subclasses respectively (of 8 Karmas).

 

Commentary

The body-making Karma has 93 sub-classes as shown in Tattvarthasutra Chapter 8. Here 103 are also mentioned like this. The 93 include 5 kinds of bodies, i. e., the physical, fluid, aharaka e1ectric and Karmic. Here, in gatha 27 (q. v.) 15 kinds of bodies are given as the sub-classes of these 5. Thus 10 more are added to 93 to make up 103.

 

ߋ׾֤ פ פ ֯֯פ l

׋֧׸֧ פי㐑פ ֌ ll 23 1l

ß֭֐鬪 ׯ֟ ־ׯן ԍן ֻע l

׭֦׭֦ ™֙׵֟ ֌: ll 23 ll

 

23. By the operation of somnambulism even on being awakened the man goes on sleeping, (although he) performs actions, (and) speaks, And by the operation of deep sleep he is not able to open his eyes (even when awakened).

 

ֵֵֻֻ֯ פ ֻ ֻן Ӑև l

׋֧ ֓ և ևև ֛ ll 24 ll

ϓֻ֯ϓֻ ן ֻ ֻ׭֟ ϒ׭ l

׭֦ ֓ ןšן : ׾ֿן ֟ן ll 24 ll

 

24. And by the operation of heavy drowsiness the salva flows out, and the limbs move, By the operation of sleep the man, who is going, stops, and then sits down, or falls down.

 

ֵֻ ߾ 㴴׻ֵ ׾ l

ֵ ֋פ ֤ Ӥ ll 25 ll

ϓֻ ߾ ִ֤߻ þׯן 㯟ׯ l

֤֭֕ן : þׯן ֤֭ ll 25 ll

 

25. And by the operation of drowsiness the soul sleeps with half-open eyes, and even when sleeping has a broken, discontinuous, partial, knowledge and again and again sleeps a little.

 

ӟ ֳִִ֜־֕ӟ l

״֓ ן֬ ӏ֐ߋ֤֍ ll 26 ll

֭֡ ׯֳִִֿ֍ֳ־ֵ֭֡ l

״֣֟ ס֬ ӏ֐֦߭֍֟ ll 26 ll

 

26. As in a machine, bird-seed (being ground takes 3 forms, husk, corn and powder); so in the machine of (the thought-activity of) the first subsidential right-belief the matter of wrong-belief also (becomes of) 3 kinds; and each one is innumerably less in material Karmic molecules (than the one proceeding it).

 

Commentary,

 

Subsidential right-belief is of 2 kinds. Prathamopashama samyaktva, the first subsidential right-belief. It may arise (1) in a soul which has never had right-belief, by the subsidence of the 4 error-feeding Passions and Wrong-belief, i.e., the 4 Anantanubandhi Kashayas and Mithyatva; or (2) in a soul which has had, but has lost right-belief, by the subsidence of the above 5 and of the 2 samyaktva mithyatva, mixed-right-and-wrong-belief, and samyaktva Prakriti, tight-belief -clouded-by-slight- wrong -belief.

 

Dvitiyopashama-Samyaktva, the second-subsidential right-belief. It arises in a saint in the 7th spiritual stage of Perfect Vows. When this saint is preparing to pass on to the 8th stage of New Thought-activity along the line of subsidential advancement, having been already a right-believer of the destruction-subsidence kind. he transforms the nature of the 4 error-feeding Passions into lesser passions, and causes the subsidence of the 3 sub-classes of right belief-deluding-Karma, namely, Mithyatya, Samyaktva Mithyatva, and Samyaktva Prakriti Mithyatva. The right-belief of this saint is called the second-subsidential right-belief.

 

Wrong-belief is of three kinds, Mithyatva, Wrong-belief, samyaktva-Mithyatva, mixed-right-and-Wrong-belief, Samyaktva Prakriti -Mithyatva. right-belief -clouded-by -slight- wrong-belief.

 

The matter of wrong-belief Karma, by being subjected to the thought, activity of the First-subsidential-right-belief becomes of the above 3 kinds. Wrong-belief has the largest number of mole cules. Mixed-right-and-wrong belief has a number of molecules innumerably less than that. And right-belief-clouded by-slight wrong-belief innumerably less than those of mixed-right-and wrong-belief.

 

֍ ן֋ ֋ l

ӕ ֤֤֤ ֵ֛ߡ ll 27 ll

֍ִԋֳ ֵ ִԋ ִԋ ִԋ l

ӵ ֟㿸֟㿸֟٫ ύֵ: ll 27 ll

 

27. The electric and karmic (bodies) with (the other) three; the electric with the Karmic; the karmic with another karmic; (the bodies) thus combining (we get) four, four, four, two, and one sub-classes (of the 5 bodies).

 

Commentary

The 15 are these:

1. Physical-physical; 2. Physical-electric; 3. Physical-Karmic.

4. Physical-electric-Karmic. 5. Fluid-fluid; 6. Fluid-electric;

7. Fluid-karmic; 8. Fluid electric- karmic. 9. Aharaka-aharaka ;

10. Aharaka-electric; 11. Aharaka-karmic; 12. Aharaka-electric-karmic.

13. Electric-electric; 14. Electric-karmic. 15. Karmic-karmic.

 

These 15 are the names of the sub-classes of the body-making Karmas, by the operation of which respectively, a physical body is produced from another physical body; an electric body from a physical body; and so on. These 15 are illustrated as follows :

 

1. In a Chakravarti, who has 96000 wives; his original physical body is reserved for his chief wife. But for the others, he produces by the operation of this Karma 95999 physical bodies. Of Course the soul remains the same, although it employs all the 96000 bodies simultaneously.

 

2. In a saint, in anger or compassion, the electric body which issues from the left or right shoulder is due to the operation of this Karma. Note that although he has got an electric body also, but the electric body which he throws forth from his shoulders is said to be produced by the operation of his physical-electric sub-class of body-making Karma, because the vibratory-activity of the soul which results in the operation of this particular sub-class is produced I by the physical body mainly. Thus the Yoga or Vibratory-activity which produces the electric body, being physical, the Karmic sub-class is called physical-electric. Note also that these bodies which are produced are made up of fresh molecules, and are not divisions or offshoots of the physical, electric and Karmic bodies already possessed by the saint.

 

3. At the approach of death, a Karmic body is produced to go and sort-of-touch the place where the soul is to reincarnate.

 

4. At the approach of death of a saint in compassion, both the electric and Karmic bodies issue simultaneously for their different purposes.

 

5 to 8. Apply to celestial and hellish beings. Celestial beings never travel out, in the body in which they are born; but they send out one or more fluid, etc. bodies by the operation of these 4 subclasses of body-making Karmas. Note that the hellish beings merely transform the matter of their own fluid body into another form. Their fluid electric Karma operates in anger only.

 

9 to 12. Apply to the Aharaka body. Somehow if it has not fulfilled its mission its appointed duration, the saint issues out another Aharaka from the previous one. This is done by the operation of the 9th sub-class, Aharaka-aharaka. The 10th is, where an electric body is produced from the aharaka, e. g., to protect or extricate a saint from some trouble or difficulty. The 11th is when the saint is about to die and is in doubt also. The 12th is where the circumstances of the 10th and 11th co-exist.

 

13. Electric-electric. If one electric body has failed to complete its mission in its appointed time, then another is produced from the same.

 

14. When the Karmic is produced from fin electric body.

15. The Karmic body produces another Karmic body.

 

ֵֻ ׋ֵӲ֯ l

Ͻ Ӑ֤ Ӑև ll 28 ll

ֻ֍ ֣ ׭ִ֟֯š l

™ ϒ׭ ֋ ֒׭ ll 28 ll

 

28. The two legs and the two arms and the buttocks, the back, and the chest, and the head-these 8 are the only limbs in the body; the others are minor limbs (as the eye, etc., etc.).

 

ּ ִև ֤ߤ ֤ ֻ֕ע l

֢ ֻֻ֕ ֳ׻ֵ֋ֵָ֋֬ע ll 29 ll

֙ ִ֟ פ: ֟ ֵֻ ן l

֟: ہ֐ֵֻ ןָֻ֭֟֓֬ ן ll 29 ll

 

23. By (the 6th, i. e., Sripatika) osseous structure (in which there are no peculiar joints but only ligatures) the soul goes from the first to the 4 pairs of heavens, (i. e., up to the 8th heaven Kapishtha). Ann those of (the 5th), Kilita (small joints and bones) and of (4th) Ardha-naracha (big joints on one side and bones) respectively go further to two pairs each (of the heavens).

 

Commentary.

The soul with 6th osseous structure can go up to the 8th heaven, but not beyond.

 

The soul with 5th osseous structure can go up to the 12th heaven, but not beyond.

 

The soul with 4th osseous structure can go up to the 16th heaven, but not beyond.

 

־֐׾֕֋ק֋ָ ן ִֵ l

ן֤ Ӭ֛ ֵ֋ִ֤ߐ ll 30 ll

־֐׵֍֭פָ֭ ۭ ׭ִֵ֟ l

ס׫ ֭ ָ֓פ ֿ: ll 30 ll

 

30. The 9 Graiveyika, (9) Anudisha and (5) Anuttara residences are attained by them certainly (who have respectively got) the three osseous structures beginning from Naracha (big Joints on both sides and bones), (i. e., Naracha, Vajra-Naracha, (adman tine ligatures and bones), Vajra- V rishabha-naracha, (admantine ligatures, joints and bones) ), the (latter) two, (and the last) one.

 

Commentary.

The 3rd set of bones take one utmost to the 9 Graiveyakas.

2nd 9 Anudishas.

1st 9 Annuttaras.

In determining the highest heaven attainable by one, the lowest kind of osseous structure should be taken account of, e. g. if one has the third and second mixed, he cannot go beyond the 9 Grai veyakas.

 

֋ ֕פ ֤ ָ ׯ l

ּ֤߸ ֋ ֋֤֓ ll 31 ll

Ӗ ֭֙ Εן ֟: ָ ׯ l

֙פ: ִ֘ ֭֘֓֟: ll 31 ll

 

31. The rational being with 6 osseous structures goes up to Megha (the third hell). (The one with) five, four, and one osseous structure excepting Sripatika, etc., also goes beyond that up to fifth, sixth and seventh hells respectively.

 

Commentary.

Only beings with the highest osseous structure; can sin so deeply that they merit the tortures of the lowest or the with hell. That is, they alone can go down to the 7th hell. Those with four, i. e. the first four osseous structures, i. e. with all except Kilita and Sripatika go down to the 6th. Those with 5, i. e., all except Sripatika can go down to the 5th. Those with all the 6 structures of bone can go down to the third hell. For the 6 kinds of Samhanana, see Tattvartha Sutra Chapter 8.

 

ןִןֵ ֳ״ִ֋ l

פן֐ ۟ע ו֋ ׋ק ll 32 ll

׭ִ֟֡ ֭õ: : Գ״ִִ֭ l

פ״֡֍֭ ßןו֭٭٤™ ll 32 ll

 

32. And the last 3 osseous structures appear in the women of work-region (Karma-bhumi) ; the first three osseous structures are not (found in them). So it has been, said by the Conquerors.

 

Commentary.

Females of work region have only the last 3 osseous structure, and no higher ones. Therefore they can not go beyond the 16th heaven, as stated in Gatha 29. Only those who possess the first osseous structure, Vajra-Vrishabha Naracha Samhanana, can attain Liberation. Females of work region do not possess this structure, and therefore they can not attain Liberation from female bodies.

 


ϐ ֤־ פ ֯ l

և ׸ ֯ ꡯ ll 3 ll

ˋ֯ϳ ې: ϟ֯ ־ן ˋ֯ϳ l

פ ןָۿ ˋ֯ϳ : ll 33 ll

 

33. Fire has essentially hot light; Atapa. is light with heat (like sunshine, though not self-burning), found in the sub-human-beings (of earth bodied kind) in the planet sun. And Udyota is light without heat (as that of the moon).

 

׾֋ֳ־ ֬֋ӑ֤ פ ϲӬ l

֋֋֓ֈs׳֋ פ ֢׸ Ӭ ll 34 ll

׾ֳ֭׾֭ ֭֭ӑ֟ ן ϲ֭ l

֋֓֟s׳֮ ߟ ֟á: ֵ֭ : ll 34 ll

 

34. In the body (sub-class of the body-making Karma), the (5 kinds of) molecular bondage and of molecular interfusion are inseparable accidents (of the body). These are not (counted separately from their respective bodies) as sub-classes in bondage and. operation. The 4, Colour, etc., (i. e., 5 colours, 2 smells, 5 tastes and 8 kinds of touch) being inseparable classes, are taken (i. e., counted) as, four (and not as 20) in bondage and operation.

 

ӓ ־ ׸ ִ׾ ֈ ֽ֢ l

׋ ӓ ׳֋ֵ ֡ Ӭֵ֛֯ߡ ll 35 ll

֘ ־ ؛ֿןָׯ ֟á : ꋝ ֯™: l

֘ ׳֋֟ ֭֯ύֵ: ll 35 ll

35. 5, 9, 2, 26. 4, 67, 2, and 5 are respectively said to be the sub-classes of (8) Karmas which are the subject matter of bondage, (Bandha).

 

Commentary.

The knowledge obscuring are 5; Conation obscuring 9; Feeling 2; Deluding 26 (i. e., 28 minus Samyaktva-mithyatva and Samyaktva Prakriti mithyatva which do not bind); the Age karma 4; body-making 67 (i. e. 93 -10 of Bandhana and Sanghata + 16 left out from colour, etc., see Gatha 34) Family-determining 2 ; and obstructive 5.

 

Total=5 + 9+ 2 +26 to 4+67 + 2+5= 120 bondage sub-classes,

 

ӓ ־ ׋ Ͻ־ ֈ ֽ֢ l

׋֋ ӓ ׋ֵ ֡ ֵ֛֯ߡ ll 36 ll

֭֘ ־ ™ؾֿן : ֟á: ֯™: l

֘ ׳֋֟ ֯ύֵ: ll 36 ll

 

33. 5, 9, 2,28, 4, 67, 2, and 5 are respectively said to be the sub-classes of Karmas in operation (Udaya).

 

Commentary.

The order is the same as in Gatha 35. The total is 122. The two deluding sub-classes which do nut bind, but operate, viz., Samyaktva mithyatva and Samyaktva Prakriti Mithyatva are included here. See Gatha 26.

 

ֵֻ֤ Ӭ ן ֵ l

־ ־ֵ ϳ۴ ll 37 ll

֙֟ظ֓״ָ֟ ֭ ־ۭ ؾִֿֿ֟ l

־ ؾִֿֿ֟ ll 37 ll

 

37. As distinct sub-classes there are 146; but as not distinct they are 120 as subject-matter of bondage. As distinct sub-classes, there are all (i. e., 148) as operative; but as not distinct there are 122.

 

Commentary.

Of the 148 sub-classes, the 2 mentioned in Gatha 26 never bind, therefore 146 can bind; but as said in Gatha 35. only 120 form the subject-matter of bondage. Also as operative there are only 122 as in Gatha 36, although all the 148 may operate.

ӓ ־ ׸ Ͻ־ ֈ ֈ l

׋ ӓ ׋ֵ ֡ ֵ֢֛֯ ll 38 ll

֘ ־ ™ؾֿן : ָ֟: סִ־ן: l

֘ ׋֟ : ֢֯ύֵ: ll 38 ll

 

38. 5, 9, 2, 28, 4, 93, 2, and 5 respectively are said to be the sub-c1ass3s of (Karmic molecules) in Attendance or Existence, Satta) .

 

Commentary.

Under the influence of vibratory activity, and passions, Karmic molecules are attracted to, and bound with, a mundane soul, for a period. This is Bondage, Bandha. So long as they remain in Bondage, without coming into operation, they are said to be in attendance, Satta. During the period, they gradually come into operation, and shed off. This is called their operation, Udaya. In all these changes, there always remains a body of Karmic molecules attendant upon the soul. It is called Satta. Satta may be roughly Compared to a stream of running water. Within a particular area of the river, the water remains more or less the same in volume, although it is changing every moment as to the material water

which is constantly flowing away. The volume which is more or less constant is like Satta. Of course the Karmas in Satta fall off by austerities, etc. or on maturity. There are 148 sub-classes of attendant Karmic molecules.

 

ֻ֋֋־ָ ֋֔ ֲֵֵָ l

״֓ ־֑֤ ִ״֓ ϲӬ۴ ll 39 ll

ֻ֖֭־ָ ԭ֙ ֵ֤֫֍ l

״֣֟ ־ԑ֟׭ ִېֲִ֣֭֟ ll 39 ll

 

39. The perfect-knowledge-obscuring and 6 conation obscuring (i. e. perfect conation obscuring and 5 kinds- of sleep), 12 passions (4 error-feeding. 4 partial-vow-preventing and 4 total-vow-preventing), and wrong-belief (mithyatva are all-destructive, (Sarva-ghati).

(Include) mixed-right-and-wrong-belief, Samyaktva-mithatva, also for the non-bondage (enumeration, i. e, operation and attendance).

 

Commentary.

Samyaktva-Mithyatva has also been counted a different kind of all-destructive Prakriti. Thus leaving it, we have 20, and including it we have 21, all-destructive Karmas out of 47 sub-classes of 4 destructive Karmas.

 

֋־ָ֓ֈ ן֤֋ ִ֐ ӕֻ֋ l

־ ֵ ׾֐ ֑֤ߡ ll 40 ll

֭־ָ֓֟ ס֤խ ִ֍ ӕִֻ֭ l

־ ֵ ׾֭ ܛֿן: ֑֟׭ ll 40 ll

 

40. (The remaining) 4 knowledge-obscuring, 3 Conation-obscuring, right- belief -slightly-clouded - by - wrong- belief, (Samyaktva Prakriti) and 4 perfect-right-conduct-preventing-passions, 9 kinds of quasi-passions, (and 5) obstructive, these 26 are partial1y-destructive, (Desha-ghati).

 

֤ ן֋֋ֈl ָ ֤ؓ l

Ӭ֋ӑ֤Ӑև ֋֓֡ ll 41 ll

֟ ֵ ָ׫ ֘׭ִ֦ l

֭֭ӑ֟֒֒׭ ֋֓֟ ll 41 ll

ִ֓ֈ֕׸ ֑֤֐ ֐ִ֋ l

ֲָֽ ֳִֻ֤ ֟ ll 42 ll

ִ֓֟á־֕Գִ֑֟֐֙ ִ֭֭ l

֤֫™™: ֓֟֓ظ֤: ß: ll 42 ll

 

 

41-42. The pleasure bearing (sub-class of the Feeling Karma), 3 age (sub-classes, al1 but hellish), high family Karma, 2 (each), for human and celestial beings, i. e. gati, or condition of existence and gatyanupurvi, or retention of the last form in passage from one condition of existence to another and (Karma which causes) 5-sensed (genus of beings); and (5) bodies; (5 kinds of) molecular bondage; and (5 kinds of) molecular interfusion; and (3 Karmas) determining limbs-and minor-limbs and (20 of better class Karmas of) 4 (kinds, i.e.,) colour (smell, taste and touch); the perfectly propionate figure; adamantine ligament, (joint-and-osseous structure); -neither-light-nor-heavy, etc.,

6 kinds except Upaghata orself-destructi9e organ, graceful motion, mobile (etc.) 12 -these 68. or 42, if all be not taken individually are meritorious sub-classes, (Punya-prakriti).

 

Commentary.

The total sub-classes in gathas 41 and 42 are lot 3 + 1+4+1 + 5 +6+5 + 3+20+ 1 t-1+5+ 1+ 12=68.

The total of 42 is obtained by excluding the 10 kinds of molecular bondage and interfusion, and 16 out of the 20 kinds of colour, taste, smell and touch.

The 6 Agurulaghu minus Upaghata, means Agurulaghu, paraghata, Atapa, Udyota, Uchchvasa,

The 12 mobile etc., are Trasa, Badara, Paryapti, Pratyeka sharira, Sthira, Shubha, Subhaga. Susvara, Adeya, Yashahkirti. Nirmana and Tirthakara.

 

֤ ֳִ֤ ׋ָ։ ׋ָן׸֤ ֤ l

Ӛ֋ߋ ֤֋֯֋֐ ֋֓֡ ll 43 ll

֟׭ ߓִ֟ ׭ֵָ: ׭ָןֵې ן l

ã֭߭ ֟:֘֯֘֍ ֋֓֟ ll 43 ll

֑֤֐ֳ֋ ־ֵָ ϯ֟ l

Ӭ כ ϛֈפ ֵ ֤פ ll 44 ll

ִ֑֭֭֟ ã־ָ֍ ϯϿß l

֭ӯןֳ™־ן: ֟ہ-֟ן׸ָ ll 44 ll

 

43-44. (The 47 sub-classes of the 4) destructive Karmas; low (family-determining); pain-bearing (Feeling Karma) j hellish age-Karma; hellish and sub-human gati and Anupurvi (i. e., 4 sub-classes); 4 kinds of) genus of beings) i. e., 1, 2. 3, 4-sensed); 5 figures of the body (all except the first, i.e., perfect proportion); 5 osseous structures (all except the first Vajra-rishabha-naracha) and (20 undesirable sub-classes of the) 4. i. e., Colour (taste. smell and touch); possession of self-destructive organ; awkward motion; and immobile, etc, 10 sub-classes; are the demeritolions sub-classes, (Papa-prakriti). In relation to bondage and operation; taken individually (these are) 98 (and) 100; (and) not taken individually, (they are) 82 (and) 84 (respectively).

 

Commentary

The demeritorious sub-classes ate in total =47 +1 + 1 + 1 + 4+4+5+5+20+ 1 + 1+1-10=100, with reference to operation. In bondage, 2 viz. mixed-right-and-wrong-belief, and right-belief-clouded-by-slight. wrong belief are excluded, as they do not bind; and therefore the total with reference to bondage, is 98.

 

If not taken in all their individual sub-classes, we must exclude 16 out of the 20 sub-classes of the 4, colour, taste, smell and touch; then we have the above totals reduced to 84 and 82 respectively.

 

The 10 immobile, etc., are Sthavara, Sukshma, Aparyapti Sadharana sharira, Asthira, Ashubha, Durbhaga, Duhsvara, Anadeya, Ayashah-kirti. .

 

֜פ ֵ ִ֢ ֵֻ֓׸ l

֤ ֤ן ֋ִ ן ׾ ll 45 ll

ϣִפ: ֵ: ִ֌ ֍֓׸9ִ l

֣֏֟ ֵۭ֟ ִ֭֭ ־ۭ ׯ ll 45 ll

 

45. The first, etc., (i. e the error-feeding, partial and total-vow-preventing and perfect-right. conduct-preventing) passions, destroy or obscure (respectively) right belief, partial, total, (and) perfect right-conduct, and the remaining (9) passions (hasya, risible etc,) have the qualities indicated by their names.

 

Commentary.

Four error-feeding passions prevent right-belief arising in the soul. Four partial-vow-preventing Karmas, when operating do not allow a soul to adopt vows of a layman. Four total vow-preventing Karmas in their operation prevent a soul from following right conduct of saints, while four perfect-vow-preventing passions and nine quasi-passions obscure perfect right-conduct.

 

ӟ ֌ ӏsӏ֋ӟֳ־ l

ӕֻ֋ִפ֋ ֋֍ֻ ׋ִֵ ll 46 ll

ϭִ֟: ֖: ֋: ӏӏֳ֭֭֟־: l

ӕֻ֪֭֭ ֭֍ֻ: ׭ִֵ ll 46 ll

 

46. One Antar-Muhurta; one fort-night; six months; numerable, innumerable, (or) infinite incarnations, are certainly the duration of unconscious remembrance (of the events due to the operation of) passions, beginning with Samjvalana.

 

Commentary.

Perfect-right-conduct-preventing passions endure for an Antarmuhurta.

Total-vow preventing passions endure for a fort-night. Partial-vow preventing passions endure for 6 months. Error-feeding passions endure for numerable, innumerable and infinite incarnations.

 

֤ ӟ ֋֋ ׋״֋֟־ֻ֕ l

ףָ֢֤ ϐןֵ ꐐֻ׾־և ll 47 ll

֤: ïֿԭ: ֿ֘֟ ׭ִԋֵֻ֟֯ l

ãָ֯ϟ׫֐ֵ 㐤׾֯׍: ll 47 ll

 

47. From the body sub-class (of the body-making Karma) to the touch (sub-class of Karma) fifty; Nirmana (formation of limbs and minor limbs);. the pairs of Atapa (hot and cold light), of Sthira (steady and not. steady), and of Shubha (beautiful, and ugly), the Pratyeka pair (bodies with one or more souls); the Agurulaghu three (neither light-nor-heavy, self-destructive, and other-destructive organ, or limbs),-(these 62 are) Pudgala-vipaki, i. e. Body-maturing.

 

Commentary.

These are called Pudgala-vipaki, because they mainly affect the material bodies and their constituents.

 

The 50 body, etc., prakritis are as follows:

5 bodies, 5 molecular bondage, 5 mo1ecular interfusion, 6 figures of body, 6 physical constitutions, 3 limbs and minor limbs, 20 colour smell, taste and touch.

 

ω׋ ־׾־և ׾־և ֋㾾ߡ l

Ͻ׸ Ͼ ߾׾־և ־ ll 48 ll

ϵ ־׾֯֍׭ ۡ֯֍׭ ֭׋ l

™֯ןָ׿™ ߾׾֯׍: ֭־: ll 48 ll

 

48. (The four) age (sub-classes are) birth-maturing (Bhava-vipaki). And (the four) Anupurvi (are) transition-maturing (Kshetra-vipaki). The remaining 78 should be known to be soul-maturing (Jiva-Vipaki).

 

Commentary.

Of the 148 sub-classes of Karma, 62 out of 93 of body-making Karmas, have been already described as pudgala-vipaki. 4 of the age-class are called as Bhava vipaki, because they operate to produce and keep the particular condition of existence of a soul. 4 Anupurvi sub-classes of body-making Karma, are termed Kshetravipakvi, because they operate to maintain the form of the previous body, during the transmigratory passage from one condition of existence to another. The remaining 78 mainly affect the characteristics. of the soul and are hence called Jiva-Vipaki.

 

פֵ֐֤ߋ־֋֋ ִֵ֛֯ߋ l

֢־ Ͻ׸ ߾׾և ( ) ll 49 ll

ߵ֐֑ןִֿ֢֭֘ ִ֯ύִ߭ l

֯ؾֿןֿ ™֯ן: ߾׾֯׍: ll 49 ll

 

49. (The 2) Feeling; (the 2) Family-determining; (the 47) Destructive sub-classes, (aggregate to) 51; and (adding) 27 body-making sub-classes, these 78 (are) soulmaturing Karmas.

 

ןֵָ֟ ָ֤֢֤֕ l

֟׾ֵ־֐֤ ֈև ֋֕և ֐־ ll 50 ll

ߣԍ㓔 ֵ֤ԯþִָ֤ l

ֿá׾ֵ֐֫ӓ֟ԟֵ: ֵ֘֕֟: ֯ؾֿן: ll 50 ll

 

50- Tirthakara, respiration, gross-body, capacity of full development, sweet-voice, impressive appearance, good-name-bringing, mobile, graceful-motion, and amiable personality-the pair (i. e., the opposite also of all these Commencing from gross body), the 4 conditions of existence. the 5 genus of beings, are the 27 soul-maturing sub-classes of body-making Karma).

 

פ ֤ ׾ֵ֐פ ןֵ֋ ֻ l

ֳ֐פֈֻ ןָ֟֟ פ ֐־ ll 51 ll

ן: ן: ׾ֵן: ֵ֡֋ ֻ l

֐פ֟Ԑֻ ߣԍ ן ֯ؾۿ: ll 51 ll

 

51. (The four) conditions of existence. (the five-) genera, respiration, (graceful and awkward) motion, the three pairs, mobile (and immobile, gross and fine, develop.. able and non. developable), the 4 pairs, amiable (and un- prepossessing, sweet and harsh voice, impressive and nonimpressive, fame and notoriety) and Tirthakara-these (are) the twenty-seven.

 

Commentary.

The 27 sub-classes named in gatha 50, have, in this gatha, been described again in due order, and a little greater detail.

 

ִ ֋ ׾ֵ ־ע ֈ۾ l

ֵ֛ ־ ֻן ֋ ִִֻ ll 52 ll

ִ ã֭֯ ־ ן ֟پ֬ ־ l

ύן: ֯ ׻ן ִִִֻ ll 52 ll

 

52. (There) are four aspects (Nikshepa or Nyasa) of Karma :-(by) name, or negative (Nama), representation or representative (Sthapami), privation or privative (Dravya), present or positive (Bhava( Prakriti (Nature of Karmic matter), Papa (demerit), Karma (Karma), Mala (dirt), these terms (are ascribed) to the dirt (of Karmas) from the aspect of their names. See Tatvartha Sutra, S. B. J. Vol. II. Chapter 1, Sutra 5, pp. 8-15.

 

׸׸ פ ߾׽ l

ן פ ֋ ־֋֍ ll 53 ll

֥֥ ן֭ ߾ã֟ ֻ ֟ l

֤פן ןš ã֭֯ ֟ã֭֯֍ ll 53 ll

 

53. Representation of Karma, which is in combination with the soul, by similar or dissimilar object by the intellect, establishing (its identity), that it is that. is the representation (Sthapana, aspect) of Karma.

 

׾ ֐ִ֋ꡯϐִן ֯֯֜ l

֐ִ֯׸֋֕߾ ֕֯׸ߋ ll 54 ll

׫׾ִ֬֐ִ֭ꡯ֐ִ״ן ֟ϣִִ l

Ԑִ֯׸ֵ֍߾ ֵ֯׸߭: ll 54 ll

 

54. - The privation (aspect) of Karmas (is) of two kinds. Attention-privation of Karma (Agama-dravya-karma) and quasi-attention-privation of Karma (No-agama Dravya Karma). The soul, knower of the scripture about Karmas, (but) without attention (to it is) the first (i. e., attention privation of Karma).

 

֋ָ߸ ׾ֵ ־פ׸ פ ײפ l

֟ ָ߸ ן׾ ןֵ֍ֻ֐ֵן ִ ll 55 ll

ֵ֍߸ ׾ ֤ן׸ ־ן ֤׫ߵִ l

֡ ָ߸ ס׾֬ ֵ֍ֻ֐֟״ן ִ ll 55 ll