Who are  the Arihant Bhagwans?

Arihant Bhagwans are kevalis or Jinas who have conquered their inner passions and have destroyed their all four Ghati Karmas.


What are the  different  types of Arihant  Bhagwans?

There are two types of Arihant  Bhagwans. They are Ordinary Arihants and Tirthankar Arihants.


Who is the Tirthankar Arihants?

Those Arihants who reestablish Jain Tirth are called Tirthankar Arihants.


Who is the Ordinary Arihants?

Those Arihants who do not reestablish the Jain Tirth are called ordinary arihants.

How many dreams does the Tirthankar's Mother get?

Tirthankar's Mother gets fourteen or sixteen dreams.


Can you  name the fourteen  dreams?

Fourteen dreams are:

  1)  Elephant

  2)  Bullock

  3)  Lion

  4)  Laxami

  5)  Garland

  6)  Moon

  7)  Sun

  8)  Flag

  9)  Vase

10)  Lotus Lake

11)  Ocean

12)  Celestial Abode

13)  Heap of Jewels

14)  Smokeless Flame


What are the two extra dreams of sixteen dreams?

Two extra dreams of sixteen dreams are:

1) A Pair of Fish

2) A Lofty Thorne.


How many  different ways can one be destined to be the Tirthankar?

There are 20 different ways one can be destined to be the Tirthankar.


Can you name four ways out of the 20 ways one is destined to be the Tirthankar?


How many Arihant Bhagwans do we have at this time?


Where are the current Arihant Bhagwans?

There are none in our part of the world, but there are twenty in Mahavideh- kshetra.


How many minimum Arihant Bhagwnas can be at any given time?



How many maximum  Arihant Bhagwnas can be at any given time?

One hundred and seventy


Can you name the current Ariahat Bhagwans?

1) Shri Simandhar Swami

  2) Shri Jugmandhar Swami

  3) Shri Bahu Swami

  4) Shri Subahu Swami

  5) ShriSujitnath Swami

  6) Shri Svayamprabh Swami

  7) Shri Rishbhanan Swami

  8) Shri Anantveerya Swami

  9) Shri Suprabh Swami

10) Shri Vishalprabh Swami

11) Shri Vrajdhar Swami

12) Shri Chandranan Swami

13) Shri Chandrbahu Swami

14) Shri Brujandev Swami

15) Shri Iswar Swami

16) Shri Nemprabh Swami

17) Shri Veersen Swami

18) Shri Mahabhadra Swami

19) Shri Devajassa Swami

20) Shri Ajeetsen Swami


 How many karmas do Arihant Bhagwans have left?

Arihant Bhagwan has four karmas left.


What are the Bhavanas?

Bhavana means mental thinking.


Can you name the Bhavanas?

Bhavanas are:

  1. Anitya    

  2. Asharan

  3. Samsar   

  4. Ekatva

  5. Anyatva 

  6. Ashuchi

  7. Ashrav   

  8. Samvar

  9. Nirjara

10. Lokswarup

11. Bodhidurlabh

12. Dharma

13. Maitri

14. Pramod

15. Karuna

16. Madhyastha


Can you describe Anitya  Bhavana?

Anitya bhavana means thinking about the transitory nature of things around us. All things of the worldly life are perishable; and  nothing is permanent. It is fruitless to mourn over the loss of perishable, and we should not  lose our mental peace and emotional poise over them. Therefore, when someone dear to us dies or when we lose something then we should think that in this world, the body, wealth, family, relatives, and status, etc., are transient, and we will not feel so bad.


Can you describe Asharan Bhavana?

Asharan Bhavna means thinking that no other individual can provide a refuge. 

Nothing external can offer the permanent refuge. When death occurs and the soul has to leave the body, there is no one who can save the jiva from this. Wealth, and family, etc., stay behind and you have to face the future by yourself.


Can you describe Sansar Bhavana?

Thinking of worldly life.

In the cycle a of different worldly lives (samsar) the mother can become a wife; a wife can become a mother; and an enemy can become a friend; and a friend can become a foe, etc.  How fruitless is this samsar, where relationships go on changing. Therefore, I should not develop bondage for others.


Can you describe Ekatva Bhavana?

Thinking of being alone.

In this Samsar (worldly life) the Jiva (soul) is born alone and dies alone. It accumulates the Karmas alone and it experiences the fruits of its Karmas alone, too. Who belongs to whom in this world? Though jiva is living in the middle of the crowd, he is absolutely alone. Therefore, give up the attachment for others.


Can you describe Anyatva Bhavana?

Thinking of the soul as separate from the body.

The body and the soul are different and separate from each other. The body is inert, but my soul is the very embodiment of consciousness. The soul is imperishable. It will not die. The body; of course, burns and becomes ashes. Agonies afflict only the body and not to the soul. I am not the body. The body is not mine.


Can you describe Ashuchi Bhavana?

Thinking that the body is unclean.

This body is made up of impure substances like blood, urine, and fecal material, etc. I will discard my attachments for such body and engage myself in self‑discipline, renunciation and spiritual endeavours. The body is made up of the substance that decays very easily.


Can you describe Ashrav Bhavana?

Thinking of the causes of the inflow of karmas.

Ashrav means inflow of karmas. Evil tendencies and actions pollute and corrupt the soul with karmas. Therefore, one must think to be free from all such activities to avoid the inflow of karmas.


Can you describe Samvar Bhavana?

Thinking of taking the action to stop the inflow of karmas.

Samvar means blocking of inflow of karmas. One must think of the tremendous benefits of each Samvar like Samiti, Gupti, Yati‑dharma, etc. One must carry out these activities to reduce the inflow of karma.


Can you describe Nirjara Bhavana?

Thinking of destroying karmas.

By performing austerities, we can destroy our Karmas.  There are such twelve kinds of austerities. Therefore, we should think of when can we perform such austerities to destroy our karmas so that we can be liberated.


Can you describe Lokaswarup Bhavana?

Thinking of the universe.

Think of the creation of the fourteen Rajlok (universe) which are made up of the substances which are subject to the law of origin, existence and destruction. This whole universe is filled with jivas and pudgals.


Can you describe Bodhidurlabh Bhavana?

Thinking of developing faith in the dharmik (religious) principles.

One should think that it is hard to attain human life, healthy body, dharma, and to act according to dharma, etc. It is even more difficult to develop a true and abiding faith in the dharmik doctrines. We should think to make our faith strong and stronger forever.


Can you describe Dharma Bhavana?

Thinking of the influence of dharma.

How much have we been benefited by the Jinas  and theirdoctrines! This life is possible only if there is dharma. We have attained comforts and happiness by the benevolence of dharma.  It would be difficult to live without dharma. One should think of dharma from the practical points of view.


Can you describe Maitri Bhavana?

Thinking of friendship.

Think to be a friend of all beings in this universe. Once you are a friend you can not think bad of anyone, but rather make their life easier.


Can you describe Pramod Bhavana?

Thinking of honoring superiors.

Think of having heartfelt affection, regard and esteem for people who are superior to us in virtues, knowledge and ability. Not to entertain such feelings as jealousy and envy; and not to look at anyone maliciously and with a sinister feeling. Think to be cheerful and happy at the sight of virtuous people; and to express cordial happiness on seeing such people.


Can you describe the Karuna Bhavana?

Thinking of compassion.

Think to show compassion to those who are in distress, want; and to those who are weak and helpless. Think to help them by giving your support to remove their sorrows and agonies.


Can you describe the Madhyastha Bhavana?

Think to stay neutral.

Think to treat with indifference those people who even after realization and knowing the right from wrong, arrogantly and obstinately refuse to walk on the path of righteousness. Think that may be one day they may improve, but I do not have to be affected by their behavior. Think of being in equanimity even in such circumstances.


How many Bhavanas are there?



What kind of bhavanas should one have?

One should entertain and expand auspicious and useful thoughts. One should not allow one’s soul to get entangled in the various materialisrtic events taking place around oneself.


What is the  purpose of bhavanas?

Bhavanas enable people to attain mental  peace, tranquillity, and spiritual uplift.

How many auspicious events are there in the life of Tirthankars? There are five

auspecious events in the life of a Tirthankar.


What is the original word for auspicious events in the life of Tirthankars?

The Jain term for these auspecious events is Kalyanaka.


Can you describe the 1st  Kalyanak?

The first Kalyanaka is the Chyavana Kalyanaka.

This is when a to be Tirthankar’s soul departs from its last life, and is conceived in the womb of the mother.


Can you describe the 2nd Kalyanak ?

The second Kalyanaka is the Janma Kalyanaka.

This is when a to be Tirthankar is born.  The gods and goddesses celebrate this auspicious occasion.


Can you describe the 3rd Kalyanak ?

The third Kalyanaka is Diksha Kalyanaka.

This is when a to be Tirthankar gives up all his worldly possessions and takes the vows of a monk.


Can you describe the 4th Kalyanak ?

The fourth Kalyanaka is Kevalagnan Kalyanaka.

This is when the Tirthankar attains kevalagnan (perfect knowledge). At that time  the Tirthankar re-establishes the Jain Sangh, formed of the four tirthas namely sadhus, sadhvis, shravaks, and shravikas.


Can you describe the 5th Kalyanak ?

The fifth Kalyanaka is Nirvana Kalyanaka.

This is when the Tirthankar dies and leaves this universe and his body forever. He goes to salvation, and becomes free from the cycle of birth and death.


How many Tattvas (Fundamentals) are there in Jainism?

There are  nine fundamentals.


Can you name the Nine Tatvas (Fundamentals)?

Nine fundamentals are:

1) Living

2) Non‑living

3) Punya

4) Pap

5) Ashravas

6) Samvar

7) Bandh

8) Nirjara

9) Moksha.


What is meant by the Ajiva?

Things which do not have life or qualities like breathing, regenerating, etc., are known as ajiva or non‑living things.


What is meant by the Jiva?

Jiva means one which can breathe,  regenarate or reproduce, eat and have mind to think, etc.


What are the different Jivas?

The souls are divided into two categories.


How are the different Jivas described depending upon spirituality?

There are two kind of jivas:

1) the liberated souls, the muktatma, the soul that is bodiless and has been once and for all freed from the bondage of all the karmas and cycle of births and deaths.

2) the non-liberated souls, samsari atma, the soul that has a body and is caught in the bondage of karmas and cycle of births and deaths.


How many senses are there?

There are five senses.


What is the paryapti?

Paryapti means  a special power through which jiva converts matter (pudgal)  like food into an energy.


How many different Paryaptis are there?

There are six paryapties.


What is the  Pran?

The Pran means vitality.


How many different Prans are there?

There are ten prans.


What is the name for the group of Jivas with one sense?

Ekindriya Jivas

Can you give an example of one sensed Jivas?

Examples of one-sensed jivas are:




Air, and

Vegetable beings.


How many paryaptis do one-sensed Jiva have?



How many prans do the one-sensed Jiva have?



What is the name for the group of Jivas with two senses?

Beindriya Jivas


Can you give the examples of two-sensed Jivas?

Examples of two-sensed jivas are:


the microbes in stale food,

the minute creatures in water,

the worms that eat away wood, etc.


How many paryapties do the two-sensed Jivas have?



How many prans do the two-sensed Jivas have?



What is the name for the group of  Jivas with three senses?

Teindriya Jivas


Can you give the examples of the three-sensed Jivas?

Examples of three sensed jivas are:




White ants,

Moths, and

Insects in wheat, etc


How many paryapties do the three-sensed Jivas have?



How many prans do the three-sensed Jivas have?



What is the name for group of the Jivas with four senses?

Chaurendriya Jivas


Can you give the examples of four-sensed Jivas?

Examples of four sensed jivas are:






Flies of all kinds, etc.


How many paryapties do the four-sensed Jivas  have?



How many prans do the four-sensed Jivas have?



What is the name for the group of Jivas with five senses?

Panchendriya Jivas


Can you give examples of five-sensed Jivas?

1) Naraki ‑ the jivas in hell.

2) Tiryanch ‑ those that live on earth ‑ animals, birds, fish, etc.

3) Dev ‑ those that live in the haven ‑ dev/angels.

4) Manushya ‑ human beings. 


How many paryapties do five-sensed Jiva have?



How many prans do five-sensed Jiva have?



What does Punya mean?

Whenever we do good deeds we accumulate good karmas which is called  Punya. 


What does the Pap mean?

Whenever we do bad deeds we accumulate bad karmas, which is called pap. 


What does the Ashrava mean?

We get lots of thoughts for doing good or bad things and most of the time we act accordingly and accumulate good or bad karmas. The process of inflow of these karmas to the soul is known as ashravas.


What does the Samvar mean?

The actual stoppage of the inflow of good or bad karmas to the soul is known as samvar.


What does the Bandh mean?

The accumulation of karmas to the soul is known as Bandh. 


What does the Nirjara mean?

The process by which we shed the karmas which are attached to the Soul is known as Nirjara. 


How many different types of the Nirjaras are there?

There are two different types of Nirjaras:

1) Akam Nirjara and

2) Sakam Nirjara


What is Akam Nirjara?

The sheding of karmas by passive suffering is known as Akam Nirjara. For example: To fast when no food is available to eat. By Akam Nirjara it would take ages to get rid of karmas, which we have accumulated.


What is Sakam Nirjara?

The sheding of karmas by active efforts is known as Sakam nirjara. The Sakam Nirjara destroys Karmas very fast and accelerate the end of the cycle of birth and death. For example: To fast with a free will, when sufficient food is available.


What does the Bandh mean is meant by the Moksha?

Moksha means salvation that is when a soul has shed off all of its karmas and thereafter, that soul does not go through the cylce of birth and death ever again. 


What are other names by which Arihants are called?

They are also called Kevali, Jina, Tirthankar, or Vitragi.


Which is the higher in achievements, the Arihants or the Siddhas?

Siddhas are higher than Arihants since they have destroyed all the karmas and are liberated from this world. Why do we pay homage to Arihants first? Arihants are the living teachers who show us the path to the liberation, and therefore, we pay them the homage first.


What kind of body does a Siddha have?

Siddhas have no bodies since they have no karmas.


How many attributes do Siddhas have?

Siddhas have eight attributes.


Do Siddhas accumulate karmas?

No, Siddhas do not accumulate karmas.


Do Arihants accumulate karmas?

Yes, Arihants accumulae the karmas, but karmas do not stay for more than a fraction of a second.


Where are the Siddhas?

Siddhas are at Siddhashila which is at the top part of this world (Lokakash).


Whom do we pay homage by the Navkar Mantra?

In Navkar Mantra we pay homage to:





Sadhus and Sadhvis.


Who  is Siddha Bhagwant?

Siddha Bhagwants are those souls who are liberated from this world forever.


How many attributes do Arihants have?

Arihants have twelve attributes.


Do Arihants get reborn in worldly life?

No. Arihants at the time of death destroy all remaining four karmas and get liberated from this world forever.


Name the karmas which are already destroyed by Arihants?

Jnanavarniya Karma

Darshanavarniya Karma

Antaray Karma

Mohniya Karma


Name the karmas, which are not destroyed by Arihants?

Nam Karma

Gotra Karma

Vedniya Karma

Ayushya Karma


Name the karmas which are destroyed by Siddhas?

Jnanavarniya Karma

Darshanavarniya Karma

Antaray Karma

Mohniya Karma

Nam Karma

Gotra Karma

Vedniya Karma

Ayushya Karma


What kind of karmas Siddhas have?

Siddhas do not have any karmas.


Who can become a Siddha?

Everyone has a potential to be a Siddha.


Who is Acharya?

Acharya is a sadhu who is the leader of other sadhus and the sadhvis, and he leads us to the spiritual uplift of the soul, and guides us to the path of liberation.


How many attributes do the Acharyas have?

Thirty- Six


Who is Upaddhyay?

Upadhyay is a sadhu who has studied the scripture in much detail and teaches other sadhus and sadhvis.


How many attributes do the Upaddhyayas have?



Who is Sadhus?

Sadhu was a male householder who voluntarily renounced the worldly life for the uplift of the soul. He has accepted to follow five major vows.


How many attributes do the Sadhus have?



Who is Sadhvi?

Sadhvi was a female householder who voluntarily renounced the worldly life for the uplift of the soul. She has accepted to follow five major vows.


What is the Tapasya (Austerity)?

Tapasya is called austerity which means voluntary restarin from available things and desires, or voluntary suffering to uplift the soul.


What are the different types of Tapasyas (Austerity)?

There are two major types of austerities. They are:

1)      External (bahyantar)

2)      Internal (abhyantar)

Each one of these two are further sub-divided into six groups.


What is theExternal Tapasya (Austerity)?

External austerities are those austerities which when performed can be noticed by other people.


What is the Internal Tapasya (Austerity)?

Internal austerities are those austerities which when performed, can not be noticed by other people.


Can you name the External Tapasyas (Austerity)?

External austerities are:


1) Anasan

2) Unodari

3) Vruti Sankshep        

4) Rasa Tyag

5) Kaya Kalesha

6) Samlinta.


Can you name the Internal Tapasyas (Austerity)?

Internal austerities are:

1) Prayschit

2) Vinay 

3) Vaiyavachcha

4) Vyutsarga

5) Swadhyay

6) Dhyan


What is Anasan Tapa (Austerity)?

Anasan Tapa means fasting for a day, for some days or rest of one’s life by completely renouncing food and water, etc. Anasan is also taken to render death auspiciously.


What is Unodari Tapa (Austerity)?

Unodari Tapa means eating and drinking (water) less than the extent of one’s hunger and thirst during the meals. 

What is Vrutti Sankshep Tapa (Austerity)?

Vruti Sankshep Tapa means reducing the desires. One must renounce some of the items during the meals.


What is Rasa Parityag Tapa (Austerity)?

Ras parityag Tapa means renouncing those kinds of foods and drinks that provoke taste, and increases the strength and excitement. There are 14 sub-types of this austerity. It can be done partially or in total for one time or for prolonged time.


What is Kaya Kalesha Tapa (Austerity)?

.In Kayaklesh Tapa one makes the body suffer by yoga or staying in one position for a longer time.


What is Samlinata Kayaklesh Tapa (Austerity)?

In Pratisanlinata Tapa one controls all senses to stop pleasant and unpleasant temptations, also controls lying, distorting the truth, and sensual talks.


What is Prayaschita Tapa (Austerity)?

In Prayaschit Tapa one confesses the various errors of commission and omission, the faults and the sins committed knowingly or unknowingly to the sadhu,  to the person concerned or to oneself. One says Micchchamidukadam. One fully carries out the prescribed atonement by sadhu.


What is Vinay Tapa (Austerity)?

In Vinay Tapa one becomes polite and respectful towards all.

What is Vaiyavachch Tapa (Austerity)?

Vaiyavachcha Tapa means serving religious teachers, ascetic, virtuous people, sadhu, sadhvies, colleagues, companion and needy people with devotion, including animals.


What is Vyutsarga Tapa (Austerity)?

In Vyutsarga Tapa one stands still and meditates. This austerity is also called Kayotsarga. During this, one renounces the attachment for the body, and takes care of the soul.


What is Swadhyay Tapa (Austerity)?

In Swadhyay Tapa one must study, teach and reflect deeply on such sacred books as to inspire one to attain self‑realization and enable one to save one’s soul from getting lost in the entanglements of the social life.


What is Dhyan Tapa (Austerity)?

Dhyan Tapa means concentrating the mind on the real nature of the soul.


What is the Navkarasi?

One must take food and water 40 minutes after the sunrise. Even the brushing of the teeth and rinsing the mouths must be done after that time.


What is the Porsi?

Taking food or water three hours after the sunrise.


What is the Sadh-Porasi?

Taking food and water four hours and thirty minutes after the sunrise.


What is the Purimuddh?  

Taking food and water six hours after the sunrise.


What is the Avaddh?

Taking food and water eight hours after the sunrise.


What is the Biyasan?

One must take food only twice a day at one sitting each time.


What is the Ekasan?

One takes food once a day sitting in one place. (One should not eat the salad or the raw grains.) One also drinks the boiled water during the daytime.


What is the Ayambil?

One takes food only once in one sitting. Food should be boiled and not have any spices, milk, curd, ghee, oil, and raw vegetables. One drinks only boiled water during the daytime.  It is better if one can do the chauvihar or the tivihar the night before. 

What is the Upavas?

Upavas means fasting for twenty-four hours from the sunrise today to the sunrise on the next day, during which one does not take any kind of food or liquids but may drink the boiled water. It is prefered if one can do the chauvihar or the tivihar the night before.

a) Tivihar upavas ‑ During this, one does not take any food or drink any liquids except the boiled water only.

b) Chauvihar upavas - During this, one does not take any food or liquids during the day or the night.


What is the Tivihar?

In tivihar one does not take food of any kind including liquids except water after the sunset until the sunrise next day but can take water.


What is the Chauvihar?

Chauvihar means one does not take any food or any liquids after the sunset until the sunrise next day.

What is the Attham?

Attham means upavas for continuous three days.


What is the Atthai?

Atthai means upavas for continuous eight days.


What is the Maskhaman?


Maskhaman means upavas for continuous one month.


What is the Navapad Oli?  

During every year, one does ayambils for 9 days starting on the bright fortnight either on 6th or 7th day in Ashwin and Chaitra months for a period of four and one-half years. Some people may take only one kind of food grain on a given day.


What are the Karmas?

Karmas are the end results of our activities, which may or may not be associated with passions.


What are the Ghati Karmas?

Ghati karmas affect the true nature of the soul.


What are the Aghati Karmas?

Aghati karmas do not affect the true nature of the soul, but affect the body in which the soul abides.

Name the Ghati Karmas?

Ghati karmas are:

1) Knowledge‑oscuring or Jnanavarniya

2) Perception‑obscuring or Darshnavarniya

3) Obstructive or Antaraya

4) Deluding Karmas or Mohniya


Name the Aghati karmas?

Aghati karmas are:

1) Feeling‑producing Vedniya) Karma

2) Body‑making (Nam) Karma

3) Status‑determining (Gotra) Karma

4) Age‑determining (Ayushya) Karma


How many sub-types are of the Jnanavarniya karma?

There are five sub-types of Jnanavarniya Karma.


How many sub-types are of the Darshanavarniya karma?

There are nine sub-types of Darshanavarniya Karma.


How many sub-types are of the Vedniya karma?

There are two sub-types of Vedniya  Karma.


How many sub-types are of the Mohniya karma?

There are twenty-eight sub-types of Mohniya  Karma.


How many sub-types are of the Nama karma?

There are sixty-seven sub-types of Nama Karma.


How many sub-types are of the Gotra karma?

There are two sub-types of Gotra Karma.


How many sub-types are of the Antaraya karma?

There are five  sub-types of Antaray Karma.


How many sub-types are of the Ayusya karma?

There are four sub-types of Ayushya  Karma.


Can you name the types of Jnanavarniya karma?

Jnanavarniya Karma is divided into five sub-groups.

They are:





Keval-jnanavarniya Karmas


Can you name the types of Darshnavarniya karma?

Darshanavarniya Karma is divided into nine sub-groups.

They are:











Can you name the types of Vedniya karma?

Vedniya Karma is divided into two sub-groups.

They are:

Shatavedniya Karma

Ashatavedniya Karma


Can you  name the types of Mohniya karma?

Mohniya Karma is devided into twenty-eight sub-groups.

They are:

Mithyatva Mohniya


Samyaktva Mohniya

Krodha, Man, Maya, & Lobha (each further divided into four)



      Pratyakhanavarniy; and












Can you  name the types of Nama karma?

Nam Karma is divided into sixty-seven sub-groups.

Most popular sub-types are:











Can you name the types of Gotra karma?

Gotra Karma is divided into two sub-groups.

They are:

Uchcha  Gotra

Nicha Gotra


Can you name the types of Antaraya karma?

Antaray Karma is divided into five sub-groups.

They are:







Can you name the types of Ayushya karma?

Ayushya karma is divided into four sub-groups.

They are:






What are the effects of Jnanavarniya karma?


Inability to understand, Stupidity,


Incapable of being taught,


Stammering, etc.


How do you accumulate the Jnanavarniya karma?

By Condemning knowledge and scholars and enlightened people. Laziness, contempt and displeasure to study.


How can you get rid of the Jnanavarniya karma?

Worship the knowledge.  Give reverence,  respect to the teachers, pay respect to the books because it represents the knowledge.  Do not throw, fold or sit on books.  Go to the religious school regularly.  Study silently with humility and attentions. As a student, keep off the bad habits and keep your speech clean; conduct good and share knowledge with others.


What happens when you get rid of the Jnanavarniya karma?

You develop Kevalgnan and you become an anantgnani.

Once the layers of Jnanavarniya karmas disappear the atma knows every thought of every mind, and every thing in the world, and understands every living creature in this world and other worlds.  Nothing is hidden or unknown to that atma.


What are the effects of Darshanavarniya karma?

Blindness, incapacity of senses, intoxication with power, money, sleep or swooning, etc.


How do you accumulate the Darshanavarniya karma?

Condemning the principles of religion and dharma; or depreciating them disrespecting the virtuous and decrying them.  Always trying to find fault with such people. Condemning piety with the feeling of skepticism, and decrying them.


How can you get rid of the Darshanavarniya karma?

Be respectful to sadhus and sadhvies and be loyal to Jain sangh and dharma. 

Having faith in the Jina and showing him devotion, obeying the commands of Jinas.


What happens when you get rid of the Darshanavarniya karma?

You develop Kevaldarshan and you become anant darshani.

Just as pure atma knows everything, the free atma sees everything.  Once the Darshanavarniya karmas are gone the atma sees everything in this world and in the other world.  It has no barriers.


What are the effects of Vedniya karma? With Shatavedniya Karma gone one will be happier and will have a good health.

With Ashatavedniya Karma gone one will not suffer from diseases, ill‑health, sickness, and sorrow, etc.


How do you accumulate the Vedniya karma?

1) Ashata vedniya karma:

By causing worry, misery and suffering to others.


2) Shata vedniya karma:

Being compassionate, giving peace and happiness; and offering comforts in the sorrows; maintaining a cordial and friendly contact with others.


How can you get rid of the Vedniya karma?

Make others happy; be helpful to others; do not torture or harass or kill any body, rather give them protection and peace.


What happens when you get rid of the Vedniya karma?

The atma gets akshay sukh.

At the time of death when the vedniya karma is destroyed the atma goes to salvation. The pure atma has no disease, pain, and never feels sorrow. Pure atma is ever youthful and is ever happy, and ever healthy.


What are the effects of Mohniya karma?

You develop attachment, hatred, envy, contempt, deep attachment, misery infatuation, longing, ecstasy, etc.


How do you accumulate the Mohniya karma?

Treating the gods and preceptors with contempt, having a deep attachment and hatred to someone or for something, lamenting and weeping over excitement, and being irritable, and miserable.


How can you get rid of the Mohniya karma?

Observe the virtues. If somebody gets angry, you keep cool. If somebody is proud, greedy or a cheat, you be humble, generous or sincere.  Do not laugh or cry, too much; do not harm, hurt, make fun of others. Do not be displeased, get irritated or tease others.


What happens when you get rid of the Mohniya karma?

You become veetragi.

After this, the atma is never angry, proud, greedy, cheater, pleased or displeased, laughing, crying or afraid of anything. It has infinite bliss and limitless happiness.


What are the effects of Nama karma?

The effects of good or bad Nam Karma are:

Well‑build body, beauty and  symmetry in the body or ugliness;

Has good fortune or misfortune;

Has prosperity or adversity;

Has honor or dishonor.


How do you accumulate the Nama karma?

Shubh Nama Karma: If one does not deceive others; and maintains a good conduct and leads a simple life, he builds auspicious shubh nam karma.

Ashubh Nama Karma: If one acts to the contrary to these principles he builds ashubh nam karma.


How can you get rid of the Nama karma?

Always be kind, loving, generous and patient. Speak gently.

The worship of purity helps to get rid of ashubh nam karma.


What happens when you get rid of the Nama karma?

One becomes arupi.

The atma is freed from the body, and it has no form, weight, taste or smell. The atma is neither fat nor lean, neither tall nor short, neither big nor small, neither hot nor cold.


What are the effects of Gotra karma?

By the influence of high Gotra Karma, one is born in high society, gets good reputation, power and respect in society.  By the influence of low Gotra Karma one is born in a low society, gets blame, contempt and insult in the society.


How do  you accumulate the Gotra karma?

One accumulates High Hotra karma by admiring the meritoreous ones, self-critisizing self shortcomings, not feeling arrogant, being  humble attitute towards all.  One accumulates Low Gotra Karma by condemning other people, self praising, fail to appreciate good about others.


How can you get rid of the Gotra karma?

Do not do self praising.  Do not be proud of physical beauty, power, caste, intelligence, knowledge and wealth.  Do not despise, insult, mock or treat others with contempt.


What happens when you get rid of the Gotra karma?

You become Agurulaghutva (no high no law).


There is no difference like the big and the small. In moksha atmas are equal in power or virtues.


What are the effects of Antaraya karma?

No desire to go on right path.  Not being able to do auspicious actions, one  becomes sluggish and lacks the strength.


How do you accumulate the Antaraya karma?

By obstructing worship of the parmatma and spiritual activities. Not offering charity, and causing loss to others or preventing others to do right things. 


How can you get rid of the Antaraya karma?

Perform the charity.  Give food and clothes or other needs of sadhus, sadhvies, neighbours, friends or even animals. 


What happens when you get rid of the Antaraya karma? You become “anant shakti” meaning capable of doing anything.


What are the effects of Ayushya karma?

This keeps the soul wandering in the vicious circle of births and deaths.


How do you accumulate the Ayushya karma?

By committing sinful activities such as violence and taking someone’s life. By doing good deeds and staying away from sinful activities.


How can you get rid of the Ayushya karma?

Do not be violent,  or kill anybody.


What happens when you get rid of the Ayushya karma?

The atma gets akshay sthiti. After death, once the ayushya karma is destroyed the atma becomes immortal, and goes to salvation. The bodiless atma which has reached moksha is never reborned.


Who are the Sadhus?

This is a male householder who has voluntarily renounced the world and has accepted five major vows.


Who are the Sadhvis?

This is a female householder who has voluntarily renounced the world and has accepted five major vows.


How many vratas do the sadhus/sadhvis follow?

Sadhus and sadhvies follow the five major vratas (vows).


Can you name the vratas of sadhus/sadhvis?

Five major vratas (vows) of Sadhus and sadhvies are:

1) Pranatipatavirman Vrat

2) Mrishavadavirman Vrat

3) Adattadanvirman Vrat 

4) Maithunavirman Vrat    

5) Parigrahavirman Vrat


Are the vratas of sadhus/sadhvis absolute or ordinary ?

The vratas of sadhus and sadhvies are absolute.


Describe some of the characteristics of sadhu life?

They have given up social ties. They accept five major vows. They go for alms and only take limited food. They drink boiled water only. They do pratikraman twice a day. They walk bear feet. All nuns wear white clothes. Some monks were white clothes while some wear no clothes.


What is the meaning of Deshvirti?

Deshvirti means one who accepts the restrained life in a limited style. We, house-holders are deshvirti.


What is the meaning of Sarvavirti?

Sarvavirti means one who accepts the restrained life for whole life. Our sadhus and sadhvis are sarvavirti.


Can you name the three supreme gems of Jainism?

Three supreme gems of Jainism are:

1) Samyakjnan,

2) Samyakdarshan,

3) Samyakcharitra.


What does Samyakdarshan mean?

Samyakdarshan means right faith in the teaching of Jina.


What does Samyakjnan mean?

Samyakjnan means the right knowledge that the body and soul are two different things.


What does Samyakcharitra mean?

Samyakcharitra means the right conduct in day-to-day life. 


Can we attain Moksha if we follow only one supreme gem?

No, to achieve the Moksha, we have to follow all three gems namely:

1) Samyakdarshan,

2) Samyakjnan, and

3) Samyakcharitra.


What is the Jain Sangh?

Jain Sangh is formed of:

1) Sadhus,

2) Sadhvis,

3) Shrawaks, and,

4) Shrawikas.


Who establishes the Jain Sangh?

Jain Sangh is established by Tirthankar Bhagvantas.


What is the name for the universe in Jainism?

In Jainism this universe is called Chaudarajlok.


What are the divisions of Chauda Rajlok?

There are three divisions of the chaudrajlok.

They are:

1) Urdhva loka,

2) Madhya loka,

3) Addho loka.


What is the Urdhva loka?

Urdhva loka means the universe above ground level.


How many devlokas are there?

There are twelve devlokas.


Can you name the devlokas?

Twelve devlokas are:

  1) Sudharma,

  2) Ishan,

  3) Sanatkumar,

  4) Mahendra,

  5) Brahmloka,

  6) Lantak,

  7) Mahashukra,

  8) Sahastrar,

  9) Aanat,

10) Pranat,

11) Aaran, and

12) Achyuta.


How many sub-types are  in the Graiveyaks?

There are nine sub-types in the Graiveyaks Angels.


Can you name the nine Graiveyaks?

Nine Graiveyaks Angels are:

1) Bhadre,

2) Subhadre,

3) Sujae,

4) Sumanase,

5) Priydansne,

6) Sudansne,

7) Aamohe,

8) Supadibaddhe,

9) Jasodhare.


How may Anutara Vimnas are there?

There are five Anutar vimans.


Can you name the five Anutara vimans?

Five Anutar vimans are:

1) Vijay,

2) Vijayant,

3) Jayant,

4) Aparajit,

5) Savarthsiddha.


What is the Siddha Shila?

The Siddhashila is the abode for Siddha Bhagvantas.


Where is the Siddha Shila?

The Siddhashila is about 100 miles above the banner of the Savarthsiddha Anutar viman.


What is the Madhya loka?

Madhyaloka is the ground level of the universe.


What is the addho loka?

The Addholok means abode for hellish beings which is below our ground level.


How many Narakis are there? 



How many vratas do the shravakas have?

The shrawaks take twelve anuvratas.

Can you name the shravaka’s vratas?

The twelve anuvratas:

  1) Sthool pranatipat

  2) Sthool mrishavad

  3) Sthool adattadan 

  4) Sthool maithun

  5) Sthool parigrah

  6) Disha pariman 

  7) Bhogopbhog

  8) Anarthadand

  9) Samayik

10) Deshavagasik

11) Paushadh

12) Atithi sanvibhag


What is The Sthool  Pranatipatvirman Vrat?

This vow is not to cause violence and pain to any creature knowingly, unknowingly, mentally, verbally, or physically.


What are the Atichar (Violations) of The Sthool Pranatipatvirman Vrat?

Atichar (Violations) are:

1) Binding any creature and putting it in a prison‑house or a pound-house,

2) The beating any living beings,

3) Cutting down trees or plant or any parts of any living beings,

4) Exterminating your house or using pesticides in farm,

5) Yelling or bullying other people.


What is The Sthool Mrishavadvirman Vrat?

This vow is not to utter a lie.


What  are the the Atichar (Violations) of The Sthool Mrushavadvirman Vrat?

Atichar (violations) are:

1) Blaming, defaming or saying harsh words to others out of undue haste and carelessness,

2) Revealing secrets of others or working as a spy,

3) Revealing spouse's secrete or backbiting each other,

4) Misleading persons by giving ill‑advice or false preaching,

5) Preparing false or forged documents or maintaining false accounts.


What is The Sthool Adattadanvirman Vrat?

This vow is not to steal nor break into the house or the property of others, nor pick up unclaimed things without declaring. We should not avoid paying government taxes of any kind.


What  are the the Atichar (Violations) of The Sthool Adattadanvirman Vrat?

Atichar (violations) are:

1) Buying stolen goods,

2) Teaching the art of stealing or giving the shelter to the thieves,

3) Doing anything against law of the land,

4) Keeping false weights and measures and wrong balances,

5) Giving inferior goods after showing superior quality or even adulterating.


What is The Sthool Maithunvirman  Vrat?

This vow is not to have sexual contacts or desires with other than one’s spouse.


What are the Atichar (Violations) of The Sthool Maithunvirman Vrat?

Atichar (violations) are:

1) Having sexual relationship with underage spouse,

2) Having premarital or extramarital sex,

3) Looking intensely with sexual desires at the body

    of a woman or a man and express sexual desire, gestures, or making passes,

4) To engage in arranging marriages of other than your own children,

5) To be engrossed in the thoughts of sexual pleasures.


What is The Sthool Parigrahpariman Vrat?

This vow is to determine the limits to the acquisition of wealth, belongings and to their use and can also include social positions.  If it is not convenient to limit the value of each item, then we should limit the total numbers.  We should not cross or adjust the limits knowingly or unknowingly in any way.


What are the Atichar (Violations) of The Sthool Parigrahpariman Vrat?

Atichar (Violations) are:

1) Having the excessive  money, gold, silver, etc.,

2) having too many toys, cloths, furnitures, cameras, televisions, etc.,

3) Buying too much land, expensive houses or cars,

4) Holding positions in many community organizations, or for a long period, 

5) Keeping many servents. 


What is  The Dishapariman Vrat?

This vow is to limit and determine the extent to which one can go and return; and the area within which one can move or travel about. We should restrict or limit such distance, and thus, stop extra sins of traveling.


What are the Atichar (Violations) of The Dishapariman Vrat?

Atichar (Violations) are:

1) Crossing the limit in upward direction,

2) Crossing the limit in downward direction,

3) Crossing the limit in east, west, north  or south directions,  

4) Curtailing the limit in one direction and to extend the limit of other direction,

5) Proceeding in spite of realizing that the limit is over.


What is The Upbhog-Paribhogvirman Vrat?

This vow contains two words:

1) Bhog,   2) Upabhog.

Bhog implies the pleasures related to the things like food, water etc., which are used once.

Upabhog implies the pleasures related to the things which may be used and enjoyed again and again such as houses, ornaments, clothes, etc. This vow is to put a limit to their use.


What are the Atichar (Violations) of  The Upbhog-Paribhogvirman Vrat?

Atichar (Violations) are:

1) Consuming raw vegetables (sachit things),

2) Consuming food connected with raw vegetables or raw‑grain,

3) Consuming some thing, which is partially cooked vegetables or flour, etc.,

4) Eating half‑cooked things like roasted corn, etc.,

5) Consuming such things in which there is less to eat and more to waste (sugar‑cane).


What is The Anarthadand virman Vrat?

This vow is to renounce unnecessary and meaningless activities.


What are the Atichar (Violations) of The Anarthadand virman Vrat?

Atichar (Violations) are:

1) Reading cheap literature and watching sensual or violent shows or movies,

2) Making such bodily actions and gestures as laughing; provocative laughter, acting

    and making faces to insult others,

3) Engaging in meaningless talk; gossiping and making unnecessary stir up,

4) Manufacturing and or keeping weapons and devices to cause violence,

5) Hoarding things relating to worldly and sensual enjoyment.


What is The Samayik Vrat?

In this vow one has to be seated at one place for 48 minutes. In this, a person renounces all sinful activities. This helps us in remaining calm and steady i.e., we remain free from likes and dislikes of the world.

During this time, we should do only religious activities and should abstain from attending to things of household life mentally, verbally and physically.


What are the Atichar (Violations) of The Samayik Vrat?

Atichar (Violations) are:

1) letting bad thoughts enter the mind,

2) Uttering bad or harsh words,

3) Moving around the body, or leaning against the wall, yawning, sleeping etc.,

4) Being careless,

5) Finishing before the actual time is up.


What is  The Deshavagasik Vrat?

In this, we vow to further limit our movements in all six  directions and use of things from the dawn of the day, for one day and one night.


What are the Atichar (Violations) of The Deshavagasik Vrat?

Atichar (Violations) are:

1) Getting things from outside the limit,

2) Sending a person outside the limit and getting it,

3) Asking for the things which are outside the limit area by calling, coughing, etc.,

4) Asking for the things beyond the limit by making their forms or figures,

5) Asking for the article beyond the limit by throwing a pebble or other signs.


What is in The Paripoorna Paushadh Vrat?

In this vow one is renouncing eating, drinking water, and thoughts related to household activities and being immersed in spiritual reflections for 24 hours or a longer period.

Paushadh enhances the speed of spiritual efforts and provide strength to shravaks.


What are the Atichar (Violations) of  The  Paripoorna Paushadh Vrat? Atichar (Violations) are:

1) Making the bed carelessly, without looking for any living body or not looking      properly,

2) Not sweeping the place for making bad or sweeping it carelessly,

3) Not seeing the place to dispose the waste properly or seeing it carelessly,      

4) Not sweeping the place to dispose waste properly or sweeping it carelessly,

5) Not following this paushadh vow in a proper manner.


What is The Atithi Samvibhag Vrat?

This vow is to give, with a feeling of selflessness, love and respect, the food, water and other such things necessary for existence to sadhus, sadhvies, shravaks, shravikas, or any needy people or animals.


What are the Atichar (Violations) of The Atithi Samvibhag Vrat?

Atichar (violations) are:

1) Giving or offering any unsuitable food to sadhus or sadhvis,

2) Giving or offering meat, poultry or sea food or any flash to anyone,

3) Giving something which is spoiled, fermented, stale, etc.,

4) Being lazzy to give personally,

5) Bragging about the offering given.


What is the meant by Gunasthanaks?

The Gunasthanaks mean the steps or stages of the spiritual development of the soul.


What does the Mithyadrishti Gunasthanak mean?


Mithyatva-drishthi Gunasthanak - The stage of false‑vision or delusion.

In this stage one accepts right as wrong and wrong as right. One does not have faith in fundamentals (nine tattvas) taught by Jina.


What does the Saswadan Samyakdrishti Gunasthanak mean?

Saswadan Samyakdrishti Gunasthanak - The stage of having tasted righteousness.

Saswadan Samyakdrishti Gunasthanak is the name given to the stage of the soul that has once tasted righteousness ‑ the right path, but is returning from there for want of faith in fundamentals (nine tattavas).


What does the Mishra Gunasthanak mean?

Mishra Gunasthanak ‑ The mixed stage.

In this Gunasthanak, a person has the desire sometimes for samyaktva and sometimes not. Its intellect always keeps swinging and ocillating between the two points like a pendulum. 


What does the Avirati Samyakdrishti Gunasthanak mean?

Avirati Samyakdrishti Gunasthanak - Uninterested in taking vows.

One has faith in the fundamentals (nine tattvas) as taught by Jina. One develops the right vision about liberation of the soul but in this stage, man can not perform any austerities and can not renounce worldly things. He reflects on the soul but can not attempt to purify it.


What does the Deshvirati Gunasthanak mean?

Deshvirati Gunasthanak - Partial practice of Sadhana.

Desh means some aspect. Virat means renunciation.

In this gunasthanak he observes a partial renunciation, according to his ability. He accepts upto the twelve vratas and some austerities.


What does the Pramatta (Samyati) Gunasthanak mean?

Pramatta Samyati Gunasthanak - Pramatta means pramad or Careless. Samyati  means Sadhu.The state of a sadhu/sadhvi in which they are not always carefull of  his or her conduct and in one’s spiritual efforts


What does the Apramatta (Samyati) Gunasthanak mean?

Apramatta Samyati Gunasthanak - Apramatta means Careful. In this stage sadhus and sadhvis confirm to the principles of self‑discipline, and do not entertain any sinful thoughts nor commit any kind of sinful actions.  They keep away from pride, sensual enjoyments, passions, and gossip in all the forms, mentally, verbally, and physically.


What does the Nivriti Gunasthanak mean?

Nivritti‑badar Gunasthanak: The stage of free from gross passions. This stage is also called, Apoorva Karan. In this stage sadhu/sadhvi is completely free from the gross passions. His soul attains purity and perfection to a vast extent. He controls his attachments, hatred and infatuation to the maximum extent.


What does the Anivriti-Badar Gunasthanak mean?

Anivritti‑badar Gunasthanak:    The stage of lean Passions. In this stage, the passions become completely lean, small and powerless.


What does the Suksham Samparay Gunasthanak mean?

Sukshma Samparay Gunasthanak: The stage where a subtle avarice is remaining.

When the soul steps into this stage, except subtle part of avarice (Lobh) all the other passions disappear.


What does the Upashant Moha Gunasthanak mean?

Upashant Moh Gunasthanak: Suppressed passions.  It is delusive stage of being Vitrag because the passions (Kashaya) are not destroyed but they are suppresses. Passions surface within one antah muhurt and make the soul dive downward is spiritual stages.


What does the Kshin Moha Gunasthanak mean?

Kshina Moha Gunasthanak: Passionless stage.  While reaching to this stage the soul has gotten rid of all the passions. The soul is called Vitragi.


What does the Sayogi Kevali Gunasthanak mean?

Sayogi Kevali Gunasthanak: The stage of Kevaljnan, Kevaldarshan, and infinite power. In this stage, the soul becomes completely free from all ghati karmas. It is called Sayogi because activities of mind, voice and body are still present.


What does the Ayogi Kevali Gunasthanak?

Ayogi Kevali Gunasthanak: Totally free from any activity.  The Ayogi state is the final step of the soul’s progress. The soul stops all the activities of mind, voice and body and within a fraction of seconds it destroys all the remaining aghati karmas and is liberated forever.


How many Gunasthanaks are there?



Can you name the 1st Gunasthanak?

Mithya-drishti Gunasthanak


Can you name the 2nd Gunasthanak?

Saswadan Samyakdrishti Gunasthanak


Can you name the 3rd Gunasthanak?

Mishra Gunasthanak


Can you name the 4th Gunasthanak?

Avirati Samyak-drishti Gunasthanak


Can you name the 5th Gunasthanak?

Deshvirati Gunasthanak


Can you name the 6th Gunasthanak?

Pramatta-samyati Gunasthanak or Sarva-virti Gunasthanak


Can you name the 7th  Gunasthanak ?

Apramatta-samyati Gunasthanak


Can you name the 8th Gunasthanak?

Nivritti‑badar Gunasthanak


Can you name the 9th  Gunasthanak?

Anivritti‑badar Gunasthanak


Can you name the 10th Gunasthanak?

Sukshma-samparay Gunasthanak


Can you name the 11th Gunasthanak?

Upashant-moha Gunasthanak


Can you name the 12th Gunasthanak?

Kshina-moha Gunasthanak


Can you name the 13th Gunasthanak?

Sayogi Kevali Gunasthanak


Can you name the 14th Gunasthanak?

Ayogi Kevali Gunasthanak


Does a person go to 12th Gunasthanak from 11th?

No, it falls to 10th and can go further down upto the 1st Gunasthanak.


Does a person fall from the 12th Gunasthanak?

No, it never falls from there.


What is the Leshya?

The various mental tendencies which a soul undergoes are called Leshyas.


How many different Leshyas are there?

There are six Leshyas.


Can you name all the Leshyas?

Krishna (Black) Leshya,

Neel (Blue) Leshya,

Kapot (Brown) Leshya,

Tejo (Red) Leshya,

Padma (Yellow) Leshya,

Shukla (White) Leshya.


Can you name the worst Lesyas?

Krishna (Black) Leshya


Can you name the best Leshya?

Shukla (White) Leshya.


Can you name the bad leshyas?

Krishna (Black) Leshya,

Neel (Blue) Leshya,

Kapot (Brown) Leshya.

Can you name the good leshyas?

Tejo (Red) Leshya,

Padma (Yellow) Leshya,

Shukla (White) Leshya.

What is the characteristic of Krishna (Black) Leshya?

A person who shows no compassion at all, and does not show even a slightest mercy.  Everyone is afraid of him. His anger soon turns into violence.  He always burns with jealousy and anger.   He is filled with animosity and malice.  He does not believe in the religion.


Where does a person get born if he/she dies while in the Krishna (Black) Leshya?

If he dies in this state of mind, he will go to the hell.


What is the characteristic of Neel (Blue) Leshya?

A person is burning with pride and is very haughty.  He is not reliable.  People avoid his company.  He is a lazy, a cheater, and a hypocrate. He avoids the religious lectures. He is a coward and filled with passions.


Where does a person get born if he/she dies while in the Neel (Blue) Leshya?

If he dies in this state of mind, he would be born as a plant.


What is the characteristic of Kapot (Brown) Leshya?

A person is always sad, and gloomy and dejected.  He finds fault in others and is vindicative.  He does not spare even the noble souls.  He boasts of himself.  He is excited over small matters. He lacks mental balance.


Where does a person get born if he/she dies while in the Kapot (Brown) Leshya?

If he dies in this state of mind, he would be reborn as a bird, or an animal.


What is the characteristic of Tejo (Red) Leshya?

A person is very careful about his actions, and discriminates between good and evil.  He is afraid of doing bad deeds.   He is kind, benevolent, and religious. He has a balanced personality. He leads a harmonious life. 


Where does a person get born if he/she dies while in the Tejo (Red) Leshya?

If he dies in this state of mind, he will be reborn as a human being.


What is the characteristic of  Padma (Yellow) Leshya?

A person who is kind and benevolent and forgives even his enemies. He observes some austerities.  He is very conscious and vigilant in keeping his vows. When asked for the help even by his enemy, he helps them. He does not lose his balance in pleasure or pain. He is always cheerful.


Where does a person get born if he/she dies while in the Padma (Yellow) Leshya?

If he dies in this leshya, he will be born in heaven as a demigod.


What is the characteristic of Shukla (White) Leshya?

A person having no attachment or hatred; whatsoever, treats everyone alike. He is trustworthy. He treats every soul as his own soul. He remains immersed in soul experience and self‑realization.


Where does a person get born if he/she dies while in the Shukla (White) Leshya?

If he dies in this state of mind, he will be liberated from the cycle of birth and death.


Can a person's leshya change?

Yes, leshya can change within a fraction of a second, too.


Does leshya  play a role in accumulation of karmas?

Yes, leshya brings the mental tendency which in turn causes actions. So, leshya does play part in accumulating, as well as, sheding karmas.


What is the Pratikraman?

This is a process of repentance (prayschitta) during which we repent for our wrongful doing during our daily life, and remind us to restrain from doing so again. This helps us to bring back the soul that has lost its way in the meshes of outward actions and pursuits.


How many times should one do the Pratikraman in a day?

As a Jain if possible, one should do pratikramans twice a day.


What are the different Pratikramans?

There are five different types:

1) Devasi Pratikraman:

2) Rayi Pratikraman:

3) Pakhi Pratikraman:

4) Chomasi Pratikraman:

5) Samvatsari Pratikraman:


What does Devasi Pratikraman mean?

Devasi pratikraman is performed daily in the evening to ask for the forgiveness of sins committed during the daytime.


What does Raysi Pratikraman mean?

Raysi Pratikraman is performed in the early morning to ask for the forgiveness for the sins committed during the nighttime.


What does Pankhi Pratikraman mean?

Pakhi Pratikraman is done once in 15 days.


What does Caumasi Pratikraman mean?

The Chaumasi Pratikraman is done once in four months on poonam (full moon day) of 1) Kartik, 2) Falgun and 3) Ashadh months of lunar calendar year for the sins committed during that period.


What does Samvatsari Pratikraman mean?

The Samvatsari Pratikraman is done once in a year on the last day of paryushan i.e., on the fifth day of the bright fortnight of Bhadrapada for the sins committed during the whole year.


What is the Samgna?

Samgna means natural tendency of the soul.


Can you name some Samgnas?

Ahar Samjna

Bhay Samjna

Maithun Samjna

Parigraha Samjna

Krodha Samjna

Maan Samjna

Maya Samjna

Lobha Samjna

Ogha Samjna

Loka Samjna


What is the Kashaya?

Kashaya means passions which make the soul wander in this worldly life.


Can you name the Kashayas?

Kashayas are:

Krodha (anger),

Mana (ego),

Maya (deceit),

Lobha (greed).


What is meant by the Samiti?

Samiti means Carefuleness.


How many types of Samities are there?



Can you name five Samities?

1. Irya‑samiti

2. Bhasha‑samiti

3. Eshana‑samiti

4. Adan‑nikshepan Samiti

5. Parishtapanika Samiti

What does the Irya Samiti mean?

Carefulness in movement


Moving about, going anywhere, or returning with an absolute care and alertness so that no harm, pain or any injury is caused to even to any small creature. 


What does the Bhasa Samiti mean?

Carefulness in speech


Not uttering anything that is disagreeable to anyone or that could cause pains in the heart of anyone; but rather speak such words as to create please in others. Words are sweet and soft in manner


What does the Eshana Samiti mean?

Carefulness of taking food


Accepting food as prescribed per Jain principles so it would be faultless.


What does the Adan-Nikshepan Samiti mean?

Carefulness clothes and other articles of daily use


Take utmost care before using clothes to make sure that there are no insects in the folds which may be crushed, hurt, or killed. Care must be also taken before taking and putting away vessels, books, or sitting down, etc.


What is meant by the Parishtapanika Samiti?

Be careful about how, and where one disposes of trash, refuse, or excretions so that no harm is done to even the minute insects or bugs.


What does the Gupti mean?

Guptis means restraints.


How many different types of Gupties are there?



Can you name different types of Gupties?

Mano Gupti

Vachan Gupti

Kaya Gupti


What does the Mano Gupti mean?

Restraint of the mind

Not to entertain any evil thoughts; and freeing the mind from sinful inclinations.


What does the Vachan Gupti mean?

Restraint on speech

Not to utter any evil, disagreeable or unnecessarily and practicing silence.


What does the Kaya Gupti mean?

Restraint on the body

Not to perform any physical activities which could cause pain, suffering or injury.


What does the Vandana mean?

Vandana means bowing down to pay reverence.


What do you gain by the Vandana?

By doing vandana, one becomes humble, and acquires Uchcha Gotra Karma.


What are the two things which polute the soul?

Rag (attachment) and Dwesh (hatred)


What does the Rag mean?

Rag menas attachment.


What does the Dwesh mean?

Dwesh means hatred.

What does the Samjna mean?

Samjna means tendencies.


What does the Ahar Samjna mean?

Tendency for food


What does the Bhaya Samjna mean?

Tendency to fear


What does the Maithun Samjna mean?

Tendency for sex


What mean does the Parigraha Samjna mean?

Tendency for collection of material things


What does the Lobha Samjna mean?

Tendency for avarice


What does the Maya Samjna mean?

Tendency to deceive


What does the Maan Samjna mean?

Tendency to be arrogant


What does the Krodha Samjna mean?

Tendency for anger


What does the Ogh Samjna mean?

The tendency to imitate


What is the Praman?

Praman is to see an object from many points of view and to understand it comprehensively.  Praman is that by which, the real nature and form of an object can be understood. There are four kinds of it.


What is the Pratyaksha Praman?

Actual observation

Pratyaksh Praman means seeing an object and obtaining a knowledge of it; and determining its form and nature.


What is the Anuman Praman?


Anuman means thinking of an object and to understand it by means of evaluation.


What is the Upama Praman?

By means of comparison

Upama is to obtain the knowledge of an object by comparing and contrasting it with other things; and thus, determining its nature and form.


What is the Agam Praman?

By means of scriptures

Agam is the name given to the pure statements and expositions based on tenets of Jina; and this knowledge helps us and guides us in our spiritual endeavours. These statements are given by the Kevalis only.


How many are the types of Pramanas?

Four types

1) Pratyaksha,

2) Anuman,

3) Upama,

4) Agam Praman.


What is the Naya?

Naya is the understanding of an object from only one point of view.


What are two kinds of the Naya?

1. Nishchay Naya

2. Vyavahar Naya


What does the Jneya (Gneya) mean?

Jneya is something to know about.


What does the Heya mean?

Heya is something that we should discard.


What does the Upadeya mean?

Upadeya is something, which we should accept.


What does the Sham mean?

Calmness. Retaining equanimity even in adverse atmosphere.


What does the Samvega mean?

Desire for Moksha.  The sprouting of an inner enthusiasm to pursue the path of salvation.


What does the Nirved mean?

Disliking towards the worldly activities. The feeling of detachment from the pleasures and enjoyments of the worldly life


What does the Anukampa mean?

Selfless compassion. Being benevolent, and helpful to the needy, and distressed people.


What does the Astika mean?

Faith in the words of Jina


Who is Abhavya Jiva?

Jiva that does not believe in liberation or salvation is Abhavya Jiva.


When was the Jain order divided into Svetambar and Digambar?

About two hundred years after the liberation of Lord Mahavira.


Which Jain sectss do not believe statue (idol) worshiping?

Svetambar Sthanakwasi, Svetambar Terapanthi, Digambar Taranpanthi.


Who are the Digambar Jains?

The Jain order, whose monks do not wear any clothes


Who are the Svetambara Jains?

The Jain order, whose monks wear white cloth


What is Chaturmas?

It is a four months period during the rainy season, when sadhus and sadhvis stay at one place.


Where did Mahavira obtain infinite knowledge?

At the bank of Rijubalika River near Jrimbhak Village in Bihar state.


When did Mahavira renounce the world?

In 569 B.C. at the age of 30 years.


When was Mahavira born?

599 B.C.


Who was the mother of Mahavira?

Queen Trishla


Who was the father of Mahavira?

King Sidhartha


What is the difference between Tirthankars and other Arihants?

Tirthankars reestablish the religious order, while ordinary arihants do not.


What is the name of first Tirthankaras in Mahavideha Kshetra?

Shri Simandar Swami


Where are the current living Tirthankars?

In Mahavideha Kshetra


Who was the head Sadhvi of the religious order of Mahavira?

Sadhvi Chandanbala



What are the chief disciples of Tirthankar called?



What is the fourfold religious order called?

Jain Tiratha or Jain Sangh


What does Jain Tirtha do?

Jain Tirtha helps to purifying the soul.


When did Bhagwan Mahavir re-establish the Jain Sangh?

In 557 B.C.

Why is a Samayik done for forty-eight minutes?

One cannot concentrate for more than forty-eight minutes at a time.

What is Kayotsarga?

It means to give up one’s physical comfort and body movements, thus staying steady, either in a standing or other posture, and concentrating upon the true nature of the soul



What is Prayashchit?

To atone past deeds infront of monk or nun or by oneself or in front of the person involved.


 What is the benefit of observing Sanyam (restraint)?

While staying in Sanyam (restaint) one does not get new karmas.


What is the harm caused by attachment?

Attachment brings out passions like anger, ego, deception and greed and ultimately accumulation of Mohniya Karmas.


When can we meditate on Anitya Bhavana?

Anytime is a good time to meditate on Anitya Bhavana.

What is nitya in the living body?

Soul is nitya (immortal) in the body.


Why is the permanent soul in a non-permanent body?

It is due to the existing karmas, that the soul is in the body.


Who can give us protection from worldly sufferings?

Nobody but us and by following the path shown by:

1) Arihent, 

2) Siddha, 

3) Sadhus and sadhvis, and

4) the teachings of the Ominiscient ones.


When should we meditate on Sansar Bhavana?

We should meditate daily on Sansar Bhavana. It keeps us away from attachment and hatred towards friends and foes.


When should we reflect on Ashuchi Bhavana?

When we are attracted by the beauty of the body, we should reflect that this

body is full of perishable stinking things under the skin. So, why should we be attracted to it.


What causes the prey to ashrava?

False belief, lack of restraints, passions, lethargy, and yoga.


What is Samvara?

Samvara means stop.


What is the use of Samvara?

It stops new karmas coming to the soul.


What is good spiritual health?

Good spiritual health is to be away from passions.


Why is Nirjara necessary?

Nirjara is necessary to remove the accumulated karmas.


What is the difference between Samvar Bhavana and Nirjara Bhavana?

By Samvara Bhavana we stop the inflow of new karmas while by Nirjara Bhavana we wipe out the old accumulated karmas.


What is the right path in the life?

Live and let live is the right path in the life.


What is meant by Tapa?

Tapa means austerity.


What is the tenth Gunasthanak?

Suksham Sampraya Gunasthanak


What kind of care should we take in Parishtapanika Samiti?

Taking care not to cause any harm while removing or putting up any thing.


What is gained by Unodari Tapa (Austerity)?

One cultivates the control on desires.


What is the purpose of Swadhyaya?



What is the fourth Gunasthanak?

Aviratti Gunasthanak


What is the seventh Gunasthanak?

Apramatta Gunasthanak


What is the use of Kaya Kalesh Tapa?

It prepares us to stay in meditation for a longer time.


What is the eleventh Gunasthanak?

Upshant Mohniya Gunasthanak


Name the fifth Samiti?

Paristhapanika Samiti


What is the spiritual advantage of austerity?

Jiva destroys the accumulated karmas.


What is the use of Swadhaya?

Jiva destroys knowledge obscuring karmas.


What is the spiritual use of Anshana?

Jiva reduces the cycle of life and death.


What is the use of Prayashchita?

Prayashchit reduces our bad karmas.


Name the first Samiti?

Iriya Samiti


What is Iriya Samiti?

To be careful about our movements


What kind of care should we take in Iriya Samiti?

We should walk looking down, so that we can avoid hurting any living beings including small bugs, or insects.


What is the effect of Iriya Samiti on our conduct?

We start respecting even minute living beings.


Name the second Samiti?

Bhasha Samiti


What is Bhasha Samiti?

To be careful about how we speak.


What is the effect of Bhasha Samiti on one’s personality?

It keeps a person calm.


Name the third Samiti?

Eshna Samita


What is the benefit of Eshna Samiti?

By Eshna Samiti, we control our taste and desires.


Name the fourth Samiti?

Adan-Nikshepana Samiti


What does Adan-Nikshepana Samiti mean?

To be careful in receiving and keeping things necessary for existence


What is the benefit of Managupti?

It keeps the mind away from sinful thoughts.

What is Vachan Gupti?

To restrain speechWhen in passion


What is the benefit of Kaya Gupti?

It helps us to restrain from the violent activities.


What is Pratima in scriptures?

Pratima is a stage of discipline.


What is Dharamshradha?

Keen faith in Dharma.


What is Ninda?

Ninda means criticism. It should be done for self and to examine self for improvement. It should be never done for others.


What is Chaturvinshati Stotra?

The praise of twenty-four Tirthankaras


Which karma causes obstacles to the right path?

Mohniya karma


Which karma prevents us from gaining knowledge out of experience?

Mohniya karma. It blinds us in our passions.


What is Pramad?

Pramad is lethargy or indolance.


What is kashaya?

Kashaya means passions.


What is the meaning of yoga in Jainism?

Yoga means activities of body, mind, and speech.


What is Darshan Mohaniya Karma?

Faith deluding karma


What is Charitra Mohaniya Karma?

Conduct deluding karma


What is the maximum duration of Sanjwalan passions?

A fortnight.


What is the maximum duration of the Apratyakhyan passion?

One year.


What is the maximum duration of Jnanavarniya Karma?

Thirty krora krori sagarapam years


What is the maximum duration of Darshanavariya Karma?

Thirty krora krori sagaropam years


What is the maximum abadhkal for a Jnanavarniya karma?

Three thousand years


What is the maximum abadhkal for Darshnavarniya karma?

Three thousand years.


Which karma is the cause of ignorance?

Jnanavrniya Karma


Which karma is the cause of stupidity?

Jnanavarniya Karma.


Which karma hinders learning?

Jnanavarniya Karma.

Which karma hinders our senses?

Darsanavarniya Karma.


Which karma intoxicates for power?

Mohniaya Karma


Which karma causes envy?

Mohaniya Karma


Which karma causes infatuation?

Mohaniya Karma


Which karma hinders bliss?

Mohaniya Karma


Which karma causes contempt?

Mohaniya Karma


Which karma causes greed?

Mohaniya Karma


Which karma causes indolence?

Antaraya Karma

Which karma causes lack of strength?

Antaraya Karma


Which karma causes obstruction to gain something?

Antaraya Karma


Which karma makes us unable to do auspicious actions?

Antaraya Karma


Which karma keeps us healthy?

Shata Vedniya Karma


Which karma keeps us free from diseases?

Shata Vedniya Karma


Which karma keeps us free from sorrow?

Shata Vedniya Karma


Which karma causes sickness?

Ashata Vedniya Karma


Which karma causes diseases?

Ashata Vednya Karma

Which karma causes sorrow?

Ashata Vedniya Karma


Which karma keeps the soul wandering in the circle of births and deaths?

Mohmiya Karma


Which karma is the cause of birth in a good family?

Uchcha Gotra Karma


Which karma causes the birth in a lower status family?

Neecha Gotra Karma


Which karma gives us beauty and symmetry in the body?

Shubha Nama Karma


Which karma is the cause of good fortune?

Shubha Nama Karma


Which karma causes prosperity?

Shubha Nama Karma


Which karma brings honor?

Yasahkirti Nama Karma


Which karma is the cause of bad fortune?

Ashubha Nama Karma


Which karma is the cause of misfortune?

Ashubha Nama Karma


Which karma brings dishonor?

Ayasahkirti Nama Karma


What does Abadhakala mean?

It is the time period from karmas being attached to the soul until they produce their results.


When is the maximum duration of karma considered good?

When maximum duration relates to celestial or human state of existence.


What is the effect of desire of our actions on karmas?

The duration and intensity of the karmas will be longer if our desires are stronger, and less if desires are weaker.


Will Ayushya karma be longer if person kills someone?

No, it will be shorter.


What is the maximum duration of Antraya Karma?

Thirty krora-krori sagaropam


What is the maximum duration of Gotra karma?

Twenty krora-krori sagaropam


What is the maximum duration of Nam Karma?

Twenty krora-krori sagaropam


What is the maximum duration of Mohaniya Karma?

Seventy krora-krori sagaropam


What is the maximum duration of Shata Vedniya Karma?

Fifteen krora-krori sagaropam


What is the maximum duration of Ashata Vedniya Karma?

Thirty krora-krori sagaropam


What is the maximum age of an infernal being?

Thirty-three sagaropam


What is the maximum age of a celestial being?

Thirty-three sagaropam


What is the maximum age of an Aquatic five-sensed Jiva?

Krora purva.


Which karma is responsible to be a Tirthankar?

Tirthankar Nam Karma


What is Gunasthanak?

Grading of Jiva according to its spiritual elevation.


What is the name of the lowest stage of spiritual elevation?

Mithyatva Gunasthanak


Why is the first gunasthanak called Mithyatva Gunasthanak?

In this stage a person accepts wrong as right and right as wrong.


What are the basic symptoms to recognize one in mithyatva gunasthanak?

He has no belief in the path shown by Jina.


Where does a Jiva go after death in the fourteenth Gunasthanak?

The Jiva goes to Moksha. He is liberated forever from the cycle of births and deaths.


What is the second Gunasthanak?

Sansvadan Samyakdrishti Gunasthanak

What is the maximum duration of a Jiva in Sansvadan Samyak Drishti Gunasthanak?

It is much less than a second.  It is six avalika added to seven samaya.


What is the third Gunasthanak?

It is Mishra Gunasthanak.


What does Mishra Gunasthanak mean?

In this gunasthanak, one keeps swinging like a pendulum between the right and the wrong views. Therefore he develops neither liking nor disliking in the teachings of Jina.


Where can a Jiva go from Mithyatva Gunasthanak?

Jiva can go to the third or fourth gunasthanaks.



What is the maximum duration of a Jiva in Mishra Gunasthanak?

Less than one Muhurat


What is a Mahurat?

It is a measure of time, and is equal to fourty-eight minutes.


Why is the fourth Gunasthan called an Avirati Samyaktva Gunasthanak?

In this gunasthanaks have right faith and knows about vows (restraintI but is unable to practice the vows (restraints).


What is the lowest level of rebirth if one dies in Avirati Samyak Gunasthanak?

First devlok

What is the sixth Gunasthanak?

Pramat Sanyati Gunasthanak


What is the fifth Gunasthanak?

Desh Virati Gunasthanak


What is the maximum duration of Desh Virati Gunasthanak?

Eight and one-half years less than one crore purva


What is the minimum duration of Desh Virati Ganasthanak?

Less than 48 minutes


What is the minimum numbers of rebirth a Jiva may have to go through if he dies during the level of Pramat Sanyati Gunasthanak?



What is the minimum duration of Pramat Sanyati Gunasthanak?

Less than a muhurat


What is the maximum duration of Pramat Sanyati Gunasthanak?

Eight and a half years less than one Crore Purva


What is Sanyati?

A Sadhu


What is the maximum numbers of rebirth a Jiva may have to go through if he dies during the level of Apramatta Sanyati Gunastahnak?



What is the maximum duration of Apramatt Sanyati Gunasthanak?

Less than a Muharat


What is the eighth Gunasthanak?

Nivrati Badar Gunasthanak or Apoorva Karan Gunasthanak


What is the second name of Nivrati Badar Gunasthanak?

Apoorva Karaan Gunasthanak


What is the maximum duration of Apoorva Karan Gunasthanak?

Less than a Muhurata


What is Kshapak Shreni?

In Kshapak Shreni, various karmas are removed forever from the soul as it progresses.

It starts from the ninth, to tenth Gunasthanas and then progresses to the twelth Gunasthanak and bypasses the eleventh Gunasthanak. After that the salvation of Jiva is guranted during that life.


What is the ninth Gunasthanak?

Anivratti Badar Gunasthanak


Which of the passions are still in Suksham Sampraya Gunasthanak?

Only a slight greed still exists in this gunastahnak, while the rest of all passions are either destroyed or suppressed.

What is the maximum duration of Suksham Sampraya Gunasthanak?

Less than a Muhurat


Why are Anuttar Viman so called?

Jiva from these viman is sure to be born as a man, and would attain liberation

in the next life.


What is the maximum stay of a Jiva in Upshant Mohaniya Gunasthanak?

Less than a Muhurat


What is the twelfth Gunasthanak?

Ksheena Mohaniya Gunasthanak


What is the maximum stay in Ksheena Mohaniya Gunasthanak?

Less than a Muhurat


What is the thirteenth Gunasthanak?

Sayogi Kevali Gunasthanak


Why is the soul called Sayogi Kevali?

In this stage jiva has attained Kevalgnan and also carries out all three yogas; mind, speech, and body.


What is the fourteenth Gunasthanak?

Ayogi Kevali Gunasthanak


What is manoratha?

Manoratha is an auspicious thought activity for spiritual uplift.


What is Vyatikrama?

It is to start the bodily activity transgressing the vow.


When is the paushadha vow usually observed by a shravak?

On auspicious days like 8th, 14th or 15th day of each half cycle of the month


What is done during the Paushadha vow?

In paushadha vrat, a person spends 36 hours starting from the previous evening and next full day till early morning next day in spiritual activities and meditation. During this time, one usually does not take any food or drink, does not have any sexual desires, or decorate the body, etc. They stop all inauspicious activities of the mind, body, and speech.


What is the vow of Samayik?

It is to stop inauspicious vibrations of the mind, body, and speech for forty-eight minutes.


Who is a Shravak?

Shravak is one who believes in spiritual teachings and listens to the scriptures.


What is the meaning of Apurva Karan?

Apurva means not earlier, and Apurva Karan menas Jiva has not done sucht thought activity before.


What is an Apurva Karan state?

It is the highest state of spiritual thought activity in first gunasthanak when a person begins to realize wrong belief and gives up severe ( Anantanubandhi - error-feeding) passions and ignorance, and obtains the right vision is called Apurva Karan.


What is Yatha Pravritti Karan?

It is the state of Jiva when the thought activity is so good that he reduces the period of all karmas except Ayushya Karma to less than kroda krodi Sagropam years.


What is Karan?

It is the activity of the soul.


What is the first Gunasthanak?

First gunasthanak is the stage where jiva does not realize right from wrong.


What is Samyaktva?

Samyaktva is to have faith in the description of jiva and ajiva and the other seven fundamentals as described by Jina.


What is Sanshayik Mithyatva?

To doubt the preaching of Tirthankar is sanshayik mithyatva


What is Mithyatva?

The false thought-activity


Who is Mithyadrishti?

Jiva that has no belief in the teachings of the preceptor, due to a wrong perception is called Mithyadrishti.


What is the total number of types of angels?



Who are the Vimanik angels?

Vimanik are angels residing in higher plane of the universe in Vimans.


What are the names of the twelve Kalpopann angels?

Saudharma angels,

Ishan angels,

Sanatrumar angels,

Mahendra angels,

Brahma angels,

Lantak angels,

Maha Shukra angels,

Sahasrar angels,

Aanat angels,

Pranat angels,

Aaran angels, and

Achyut angels.


Whom do Parmadhami angels trouble?

Hellish beings.


What are the names of the ten Bhavanpati angels?

Asur Kumar,

Nag Kumar,

Swaran Kumar,

Vidyut Kumar,

Agni Kumar,

Dweep Kumar,

Udadhi Kumar,

Disha Kumar,

Pawan Kumar, and

Stanit Kumar.


What is Kalpataru?

Kalpataru is the tree that fulfills the desires.


What is a Panchindriya Jiva?

A Jiva that has five sense organs is called a Panchendriya Jiva.


What are the four types of Tras Jivas?

Two-sensed Jivas, Three-sensed Jivas, Four-sensed Jivas, and Five-sensed Jivas.


What is  a Tras Jiva?

A Jiva that can move is a Tras Jiva.


What are Nigoda Jivas?

An infinite number of jivas living in one body are called Nigod Jivas.


Where do Suksham Jivas stay?

Suksham Jivas stay throughout the universe.


What is the Bhav Pran?

The intrinsic qualities of soul are the Bhav Pran


What is Dev Gati?

Destination to Angel life


What is Manushya Gati?

Destination to human life


What is Tiryanch Gati?

Destination to earth-body, water body, fire body, air body, plant life, or animal life


What is the maximum stay in hell?

Thirty-three Sagaropam


What is the minimum stay in the hell?

Ten thousand years


Who troubles the hellish beings in the hells?

The hellish Jivas trouble each other out of deep anger, malice, and hatred in all seven hells. In the first three naraki, Parmadhami angels trouble them also.


What is Narak Gati?

To be born in Hell is called Narak Gati.


How many Gatis are there that a Jiva can go through?



What is a Gati?

It is the destination of the living being after death.


What is the four-letter term for a living being?



What type of Jivas can not move?

One-sensed Jivas


What is the word for the one-sensed Jiva?

Sthavar Jiva


What is the word for the moving Jiva?



What is the main difference between Jiva and Ajiva?

The main difference between a jiva and an ajiva is that a jiva has a consciousness while an ajiva does not.


What is the term for space in Jainism?



What is the term for time in Jainism?



What is the Jain term for the matter?



What is the function of Dharmastikaya?

It helps in the motions of the jiva and ajiva.


What is the function of Adharmastikaya?

It helps the living beings and nonliving things to come to rest.


What is the liberated Jiva called?



What is the maximum number of Pran in Jiva?



What is the difference in Lokakasha and Alokakasha?

Lokakasha contains Dharamastikaya and Adharmastikaya, and Jiva while

Alokakasha is absent of them.


What is the English word for Lokakasha?



What is the use of Taijas Shareer?

To convert the food into the energy


Who is a Veetragi?

A Jiva who does not have either attachment, or hatred is called veetragi.

Does a liberated soul have any form?



Does the liberated soul sleep?



Is a liberated soul reborn again?

No, no more births


How much does a liberated soul know?

A liberated soul knows everything.


What are the subtle bodies of a Jiva?

Taijas Shareer and Karman Shareer are the subtle bodies of a Jiva.


What is Audarik Shareer?

Audarik Shareer is a gross body.


What are the five shareers (bodies) a Jiva can have?

Audarik shareer, vaikriya shareer, aharak shareer, taijas shareer, karman shareer


What are the five types of Jivas?

One-sensed Jivas, Two-sensed Jivas, Three-sensed Jivas, Four-sense Jivas, and Five-sensed Jivas.


How many types of Jivas are there?

There are five types of Jivas.


How long have the Jivas and the Ajivas been in the universe?

They have been there since time immemorial.


Is the world formed of only Jivas?

No, it is formed of Jivas and Ajivas.


Can Jivas or Ajivas go to Alokakash?



Is there any difference between an atom and a parmanu pudgal?

A Parmanu pudgal is much more subtle than an atom; it has no further divisions.


What are the ten divisions of the Jivas?

Five - Fully developed one, two, three, four, and five sensed Jiva

Five - Non-fully developed one, two, three, four and five sensed Jiva


What are the nine divisions of Jivas?

1) Earth-body Jiva,

2) Water-body Jiva

3) Fire-body Jiva

4) Air-body Jiva

5) Vegetable-body Jiva

6) Two-sensed-Jiva

7) Three-sensed-Jiva

8) Four-sensed-Jiva, and

9) Five-sensed-Jiva


What are the six divisions of Jivas?





Plant-body, and

Mobile Jiva.


What are the five divisions of Jivas?

One-sensed Jivas

Two-sensed Jivas

Three-sensed Jivas

Four-sensed Jivas, and

Five-sensed jives


What are the four divisions of Jivas?

Jivas living in


Plant or animal body,

Human body, and

Celestial beings


What are the three divisions of Jivas?


Female, and



What are the two divisions of Worldly Jivas?

Immobile Jivas and

Moving Jivas


What are the two divisions of all the Jivas?

Worldly Jiva

Liberated Jiva


What are the two broad divisions of Akasha?




What are the five divisions of Ajivas?




Kala, and



How many divisions of Ajivas are there?



How many Ajivas are there in this group: fish, book, lamp, water, table, and chair?

There are four ajivas in this list.


What is Ajiva?

An Ajiva substance does not have consciousness.


What are the two elements of which this world is formed?




Name five types of a one-sensed Jivas.

Earth-body Jivas

Water-body Jivas

Fire-body Jivas

Air-body Jivas, and

Vegetable-body Jivas


How many different types of a one-sensed Jivas are there?



What are the five senses in a Jiva?







How many senses do human beings have? 



Can the soul be seen?



What are the four gatis (destinations)?

Narak gati

Tiryanch gati

Manushya gati

Dev gati


How many hells are there?



Who is a Bhavya Jiva?

A Jiva that has the potential to attain liberation is a Bhavya Jiva.


How many Dravya Pranas are there?



What are the ten dravya pranas (vitalities)?

Vitality of












How many Bhava Pranas are there?



What are the four bhava pranas?




Infinite energy


What are the immobile Jivas?

Jivas that cannot move about are called immobile Jivas.


How many divisions are there in Sthavar (Immobile) Jivas?

Two, Subtle (Suksham) and gross (Badar)


What are the suksham (subtle) Jivas?

The Jiva that cannot be cut, pierced, burnt, or stopped.  They are not visible to worldly people.


How many divisions of Suksham Jivas are there?



What are the five divisions of suksham Jivas?

Earth-body Jivas

Water-body Jivas

Fire-body Jivas

Air-body Jivas

Plant-body Jivas


What are the gross Jivas?

The gross Jiva live in a gross body, which is visible to the naked eyes and can be cut into pieces, can be pierced, can be burnt, and they can be pricked.


How many types of gross immobile (Sthavar) Jivas are there?


What are the five types of gross immobile Jivas?

Earth-body gross jives

Water-body gross jives

Fire-body gross jives

Air-body gross jivas

Plant-body gross jives


What are the gross water-body Jivas?

Jiva whose body is made of water


What are the gross fire-body Jivas?

Jiva whose body is made up of fire only


What are the gross air-body Jivas?

Jiva whose bodies is made of air


How many divisions of gross plant-body are there?



What are the two divisions of gross plant-body Jivas?

Ordinary (Sadharan) plant body

Individual (Pratyek) plant body Jivas


Is the Sadharan plant-body a Nigod Jiva? Yes 

What are the broad divisions of Nigoda Jivas? Vyavahar group and

non-vyavahar group


How many Nigoda Jivas can live in the space equivalent to that of a needle point?

Innumerable Nigoda Jiva


What are the Beindriya Jivas?

Jivas that have senses of touch and taste are called the Two-senseed (Beindriya) Jivas.


What are the Chaurindriya Jivas?

Jivas that have sense of touch, taste, smell, and sight are called chaurindriya jivas.


What are the five-sensed organs?







What are the seven Hells?









Are all the Tiryanch Jivas five-sensed?

No, they can have one, two, three, four or five senses.

How many types of Tiryanch Jivas are there?



What are the three groups of the Tiryanch Jivas?





Who are included in Viklendriya Jiva?

Jiva having two, three, or four sense organs


How many divisions of human beings are there?

Three hundred and three


What are the three hundred and three divisions of human beings?

One hundred and one Sammurchhim panchendriya beings

One hundred and one undeveloped human beings born from Garbha

One hundred and one developed human beings born from Garbh.


How many types of Kalpavrikshas (kalptaru) are there?



Who are the Yugaliyas?

Yugaliyas are human beings.


Why are they called by this name?

Yugal means a couple. They are born as twins - one is a male and the other is a female. So, they are called Yugaliyas.


How many divisions of celestial beings are there?



What are the four types of Angels?

Bhavanpati angels

Vanvyantar angels

Jyotishi angels

Vaimanik angels.


What are the two divisions of Bhavanpati angels?




How many Bhavanpati angels are there?



How many Paramadhami angels are there?



How many types of Vanvyantar angels are there?



How far from the earth are the Jyotishya angels?

900 Yojans


What are the two divisions of Vimanik angels?

Kalpopann angels and Kalpateet angels


How many types of Kalpopann angels are there?



How many types of Kilvishik angels are there?



How many types of Lokantik angels are there?



What are the nine types of Lokantik angels?

Saraswat angels

Aditya angels

Vanhi angels

Arun angels

Garadtoya angels

Tushit angels

Avyabadh angels

Agneya angels

Arisht angels.


What are the two types of Kalpateet angels?

Graiveyik angels

Anuttarvaimanik angels


How many types of Graiveyik angels are there?



What are the nine types of Graiveyik angels?











What are the five types of Anuttarviman angels?







Name 198 catagories of angels.

99 developed and 99 undeveloped angels

25 Bhavanpati

26 Vanvyantar

10 Jyotishik

12 Kalpopann

03 Kilvishik

09 Lokantik

09 Graiveyik

05 Anuttarvaimanik

Totaling 198


What is a Paryapta Jiva?

A Jiva that has fully developed all its paryapties is called paryapta jiva.


What is Aparyapta Jiva?

A Jiva that has not developed all its paryapties to the full extent is called aparyapta jiva.


Can you Name the different types of Paryapties. They are:

1) Ahar

2) Sharir

3) Indriya

4) Shvasoshvas

5) Bhasha

6) Man Paryapti


How many are the types of Mithyatva?



What are the five types of Mithyayva?

Abhigrahik mithyatva

Anabhigrahik mithyatva

Abhiniveshik mithyatva

Sanshayik mithyatva

Anabhogik mithyatva


What are the ten types of Mithyatva ideas?

1.To call Jiva as Ajiva

2.To call Ajiva as Jiva

3.To consider the right path of spirituality as the wrong path

4.To consider the wrong path as the right path of spirituality

5.To consider the right path following monk similar as one following the wrong path

6.To consider a wrong path following monk similar as one following the right path

7.To consider the path of worldly life as path to liberation

8.To consider spiritual path to liberation as wrong path

9. To call liberated souls as non-liberated souls

10.To call non-liberated souls as liberated


How many types of Samyakatva are there?



What are the two types of Samyakatva?

Vyavahar Samyakatava, which is the practical conation

Nishchaya Samykatava, which is the real conation


How can we know about the Vyavhar Samyakatva?

There are five signs of Vyavahar Samyakatva. They are:

1. Sam (Equanmity)

2. Samvega (Keen desire for liberation)

3. Nirveda (Non-attachment to sensual feelings)

4. Anukampa (Compassion)

5. Astika (Belief in spiritual principles)


What is Astika?

Astikta is to believe in


Punya (merit)

Pap (demerit)

Parlok (next world)

Svarg (celestial abode)

Narak (hell)


Are Jains Nastik?

No, those who believe in the soul, merit, demerit, their fruits and believe in liberation, salvation or Moksha are not Nastik. Jains believe in all these, so they are not nastik.


What are the ten bases (Ruchies) of Samyaktva?

They are: 

Nisarg Ruchi (natural desire)

Updesh Ruchi (desire arising after listening to scriptural lecture)

Agya Ruchi (desire to follow the preachings)

Sutra Ruchi (desire to study scripture)

Beej Ruchi (to know in brief and then to think about it in detail)

Abhigam Ruchi

Vistar Ruchi

Kriya Ruchi

Sankshep Ruchi

Dharam Ruchi


How many types of Karan are there?



What are the three types of Karan?

Yatha Privritti Karan

Apurv Karan

Anivritti Karan


What is Anivritti karan?

It is a state of thought activity after reducing the period of Apurv karan by one muhurat, and wiping out the operation of wrong belief when one is about to get the right vision.


How many types of Samyakatva are there?



What are the five types of Samyakatva?

They are: 

Sasuadan samyakatva

Kshayopshamik samyakatva

Aupshamik samyakatva

Vedak samyakatva

Kshayik samyakatva


What is a vow?

A vow is to restrain from something at ones own will.


How many vows are there for a Shravak?



What are the three broad divisions of vows of a Shravak?

Five partial vows (Anu vrata)

Three qualitatvie vows (guna vrata)

Four educative vows (shiksha vrata)


What is Atithi Samvibhag?

To give acceptable food and water to Atithi (whose arrival time is unknown)

The best Atithies are monks and nuns.


What is Atichar?

It is to break vow by doing something which you are not suppose to do.


What is Anachar?

It is to transgress the vow completely.


How many Guna (disciplines) are there for a shravak?



How many manoraths should a person have?



What happens during the Ayogi Kevali Gunasthanak?

The stoppage of the functioning of the mind, speech, and body


Does a Jiva from Sayogi Kevali Gunasthanak go straight to Moksha?

No, it has to pass through fourteenth Gunasthanak known as Ayogi Kevali before attaining a moksha.



After how many lives can a Jiva of Ksheen Mohaniya Gunasthanak be liberated?

The Jiva will be liberated in the same life.


What does Ksheen mean?

Completely wiped out


To which stage can a Jiva fall from the eleventh Gunasthanak?

He can fall to any of the lower stages, upto the first Gunasthanak.


Can a Jiva attain the twelveth stage of gunastahnak from eleventh?



Can Abhavya Jiva be born as an angel in Anuttar Viman?



How many Anuttar Viman are there?



What does Upshant mean?

Completely suppessed, but not wiped out


What does Suksham mean?



After how many lives can a Jiva of Anivritti Badar Gunasthanak be liberated?

A Jiva from Anivritti Badar Gunasthanak gets liberation at the most within three lives.


What does Badar mean?



What does a Jiva do in Upsham Shreni?

In upsham shreni, Jiva suppresses the passions, attachment and hatred.  He can rise upto eleventh stage of spiritual elevation.  Thereafter, Jiva has to fall down within one antah- muhurta.


What are the two different directions for spiritual elevation from the Nivrati (Apurva Karan) Gunasthanak?

Upsham Shreni and Kshapak Shreni.


What are the chief qualities of Nivriti Badar Gunasthanak?

Jiva is completely freed from gross passions. He attains purity, and perfection to a greater extent.


What are the five types of pramad?







What are the qualities in Apramatta Sanyati?

A sadhu in Apramatta Sanyati stage is very tranquil. His target of life is always fixed to Moksha. He confirms to the principle of self-discipline and minimizes sinful activities.


What does Pramat mean?

Careless or indolent


What does Desh Virati mean?

Undertaking partial vows


How many rebirths will the Jiva have to undergo to be liberated from Pramat Gunasthanak, at the maximum?



What is the characteristic of Pramat Sanyati Gunasthanak?

In Pramat Sanyati, one completely wipes out or suppresses four types of severe, moderate and mild passions, and three Darshan Mohniya karmas. During this stage, there is some kind of carelessness in observing vows.


What does Pramat Sanyati mean?

Pramat Sanyati means that the person has taken five Mahavrats, but he is not perfectly following them in daily life.


What celestial level can a Jiva be re-born as from Avirati Samyak Gunasthanak?

12th Devlok


Can you describe the status of a Jiva in Avirti Samyak Gunasthanak?

Jiva in Avirti Samyak Gunasthanak does not have severe or moderate passions, but he/she does have mild passions. He/she understands right from wrong, but he/she cannot take a vow.



Can a Jiva die in Mishra Gunasthanak stage?



What is a Samaya?

A very subtle measure of time


How many Avalikaa make a minute?

34952533 Avalikas make one minute.


Can you describe Sasvadan Samyakdrishti Gunasthanak?

In this gunasthanak, a person looses samyakatva, but he realizes this as it happens just as a person will feel the sweet taste as he throws up the sweet food.


Does the soul reach Sasvadan Samyakdrishti Gunasthanak from Mithyatva


No, it reaches to this stage while falling from samyakdristi Gunasthanak.


In which gunasthanak a person does not believe the soul and the body are two separate things?

Mithyatva Gunasthanak.


How many stages are there in spiritual elevation?

Fourteen stages


What are the four anupurvi nama karma?

Deva anupurvi nam karma

Tiryanch anupurvi nam karma

Manushya anupurvi nam karma

Narak anupurvi nam karma


What is Anupurvi Nama Karma?

Anupurvi Nam Karma causes the Jiva to go from the place of death in a proper direction to the place of new birth.


What are the five divisions of Antaraya karma?

Dan Antaraya,

Labh Antaraya,

Bhog Antaraya,

Upbhog Antaraya

Veerya Antaraya Karma


What affects the intensity of karmas?

Passions (Kashayas)

The stronger kashayas will cause severe results.


What are the eight causes to get uchcha gotra?

Indifference about class

indifference about family

indifference about health

indifference about beauty

indifference about one’s austerity

indifference about one’s knowledge of scriptures

indifference about gain

indifference about riches


What are the eight causes of birth in neecha gotra?

Pride of class

Pride of family

Pride of health

Pride of beauty

Pride of austerities

Pride of scriptures

Pride of gain

Pride of riches


What are the four causes of ashubha nama karma?

The bad activity of jiva

crooked speech

evil mental activity

quarrelsome behavior


What are the four causes of Shubha Nama Karma?

Good activity of jiva

straight forward speech

simple mental activity

non-quarrelsome behavior


What is Anantanubandhi Lobha?

Severe greed.


What are the nine types of Nokashaya Charitra Mohaniya Karma?







Sexual attraction for a female

Sexual attraction for a male

Sexual attraction for both male and female

What are the two broad sub-types of Charitra Mohaniya Karma?

Kasaya Charitra Mohaniya Karma

Nokashaya Charitra Mohaniya Karma


What are the causes of Darshanavarniya Karma?

By criticizing a follower of the right faith, by concealing the name of the person from whom right perception was received, by abducting one who is getting right perception, by having jealousy against the person with right perception, by insulting the right faith or the one possessing it, and by starting a baseless discussion with a person having the right faith.


 What are the nine sub-types of Darsanavarniya Karma?



Avadhi-darshanavarniya, and

Keval darshanavarniya Karma







What does Avirati mean?

Avirati means one can not restaint or accept vows.


What are the causes of accumulation of Karma?







What are the sixteen types of Kashaya?

Anantarnbandhi krodha, maan, maya, lobha,

Apratyakhani krodha, maan, maya, lobha,

Pratyakhani krodha, maan, maya, lobha,

Sanjvalan krodha, maan, maya, and lobha.


Does the Jiva accumulate karma after becoming Kevali?

Yes, Iriyapathic Karmas come to Jiva due to his activities, but karmas come and fall off in two samyas. They do not stay to give any results.


What does Jiva obtain by Dhyan (controlling of thoughts)?

Jiva obtains stability of the mind.


What does Jiva gain by faith?

Jiva destroys wrong beliefs and gains Samyakdarshan.


What does Jiva gain by the discipline of the body?

Jiva obtains purification of conduct and gains Samyakcharitra.


What does Jiva gain by the discipline of the mind?

Jiva obtains control of mind and gains Samyakcharitra.


How does Jiva gain protection from ill thoughts?

By meditation


What does Jiva gain from purity of mind?

Jiva reduces the accumulation of karmas.


How does humility help Jiva?

Humility helps jiva to be free from pride.


What does Jiva get by simplicity?

Jiva becomes straightforward in actions, thoughts, and speech.


How does patience help the Jiva?

It helps to control anger.


What does a Jiva obtain by Vaiyavacha?

On top of destroying karmas, one can acquire Tirthankar Nama Karma.


What does a Jiva obtain by controlling mind, body and speech?

Jiva stops acquiring new karmas, and destroys karmas that he had acquired



What does a Jiva obtain by becoming Veetrag?

Jiva becomes eqanimous.


What does a Jiva become by conquering his passions?

Jiva becomes Veetragi.


What does a Jiva become by destroying all the accumulated karmas?

Jiva becomes Siddha.


What does a Jiva obtain by Tapa (Austerity)?

Jiva destroys the accumulated karmas, and purifies the soul.


What does a Jiva get by Anupreksa (pondering on what he has learned) of Sutra?

Jiva loosens the bondages of all the karmas on his soul except age-determining karma. He shortens the duration, and reduces the intensity of the karma.


What does Jiva get by correct comprehension of Sutra and its meaning?

Jiva wipes out karmas, which produce doubt and delusion.


Should one ask the teacher about his doubts?

Yes, this way one understands the true meaning.


What does Jiva achieve by following the path shown by Jina?

Jiva achieves complete destruction of karmas, and final liberation from cycle

of births and deaths.


What does Jiva obtain by Svadhyaya (Study)?

Jiva destroys the karmas that obscure the right knowledge.


What does Jiva get by begging forgiveness?

Jiva destroys Ashata Vedniya Karmas.


 What does Jiva gain by Pratyakhyan?

Jiva stops influx of karmas.


What does Jiva get by doing Prayashchit?

Jiva feels relieved of the burden of that sin and reduces or destroys the intensity of those karmas.


What does Jiva gain by reciting Chaturvinshati Statva?

Jiva gains purity of faith.


What does Jiva gain by Aloyana?

Jiva removes the karmas obstructing the path of liberation.


What does Jiva obtain by Vinay?

Jiva avoids rebirth in hell, animal life, lower caste of men, and bad angel.


How many stages of discipline (pratima) are there for a monk?



How many Pratimas can a householder observe?



What does Paristhapanika Samiti mean?

One becomes careful while throwing away any waste, so that even fine insects, or bugs are not hurt.


What does Paristhapanika mean?

Throwing the waste away.


What does one learn by Adan Nikshepana Samiti?

One learns to watch carefully when receives or keeps objects around.


What does Nikshepana mean?

To keep


What does Adan mean?

To receive


Does Irya-samiti apply to householders?

Householders shall try to observe as much irya-samiti in daily life as possible, but he definitely has to observe it when he performs Samayik or Paushadha.


What are the benefits of bhasha samiti in daily life?

One learns to speak politely and becomes lovable by everyone.


Does Bhasha Samiti mean complete silence?

Not necessarily.  We need to speak when it is necessary and speak in a soft and pleasant tone which does not cause pain to anyone.

How do we observe Bhasha Samiti while telling the truth?

We observe bhasha samiti by staying silent than to tell the truth if it is going to cause pain or harm to someone.


Does Iriya Samiti relate only to sadhus and sadhvis?

No, it concerns everyone, but sadhus and sadhvis observe it very strictly.


How is Dhyan Tapa useful?

It trains us to control our passions.


What are the five types of Swadhyaya?

1) To study

2) To seek clarification

3) To repeat

4) To mediate

5) To teach whatever is studied


How many types of Vaiyavachha are described in the scripture?



How can we observe Respect (Vinay) austerity?

By paying respect to monks, nuns, learned, elderly people, and everyone.


What are the four types of Prati Sanleenta Tapa?

To control senses



To be careful about oneself


Is Ayambil a type of Ras Parityag Tapa?



How is Ayambil a type of Ras Parityag Tapa?

During Ayambil we take food without ghee, salt, sugar and spices, etc. There by we are controlling our taste and that is why it is called Ras Parityag Tapa.


How is Vriti Sankshep helpful?

It strengthens the will power, and helps to control passions.


What does Bhav Unodari mean?

Bhav Unodari means to reduce our passions, attachments, and sleep, etc.


What does Dravya Unodari mean?

Dravya Unodari means to eat less than one normally does.


What does Upkaran Unodari mean?

Upkaran Unodari means to use a fewer things than our needs.


What are the different types of upavas (fast), based on things to be taken?

Fast in which nothing is consumed for a day and nighttime for twenty-four hours is called Chauvihar Fast.

When no solid food is consumed but boiled water might be taken for a day and nighttime for twenty-four hours is called Tivihar Fast.


What are the different types of Upavas?

There are different types of Upavas depending upon how many days of continued fasting is carried out.

Atham means fasting for three continuous days. 

Athai means fasting for eight continuous days, etc.


How many types of austerities are there?



Do we have to perform austerty through our whole life?

Yes, if you can. You should perform austerity as per your capacity from a few hours a day, some days in a month or for a entire life like sadhus and sadhvis do.


What does one reflect on Lok Bhavana?

I am a pure soul who shall reside in Siddhashila. What am I doing in this world? I should work to attain my goal of liberation from the cycles of births and deaths.


What are the components of the Universe?








How many different ways one can practice Nirjara Bhavana?



What does the Ashrava Bhavana teach us?

Ashrava Bhavana teaches us to stay away from the causes which creat the inflow of karmas to the soul.


How should we practice the Ashrava Bhavana?

By realizing that false belief, non-restraint, passions, laziness, and yogas (activities) bring karmas to the soul, and they should be avoided or minimized.

What do we gain by Ashrava Bhavana?

We learn what are the causes that bring karmas to the soul, so that they should be avoided.


What does Ashrava mean?

Ashrava means the inflow.


What does Ashuchi mean?

Ashuchi means foul.


Does Anyatva Bhavana help in our daily life?

Yes, it reminds us that the body and the soul are separate things and we should do minimum for the body, and most for the uplift of the soul.


What does Ekatva Bhavana remind us?

I was born alone.  I shall die alone.  So, I should do right for my soul.


Does Sansar Bhavana mean that everyone should become a monk?

No, it means understand the temporary relationship of the people in the familty and the rest of the world. By realizing this, one might become a monk.


How can a dying person reflect on Asharan Bhavana?

No one can save me from the miseries of life, but only the religion propagated by

Jina can save me. Therefore, I shall take its shelter.


To whom did Anathi muni talk about Asharan Bhavana?

King Shrenik.


What does Asharan mean?



What is Anitya in Jiva?

Body is Anitya (not-permanent) in Jiva.


Does meditation on Anitya Bhavana help in controlling our passions?

Yes, Anitya Bhavana reminds us that everything is perishable including those for whom I might have passions. Thus passions ate putting me in trouble. So instead of being lured by passions I will control them.


How should we react when a close relative dies?

We should reflect on Anitya Bhavana.  It explains that every living being that is born has to die one day and we cannot stop it. Our relationship in this world is a temporary one, so we should not feel bad for the loss.


What are the benefits of non-attachment?

We remain in peace during pleasure or pain.  We neither feel elated nor disappointed in different situations. This way we destroy Mohniya karmas.


What do we gain by Anitya Bhavana?

Anitya Bhavana helps us understand the true relationsip between the body and the soul. We sould not spend too much time after the body, which is perishable, but rather for the soul which is permanent.


How do we reflect on Anitya Bhavana?

Everything around us is changing. Nothing remains permanent. A person was a child first, then became a young adult, then a man, then an old man, and ultimately he dies. Only a pure soul is in the permanent state. Therefore, we should reflect how could we be in that stage.


What is Anitya?




Can we realize the reality through Bhavana?

Yes, continuous meditation on Bhavanas leads to the experience of the reality of soul.


What happens when one conquers the Greed?

One becomes content.


What happens when one conquers the deceit?

One One becomes honest.


What happens when one conquers the pride?

One becomes humble.


What happens when one conquers the anger?

One becomes patient.


What does Jiva gain by right faith?

Jiva realizes that the body and the soul are separate things.


What does Jiva gain by spiritual discipline?

Jiva develops right conduct.


What does Jiva gain by Pratikraman?

Jiva wipes out karmas caused by transgressions of vows, or other sinful activities.


What does Jiva gain by Vandana?

Jiva becomes humble and thus destroys karma leading to the birth into the lower status and gains the karmas leading to the birth into the higher status..


What does Jiva gain by Samayik?

Jiva stops inflow of karmas due to staying in equanimity and can perform religious reading and meditation, etc., which helps to get rid of karmas, too.


What does Jiva get by self-repentence?

Jiva destroys the karmas and moves forwards in the spiritual uplift.


What is Aloyana?

Aloyana means confession for past deeds to a Guru or kepping Arihantas and Siddhas as witness.


Does Tirthankar have a religious teacher?



How does one attain complete knowledge?

By completely destroying Jnanavarniya karma


How many sects are there of Jains?



What are the four divisions of the Jain Sangh?






How many Sadhus were in the Sangha of Bhagwan Mahavir?

Fourteen thousands


How many Sadhvis were in the Sangha of Mahavira?

Thirty-six thousands


How many Shravaks were in Sangh of Mahavira?

One hundred and fifty-nine thousands


How many Shravikas were in Sangh of Mahavira?

Three hundreds and eighteen thousands


How many Ganadharas did Lord Mahavira have?



Name eleven Ganadharas of Mahavira?

Indrabhuti Gautam












Are there any living Tirthankaras in Jambudvip?



How many living Tirthankaras are there in Jambudvip?



How many special qualities does an Arihant have?



Are all Tirthankars, Arihants?



Are all Arihants, Tirthankars?



As a kevali, how may Chaturmas were observed by Tirthanakra Lord Mahavira?



Where were Chaturmas observed by Tirthanakra Lord Mahavira?

One at Asthika

Three at Champa and Prishti Champa

Twelve at Uaisali or Vanijyagram

Fourteen at Rajgrih or Nalanda


In how many years did Mahavira attain Kevaljnan after renunciation?

Twelve and one-half years


How many dreams did the mother of Tirthankar see during conception?

Fourteen according to Svetambaras and Sixteen according to Digambaras


Do all Jains worship idols?


Svetambar Derawasi, Digambar Bispantis and Terapanthi worship idols.

Svetambar Sthanakvasi and Terapanthi and Digambar Taranpanthis do not worship idols.


Did Mahavira worship in any temple?



Was the Jain order divided in different sects during the lifetime of Lord Mahavira?

No, there were both kinds of monks during the life of Lord Mahavir.


What is at the upper end of Urdhva Loka?



Does the Jiva in Avirati Samyak Drishti Gunasthanak understand the teachings of Jinas? Yes


How many vows can a Shravak observe in Deshvirati Gunasthanak?

He can observe vows according to his capacity.  Some take one vow; some take more up to all the twelve vows of a layman (shravak).  Some might also observe even eleven Pratimas.


In how many Gunasthanaks are all the passions in operation?

The first eleven Gunasthanaks


How many types of Jivas are in Suksham Sampraya Gunasthanak?

Upshamak and Kshapak.


Does the soul get liberated if one dies in Upsham Mohaniya Gunasthanak?

No, it is born in Anuttar Viman; from there it has to take one more birth to be liberated.


What happens if a Jiva does not die in the Upsham Mohaniya Gunasthanak?

It will return to the tenth or nineth gunasthanak within one antah muharta and may fall all the way to the first stage of Mithyatva Gunasthanak.


In the state of Sayogi Kevali, is the Jiva without karma?

No, Jiva has destroyed four ghati karmas, but four aghati karmas are still there.


What are the four karmas, which a Sayogi Kevali does not have?

Knowledge-obscuring karma

conation-obscuring karma

deluding karma

obstructing karma


Do Sayogi Kevalis preach?

Yes and no

Svetambers believe that Sayogi Kevalis preach, while Digambars believe they do not.


How many qualities does a Dravya have and what are they?


Common qualities

Special qualities (Guna)


How many common qualities (Guna) of a Dravya are there?

Many, but there are six important qualities.


What are the six important common qualities (Samanya Guna) of the Dravya?







What are the six Dravyas?








What are the two divisions or Paryaya?

Vyanjan Paryaya

Dravya Paryaya


What are the two divisions of Vyanjan Paryaya?

Svabhav Vyanjan Paryaya

Vibhav Vyanjan Paryaya


What are the two divisions of Praman?

Pratyaksha Praman

Paroksha Praman


What is Avadhi Jnan?

The knowledge that helps to know the objects with respect to Dravya (state), Kshetra (location), Kal (time), and Bhav (form) within certain limits without the help of sense-organs.


What is Agam Praman?

The words of Apta (Tirthankar who preaches after attaining Kevakjnan)


What are the disciplines for the path to liberation?

Five total vows

Five samitis

Three guptis


What is a Mahavrat vow?

Mahavrat vow is a great vow, in which one leaves sinful activities totally.


What are the three Karanas?

1)      To do activities by oneself

2)      To ask others to carry out  the activities

3)      To encourage others to carry out the activities


How many Yoga are there?



What are the three Yoga?

1) Man Yoga (mental yoga)

2) Vachan Yoga (verbal yoga)

3) Kaya Yoga (physical yoga)


How many charitra does a monk have?



What are the five Charitras of a monk?

1) Jnanachar,

2) Darsanacar

3) Charitrachar

4) Tapachar

5) Viryachar


What are the ten spiritual disciplines of a Sadhu?

1) Khanti (forgiveness)

2) Mutti (non-attachment) 

3) Ajjave (straightforwardness)

4) Maddve (humility)

5) Laghave (contentment)

6) Sacche (truth)

7) Sanjame (self-restraint)

8) Tave (austerity)

9) Chiyae (service of monk)

10) Brahmchrya (celebacy)


How many are the basic vows (mula guna) of a monk?

Five vows

What are the supplementary vows (Uttar Guna) of a monk?

Five samitis

Three guptis

Ten restraints


How many types of Charitra are there?



What ae the five Charitra of a monk?

1) Samayik Charitra

2) Chhedopsthapani Charitra

3) Parihar Vishudhi Charitra

4) Suksham Sampray Charitra

5) Yathakhyat Charitra


What are the different kinds of a Jain monk?


1) Jin-Kalpi and

2) Sthavar-Kalpi.


Describe the life of Jin-Kalpi monks.

Jin-Kalpi remains away from their group doing severe penance.  In this fifth

division of the time cycle, there are no Jin-Kalpi. 



Describe the life of Sthavar-Kalpi monks.

Sthavar-Kalpi wear white clothes, have a Muhapati, have a Rajoharan (holy broom) and carry wooden bowls for accepting the food.  They accept alms strictly observing their rules.  They stay in a upashraya free from worldly activities.


Is there any mention of the Mukhvastrika in Jain scriptures? Yes

 How does a Jain monk get food (alm)? A Jain monk gets food (alm) by begging known as gochari. He goes to various houses, and accepts only acceptable food that was not made for monk but was made for householders themselves. He takes food in a very small quanitity from many different houses so that the householders do not have to cook more food again.


What are the other supporting rules of conduct for a monk?

They observe nine restrictions of Brahmcharya.  They do not keep anything other than necessary clothes and vessels.  They do not take food or water after sunset until sunrise. They bear twenty-two Parishahas.


How many Paryaptis are in the one-sensed Jivaa?


1)      Ahar Paryapti

2)      Sharir Paryapti

3)      Indriya Paryapti

4)      Shvasoshvas Paryapti


How many Paryaptis are in the two, three, and four-sensed Jivas and in Asangni Panchendriya?


1) Ahar Paryapti

2) Shareer Paryapti

3) Indriya Paryapti

4) Shvasoshvas Paryapti

5) Bhasha Paryapti


How many Paryaptis are in Sangni five-sensed Jiva?



What is the limit of the dimensions of Soul?

Every soul has the capacity to expend up to the entire universe, just as light of a lamp has the property of expansion and contraction.  So, soul adjusts to the size of the body it takes.


How many Siddhas can attain liberation at a time?

One hundred and eight at the most


What is Adharamastikaya?

The medium of rest


What is Astikaya?

The collection of space-points


What are the properties of a Pudgal?

It has color, smell, taste and touch.  It has the property of a complete transformation.


How many types of Pudgals are there?



What are the four sub-divisions of the Pudgal?

1) Skandh

2) Desh

3) Pradesh

4) Parmanu Pudgal


How many characteristic does Parmanu hace?


1) Color

2) Smell

3) Taste

4) Touch

What are the different units in which we measure kal dravya?













Pudgal Paravartan


What is Avalika?

Innummerable Samay constitute one Avalika


What is Antarmuhurat?

Any time ranging from two Samays to one Samay less than one muhurat period


How many divisions of Avsarpani time cycle are there?



Name six divisions of Avsarpini time cycle.

1)      Happiness-Happiness (Sukham Sukham)

2)      Happiness (Sukham)

3)      Happiness-Unhappiness (Sukham Dukham)

4)      Unhappiness-Happiness (Dukham Sukham)

5)      Unhappiness (Dukham)

6)      Unhappiness-Unhappiness  (Dukhma Dukhma)


How many divisions of Utsarpini are there and what are they?



Name six divisions of Utsarpini time cycle.

1) Unhappiness-Unhappiness (Dukham-Dukham)

2) Unhappiness (Dukham)

3) Unhappiness-Happiness (Dukham-Sukham)

4) Happiness-Unhappiness (Sukham-Dukham)

5) Happiness (Sukham)

6) Happiness-Happiness (Sukham-Sukham)


How many types of Karmas are there?


1) Physical (Dravya)

2) Psychic (Bhav) Karmas


How many kinds of Vargana are there?



What are the eight kinds of Vargana?

1) Physical (audarik)

2) Transformatory (vaikriya)

3) Rranslocational (aharik)

4) Electric (taijas)

5) Sound (bhasha)

6) Respiratory (shvasoshvas)

7) Mental (man)

8) Karman vargana


How many divisions of Karmas are there?



What are the eight divisions of Karmas?

1) Knowledge obscuring (Jnanavarniya)

2) Perception obscuring (Darshanavarniya)

3) Feeling producing (Vendniya)

4) Deluding (Mohaniya)

5) Age-determining (Ayushya)

6) Body-determining (Nama)

7) Status determining (Gotra)

8) Obstructing (Antraya)


What are the broad divisions of Deluding Karma?

1) Darsan Mohaniya (perception-deluding) karma

2) Charitra Mohaniya (conduct-deluding) karma


How many are the divisions of Darshan Mohaniya Karma?



What are the three divisions of Darshan Mohaniya Karma?

1) Wrong belief deluding (Mithyatva Mohaniya)

2) Mixed belief deluding (Mishra Mohaniya)

3) Right perception deluding (samyaktva Mohaniya)  


What are the two broad divisions of Conduct-Deluding Karma?

1) Kashay Mohaniya karma

2) Nokashay Mohaniya karma


How many types of Kashaya Mohaniya Karma are there?



What are the sixteen types of Kashaya Mohaniya Karma?

Error-feeding anger, error-feeding pride, error-feeding deceit, error-feeding greed

Partial-vow obstructing anger, partial-vow obstructing pride, partial-vow obstructing

deciet, partial-vow obstructing greed, total-vow obstructing anger

Total-vow obstructing pride, total-vow obstructing deceit, total-vow obstructing greed Perfect-conduct preventing anger, perfect-conduct preventing pride,

perfect-conduct preventing deceit and perfect-conduct preventing greed


What are the four types of Ghati Karma?

1) Knowledge-obscuring (Jnanavarniya karma)

2) Conation-obscuring (Darshanavarniya karma)

3) Mohaniya (deluding karma)

4) Antaraya karma (obstructive karma)


How many Aghati Karma are there?



What is Aghati Karma?

The karma that does not affect true attributes of the soul, but affects the body in which it resides.


What are the four types of Aghati Karma?

1) Feeling producing karma

2) Age producing karma

3) Body forming karma

4) Status determining karma

How is Udirana possible?

By observing austerities


Illustrate Upsham

When alum is added to muddy water, mud settles down to the bottom and water on the top looks clear, until someone may shake the water. This settling down is called upsham.


Can a Jiva in Mithyatva Gunasthanak be liberated?

No, a Jiva in Mithyatva Gunasthan cannot be liberated because it cannot follow the path shown by Jina, since he has no faith in it.


Can a Jiva who has once gone to any higher stage from Mithyatva Gunasthanak be liberated?

Yes, he is sure to be liberated, even if he falls back to Mithyatva Gunasthanak.  He will be liberated after innumerable lives.


How come Mithyatva Gunasthanak is first gunasthanak not a zero gunasthanak?

In Mithaytva Gunasthanak, even though there is no realization between wrong and right, one knows things around him/her. For example, on a very cloudy day even though we may not see the sun, we cannot say that there is no sun, because the power of light, which penetrates the clouds, enables us to see objects around us. In the same way the soul is able to exhibit some power of knowledge so it cannot be called zero gunasthanak.


Can you desribe the mind of person who is In Mithyatva Gunasthanak?

In the Mithyatva Gunasthanak, one may know a cow as a cow, but can not differentiate the soul and body as separate entity. He is also over powered by severe passions, which do not allow him to think what is right for the soul and gets carried away  in the wrong direction.